Numbered English Text and Comments with highlightá by Dr. Radhakrishnan

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration and Word Translation by Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

The Bhagavadgita


The Hesitation and Despondency of Arjuna

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।

मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ॥१-१॥ 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś cai 'va kim akurvata sa˝jaya 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharmakṣetraḥ1 kuru-kṣetre2 samavetāḥ3 yuyutsavaḥ4
māmakāḥ5 pāṇḍavāḥ6 ca7 eva8 kim9 akurvata10 sa˝jaya11 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca = Dhrtarastra said:

sa˝jaya11 = O Sanjaya [a charioteer, a friend and secretary was acting as a reporter to the blind king Dhrtarastra, the father of Kauravas]; samavetāḥ3 = assembled in; dharmakṣetraḥ1 = Dharmaksetra [the Field of Dharma or righteousness];  kuru-kṣetre2 = Kuruksetra [the Field of the Kurus]; yuyutsavaḥ4 = desiring battle; eva8 & kim9 = exactly what; māmakāḥ5 = my people [Kauravas]; ca7 = and; pāṇḍavāḥ6 = Pandavas; akurvata10 = did do?  1.1

(1.1) In the field of righteousness, the field of the Kurus, when my people and the sons of Pāṇḍu had gathered together, eager for battle, what did they do, O Saṁjaya

dharmakṣetre: in the field of righteousness. The quality of deciding what is right or dharma is special to man. Hunger, sleep, fear and sex are common to men and animals. What distinguishes men from animals is the knowledge of right and wrong.1

I āhāranidrābhayamaithunaṁ ca sāmānyam etat paśubhir' narāṇām dharmo hi teṣām adhiko viśeṣo dharmeṇa hīnāḥ paśubhiḥ samānāḥb. Hitopadeśa.

The world is dharmakṣetra, the battleground for a moral struggle. The decisive issue lies in the hearts of men where the battles are fought daily and hourly. The ascent from earth. to heaven, from suffering to spirit, is through the path of dharma. Even in our corporeal existence, through the practice of dharma, we can reach up to safety where every difficulty culminates in joy. The world is dharmakṣetra, the nursery of saints where the sacred flame of spirit is never permitted to go out. It is said to be karmabhūmi where we work out our karma and fulfil the purpose of soul-making.

The aim of the Gītā is not so much to teach a theory as to enforce practice, dharma. We cannot separate in theory what is not separable in life. The duties of civic and social life provide religion with its tasks and opportunities.

Dharma is what promotes worldly prosperity and spiritual freedom.' The Gītā does not teach a mysticism that concerns itself with man's inner being alone. Instead of rejecting the duties and relationships of life as an illusion, it accepts them as opportunities for the realization of spiritual freedom.1

Life is offered to us that we may transfigure it completely. The battlefield is called dharmakṣetra or the field of righteousness for the Lord who is the protector of dharma is actively present in it.

kurukṣetre: in the field of the Kurus. Kurukṣetra is the land of the Kurus, a leading clan of the period.2

The words, "dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre," suggest the law of life by death. God, the terrible, is a side of the vision that Arjuna sees on the field of battle. Life is a battle, a warfare against the spirit of evil. Creative process is one of perpetual tension between two incompatibles, each standing against the other. By their mutual conflict, the development is advanced and the cosmic purpose furthered. In this world are elements of imperfection, evil and irrationality, and through action, dharma, we have to change the world and convert the elements, which are now opaque to reason, transparent to thought. War is a retributory judgment as well as an act of discipline. Kuruksetra is also called tapahksetra, the field of penance, of discipline.3 War is at once punishment and cleansing for mankind. God is judge as well as redeemer. He destroys and creates. He is Siva and Viṣṇu.

māmakāh: my people.4 This sense of mineness is the result of ahaṁkāra which is the source of evil. Mamakara or selfishness on the part of the Kauravas which leads to the love of power and domination is brought out. SamJaya.

Samjaya is the charioteer of the blind king, Dhrtarastra, who reports to him the events of the war.

I prāṇināṁ sākṣād abhyudayanihśreyasahetur yaḥ, sa dharmaḥ.

2 It is a vast field near Hastinapura in the neighborhood of modem Delhi. When Dḥṛtarāṣṭra, the blind king of the Kurus, decided to give his throne to Yudhiṣṭhira, who is also known as Dharmarāja, the embodiment of virtue, in preference to his own eldest son, Duryodhana, the latter, by tricks and treachery, secured the throne for himself and attempted to destroy Yudhiṣṭhira and his four brothers. Kṛṣṇa the head of the Yādava clan, sought to bring about a reconciliation between the cousins. When all attempts failed, a fratricidal war between the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas became inevitable. Kṛṣṇa proposed that he and his vassals would, join the two sides and left the choice to the parties. The vassals were selected by Duryodhana and Kṛṣṇa himself joined the Pāṇḍavas as the charioteer of Arjuna. M.B., Udyogaparva: VI, 147. "Some put their trusts in chariots and some in horses but we will trust in the Lord, our God." as the Old Testament says. The Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas represent the conflict between the two great movements, the upward and the downward" the divine and the demoniac, the dharma which helps us to grow in our spiritual stature and the adharma which drags us down deeper into entanglement with matter. The two are not irreconcilable as they spring from the same source. The Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas are cousins and have a common ancestry.

3 See Manu, II .. 19 and 20.

4mameti kāyantīti māmakāh, avidyāpuruṣāḥ.Abhinavagupta.

सञ्जय उवाच

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।

आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत्  ॥१-२॥ 1.2

sa˝jaya uvāca
dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasaṅgamya rājā vacanam abravīt 1.2

Sa˝jaya uvāca
dṛṣṭvā1 tu2 pāṇḍav-ānīkam3 vyūḍham4 duryodhanaḥ5 tadā6

ācāryam7 upasaṅgamya8 rājā9 vacanam10 abravīt11     1.2

Sa˝jaya uvāca = Sanjaya said: tadā6 = When, at that time; rājā9 duryodhanaḥ5 = King Duryodhana; dṛṣṭvā1 tu2 = upon seeing; pāṇḍav-ānīkam3 =  the soldiers of the Pandavas; vyūḍham4 = in battle formation; upasaṅgamya8 = approached; ācāryam7 = Acharya Drona; [and] abravīt11 = uttered; vacanam10 = [these] words.   1.2

Saṁjaya said:

(1.2) Then, Duryodhana the prince, having seen the army of the Pāṇḍavas drawn up in battle order, approached his teacher and spoke this word:

ācārya: teacher, one who knows the meaning of the scriptures, teaches it to others and practices the teaching himself: Droṇa, the ācārya, taught the art of war to the princes on both sides.

पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।

व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ॥१-३॥ 1.3

paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍuputrāṇām ācārya mahatīṁ camūm
vyūḍhāṁ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā 1.3

paśya1 etāṁ2 pāṇḍu-putrāṇām3 ācārya4 mahatīm5 camūm6
vyūḍhām7 drupada-putreṇa8 tava9 śiṣyeṇa10 dhīmatā11

ācārya4 = O Acharya Drona; paśya1 = behold; etām2 = this; mahatīm5 = very great; camūm6 = army; pāṇḍu-putrāṇām3 = of the sons of Pandu; vyūḍhām7 = in battle formation; [deployed] drupada-putreṇa8 =  by the son of Drupada; tava9 = your; dhīmatā11 = intelligent; śiṣyeṇa10 = disciple.  1.3

(1.3) Behold, 0 Teacher, this mighty army of the sons of Pāṇḍu organized by thy wise pupil, the son of Drupada.1

1Dhṛṣṭadyumna is the son of Drupada, the king of Pā˝cāla.

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि ।

युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ॥१-४॥ 1.4

atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca drupadaś ca mahārathaḥ 1.4

atra1 śūrāḥ2  maheṣvāsāḥ3  bhīmārjuna4 samāḥ5  yudhi6
yuyudhānaḥ7  virāṭaḥ8 ca9 drupadaḥ10 ca11 mahārathaḥ12 1.4

atra1 =  Here; [are] śūrāḥ2  = the heroes; ca9 = and; maheṣvāsāḥ3 = the Great archers; samāḥ5 = equal; [to] bhīmārjuna4 = Bhima and Arjuna; yudhi6 = in battle: yuyudhānaḥ7 = Yuyudhana; virāṭaḥ8 = Virata;   drupadaḥ10 = Drupada; ca11 = and; mahārathaḥ12 = Great Charioteer. 1.4

(1.4) Here are heroes, great bowmen equal in battle to Bhīma and Arjuna=-Yuyudhāna, Virāṭa and Drupada, a mighty warrior. I

1Bhima is Yudhiṣṭhira's Commander-in-Chief, though nominally Dhṛṣṭadyumna holds that office.

Arjuna is the friend of Kṛṣṇa and the great hero of the Pāṇḍavas, Yuyudhāna is Kṛṣṇa's charioteer, also called Sātyaki. Virāṭa is the prince in whose state the Pāṇḍavas lived for some time in disguise.

धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान् ।

पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः ॥१-५॥ 1.5

dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ kāśirājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca śaibyaś ca narapungavaḥ 1.5

dhṛṣṭaketuḥ1 cekitānaḥ2 kāśirājaḥ3 ca4 vīryavān5
purujit6 kuntibhojaḥ7 ca8 śaibyaḥ9 ca10 narapungavaḥ11

dhṛṣṭaketuḥ1 = Dhristaketu; cekitānaḥ2 = Cekitana; vīryavān5 = valiant; kāśirājaḥ3 = Kasiraja' ca4 = and;  purujit6 = Purujit; kuntibhojaḥ7 = Kuntibhoja; ca8 = and; śaibyaḥ9 = Saibya ca10 = and;  narapungavaḥ11 = foremost among men.  1.5

(1.5) Dhṛṣṭaketu, Cekitāna and the valiant King of Kāśi, also Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Śaibya the foremost of men.1

1 Dhṛṣṭaketu is the king of the Cedis.

Cekitāna is a famous warrior in the army of the Pāṇḍavas,

Purujit and Kuntibhoja are two brothers. Sometimes Purujit Kuntibhoja is taken as one. Ě

Saibya is a king of the Śibi tribe.

युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।

सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः  ॥१-६॥ 1.6

yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahārathāḥ 1.6

yudhāmanyuḥ1 ca2 vikrāntaḥ3 uttamaujāḥ4 ca5 vīryavān6
saubhadraḥ7 draupadeyāḥ8 ca9 sarva10 eva11 mahārathāḥ12  1.6

yudhāmanyuḥ1 = Yudhamanyu;  vikrāntaḥ3 = the valiant; ca2 = and; uttamaujāḥ4 = Uttamauja; vīryavān6 = the powerful;  ca5 = and; saubhadraḥ7 = son of Sabhadra; ca9 = and; draupadeyāḥ8 = sons of Draupadi [are];  sarva10 = all;  eva11 = indeed;  mahārathāḥ12 = the Great Charioteers (fighters).   1.6

(1.6) Yudhāmanyu, the strong and Uttamauja, the brave; and also the son of Subhadrā and sons of Draupadī, all of them great warriors.

Saubhadraḥ is Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna and Subhadrā.

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।

नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते  ॥१-७॥ 1.7

asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṁj˝ārthaṁ tān bravīmi te 1.7

asmākam1 tu2 viśiṣṭā3 ye4 tān5 nibodha6 dvijottama7
nāyakāḥ8 mama9  sainyasya10  saṁj˝ā-artham11  tān12  bravīmi13  te14  1.7


tu2 = But; dvijottama7 = O the Best among Brahmanas; nibodha6 = know; tān5 =  them; [as] viśiṣṭā3 = the most distinguished; [on] asmākam1 = our [side] ;  saṁj˝ā-artham11 te14 = for your information; [I] bravīmi13 = will name;  tān12 = them; nāyakāḥ8 = the leaders; [of] mama9  = my; sainyasya10  = soldiers.  1.7

(1.7) Know also, O Best of the twiceborn, the leaders of my army, those who are most distinguished among us. I will name them now for thy information.

dvijottama: O best of the twiceborn .. A dvija is one who is invested with the sacred thread, literally, one who is twice-born. Initiation into the life of spirit is the aim of education. We are born into the world of nature; our second birth is into the world of spirit; tad dvitīyaṁ janma, mātā sāvitrī, pitā tu ācāryah: The individual born a child of nature grows up into his spiritual manhood and becomes a child of light.

भवान्भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिंजयः ।

अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिस्तथैव च  ॥१-८॥ 1.8

bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiṁjayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattis tathai 'va ca 1.8

bhavān1 bhīṣmaḥ2  ca3 karṇaḥ4 ca5 kṛpaḥ6 ca7 samitiṁjayaḥ8
aśvatthāmā9 vikarṇaḥ10 ca11 saumadattiḥ12 tathā13 eva14 ca15 1.8

bhavān1 = [Like] Yourself; ca3 = and; bhīṣmaḥ2 = Bhisma;  ca5 = and;  karṇaḥ4 = Karna;    kṛpaḥ6 = Krpa;  ca7 = and; aśvatthāmā9 = Asvatthama;  ca11 = and; vikarṇaḥ10 = Vikarna;  ca15 = and; saumadattiḥ12 = the son of Somadatta; tathā13 & eva14 =  likewise; samitiṁjayaḥ8 = ever victorious in battle. 1.8

(1.8) Thyself and Bhīṣma and Karṇa and Kṛpa, ever victorious in battle; Asvatthāman, Vikarṇa, and also the son of Somadatta.1

1Bhīṣma is the old sage-warrior who brought up Dḥṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu.

Karṇa is half-brother to Arjuna,

Kṛpa is the brother-in-law of Droṇa.

Asvatthāma is the son of Droṇa,

Vikarṇa is the third of the hundred sons of Dḥṛtarāṣṭra,

Somadatti is the son of Somadatta, the King of the Bāhikas.

अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।

नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः  ॥१-९॥ 1.9

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ
nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ 1.9

anye1 ca2 bahavaḥ3 śūrāḥ4 mad-arthe5 tyakta-jīvitāḥ6
nānā7 śastra8 praharaṇāḥ9 sarve10 yuddha11 viśāradāḥ12  1.9

anye1 = Many others; ca2 = and; bahavaḥ3 = many;  śūrāḥ4 = heroes; tyakta-jīvitāḥ6 = those willing to sacrifice their lives; mad-arthe5 = for me; nānā7 śastra8 praharaṇāḥ9 = ready and equipped with many weapons [many-weapons-ready and equipped with]; sarve10 = all of them; yuddha11 viśāradāḥ12 = skilled in12 war11.  1.9

(1.9) And many other heroes who have risked their lives for my sake. They are armed with many kinds of weapons and are all well skilled in war.

अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।

पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम्  ॥१-१०॥ 1.10

aparyāptaṁ tad asmākaṁ balaṁ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṃ tv idam eteṣāṁ balaṁ bhīmābhirakṣitam 1.10

aparyāptam1 tat2 asmākam3 balam4 bhīṣma5 abhirakṣitam6
paryāptaṃ7 tu8 idam9 eteṣām10 balam11 bhīma12 abhirakṣitam13     1.10

tat2 = That; balam4 = strength; asmākam3 = of ours; aparyāptam1 = is unlimited; abhirakṣitam6 = protected by; bhīṣma5 = Bhisma; tu8 = but; idam9 = this; balam11 = strength; eteṣām10 = of theirs [Pandavas]; abhirakṣitam13 = protected by; bhīma12 = Bhima; paryāptaṃ7 = is limited. 1.10

(1.10) Unlimited is this army of ours which is guarded by Bhīṣma, while that army of theirs which is guarded by Bhīma is limited.

aparyāptam: insufficient. Śrīdhara.

अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।

भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि  ॥१-११॥ 1.11

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evā  'bhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi 1.11

ayaneṣu1 ca2 sarveṣu3 yathā-bhāgam4 avasthitāḥ5
bhīṣmam6 evā7  abhirakṣantu8 bhavantaḥ9 sarva10 eva11 hi12   1.11

sarveṣu3 = All; ayaneṣu1 ca2 = On all fronts, yathā-bhāgam4 = whatever (allotment) rank and file; bhavantaḥ9 = you are; avasthitāḥ5 = staying fixed; [offer] abhirakṣantu8 = support; [to] bhīṣmam6 = Bhishma;  evā7 = certainly; sarva10 eva11  hi12 = all without remiss.  1.11

(1.11) Therefore do ye all support Bhīṣma, standing firm in all the fronts, in your respective ranks.

The Sounding of the Conchshells

तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।

सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान्  ॥१-१२॥ 1.12

tasya sa˝janayan harṣaṃ kuruvṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ
siṃhanādaṃ vinadyocchaiḥ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān 1.12

tasya1 sa˝janayan2 harṣaṃ3 kuru-vṛddhaḥ4 pitāmahaḥ5
siṃha-nādaṃ6 vinadya7 ucchaiḥ8 śaṅkhaṃ9 dadhmau10 pratāpavān11  1.12

pratāpavān11 = Valiant; pitāmahaḥ5 = Grandfather Bhishma; kuru-vṛddhaḥ4 = the eldest of the Kurus; sa˝janayan2 = to raise; tasya1 = his (Duryodhana); harṣaṃ3 = cheer; [roared making]; vinadya7 = reverberating; siṃha-nādaṃ6 = lion's sound [and] dadhmau10 = blew; śaṅkhaṃ9 = the conch; ucchaiḥ8 = loudly.  1.12

(1.I2) In order to cheer him up the aged kuru, his valiant grandsire roared aloud like a lion and blew his conch.

With him and others, loyalty to duty counted far more than individual conviction. Social order generally depends on obedience to authority. Did not Socrates tell Crito that he would not break the Laws of Athens which brought him up, guarded, and watched over him?

Roared aloud like a lion: Bhīṣma declared emphatically his confidence.

ततः शङ्खाश्च भेर्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।

सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत्  ॥१-१३॥ 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ
sahasai  'vā  'bhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulo 'bhavat 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāḥ ca bheryaḥ ca paṇava-anaka go-mukhāḥ
sahasā  evā  abhyahanyanta saḥ śabdaḥ tumulaḥ abhavat 1.13

tataḥ = Thereafter; śaṅkhāḥ = conch; ca = and  bheryaḥ = bugles;  ca = and; paṇava-anaka = trumpets and drums;  go-mukhāḥ = cow-horns;  sahasā  evā = all at once; abhyahanyanta = sounded.  saḥ = That;  śabdaḥ = sound;  abhavat = became; tumulaḥ = tumultuous.   1.13

(1.I3) Then conches and kettledrums, tabors and drums and horns suddenly were struck and the noise was tumultuous.

ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।

माधवः पाण्डवश्चैव दिव्यौ शङ्खौ प्रदध्मतुः  ॥१-१४॥ 1.14

tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś cai 'va divyau śaṅkhau pradaghmatuḥ 1.14

tataḥ1 śvetai2 hayai3 yukte4 mahati5 syandane6 sthitau7
mādhavaḥ8 pāṇḍava ca eva9 divyau10 śaṅkhau11 pradaghmatuḥ12

tataḥ1 = Thereafter; mādhavaḥ8 = Madhava [Krishna];  pāṇḍava ca eva9 = and Pandava [Arjuna]; sthitau7 = seated;  mahati5 = on the great;  syandane6 = chariot; yukte4 = yoked; śvetai2 = to the white;  hayai3 = horses;   pradaghmatuḥ12 = sounded; divyau10 = the divine;  śaṅkhau11 = conches.   1.14

(1.I4) When stationed in their great chariot, yoked to white horses, Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna blew their celestial conches.

Throughout the Hindu and the Buddhist literatures, the chariot stands for the psychophysical vehicle. The steeds are the senses, the reins their controls, but the charioteer, the guide is the spirit or real self, ātman. Kṛṣṇa, the charioteer, is the Spirit in us. l

1 Cp. Kaṭha Up., III, 3. See also Plato, Laws, 898C; Milindapa˝ha, 26-8.

पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः ।

पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः  ॥१-१५॥ 1.15

pā˝cajanyaṁ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṁ dhana˝jayaḥ
pauṇḍraṁ dadhmau mahāśaṅkhaṁ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ 1.15

pā˝cajanyam1 hṛṣīkeśaḥ2 devadattam3 dhana˝jayaḥ4
pauṇḍram5 dadhmau6 mahā-śaṅkham7 bhīma-karmā8 vṛkodaraḥ9  1.15

hṛṣīkeśaḥ2 = Hrisikesa [krishna]; dadhmau6 = blew; [His] pā˝cajanyam1 = Panchajanya; dhana˝jayaḥ4 = Arjuna; [blew] devadattam3 = Devadatta;  vṛkodaraḥ9 = Vrkodara; bhīma-karmā8 = of terrible deeds; [blew] mahā-śaṅkham7 = the Great Conch; pauṇḍram5 = Paundram.  1.15

(1.15) Kṛṣṇa blew his Pā˝cajanya and Arjuna his Devadatta and Bhīma of terrific deeds blew his mighty conch, Pauṇḍra.

These Indicate readiness for battle.

अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।

नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ  ॥१-१६॥ 1.16

anantavijayaṁ rājā kuntīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau 1.16

anantavijayam1 rājā2 kuntī-putraḥ3 yudhiṣṭhiraḥ4
nakulaḥ5 sahadevaḥ6 ca7 sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau8 1.16

kuntī-putraḥ3 = Son of Kunti; rājā2 = king; yudhiṣṭhiraḥ4 = Yudhithira; [blew]; anantavijayam1 = the Conch by name Anantavijayam. nakulaḥ5 = Nakula; ca7 = and; sahadevaḥ6 = Shadeva; [blew]; sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau8 = the Conches Sughosa and Manipuspaka. 1.16

(I6) Prince Yudhisthira,1 the son of Kuntī, blew his Anantaşvijaya and Nakula and Sahadeva blew their Sughoṣa and Maṇipuṣpaka.

1 Yudhiṣṭhira is the eldest of the five sons of Pāṇḍu.

Nakula is the fourth of the Pāṇḍu princes. Sahadeva is the youngest of them.

काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः ।

धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः  ॥१-१७॥ 1.17

kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahārathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cā 'parājitaḥ 1.17

kāśyaḥ1 ca2 parameṣvāsaḥ3 śikhaṇḍī4 ca5 mahārathaḥ6
dhṛṣṭadyumnaḥ7 virāṭaḥ8 ca9 sātyakiḥ10 ca11 aparājitaḥ12  1.17

kāśyaḥ1 = Kasi Raja; parameṣvāsaḥ3 = the wielder of the great bow; ca2 = and;  śikhaṇḍī4 = Sikhandi; mahārathaḥ6 = the great charioteer; ca5 = and; dhṛṣṭadyumnaḥ7 = Dhrstadhyumna; ca9 = and; virāṭaḥ8 = Virata; ca11 = and; sātyakiḥ10 = Satyaki; aparājitaḥ12  = who has never known defeat.  1.17

(1.I7) And the king of Kāśi, the Chief of archers, Śikhaṇḍin, the great warrior, Dhṛṣṭadyumna and Virāṭa and the invincible Sātyaki.

द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।

सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शङ्खान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक्  ॥१-१८॥ 1.18
drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate
saubhadraś ca mahābāhuḥ śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak-pṛthak 1.18

drupada1 draupadeyā2 ca3 sarvaśaḥ4 pṛthivī-pate5
saubhadra6 ca7 mahā-bāhuḥ8 śaṅkhān9 dadhmuḥ10 pṛthak-pṛthak11   1.18

drupada1 = King Drupada; ca3 = and; draupadeyā2 = the sons of Draupadi; ca7 = and; mahā-bāhuḥ8 = mighty-armed; saubhadra6 = son of Subhadra; sarvaśaḥ4 = all; dadhmuḥ10 = blew; śaṅkhān9 = [their respective] conches; pṛthak-pṛthak11 = separately-separately [one by one];  pṛthivīpate5 = O King of Earth. 1.18

Yudhiṣṭhira, Arjuna, Bhīma, Nakula and Sahadeva are the five brothers collectively known as the Pāṇḍavas [the five-some or the pentad].  Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma and Arjuna are the sons of King Pāṇḍu and Kuntī; Nakula and Sahadeva are twins born of King Pāṇḍu and Mādrī.  Draupadī is married to the Pāṇḍavas, the five siblings.

(1.18) Drupada and the sons of Draupadī, O Lord of earth and the strong-armed son of Subhadrā, on all sides blew their respective conches.

स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।

नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन्  ॥१-१९॥ 1.19

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ cai 'va tumulo vyanunādayan 1.19

sah1 ghoṣaḥ2 dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām3 hṛdayāni4 vyadārayat5
nabhaḥ6 ca7 pṛthivīm8 ca9  eva10  tumulaḥ11 vyanunādayan12  1.19

sah1 = That;  ghoṣaḥ2 = sound; tumulaḥ11 = tumult [tumultuous roar of the conches]; vyanunādayan12 = reverberating through; nabhaḥ6 = the sky; ca7 = and;  pṛthivīm8 = the earth; vyadārayat5 = split; hṛdayāni4 = the hearts; ca9 eva10 = indeed of;  dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām3 = the sons of Dhrtarastra.  1.19

(1.I9) The tumultuous uproar resounding through earth and sky rent the hearts of Dḥṛtarāṣṭra's sons.

Arjuna Surveys the Two Armies

अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान्कपिध्वजः ।

प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः  ॥१-२०॥ 1.20

atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān  kapidhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastrasaṁpāte dhanur udyamya pāṇḍavaḥ 1.20

atha1 vyavasthitān2 dṛṣṭvā3 dhārtarāṣṭrān4  kapidhvajaḥ5
pravṛtte6 śastrasaṁpāte7 dhanuḥ8 udyamya9 pāṇḍavaḥ10 1.20

pāṇḍavaḥ10 = The Pandava [Arjuna], the son of Pandu; kapidhvajaḥ5 = one with Hanuman's flag; atha1 = thereupon;  dṛṣṭvā3 = seeing;  dhārtarāṣṭrān4 = the sons of Dhristarastra; vyavasthitān2 = standing in position; pravṛtte6 = getting ready to engage; udyamya9 = [Arjuna] hoisted up; dhanuḥ8 = the bow; [for] śastrasaṁpāte7 = the launching of the arrows...  1.20

(1.20) Then Arjuna, whose banner bore the crest of Hanumān, looked at the sons of Dḥṛtarāṣṭra drawn up in battle order; and as the flight of missiles (almost) started, he took up his bow.

pravṛtte śastrasaṁpāte: as the flight of missiles started. The crisis throws Arjuna into great anguish. The opposing hosts are drawn up in battle array, the conches are blown, the thrill of anticipated battle is on them all, when, suddenly in a moment of self-analysis, Arjuna realizes that the struggle means that the whole scheme of life, the great ideals of race and family, of law and order, of patriotism and reverence for the teacher, which he had loyally carried out till then, will have to be abandoned.

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते ।

अर्जुन उवाच सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत  ॥१-२१॥ 1.21

hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyam idam āha mahīpate
senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me 'cyuta 1.21

hṛṣīkeśam1  tadā2  vākyam3  idam4  āha5  mahī-pate6
senayoḥ7  ubhayoḥ8  madhye9  ratham10  sthāpaya11  me12  acyuta13   1.21

tadā2 = At that time; Arjuna;  āha5 = said; idam4 = these; vākyam3 = words; hṛṣīkeśam1 = To Lord Hrsikesa (Krishna): acyuta13 = O Acyuta (Krishna, the Infallible); mahī-pate6 = O Great King; sthāpaya11 = stand; me12  = my; ratham10 = chariot; madhye9 = between;  ubhayoḥ8 = the two; senayoḥ7 = armies.  1.21

(1.2I) And, O Lord of earth, he spoke this word to Hṛṣīkeśa (Kṛṣṇa): Draw up my chariot, O Acyuta (Kṛṣṇa),between the two armies.

Acyuta: immovable is another name for Kṛṣṇa

Other names used for Kṛṣṇa are Madhusūdana (slayer of the demon Madhu), Arisūdana (slayer of enemies), Govinda (herdsman or giver of enlightenment), Vāsudeva (son of Vasudeva), Yādava (descendant of Yadu), Keśava (having fine hair), Mādhava (the husband of Lakṣmī), Hṛṣīkeśa (lord of the senses, Hṛṣīka Īśa), Janārdana (the liberator of men).

Other names used for Arjuna are Bhārata (descended of Bharata), Dhanaṁjaya (winner of wealth), Guḍākeśa (having the hair in a ball), Pārthā (son of Pṛthā), Paraṁtapa (oppressor of the enemy).

यावदेतान्निरिक्षेऽहं योद्‌धुकामानवस्थितान् ।

कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे  ॥१-२२॥ 1.22

yāvad etān nirikṣehaṁ yoddhukāmān avasthitān
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇasamudyame 1.22

yāvat1 etān2 nirikṣe3 aham4 yoddhu-kāmān5 avasthitān6
kaiḥ7 mayā8 saha9 yoddhavyam10 asmin11 raṇa12 samudyame13  1.22


yāvat1 = Until;  aham4 = I; nirikṣe3 =see; etān2 = all these [warriors];  kaiḥ7 & saha9 = with whom; yoddhavyam10 = [I have] to fight with; [who are] avasthitān6 = in battle formation; yoddhu-kāmān5 = lusting for a fight; mayā8 = with me; asmin11 = in this;  raṇa12 & samudyame13 = war effort.    1.22

(1.22) So that I may observe these men standing, eager for battle, with whom I have to contend in this strife of war.

योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः  ॥१-२३॥ 1.23

yotsyamānān avekṣe 'haṁ ya ete 'tra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher yuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ 1.23

yotsyamānān1 avekṣe2 aham3 ye4 ete5 atra6 samāgatāḥ7
dhārtarāṣṭrasya8 durbuddheḥ9 yuddhe10 priyacikīrṣavaḥ11  1.23

aham3 = I; avekṣe2 = wish to see; yotsyamānān1 = the prospective fighters; ye4 = whoever; ete5 = they; [are] samāgatāḥ7 = assembled; atra6 = here; priyacikīrṣavaḥ11 = wishing to do good; [to] durbuddheḥ9 = the evil-minded; dhārtarāṣṭrasya8 = son of Dhrstarastra;  yuddhe10 = in the fight.  1.23

(1.23) I wish to look at those who are assembled here, ready to fight and eager to achieve in battle what is dear to the evil-minded son of Dḥṛtarāṣṭra.

All the preparations for war are ready. That very morning, Yudhiṣṭhira looks at the impenetrable formation organized by Bhīṣma. Trembling with fear, he tells Arjuna, "How can victory be ours in the face of such an army?1 Arjuna encourages his brother by quoting an ancient verse, "they, that are desirous of victory, conquer not so much by might and prowess as by truth, compassion, piety and virtue. Victory is certain to be where Kṛṣṇa is. Victory is one of his attributes, so also is humility."2 Kṛṣṇa advises Arjuna to purify himself and pray to Durgā for success. Arjuna descends from his chariot and chants a hymn in praise of the Goddess. Pleased with his devotion, She blesses Arjuna: "O Son of Pāṇḍu, you will vanquish your enemy in no time. You have Nārāyaṇa Himself to help you." And yet, as a man of action, Arjuna did not think out the implications of his enterprise. The presence of his teacher, the consciousness of the Divine, helps him to realize that the enemies he has to fight are dear and sacred to him. He has to cut social ties for the protection of justice and the suppression of lawless violence. The establishment of the kingdom of God on earth is a coş operative enterprise between God and man. Man is a co-sharer in the work of creation.

1 dhanaṁjaya kathaṁ śakyam asmābhir yoddhum āhave. M.B.t Bhīṣma parva, 21, 3I. 2yudhyadhvam anahaṁkāraḥ, yato dharmaṣ tato jayaḥůyataḥá kṛṣṇas tato jayaḥ. Ibid., 21, 11-12.

सञ्जय उवाच

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।

सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम्  ॥१-२४॥ 1.24

Sa˝jaya Uvāca:

evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam 1.24

Sa˝jaya Uvāca:

evam1 uktaḥ2 hṛṣīkeśaḥ3 guḍākeśena4 bhārata5

senayoḥ7 ubhayoḥ8 madhyesthāpayitvā10 rathottamam11

Sa˝jaya Uvāca:= Sanjaya said:

evam1 = Thus; uktaḥ2 = spoken to; guḍākeśena4 = by arjuna;  hṛṣīkeśaḥ3 = Hrisikesa [Krishna]; sthāpayitvā10 = placed; rathottamam11  = the Highest Chariot. madhye= between; ubhayoḥ8 = of both; senayoḥ7 = of armies; bhārata5= O scion of Bharata Clan.   1.24

(1.24) Thus addressed by Guḍākeśa (Arjuna), Hṛṣīkeśa (Kṛṣṇa) drew up that best of chariots, O Bharata (Dḥṛtarāṣṭra) between the two armies.

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।

उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति  ॥१-२५॥ 1.25

bhīṣmadroṇapramukhataḥ sarveṣāṁ ca mahīkṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyai 'tān samavetān kurūn iti 1.25

bhīṣma1 droṇa2 pramukhataḥ3 sarveṣāṁ4 ca5 mahīkṣitām6
uvāca7 pārtha8 paśyai9 etān10 samavetān11 kurūn12 iti13  1.25

pramukhataḥ3 = Facing; bhīṣma1 = Bhishma;  droṇa2 = Drona; ca5 = and; sarveṣāṁ4 = all; mahīkṣitām6 = Great Chiefs; [Lord Krishna];  uvāca7 = said;  iti13 = thus: pārtha8 = O Partha (Arjuna);  paśya9 = behold; etān10 = these; kurūn12 = Kauravas; samavetān11 = congregated here. 1.25

(1.25) In front of Bhīṣma, Droṇa and all the chiefs he said: "Behold, O Pārtha (Arjuna), these Kurus assembled (here)."

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् ।

आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा  ॥१-२६॥ 1.26

tatrā  'paśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṛn atha pitāmahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṛn putrān pautrān sakhīṁs tathā 1.26

tatrā1 apaśyat2 sthitān3 pārthaḥ4 pitṛn5 atha6 pitāmahān7
ācāryān8 mātulān9 bhrātṛn10 putrān11 pautrān12 sakhīn13 tathā14

pārthaḥ4 = Arjuna; apaśyat2 = saw; sthitān3 = standing; tatrā1 = there; pitṛn5 = fathers; atha6 = also; pitāmahān7 = grandfathers; ācāryān8 = Gurus; mātulān9 = maternal uncles;  bhrātṛn10 = brothers; tathā14 = besides; putrān11 = sons; pautrān12 = grandsons; sakhīn13 = friends...  1.26

(1.26) There saw Arjuna standing fathers and grandfathers, teachers, uncles, brothers, sons and grandsons as also companions.

श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ।

तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान्  ॥१-२७॥ 1.27

śvaśurān suhṛdaś cai 'va senayor ubhayor api
tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān 1.27

śvaśurān1 suhṛdaḥ2 ca3 eva4 senayoḥ5 ubhayoḥ6 api7
tān8 samīkṣya9 saḥ10 kaunteyaḥ11 sarvān12 bandhūn13 avasthitān14

saḥ10 = He; kaunteyaḥ11 = Arjuna; samīkṣya9 = seeing; sarvān12 = all; śvaśurān1 = fathers-in-law; suhṛdaḥ2 = well-wishers; ca3 = and; eva4 = certainly; tān8 = those; bandhūn13 = relatives; avasthitān14 = assembled; api7 = besides; senayoḥ5 = [of] the armies; ubhayoḥ6 = of both sides.  1.27 continued

(1.27) And also fathers-in-law and friends in both the armies. When the son of Kunti (Arjuna) saw all these kinsmen thus standing arrayedů

svajanam:(this word is not in the verse) his own people, kinsmen. It is not so much slaughter but slaughter of one's own people that causes distress and anxiety to Arjuna. See also I, 3I, 37, and 45. We are generally inclined to take a mechanical view of wars and get lost in statistics. But, with a little imagination, we can realize how our enemies are human beings, "fathers and grandfathers" with their own individual lives, with their longings and aspirations. Later on, Arjuna asks whether victory is worth much after we make the place a desert waste. See 1, 36.

Svajanam : this word occurs in verse 1.31

कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् ।

अर्जुन उवाच दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम्  ॥१-२८॥ 1.28

kṛpayā parayā 'viṣṭo viṣīdann idamabravīt
dṛṣṭve 'maṁ svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam 1.28

kṛpayā1 parayā2 āviṣṭa3 viṣīdan4 idam5 abravīt6
dṛṣṭve7 imam8 svajanam9 kṛṣṇa10 yuyutsum11 samupasthitam12 1.28

āviṣṭa3 = Overcome with; parayā2 = supreme; kṛpayā1 = compassion; viṣīdan4 = bemoaning; idam5 = this; [Arjuna] abravīt6 = spoke;  kṛṣṇa10 = O Krishna; dṛṣṭvā7 = having seen;  imam8 = these; svajanam9 = relatives;  yuyutsum11 = intending to fight; samupasthitam12 = readying for [battle]...  1.28

(1.28) He was overcome with great compassion and uttered this in sadness;

The Distress of Arjuna

When I see my own people arrayed and eager for fight O Kṛṣṇa,

सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ।

वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते  ॥१-२९॥ 1.29

sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati
vepathuś ca śarīre me romaharṣaś ca jāyate 1.29

sīdanti1 mama2 gātrāṇi3 mukham4 ca5 pariśuṣyati6
vepathuḥ7 ca8 śarīre9 me10 roma-harṣaḥ11 ca12 jāyate13   1.29

Arjuna continues to speak: mama2 = My; gātrāṇi3 = limbs; sīdanti1 = are afflicted with fatigue; ca5 = and; mukham4 = mouth; pariśuṣyati= is parched; ca8 = and; [I feel] vepathuḥ7 = tremulousness;  śarīre9 = of the body; ca12 = and; me10 = my; roma-harṣaḥ11 = horripilation;  jāyate13 = is happening.   1.29

(1.29) My limbs quail, my mouth goes dry, my body shakes, and my hair stands on end.

गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ।

न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः  ॥१-३०॥ 1.30

gāṇḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāt tvak cai 'va paridahyate
na ca śaknomy avasthātuṁ bhramatī 'va ca me manaḥ 1.30

gāṇḍīvam1 sraṁsate2 hastāt3 tvak4 ca5 eva6 paridahyate7
na8 ca9 śaknomi10 avasthātum11 bhramati12 iva13 ca14 me15 manaḥ16  1.30

Arjuna spoke: gāṇḍīvam1 = [My] bow; sraṁsate2 = is slipping and sliding; hastāt3 = from my hands; ca5 = and; eva6 = certainly; tvak4 = [my] skin;  paridahyate7 = is burning; ca9 = and; [I] na8 = [am] not;  śaknomi10 = able to;  avasthātum11 = stand; ca14 = and;  iva13 = as if; me15 = my manaḥ16  = mind; [is] bhramati12 = roving, reeling. 1.30

(1.30) (The bow) Gāṇḍīva slips from my hand and my skin too is burning all over. I am not able to stand steady. My mind is reeling.

Arjuna's words make us think of the loneliness of man oppressed by doubt, dread of waste and emptiness, from whose being the riches of heaven and earth and the comfort of human affection are slipping away. This intolerable sadness is generally the experience of all those who aspire for the vision of Reality.

निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ।

न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे  ॥१-३१॥ 1.31

nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava
na ca śreyo 'nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave 1.31

nimittāni1 ca2 paśyāmi3 viparītāni4 keśava5
na6 ca7 śreyaḥ8 anupaśyāmi9 hatvā10 svajanam11 āhave12   1.31

Arjuna said, keśava5 = O Kesava; [I] paśyāmi3 = see; viparītāni4 = adverse; nimittāni1 = omens;  ca2 = and; na6 & anupaśyāmi9 = I am not6 prescient9; ca7 = also; [I see nothing] śreyaḥ8 = good; hatvā10 = by killing; svajanam11 = my own people; āhave12 = in battle.  1.31

(1.31) And I see evil omens, O Keśava (Kṛṣṇa), nor do I foresee any good by slaying my own people in the fight.

Arjuna's attention to omens indicates his mental weakness and instability.

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ।

किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा  ॥१-३२॥ 1.32

na kāṅkṣe vijayaṁ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṁ sukhāni ca
kiṃ no rājyena govinda kiṁ bhogair jīvitena vā 1.32

na1 kāṅkṣe2 vijayam3 kṛṣṇa4 na5 ca6 rājyam7 sukhāni8 ca9
kiṃ10 naḥ11 rājyena12 govinda13 kim14 bhogaiḥ15 jīvitena1617  1.32

kṛṣṇa4 = O Krishna; [I have] na1 = no; kāṅkṣe2 = desire; vijayam3 = [for] victory; ca6 = and; na5 = no [desire for];  rājyam7 = kingdom; ca9 = and; sukhāni8 = happiness. govinda13 = O Govinda; kiṃ10 = of what use; naḥ11 = to us; rājyena12 = is the kingdom.  kim14 = What; bhogaiḥ15 = pleasure; [is there] jīvitena16 = by living; 17 = either.  1.32

(1.32) I do not long for victory, O Kṛṣṇa nor kingdom nor pleasures. Of what use is kingdom to us, O Kṛṣṇa, or enjoyment or even life? In moments of great sorrow we are tempted to adopt the method of renunciation.

This verse indicates Arjuna's inclination for renunciation of the world: saṁnyāsasādhanasūcanam. Madhusūdana.

येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ।

त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च  ॥१-३३॥ 1.33

yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṁ no rājyaṁ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca
ta ime 'vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṁs tyaktvā dhanāni ca 1.33

yeṣām1 arthe2 kāṅkṣitam3 naḥ4 rājyam5 bhogāḥ6 sukhāni7 ca8
te9 ime10 avasthitāḥ11 yuddhe12 prāṇān13 tyaktvā14 dhanāni15 ca16 1.33


yeṣām1 = For whose; arthe2 = cause; naḥ4 = our; rājyam5 = kingdom; bhogāḥ6 = enjoyment; ca8 = and; sukhāni7 = all pleasures; kāṅkṣitam3 = [are] desired.  te9 & ime10 = These [people]; avasthitāḥ11 = stand; yuddhe12 = in this battlefield; [ready to] tyaktvā14 = relinquish;  prāṇān13 = lives; ca16 = and; dhanāni15 = riches.  1.33

(1.33) Those for whose sake we desire kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures, they stand here in battle, renouncing their lives and riches.

आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ।

मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः संबन्धिनस्तथा  ॥१-३४॥ 1.34

ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathai 'va ca pitāmahāḥ
mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā 1.34

ācāryāḥ1  pitaraḥ2  putrāḥ3  tatha4  eva5  ca6  pitāmahāḥ7
 mātulāḥ8  śvaśurāḥ9  pautrāḥ10  śyālāḥ11  sambandhinaḥ12  tathā13

ācāryāḥ1 = Gurus; pitaraḥ2 = fathers;  putrāḥ3 = sons; tatha4 eva5  ca6 = in like manner;  pitāmahāḥ7 = grandfathers; mātulāḥ8 = maternal uncles; śvaśurāḥ9 = fathers-in-law; pautrāḥ10 = grandsons; śyālāḥ11 = brothers-in-law; tathā13 = so also so; sambandhinaḥ12 = relatives.  1.34

(34) Teachers, fathers, sons and also grandfathers; uncles and fathers-In-law, grandsons and brothers-in-law and (other) kinsmen.

एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ।

अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते  ॥१-३५॥ 1.35

etān na hantum icchhāmi ghnato 'pi madhusūdana
api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahīkṛte 1.35

etān1 na2 hantum3 icchhāmi4 ghnataḥ5 api6 madhusūdana7
api8 trailokyarājyasya9 hetoḥ10 kim11 nu12 mahī-kṛte13   1.35

madhusūdana7 = O Madhusudhana, ghnataḥ5 & api6 = though there is a prospect of being killed; na2 & icchhāmi4 = I do not2 want; hantum3 = to kill; etān1 = all these [people]; api8 = even; hetoḥ10 = for the reason, for the sake of; [gaining] trailokyarājyasya9  = of the three worlds kingdom.  [Is there] kim