10ChapterBG

Bhagavadgita

Numbered Text and Commentary by Dr. Radhakrishnan (Yellow cells)

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration and word meanings by Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

BG CHAPTER 10:  MANIFESTATION

God is the Source of all; to know Him is to know all

The Immanence and Transcendence of God

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच

भूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमं वचः ।

यत्तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया ॥१०- १॥

śrībhagavānuvāca
 bhūya eva mahābāho śṛṇu me paramaṁ vacaḥ
 yat tehaṁ prīyamāṇāya vakṣyāmi hitakāmyayā 10.1

śrībhagavān uvāca

bhūyaḥ1 eva2 mahābāho3 śṛṇu4 me5 paramam6 vacaḥ7
yat8 te9 aham10 prīyamāṇāya11 vakṣyāmi12 hita-kāmyayā13  10.1

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: mahābāho3 = O mighty-armed one; śṛṇu4 = hear; bhūyaḥ1 eva2 = once again; me5 = My; paramam6 = Supreme; vacaḥ7= words; yat8 = which; aham10 = I; vakṣyāmi12 = say; te9 = to you; hita-kāmyayā13  = desirous of your welfare; prīyamāṇāya11 = for you love Me.  10.1

The Blessed Lord said:

(10.1) Again, O Mighty-armed (Arjuna), hearken to My supreme word. From a desire to do thee good, I will declare it to thee, now that thou art taking delight (in My words).

prīyamāṇāya11 may also be rendered "who art beloved."

न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः ।

अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणां च सर्वशः ॥१०- २॥

na me viduḥ suragaṇāḥ prabhavaṁ na maharṣayaḥ
aham ādir hi devānāṁ maharṣīṇāṁ ca sarvaśaḥ 10.2

na1 me2 viduḥ3 sura-gaṇāḥ4 prabhavam5 na6 maharṣayaḥ7
aham8 ādiḥ9 hi10 devānām11 maharṣīṇām12 ca13 sarvaśaḥ14 10.2

 na1 = Neither;  sura-gaṇāḥ4 = the gods; na6 = nor; maharṣayaḥ7 = the great sages; viduḥ3 = know; me2 = My; prabhavam5 = majesty (origin).  aham8 = I;  [am] hi10 = indeed; ādiḥ9 = the origin; devānām11 = of the gods; ca13 = and; maharṣīṇām12  = of the Great Rishis; sarvaśaḥ14 = in all respects,  in every way.10.2

(10.2) Neither the hosts of gods nor the great sages know any origin of Me for I am the source of the gods and the great sages In every way.

sarvaśaḥ14: in every way; sarvaprakāraiḥ,. S. The Supreme is the unborn eternal and He is also the lord of the world. Though He has no birth, all existences derive from Him. The teacher announces that He is in truth the Eternal God Himself, more ancient than all else and that all manifested glory is from Him.

यो मामजमनादिं च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम् ।

असंमूढः स मर्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥१०- ३॥

yo mām ajam anādiṁ ca vetti lokamaheśvaram
asaṁmūḍhaḥ sa martyeṣu sarvapāpaiḥ pramucyate 10.3

yaḥ1 mām2 ajam3 anādim4 ca5 vetti6 loka-maheśvaram7
asaṁmūḍhaḥ8 saḥ9 martyeṣu10 sarva-pāpaiḥ11 pramucyate12 10.3

 yaḥ1 = He who; vetti6 = knows; mām2 = Me; [as] ajam3 = unborn; anādim4 = beginningless; ca5 = and; loka-maheśvaram7 = the Great Controller of the worlds; saḥ9 = he; [is] asaṁmūḍhaḥ8 = undeluded;  martyeṣu10 = among mortals; pramucyate12 = freed; sarva-pāpaiḥ11 = from all sins.  10.3

(10.3) He who knows Me, the unborn, without beginning, also the mighty lord of the worlds, he, among mortals is undeluded and freed from all sins.

When we learn to look at things as derived from the One Transcendent Reality, we are delivered from all groping and bewilderment.

 

बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः ।

सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयं चाभयमेव च ॥१०- ४॥

buddhir j˝ānam asaṁmohaḥ kṣamā satyaṁ damaḥ śamaḥ
sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ bhavobhāvo bhayaṁ cābhayam eva ca 10.4

buddhiḥ1 j˝ānam2 asaṁmohaḥ3 kṣamā4 satyam5 damaḥ6 śamaḥ7
sukham8 duḥkham9 bhavaḥ10  abhāvaḥ11 bhayam12 ca13 abhayam14 eva15 ca16 10.4

buddhiḥ1 = Intelligence; j˝ānam2 = knowledge; asaṁmohaḥ3 = freedom from delusion; kṣamā4 = patience; satyam5 = truth; damaḥ6 = self-restraint; śamaḥ7= calmness; sukham8 = happiness; duḥkham9 = sadness; bhavaḥ10  = birth; abhāvaḥ11 = death; bhayam12 = fear; ca13 = and; abhayam14 = fearlessness; ca16 = and; eva15 = also; 10.4 

(10.4) Understanding, knowledge, freedom from bewilderment, patience, truth, self-control and calmness; pleasure and pain, existence and non-existence, fear and fearlessness.

dama: self-control is quietude of the external senses,

śama: calmness. It is calmness of inner spirit.

अहिंसा समता तुष्टिस्तपो दानं यशोऽयशः ।

भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः ॥१०- ५॥


ahiṁsā samatā tuṣṭis tapo dānaṁ yaśoyaśaḥ
bhavanti bhāvā bhūtānāṁ matta eva pṛthagvidhāḥ 10.5

ahiṁsā1 samatā2 tuṣṭiḥ3 tapaḥ4 dānam5 yaśaḥ-ayaśaḥ6
bhavanti7 bhāvāḥ8 bhūtānām9 mattaḥ10 eva11 pṛthak-vidhāḥ12 10.5

ahiṁsā1 = noninjury; samatā2 = equanimity; tuṣṭiḥ3 = contentment; tapaḥ4 = austerity; dānam5 =charity; yaśaḥ-ayaśaḥ6  = fame and infamy: [these]  pṛthak-vidhāḥ12 = different; bhāvāḥ8 = natures; bhūtānām9 = of living beings; bhavanti7 = come;  mattaḥ10 eva11 = from Me. 10.5

 (10.5) Non-violence, equal-mindedness, contentment, austerity, charity, fame and ill-fame (are) the different states of beings proceed from Me alone.

ahiṁsā: non-violence; in old texts it means non-hurting, especially non-killing.

All these separate states of being issue in accordance with the past karma of beings.1 The Divine is indirectly responsible even for the pain and suffering of the world. He is the lord of the world and guides it" though He is unaffected by its oppositions.

1 svakarmāṇūpeṇa S

महर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा ।

मद्भावा मानसा जाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः ॥१०- ६॥

maharṣayaḥ sapta pūrve catvāro manavas tathā
madbhāvā mānasā jātā yeṣāṁ loka imāḥ prajāḥ 10.6

maharṣayaḥ1 sapta2 pūrve3 catvāraḥ4 manavaḥ5 tathā6
madbhāvāḥ7 mānasāḥ8 jātāḥ9 yeṣām10 loke11 imāḥ12 prajāḥ13 10.6 

sapta2 = The seven; maharṣayaḥ1 = Great Rishis; pūrve3 = of ancient days; tathā6 = also; catvāraḥ4 = four; manavaḥ5 = Manus; madbhāvāḥ7 = born of My nature; [and] mānasāḥ8 = from my mind:  imāḥ12 = these; prajāḥ13 = creatures; loke11 = in the world; jātāḥ9 = are born; yeṣām10 = of  them [Rishis and Manus]. 10.6 

(10.6) The seven great sages of old, and the four Manus also are of My nature and born of My mind and from them are all these creatures in the world.

 एतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।

सोऽविकम्पेन योगेन युज्यते नात्र संशयः ॥१०- ७॥

etāṁ vibhūtiṁ yogaṁ ca mama yo vetti tattvataḥ
sovikampena yogena yujyate nātra saṁśayaḥ 10.7

etām1 vibhūtim2 yogam3 ca4 mama5 yaḥ6 vetti7 tattvataḥ8
saḥ9 avikampena10 yogena11 yujyate12 na13 atra14 saṁśayaḥ15 10.7

yaḥ6 = He who [whoever]; vetti7 = knows;  tattvataḥ8 = in truth; etām1 = this; vibhūtim2 = plenitude/pervasion; ca4 = and; yogam3 = power of Yoga;  mama5 = of Mine; saḥ9 = he;  yujyate12 = is endowed with; avikampena10 = unwavering;  yogena11 = Yoga.  [There is] na13 = no; saṁśayaḥ15 = doubt; atra14 = about this.10.7

(10.7) He who knows in truth this glory (manifestation) and power (steady action) of Mine is united (with Me) by unfaltering yoga; of this there is no doubt.

vibhūti: glory.1 The knower will be aware of his unity with the Divine and participate in the work of the world which is a manifestation of the Divine. The knowledge of the determinate Brahman is the way to the knowledge of the indeterminate Brahman.2

I vibhūti vistāram for S., aiśvaryam for R. right feeling, zeal, faith. Commenting on S. Ᾱnandagiri says ''vividhā bhūtir bhavanaṁ vaibhavaṁ sarvātma katvam.'' áIt is the glory of manifestation.

2 sopādhikaj˝ānaṁ nirupādhikaj˝āne dvāram, Ᾱnandagiri.

अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवो मत्तः सर्वं प्रवर्तते ।

इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसमन्विताः ॥१०- ८॥

ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate
iti matvā bhajante māṁ budhā bhāvasamanvitāḥ 10.8

aham1 sarvasya2 prabhavaḥ3 mattaḥ4 sarvam5 pravartate6
iti7 matvā8 bhajante9 mām10 budhāḥ11 bhāva-samanvitāḥ12 10.8

 

aham1 = I; [am] prabhavaḥ3 = the origin; sarvasya2 = of all.  mattaḥ4 = From Me; sarvam5 = all; pravartate6 = proceeds.  iti7 = Thus; matvā8 = knowing; budhāḥ11 = the wise ones; bhajante9 = worship; mām10 = Me;  bhāva-samanvitāḥ12  = with faith and conviction.10.8

(10.8) I am the origin of all; from Me all (the whole creation) proceeds. Knowing this, the wise worship Me, endowed with conviction.

bhāva: the right state of mind. R. The teacher speaks now as the Lord" as Īśvara. God is the material and efficient cause of the world. The aspirant is not deluded by the passing forms but knowing that the Supreme is the source of all the forms, he worships the Supreme.

मच्चित्ता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम् ।

कथयन्तश्च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥१०- ९॥

maccittā madgataprāṇā bodhayantaḥ parasparam
kathayantaś ca māṁ nityaṁ tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca 10.9

maccittā1 mad-gata-prāṇāḥ2 bodhayantaḥ3 parasparam4
kathayantaḥ5 ca6 mām7 nityam8 tuṣyanti9 ca10 ramanti11 ca12 10.9

maccittā1 = With their mind focused on Me; mad-gata-prāṇāḥ2 = their lives dedicated or surrendered to Me;  bodhayantaḥ3 = enlightening; parasparam4 = one another; ca6 = and; kathayantaḥ5 = talking about; mām7 = Me; nityam8 = always; [they] tuṣyanti9 = become contented; ca10 = and; ca12 = also; ramanti11 = enjoy delight. 10.9

(10.9) Their thoughts (are fixed) in Me, their lives (are wholly) given up to Me, enlightening each other and ever conversing of Me, they are contented and rejoicing in Me.

तेषां सततयुक्तानां भजतां प्रीतिपूर्वकम् ।

ददामि बुद्धियोगं तं येन मामुपयान्ति ते ॥१०- १०॥

teṣāṁ satatayuktānāṁ bhajatāṁ prītipūrvakam
dadāmi buddhiyogaṁ taṁ yena mām upayānti te 10.10

teṣām1 satata-yuktānām2 bhajatām3 prīti-pūrvakam4
dadāmi5 buddhi-yogam6 tam7 yena8 mām9 upayānti10 te11 10.10

teṣām1 = To them; satata-yuktānām2  = who are continuously devoted; [and] bhajatām3 = worship; [Me] prīti-pūrvakam4 = with eternal love; dadāmi5 = I give; buddhi-yogam6  = Yoga of Intelligence; tam7 = that; yena8 = by which;  te11 = they; upayānti10 = come; mām9 = to Me. 10.10  

(10.10) To these who are constantly devoted and worship Me with love, I grant the concentration of understanding by which they come unto Me.

buddhiyoga: the devotion of mind by which the disciple gains the wisdom which sees the One in all the forms which change and pass.

तेषामेवानुकम्पार्थमहमज्ञानजं तमः ।

नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थो ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥१०- ११॥

teṣām evānukampārtham aham aj˝ānajaṁ tamaḥ
nāśayāmy ātmabhāvastho j˝ānadīpena bhāsvatā 10.11

teṣām1 eva2 anukampā-artham3 aham4 aj˝ānajam5 tamaḥ6
nāśayāmi7 ātma-bhāva-sthaḥ8 j˝āna-dīpena9 bhāsvatā10 10.11

anukampā-artham3  = Out of compassion; teṣām1 = for them; eva2 = alone; aham4 = I; ātma-bhāva-sthaḥ8 = abiding in their self; nāśayāmi7 = destroy; tamaḥ6 = darkness; aj˝ānajam5 = born of ignorance;  bhāsvatā10 = with the shining; j˝āna-dīpena9  = lamp of wisdom. 10.11

(10.11) Out of compassion for those same ones, remaining within My own true state, I destroy the darkness born of ignorance by the shining lamp of wisdom.

God affects the world for man's welfare, Himself remaining apart from it. ātma-bhāva is also interpreted as the inner sense of beings. Here the teacher makes out how bhakti or devotion leads

to the destruction of ignorance and the rise of illumination. When ignorance is destroyed, God stands revealed in the human spirit. When love and wisdom arise, the eternal is fulfilled in the individual. Bhakti is also a means to j˝āna. Through it we obtain Divine grace and the power of understanding, buddhiyoga. Intellectual knowledge is rendered luminous and certain by the direct intuition of buddhi. 

The Lord is the Seed and Perfection of All that Is

अर्जुन उवाच

परं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान् ।

पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यमादिदेवमजं विभुम् ॥१०- १२॥

arjuna uvāca
paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān
puruṣaṁ śāśvataṁ divyam ādidevam ajaṁ vibhum 10.12

arjuna uvāca
param1 brahma2 param3 dhāma4 pavitram5 paramam6 bhavān7
puruṣam8 śāśvatam9 divyam10 ādi-devam11 ajam12 vibhum13 10.12

arjuna uvāca  = Arjuna said: bhavān7 = You; [are] param1 = the Supreme; brahma2 = Brahman; param3 = the Supreme; dhāma4 = abode; pavitram5 = the purifier; paramam6 = the Supreme;  puruṣam8 = Purusa; śāśvatam9 = the Eternal; divyam10 = the Divine; ādi-devam11 = the First Primal Lord; ajam12 = the Unborn; vibhum13 = the all-pervader.10.12

Arjuna said:

(10.I2) Thou art the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Abode and the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal, Divine Person, the First of the gods, the Unborn, the All-pervading. 

आहुस्त्वामृषयः सर्वे देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा ।

असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयं चैव ब्रवीषि मे ॥१०- १३॥

āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve devarṣir nāradas tathā
asito devalo vyāsaḥ svayaṁ caiva bravīṣi me 10.13

āhuḥ1 tvām2 ṛṣayaḥ3 sarve4 devarṣiḥ5 nāradaḥ6 tathā7
asitaḥ8 devalḥ9 vyāsaḥ10 svayam11 ca12 eva13 bravīṣi14 me15 10.13

sarve4 = All; ṛṣayaḥ3 = Rishis; āhuḥ1 = say; tvām2 = of You:  devarṣiḥ5 = Divine Rishi; nāradaḥ6 = Narada; tathā7 = also; asitaḥ8 = Asita; devalḥ9 = Devala; vyāsaḥ10 = Vyasa; ca12 = and; svayam11 = You Yourself;  eva13 = indeed; bravīṣi14 = tell; me15 = Me. 10.13

(10.13) All the sages say this of Thee, as well as the divine seer Nārada, so also Asita, Devala, Vyāsa and Thou thyself declarest it to me.

Arjuna accepts the truth of what has been declared and proclaims his conviction that Kṛṣṇa who is speaking to him is the Supreme Godhead, the Absolute, the Ever-free to which we can rise by self-surrender. He gives utterance from his own experience to the truth revealed by the seers who have seen it and become one with it. The secret wisdom is revealed by God, the seers are witnesses to it and Arjuna himself verifies it from his own experience. Abstract truths uttered by the sages become now luminous intuitions, glowing experiences of one's Whole being.

सर्वमेतदृतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव ।

न हि ते भगवन्व्यक्तिं विदुर्देवा न दानवाः ॥१०- १४॥

sarvam etad ṛtaṁ manye yan māṁ vadasi keśava
na hi te bhagavan vyaktiṁ vidur devā na dānavāḥ 10.14

sarvam1 etat2 ṛtam3 manye4 yat5 mām6 vadasi7 keśava8
na9 hi10 te11 bhagavan12 vyaktimk13 viduḥ14 devāḥ15 na16 dānavāḥ17 10.14

manye4 = I think/hold; sarvam1 = all; etat2 = this; [as] ṛtam3 = true; keśava8 = O Kesava; yat5 = which; vadasi7 = you say; mām6 = to Me. hi10 = Indeed; na9 = neither; devāḥ15 = gods; na16 = nor; dānavāḥ17 = demons; viduḥ14 = know; te11 = Your; vyaktimk13 = manifestation; bhagavan12 = O Bhagavan. 10.14

(10.I4) I hold as true, all this that thou sayest to me, O Keśava (Kṛṣṇa); neither the gods nor the demons, O Lord, know Thy manifestation. 

स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम ।

भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥१०- १५॥

svayam evātmanātmānaṁ vettha tvaṁ puruṣottama
bhūtabhāvana bhūteśa devadeva jagatpate 10.15

svayam1 eva2 ātmanā3  ātmānam4 vettha5 tvam6 puruṣottama7
bhūta-bhāvana8 bhūteśa9 deva-deva10 jagat-pate10 10.15

tvam6 = You; svayam1 = Yourself; eva2 = alone; vettha5 = know; ātmānam4 = Yourself; ātmanā3  = by Yourself; puruṣottama7 = O Supreme Lord; bhūta-bhāvana8  = Creator of all beings; bhūteśa9 = the Lord of beings; deva-deva10 = God of gods; jagat-pate10  = the Lord of the worlds. 10.15

(10.I5) Verily Thou Thyself knowest Thyself by Thyself, O Supreme Person; the Source of beings, the Lord of creatures; the God of gods, the Lord of the world!

वक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेण दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।

याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठसि ॥१०- १६॥

vaktum arhasy aśeṣeṇa divyā hy ātmavibhūtayaḥ
yābhir vibhūtibhir lokān imāṁs tvaṁ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi 10.16

vaktum1 arhasi2 aśeṣeṇa3  divyā4  hi5  ātma6  vibhūtayaḥ7
yābhiḥ8  vibhūtibhiḥ9  lokān10  imān11  tvam12 vyāpya13  tiṣṭhasi14 10.16

hi5  = Indeed; arhasi2 =  be inclined; vaktum1 = to tell; [me] ātma6  = your; divyā4  = divine; vibhūtayaḥ7 = manifestations; aśeṣeṇa3  = in details;  yābhiḥ8  = by which; vibhūtibhiḥ9  = manifestations; tvam12 = You; vyāpya13  = pervade; [and] tiṣṭhasi14 = abide; [in] imān11  = these; lokān10  = worlds. 10.16

 (10.I6) Thou shouldst tell me of Thy divine manifestations, without exception, whereby, pervading these worlds, Thou dost abide (in them and beyond).

vibhūtayaḥ7: manifestations, the divine glories by which the Supreme pervades all the worlds. They are the formative forces or spiritual powers which give to each object its essential nature. They are akin to Plato's Divine Ideas, the perfect types and patterns of all things here below. Only the word "idea" is likely to suggest a pale abstraction, a bloodless category. Vibhūti is a living formative principle.

कथं विद्यामहं योगिंस्त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन् ।

केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन्मया ॥१०- १७॥

kathaṁ vidyām ahaṁ yogiṁs tvāṁ sadā paricintayan
keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintyosi bhagavan mayā 10.17

katham1 vidyām2 aham3 yogin4 tvām5 sadā6 paricintayan7
keṣu8 keṣu9 ca10 bhāveṣu11 cintyaḥ12 asi13 bhagavan14 mayā15 10.17

katham1 = How; aham3 vidyām2 = may I3 know2; tvām5 = you; yogin4 = O Yogin? [You] sadā6 = always; paricintayan7 = are remaining in meditation; ca10 = and; keṣu8 = in what;  keṣu9 = in what; bhāveṣu11 = forms, aspects or objects; cintyaḥ12 asi13 = are You to be thought of;  mayā15 = by me; bhagavan14 = O Bhagavan? 10.17

á(10.I7) How may I know Thee, O Yogin, by constant meditation? In what various aspects art Thou, O Blessed Lord, to be thought of by me?

Kṛṣṇa is yogin by virtue of his work as creator. Arjuna wishes to know the aspects of nature where the Lord's presence is more clearly manifest and asks Kṛṣṇa to tell him in what various aspects he should think of Him to help his meditation.

विस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिं च जनार्दन ।

भूयः कथय तृप्तिर्हि शृण्वतो नास्ति मेऽमृतम् ॥१०- १८॥

vistareṇātmano yogaṁ vibhūtiṁ ca janārdana
bhūyaḥ kathaya tṛptir hi śṛṇvato nāsti memṛtam 10.18

vistareṇa1 ātmanaḥ2 yogam3 vibhūtim4 ca5 janārdana6
bhūyaḥ7 kathaya8 tṛptiḥ9 hi10  śṛṇvataḥ11 na asti12 me13 amṛtam14 10.18

janārdana6 = O Janardana; tṛptiḥ9 = tell;  bhūyaḥ7 = again; vistareṇa1 = in detail; ātmanaḥ2 = Your; yogam3 = Yogam; ca5 = and; vibhūtim4 = manifestations. hi10  = Indeed; na asti12 = there is no;  tṛptiḥ9 = satiation; me13 = in me; śṛṇvataḥ11 = hearing; [Your] amṛtam14 = nectar [-like words]. 10.18

(10.18) Relate to me again in detail, O Janārdana (Kṛṣṇa), of Thy power and manifestation; for I am not satiated with hearing Thy nectar-like speech.

amṛtam14: nectar-like. His words are life-giving. The Gītā does not set up an opposition between Brahman and the world, between the Ineffable Reality and its inadequate expression. It gives a comprehensive spiritual view. It, no doubt, mentions the Indefinable (anirdeśyam), the Unmanifest Immutable (avyaktam akṣaram), the Unthinkable (aci˝tyarūpam), the Absolute beyond all empirical determination. But worship of the Absolute is difficult for embodied beings. (Verse XII.5) It is easier to approach the Supreme through Its relations with the world and this method is more natural. The Supreme is the Personal Lord who controls the many-sided action of nature and dwells in the heart of every creature. Parabrahman is Paramesvara, the God in man and in the universe. But His nature is veiled by the series of becomings. Man has to discover his spiritual unity with God and so with all His creatures.

श्रीभगवानुवाच 

हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।

प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ नास्त्यन्तो विस्तरस्य मे ॥१०- १९॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
hanta te kathayiṣyāmi divyā hy ātmavibhūtayaḥ
prādhānyataḥ kuruśreṣṭha nāsty anto vistarasya me 10.19

śrībhagavān uvāca
hanta1 te2 kathayiṣyāmi3 divyā4 hi5 ātma-vibhūtayaḥ6
prādhānyataḥ7 kuru-śreṣṭha7 na asti8 antaḥ9 vistarasya10 me11 10.19

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: hi5 = indeed; ātma-vibhūtayaḥ6  = My manifestations; [are] divyā4 = divine;  kuru-śreṣṭha7 = O the Best of Kurus.  kathayiṣyāmi3 = I will describe; hanta1 = now; te2 = to you; prādhānyataḥ7 = only those that are important.  na asti8  = There is no; antaḥ9 = end; [to] me11 = My; vistarasya10 = expanse, magnitude, extent. 10.19

The Blessed Lord said:

(10.I9) Yes, I will declare to thee of My divine forms but only of those which are prominent, O best of the Kurus (Arjuna), for there is no end to my extent (the details).

अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः ।

अहमादिश्च मध्यं च भूतानामन्त एव च ॥१०- २०॥

aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ
aham ādiś ca madhyaṁ ca bhūtānām anta eva ca 10.20

aham1 ātmā2 guḍākeśa3 sarva-bhūta4 āśaya-sthitaḥ5
aham6 ādiḥ7 ca8 madhyam9 ca10 bhūtānām11 anta12 eva13 ca14.
10.20

guḍākeśa3 = O Master of sleep [Arjuna]; aham1 = I; [am] ātmā2 = the Self; āśaya-sthitaḥ5 = seated in the heart; sarva-bhūta4  = of all beings; ca14 = moreover; aham6 = I;  [am] ādiḥ7 = the beginning; ca8 = and; madhyam9 = the middle; ca10 = and; eva13 = indeed; anta12 = the end; bhūtānām11 = of [all] beings.  10.20 

(10.20) I, O Gudakesa (Arjuna), am the self seated in the hearts of all creatures. I am the beginning, the middle and the very end of beings.

The world is a living whole, a vast interconnectedness, a cosmic harmony inspired and sustained by the One Supreme.

आदित्यानामहं विष्णुर्ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान् ।

मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मि नक्षत्राणामहं शशी ॥१०- २१॥

ādityānām ahaṁ viṣṇur jyotiṣāṁ ravir aṁśumān
marīcir marutām asmi nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī 10.21

ādityānām1 aham2 viṣṇuḥ3 jyotiṣām4 raviḥ5 aṁśumān6
marīciḥ7 marutām8 asmi9 nakṣatrāṇām10 aham11 śaśī12 10.21

ādityānām1 = Of the Adityas;  aham2 = I; [am] viṣṇuḥ3 = Vishnujyotiṣām4 = Of the lights; aṁśumān6 = the radiant; raviḥ5 = sun; marutām8 = of the Maruts; asmi9 = I am; marīciḥ7 = Marici; nakṣatrāṇām10 = of the stars; aham11 = I am;  śaśī12 = the moon. 10.21

(10.2I) Of the Ᾱdityas I am Viṣṇu of the lights (1 am) the radiant Sun; I am Marīci of the Maruts: of the stars I am the moon.

Ᾱdityas are Vedic gods. While the Supreme is in all things, He is more prominent in some than in others. There is an ascending order in the world. God is more revealed in life than in matter, in consciousness than in life and in saints and sages most of all. Within the same order, He is most revealed in the pre-eminent individuals. Some of these mythological beings were perhaps living realities to the Hindus of the period of the Gītā.

वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि देवानामस्मि वासवः ।

इन्द्रियाणां मनश्चास्मि भूतानामस्मि चेतना ॥१०- २२॥

vedānāṁ sāmavedosmi devānām asmi vāsavaḥ
indriyāṇāṁ manaś cāsmi bhūtānām asmi cetanā 10.22

vedānām1 sāmavedaḥ2 asmi3 devānām4 asmi5 vāsavaḥ6
indriyāṇām7 manaḥ8 ca9 asmi10 bhūtānām11 asmi12 cetanā13 10.22

vedānām1 = Of the Vedas; asmi3 = I am; sāmavedaḥ2 = Samaveda;  devānām4 = of the gods; asmi5 = I am; vāsavaḥ6 =Indra;  indriyāṇām7 = of the senses; asmi10 = I am; manaḥ8 = the mind; ca9 = and;  bhūtānām11 = of all beings; asmi12 = I am; cetanā13 = consciousness.10.22

(10.22) Of the Vedas I am the Sāmaveda; of the gods I am Indra; of the senses I am mind and of beings I am consciousness.

Sāmaveda is mentioned as the chief of the Vedas on account of its musical beauty.1
1sāmavedo gānena rāmaṇīyatvāt. Nīlakaṇṭha.

रुद्राणां शंकरश्चास्मि वित्तेशो यक्षरक्षसाम् ।

वसूनां पावकश्चास्मि मेरुः शिखरिणामहम् ॥१०- २३॥

rudrāṇāṁ śaṁkaraś cāsmi vitteśo yakṣarakṣasām
vasūnāṁ pāvakaś cāsmi meruḥ śikhariṇām aham 10.23

rudrāṇām1 śaṁkaraḥ2 ca3 asmi4 vitteśaḥ5 yakṣa-rakṣasām6
vasūnām7 pāvakaḥ8 ca9 asmi10 meruḥ11 śikhariṇām12 aham13 10.23

rudrāṇām1 = Of the Rudras; asmi4 = I am; śaṁkaraḥ2 = Siva; ca3 = and; yakṣa-rakṣasām6 = of the Yaksas and Raksasas; vitteśaḥ5 = kubera, the Lord of Treasury; vasūnām7 = of the Vasus; asmi10 = I am; pāvakaḥ8 = Fire; ca9 = and; śikhariṇām12 = of the mountain peaks;aham13 = I [am]; meruḥ11 = Meru.  10.23

(10.23) Of the Rudras I am Śaṁkara (Śiva); of the Yakṣas and the Rākṣasas (I am) Kubera; of the Vasus I am Agni (Fire) and of mountain-peaks I am Meru.

पुरोधसां च मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम् ।

सेनानीनामहं स्कन्दः सरसामस्मि सागरः ॥१०- २४॥

purodhasāṁ ca mukhyaṁ māṁ viddhi pārtha bṛhaspatim
senānīnām ahaṁ skandaḥ sarasām asmi sāgaraḥ 10.24

purodhasām1 ca2 mukhyam3 mām4 viddhi5 pārtha6 bṛhaspatim7
senānīnām8 aham9 skandaḥ10 sarasām11 asmi12 sāgaraḥ13 10.24

purodhasām1 = Of all the priests; viddhi5 = know; mām4 = Me; pārtha6 = O Partha; mukhyam3 = the most important [priest];  bṛhaspatim7 = Brhaspati; ca2 = and; senānīnām8 = among commanders; aham9 = I; [am] skandaḥ10 = Skanda; sarasām11 = among all ponds; asmi12 = I am; sāgaraḥ13 = the ocean. 10.24

(10.24) Of the household priests, O Pārtha (Arjuna), know Me to be the chiefŚBṛhaṣpati; of the (war) generals I am Skanda; of the lakes I am the ocean.

महर्षीणां भृगुरहं गिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम् ।

यज्ञानां जपयज्ञोऽस्मि स्थावराणां हिमालयः ॥१०- २५॥

maharṣīṇāṁ bhṛgur ahaṁ girām asmy ekam akṣaram
yaj˝ānāṁ japayaj˝osmi sthāvarāṇāṁ himālayaḥ 10.25

maharṣīṇām1 bhṛguḥ2 aham3 girām4 asmi4 ekam5 akṣaram6
yaj˝ānām7 japayaj˝aḥ7 asmi8 sthāvarāṇām9 himālayaḥ10 10.25

maharṣīṇām1 = Of the Great Rishis; aham3 = I; [am] bhṛguḥ2 = Bhrgu; girām4 = of words; asmi4 = I am; ekam5 = single; akṣaram6  = imperishable syllable, Om; yaj˝ānām7 = of sacrifices; asmi8 = I am; japayaj˝aḥ7 = Chanting sacrifice; [I am]  himālayaḥ10 = the Himalaya; sthāvarāṇām9 = of the Immovables. 10.25.

(10.25) Of the great sages I am Bhṛgu; of utterances, I am the single syllable Aum; of offerings I am the offering of silent meditation and of unmovable things (I am) the Himalaya. 

अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणां देवर्षीणां च नारदः ।

गन्धर्वाणां चित्ररथः सिद्धानां कपिलो मुनिः ॥१०- २६॥

aśvatthaḥ sarvavṛkṣāṇāṁ devarṣīṇāṁ ca nāradaḥ
gandharvāṇāṁ citrarathaḥ siddhānāṁ kapilo muniḥ 10.26

aśvatthaḥ1 sarva-vṛkṣāṇām2 devarṣīṇām3 ca4 nāradaḥ5
gandharvāṇām6 citrarathaḥ7 siddhānām8 kapilaḥ muniḥ9 10.26

 sarva-vṛkṣāṇām2  = Of all trees; aśvatthaḥ1 = Asvattah tree [Banyan tree]; devarṣīṇām3= of divine sages;   nāradaḥ5 = Sage Narada; gandharvāṇām6 = of Gandharvas; citrarathaḥ7 = Chitraratha; ca4 = and; siddhānām8 = of the perfected beings; kapilaḥ muniḥ9  = Kapila Muni.10.26

(10.26) Of all trees (I am) the Aśvattha and of divine seers (I am) Nārada ; among the gandharvas (I am) Chitraratha and of the perfected ones (I am) Kapila the sage.

Kapila is the teacher of the Sāṁkhya philosophy.

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानां विद्धि माममृतोद्भवम् ।

ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणां च नराधिपम् ॥१०- २७॥

uccaiḥśravasam aśvānāṁ viddhi mām amṛtodbhavam
airāvataṁ gajendrāṇāṁ narāṇāṁ ca narādhipam 10.27

uccaiḥśravasam1 aśvānām2 viddhi3 mām4 amṛta-udbhavam5
airāvatam6 gajendrāṇām7 narāṇām8 ca9 narādhipa10 10.27

viddhi3 = Know; mām4 = Me; aśvānām2 = among the horses; uccaiḥśravasam1 = uccaihsrava;  amṛta-udbhavam5 = born of nectar;  gajendrāṇām7 = of the elephants; airāvatam6 = Airavata; ca9 = and; narāṇām8 = among men; narādhipa10 = ruler of men. 10.27

(10.27) Of horses, know me to be Ucchaiśravas, born of nectar; of lordly elephants (I am) Airāvata and of men (I am) the monarch.

आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् ।

प्रजनश्चास्मि कन्दर्पः सर्पाणामस्मि वासुकिः ॥१०- २८॥

āyudhānām ahaṁ vajraṁ dhenūnām asmi kāmadhuk
prajanaś cāsmi kandarpaḥ sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ 10.28

āyudhānām1 aham2 vajram3 dhenūnām4 asmi5 kāmadhuk6
prajanaḥ7 ca8 asmi9 kandarpaḥ10 sarpāṇām11 asmi12 vāsukiḥ13 10.28

āyudhānām1 = Of weapons; aham2 = I; [am] vajram3 = the thunderbolt; dhenūnām4 = of cows; asmi5 = I am; kāmadhuk6 = Kamadhuk;  prajanaḥ7 = of procreators; asmi9 = I am; kandarpaḥ10 = Cupid; ca8 = and;  sarpāṇām11 = of snakes; asmi12 = I am;  vāsukiḥ13 = Vasuki. 10.28

(10.28) Of weapons I am the thunderbolt; of the cows I am the cow of plenty; of the progenitors I am the God of love; of the serpents I am Vāsuki,

अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानां वरुणो यादसामहम् ।

पितॄणामर्यमा चास्मि यमः संयमतामहम् ॥१०- २९॥

anantaś cāsmi nāgānāṁ varuṇo yādasām aham
pitṛṇām aryamā cāsmi yamaḥ saṁyamatām aham 10.29

anantaḥ1 ca2 asmi3 nāgānām4 varuṇaḥ5 yādasām6 aham7
pitṛṇām8 aryamā9 ca10 asmi11 yamaḥ12 saṁyamatām13 aham14 10.29

nāgānām4 = Of the serpents; asmi3 = I am; anantaḥ1 = Ananta; ca2 = and; yādasām6 = of water-dwellers; aham7= I am; varuṇaḥ5 = Varuna; pitṛṇām8 = of departed manes; asmi11 = I am; aryamā9 = Aryama; ca10 = and; saṁyamatām13 = among subduers; aham14 = I am; yamaḥ12 = Yama, the Lord of death. 10.29

(10.29) Of the nāgas I am Ananta; of the dwellers in water I am Varuṇa ; of the (departed) ancestors I am Aryama; of those who maintain law and order, I am Yama.

प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयतामहम् ।

मृगाणां च मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश्च पक्षिणाम् ॥१०- ३०॥

prahlādaś cāsmi daityānāṁ kālaḥ kalayatām aham
mṛgāṇāṁ ca mṛgendrohaṁ vainateyaś ca pakṣiṇām 10.30

prahlādaḥ1 ca2 asmi3 daityānām4 kālaḥ5 kalayatām6 aham7
mṛgāṇām8 ca9 mṛgendraḥ10 aham11 vainateyaḥ12 ca13 pakṣiṇām14 10.30

daityānām4 = Of Daityas; asmi3 = I am; prahlādaḥ1 = Prahlada; ca2 = and; aham7= I; [am] kālaḥ5 = Time; [among] kalayatām6 = timekeepers; ca9 = and; mṛgāṇām8 = among animals;  mṛgendraḥ10 = king of beasts [Lion]; ca13 = and; aham11 = I; [am] vainateyaḥ12 = son of Vinatā [Garuda]; pakṣiṇām14 = among birds. 10.30 

(10.30) Of the Titans I am Prahlāda; of calculators I am Time: of beasts I am the King of beasts (lion) and of birds (1 am) the son of Vinatā (Garuḍa).

पवनः पवतामस्मि रामः शस्त्रभृतामहम् ।

झषाणां मकरश्चास्मि स्रोतसामस्मि जाह्नवी ॥१०- ३१॥

pavanaḥ pavatām asmi rāmaḥ śastrabhṛtām aham
jhaṣāṇāṁ makaraś cāsmi strotasām asmi jāhnavī 10.31

pavanaḥ1 pavatām2 asmi3 rāmaḥ4 śastra-bhṛtām5 aham6
jhaṣāṇām7 makaraḥ8 ca9 asmi10 strotasām11 asmi12 jāhnavī13 10.31

pavatām2 = Of the purifiers; asmi3 = I am; pavanaḥ1 = the wind; śastra-bhṛtām5 = of weapon bearers; aham6 = I; [am] rāmaḥ4 = Rama;  jhaṣāṇām7 = of fish; asmi10 = I am; makaraḥ8 = Makara; ca9 = and;  strotasām11 = of rivers; asmi12 = I am; jāhnavī13 = River Ganga.10.31

(10.3I) Of purifiers I am the wind; of warriors I am Rāma; of fishes I am the alligator and of rivers I am the Ganges.

सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्च मध्यं चैवाहमर्जुन ।

अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम् ॥१०- ३२॥

sargāṇām ādir antaś ca madhyaṁ caivāham arjuna
adhyātmavidyā vidyānāṁ vādaḥ pravadatām aham 10.32

sargāṇām1 ādiḥ2 antaḥ3 ca3 madhyam4 ca5 eva6 aham7 arjuna8
adhyātma-vidyā9 vidyānām10 vādaḥ11 pravadatām12 aham11 10.32

sargāṇām1 = Of creations; aham7 = I; [am] ādiḥ2 = beginning; antaḥ3 = end; ca3 = and; madhyam4 = middle; arjuna8 = O Arjuna;  ca5 = and; eva6 = indeed; adhyātma-vidyā9  = Self-Knowledge; vidyānām10 = of all knowledge; [and] aham11 = I; [am] vādaḥ11 = argument; pravadatām12 = of arguments; . 10.32

(10.32) Of creations I am the beginning, the end and also the middle, O Arjuna; of the sciences (I am) the science of the self; of those who debate I am the dialectic.

 

adhyātmavidyā  vidyānām: of the sciences I am the science of the self. The science of the self is the way to beatitude. It is not an intellectual exercise or a social adventure. It is the way to saving

wisdom and so is pursued with deep religious conviction. Philosophy as the science of the self helps us to overcome the ignorance which hides from us the vision of reality. It is the universal

science according to Plato. Without it, the departmental sciences become misleading. Plato observes:á The possession of the sciences as a whole, if it does not include the best, will in some few cases aid but more often harm the owner." Alcibiades, II, I44 D.

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च ।

अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताहं विश्वतोमुखः ॥१०- ३३॥

akṣarāṇām akārosmi dvandvaḥ sāmāsikasya ca
aham evākṣayaḥ kālo dhātāhaṁ viśvatomukhaḥ 10.33

akṣarāṇām1 akāraḥ2 asmi3 dvandvaḥ4 sāmāsikasya5 ca6
aham7 eva8 akṣayaḥ9 kālaḥ10 dhātā11 aham12 viśvatomukhaḥ13 10.33

akṣarāṇām1 = Of letters; asmi3 = I am; akāraḥ2 = the letter 'A';  sāmāsikasya5 =  of the compounds; dvandvaḥ4 = dual;  ca6 = and; aham7 = I am; eva8 = indeed; akṣayaḥ9 = imperishable; kālaḥ10 = Time; aham12 = i; [am] dhātā11 = Creator;  viśvatomukhaḥ13 = Brahma with faces all around. 10.33

(10.33) Of letters I am (the letter) A and of compounds (1 am) the dual; I also am imperishable time and I the creator whose face is turned on all sides.

kalā: time. Cp, kālasvarūpī bhagavān Kṛṣṇaḥ. Viṣṇu Purāṇa, v. 38.

मृत्युः सर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम् ।

कीर्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा ॥१०- ३४॥

mṛtyuḥ sarvaharaś cāham udbhavaś ca bhaviṣyatām
kīrtiḥ śrīr vāk ca nārīṇāṁ smṛtir medhā dhṛtiḥ kṣamā 10.34

mṛtyuḥ1 sarva-haraḥ2 ca3 aham4 udbhavaḥ5 ca6 bhaviṣyatām7
kīrtiḥ8 śrīḥ9 vāk10 ca11 nārīṇām12 smṛtiḥ13 medhā14 dhṛtiḥ15 kṣamā16 10.34

aham4 = I;  [am] sarva-haraḥ2  = all destroying; mṛtyuḥ1 = death;  ca3 = and; udbhavaḥ5 = origin; [of] bhaviṣyatām7 = future beings; ca6 = and;  kīrtiḥ8 = fame; śrīḥ9 = prosperity; vāk10 = speech;  smṛtiḥ13 = memory; medhā14 = intelligence; dhṛtiḥ15 = firmness; ca11 = and; kṣamā16 = patience nārīṇām12 = of women. 10.34

(10.34) I am death, the all-devouring and (am) the origin of things that are yet to be; and of feminine beings, (I am) fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intelligence, firmness and patience.

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम् ।

मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः ॥१०- ३५॥

bṛhatsāma tathā sāmnāṁ gāyatrī chandasām aham
māsānāṁ mārgaśīrṣoham ṛtūnāṁ kusumākaraḥ 10.35

bṛhat-sāma1 tathā2 sāmnām3 gāyatrī4 chandasām5 aham6
māsānām7 mārga-śirsaḥ8  aham9 ṛtūnām10 kusumākaraḥ11 10.35

aham6 = I;  [am] bṛhat-sāma1 = Brhatsama; tathā2 = also; sāmnām3 = of Sama Veda; gāyatrī4 = Gayatri; chandasām5 = of the meters; māsānām7 = of the months; mārga-śirsaḥ8 = margasirasa (Dec-Jan);  aham9 = I; [am]; kusumākaraḥ11 = flower bearer; ṛtūnām10 = of all seasons; . 10.35  

(10.35) Likewise, of hymns (I am) Brihatsaman, of metres (I am) gayatrf ; of months (I am) margasirsa and of seasons (I am) the flower-bearer (spring).

द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ।

जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम् ॥१०- ३६॥

dyutaṁ chalayatām asmi tejas tejasvinām aham
jayosmi vyavasāyosmi sattvaṁ sattvavatām aham 10.36

dyutam1 chalayatām2 asmi3 tejaḥ4 tejasvinām5 aham6
jayaḥ7 asmi8 vyavasāyaḥ9 asmi10 sattvam11 sattva-vatām12 aham13 10.36

asmi3 = I am; dyutam1 = the gambling; chalayatām2 = of the fraudulent; aham6 = I am; tejaḥ4 = splendor; tejasvinām5 = of the splendid; asmi8 = I am; jayaḥ7 = victory; asmi10 = I am; vyavasāyaḥ9 = the resolve;  aham13 = I; [am] sattvam11 = absolute virtue; sattva-vatām12  = of the virtuous. 10.36 

(10.36) Of the deceitful I am the gambling; of the splendid I am the splendor; I am victory; I am effort and I am the goodness of the good.

वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनंजयः ।

मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशना कविः ॥१०- ३७॥

vṛṣṇīnāṁ vāsudevosmi pāṇḍavānāṁ dhanaṁjayaḥ
munīnām apy ahaṁ vyāsaḥ kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ 10.37

vṛṣṇīnām1 vāsudevaḥ2 asmi3 pāṇḍavānām4 dhanaṁjayaḥ5
munīnām6 api7 aham8 vyāsaḥ9 kavīnām10 uśanā11 kaviḥ12 10.37

 

vṛṣṇīnām1 = Of the Vrsnis; asmi3 = I am; vāsudevaḥ2 = Vasudeva;  pāṇḍavānām4 = of the Pandavas; dhanaṁjayaḥ5 = Arjuna; munīnām6 = of the Munis [sages]; api7 = also; aham8 = I am; vyāsaḥ9 = Vyasa; kavīnām10 = of the poets; [I am] kaviḥ12 = poet; uśanā11 = Usana. 10.37   

(10.37) Of the Vṛṣṇis I am Vāsudeva; of the Pāṇḍavas (I am) the Winner of wealth (Arjuna); of the sages I am Vyāsa also and of the poets (I am) the poet Usāṇā (śukrācārya).

दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् ।

मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम् ॥१०- ३८॥

daṇḍo damayatām asmi nītir asmi jigīṣatām
maunaṁ caivāsmi guhyānāṁ j˝ānaṁ j˝ānavatām aham 10.38

daṇḍaḥ1 damayatām2 asmi3 nītiḥ4 asmi5 jigīṣatām6
maunam7 ca8 eva9 asmi10 guhyānām11 j˝ānam12 j˝ānavatām13 aham14 10.38

asmi3 = I am; daṇḍaḥ1 = the punishment; damayatām2 = of the punishers; asmi5 = I am; nītiḥ4 = justice;  jigīṣatām6 = of the seekers of victory; ca8 = and; asmi10 = I am; eva9 = also; maunam7 = silence;  guhyānām11 = of secrets; aham14 = I am; j˝ānam12 = knowledge; j˝ānavatām13 = of the wise.10.38

(10.38) Of those who chastise I am the rod (of chastisement); of those that seek victory I am the wise policy; of things secret I am the silence and of the knowers of wisdom I am the wisdom.

यच्चापि सर्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्जुन ।

न तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम् ॥१०- ३९॥

yac cāpi sarvabhūtānāṁ bījaṁ tad aham arjuna
na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtaṁ carācaram 10.39

yat1 ca2 api3 sarva-bhūtānām4 bījam5 tat6 aham7 arjuna8
na9 tat10 asti11 vinā12 yat13 syāt14 mayā15 bhūtam16 cara-acaram17 10.39

yat1 = Whosoever; api3 = may be; bījam5 = the seed; sarva-bhūtānām4  = of all beings; tat6 = that; aham7 = I am; arjuna8= O Arjuna; ca2 = and; asti11 = there is; na9 = no; tat10 = such; bhūtam16 = being; cara-acaram17 = mobile and immobile; yat13 = which; syāt14 = exists; vinā12 = without; mayā15 = Me. 10.39 

(10.39) And further, whatsoever is the seed of all existences that am I, O Arjuna; nor is there anything, moving or unmoving that can exist without Me.1

1 Cp. Draupadi's address:

martyatā caiva bhūtānām amaratvaṁ divaukasām

tvayi sarvaṁ mahābāho lokakāryaṁ pratiṣṭhitam.

नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परन्तप ।

एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया ॥१०- ४०॥

nāntosti mama divyānāṁ vibhūtīnāṁ paraṁtapa
eṣa tūddeśataḥ prokto vibhūter vistaro mayā 10.40

na1 antaḥ2 asti3 mama4 divyānām5 vibhūtīnām6 parantapa7
eṣaḥ8 tu9 uddeśataḥ10 proktaḥ11 vibhūteḥ12 vistaraḥ13 mayā14 10.40

asti3 = There is; na1 = no; antaḥ2 = end; [to ] mama4 = My; divyānām5 = divine; vibhūtīnām6 = manifestations; parantapa7 = O Parantapa [conqueror of enemies]; tu9 = however;  eṣaḥ8 = this; uddeśataḥ10 = brief exposition; proktaḥ11 = is mentioned; [to illustrate] vistaraḥ13 = vastness; vibhūteḥ12 = of [My] manifestations; mayā14 = by Me.10.40 

(10.40) There is no end to My divine manifestations, O Conqueror of the foe (Arjuna). What has been declared by Me is only illustrative of My infinite glory.

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्जितमेव वा ।

तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसंभवम् ॥१०- ४१॥

yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁ śrīmad ūrjitam eva
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṁ mama tejoṁśasaṁbhavam 10.41

yat yat1 vibhūtimat2 sattvam3 śrīmad4 ūrjitam5 eva67
tat tat8 eva9 avagaccha10  tvam11 mama12 tejaḥ13 aṁśa14 sambhavam15 10.41

tvam11 = you; avagaccha10  = know; yat yat1 = Whatever; sattvam3 = object; [has] vibhūtimat2 = excellence; śrīmad4 = splendor; 7 = or; ūrjitam5 = power; eva6 = verily;  tat tat8 = all that; eva9 = indeed; aṁśa14 = a fragment; [of] mama12 = My; tejaḥ13 = splendor; [as its] sambhavam15 = source. 10.41    

(10.4I) Whatsoever being there is, endowed with glory and grace and vigour, know that to have sprung from a fragment of My splendor.

While all things are supported by God, things of beauty and splendor reveal Him more than others. Every deed of heroism, every life of sacrifice, every work of genius, is a revelation of the Divine. The epic moments of a man's life are inexplicably beyond the finite mind of man.

अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन ।

विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत् ॥१०- ४२॥

athavā bahunaitena kiṁ j˝ātena tavārjuna
viṣṭabhyāham idaṁ kṛtsnam ekāṁśena sthito jagat 10.42

athavā1 bahuna2 etena3 kim4 j˝ātena5 tava6 arjuna7
viṣṭabhya8 aham9 idam10 kṛtsnam11 eka12 aṁśena13 sthitaḥ14 jagat15 10.42

athavā1 = Besides; kim4 = what;  etena3 = of this; bahuna2 = surfeit; [of]  tava6 = your; j˝ātena5 = knowledge;  arjuna7 = O Arjuna? aham9 = I; sthitaḥ14 = remain; viṣṭabhya8 = supporting;  idam10 = this; kṛtsnam11 = entire; jagat15 = universe; [by] eka12 = one; aṁśena13 = fraction [of Myself]. 10.42

(10.42) But what need is there, O Arjuna, for such detailed knowledge by you? I support this entire universe pervading it with a single fraction of Myself.

ekāṁśena: by a single fraction. Not that the Divine unity is broken up into fragments. This cosmos is but a partial revelation of the Infinite, is illumined by one ray of His shining light.1 The transcendent light of the Supreme dwells beyond all this cosmos, beyond time and space.

 

iti . . . vibhūtiyogo nāma daśamo ' dhyāyaḥ

This is the tenth chapter entitled The Yoga of Manifestation.

1Cp. g.Veda. pādo asya viśvā bhūtāni tripād asya' mṛtam divi. X, 90, 3. The Puruṣa Sūkta makes out that all this is only a description of His greatness, the Puruṣa himself is much greater than this. See also Chāndogya Up., III, 12, 6 and Maitrāyaṇī Up., VI, 4. Commenting on N.7.

End of BG CHAPTER 10:  MANIFESTATION