CHAPTER XIII

 

The Body called the Field, the Soul called the Knower

 

of the Field and Discrimination between them

 

The Field and the Knower of the Field

 

Highlighted Numbered Texts and Comments Dr. Radhakrishnan

 

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration and Word Translation

 

Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

13.00

Arjuna said:

Prakṛti and Puruṣa, the field and the knower of the field, knowledge and the object of knowledge, these I should like to know, O Keśava (Kṛṣṇa),

This verse is not found in some editions. S. does not comment, on it. If it is included, the total number of verses in the Bhagavadgītā will be 701 and not 700, which is the number traditionally

'accepted. So we do not include it in the numbering of verses.

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते ।

एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः ॥१३- १॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
idaṁ śarīraṁ kaunteya kṣetram ity abhidhīyate
etad yo vetti taṁ prāhuḥ kṣetraj˝a iti tadvidaḥ 13.1

śrībhagavān uvāca
idam
1 śarīram2 kaunteya3 kṣetram4 iti5 abhidhīyate6
etat7 yaḥ8 vetti9 tam10 prāhuḥ11 kṣetraj˝a12 iti13 tadvidaḥ14 13.1

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: idam1 = this; śarīram2 = body; kaunteya3 = O son of Kunti; abhidhīyate6 = is referred to; iti5 = as; kṣetram4 = the field; yaḥ8 = he who; vetti9 = knows; etat7 = this; tadvidaḥ14 = the learned ones;  prāhuḥ11 = call; tam10 = him;  iti13 = as; kṣetraj˝a12 = the knower of the field. 13.1

 

The Blessed Lord said:

(13.1) This body, O Son of Kuntī (Arjuna), is called the field and him who knows this, those who know thereof call the knower of the field.

á Prakṛti is unconscious activity and Puruṣa is inactive consciousness. The body is called the field in which events happen; all growth, decline and death take place in it. The conscious principle, inactive and detached, which lies behind all active states as WItness, is the knower of the field. This is the familiar distinction between consciousness and the objects which that consciousness observes. Kṣetraj˝a is the light of awareness, the knower of all objects.1 The witness is not the individual embodied mind but the cosmic consciousness for which the whole cosmos is the object. It is calm and eternal and does not need the use of the senses and the mind for its witnessing.

á Kṣetraj˝a is the supreme lord, not an object in the world. He is in all fields, differentiated by the limiting conditions, from Brahma, the creator, to a tuft of grass though he is himself devoid of all limitations and incapable of definition by categories.2 The immutable consciousness is spoken of as cognizer only figuratively (upacarat).

á When we try to know the nature of the human soul, we may get to know it from above or from below, from the divine principle or the elemental nature. Man is a twofold, contradictory being,

free and enslaved. He is godlike, and has in him the signs of his fall that is, descent into nature. As a fallen being, man is determined by the forces of prakṛti, He appears to be actuated solely by elemental forces, sensual impulses, fear, and anxiety. But man desires to get the better of his fallen nature. The man studied by objective sciences as biology, psychology and sociology is a natural being, is the product of the processes which take place in the world. But man, as a subject, has another origin. He is not a child of the world. He is not nature. He does not belong to the objective hierarchy of nature, as a subordinate part of it. Puruṣa or Kṣetraj˝a cannot be recognized as an object among other objects or as a substance. He can only be recognized as subject, in which is hidden the secret of existence, a complete universe in an individual form. He is not therefore a part of the world or of any other whole. As an empirical being he may be like a Leibnitian monad closed3, shut up without doors or windows. As a subject he enters into infinity and infinity enters into him. Kṣetraj˝a is the universal in an individually unrepeatable form.

á The human being is a union of the universal-infinite and the universal-particular. In his subjective aspects, he is not a part of a whole but is the potential whole. To actualize it, to accomplish the universality IS the ideal of man. The subject fills Itself with universal content-achieves unity in wholeness at the end of its journey. Man's peculiarity is not the possession of the common

pattern of two eyes and two hands, but the possession of the inward principle which impels the creative acquisition of a qualitative content of life. He has a unique quality, which is nonşcommon. The ideal personality is unique and unrepeatable. Each person at the end of the road becomes a distinct, unrepeatable, unreplaceable being with a unique form.

I See also Śvetāśvatara Up., VI, 16; and Maitrayaṇī Up., II, 5.

2 Kṣetraj˝aṁ māṁ parameśvaram asaṁsāriṇam viddhi saruakṣetş reṣuyaḥ.

kṣetrajṇaḥ,brahmādistambaparyantāneka kṣetropādkipraviş

bhaktaṁ tam nirastasarvopādhibkedaṁ sadasadādiśabdapratyayagocaraṁ viddhi. S.

3Monads are elementary particles with blurred perceptions of one another. Monads are the ultimate elements of the universe. The monads are "substantial forms of being" with the following properties: they are eternal, indecomposable, individual, subject to their own laws, un-interacting, and each reflecting the entire universe in a pre-established harmony. Monads are centers of force; substance is force, while space, matter, and motion are merely phenomenal. The ontological essence of a monad is its irreducible simplicity. Unlike atoms, monads possess no material or spatial character. Text introduced by áVeeraswamy Krishnaraj November 19, 2013.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz

 

  क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत ।

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥१३- २॥ 

kṣetraj˝aṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarvakṣetreṣu bhārata
kṣetrakṣetraj˝ayor j˝ānaṁ yat taj j˝ānaṁ mataṁ mama 13.2

kṣetraj˝am1 ca2 api3 mām4 viddhi5 sarva-kṣetreṣu6 bhārata7
kṣetra8 kṣetra-j˝ayoḥ9 j˝ānam10 yat11 tat12 j˝ānam13 matam14 mama15 13.2 

 

ca2 = And; api3 = indeed; viddhi5 = know; mām4 = Me; [as] kṣetraj˝am1 = the Knower of the field; sarva-kṣetreṣu6  = in all fields; bhārata7 = O Bharata.  tat12 = That;  yat11 = which; [is] j˝ānam10 = knowledge;  kṣetra8 kṣetra-j˝ayoḥ9 = of the field and the knower of the field; [is]; j˝ānam13 = knowledge. [That is] mama15 = My; matam14 = opinion. 13.2   


 (13.2) Know Me as the Knower of the field in all fields, O Bharata (Arjuna). The knowledge of the field and its knower, do I regard as true knowledge.

á S. holds that the Supreme Lord seems to be saṁsārin, by reason of the cosmic manifestation, even as the individual self appears to be bound by its identification with the body.1 The Fall, according to the Christian doctrine, is the forgetting of the image of God within man, which is freedom, and lapsing into the external, which is necessity. Man, essentially, is not a part of nature but is spirit that interrupts the continuity of nature.

1 tatraivam sati kśetraj˝āsyeśvarasyaiva sato'vidyākṛtopādhibhedataḥ

saṁsāritvam iva bhavati yathā dehādyātmatvam ātmanaḥ.á

 

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत् ।

स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे शृणु ॥१३- ३॥ 

tat kṣetraṁ yac ca yādṛk ca yadvikāri yataś ca yat
sa ca yo yatprabhāvaś ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu 13.3

tat kṣetram yat1 ca2 yādṛk3 ca4 yat-vikāri5 yataḥ ca yat6
saḥ ca yaḥ7 yat-prabhāvaḥ8 ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu9 13.3

 

tat kṣetram yat1 = What field is that? [that-field-what]; ca2 = and; yādṛk3 = what kind it is? ca4 = and ; yat-vikāri4 = what are its  transformations? [what-transformations].  yataḥ ca yat6 = And from what it originates? [from what-and-what originates].  saḥ ca yaḥ7  = And who is he? [he-and-who].  yat-prabhāvaḥ8 = What greatness pertains to Him? ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu9  = And hear that from Me briefly [and-that-briefly-from me-hear].  13.3


 (13.3) Hear briefly from Me what the Field is, of what nature, what its modifications are, whence it is, what he (the knower of the field) is, and what his powers are.

 

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् ।

ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥१३- ४॥ 

ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītaṁ chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak
brahmasūtrapadaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ 13.4

ṛṣibhiḥ1 bahudhā2 gītam3 chandobhiḥ4 vividhaiḥ5 pṛthak6
brahma-sūtra-padaiḥ7 ca8 eva9 hetumadbhiḥ10 viniścitaiḥ11 13.4

 

ṛṣibhiḥ1 = The Rishis/Sages; bahudhā2 = in many ways; gītam3 = sang;  pṛthak6 = separately; chandobhiḥ4 = various Vedic hymns; vividhaiḥ5 = of different kinds;ca8 = and; eva9 = indeed; brahma-sūtra-padaiḥ7 = Brahma Sutra aphorisms; [with] hetumadbhiḥ10 = logic, reason; [and] viniścitaiḥ11 = certainty [determined knowledge]. 13.4
 

(13.4) This has been sung by sages in many ways and distinctly, in various hymns and also in well-reasoned and conclusive expressions of the aphorisms of the Absolute (brahmasūtra).

á The Gītā suggests that it is expounding the truths already contained in the Vedas, the Upaniṣads and the Brahma Sūtra or the aphorisms of Brahman, later systematized by Bādarāyaṇa.

The Vedic hymns are called cchandas or rhythmical utterances.

 

महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च ।

इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥१३- ५॥ 

mahābhūtāny ahaṁkāro buddhir avyaktam eva ca
indriyāṇi daśaikaṁ ca pa˝ca cendriyagocarāḥ 13.5

mahābhūtāni1 ahaṅkāraḥ2 buddhiḥ3 avyaktam4 eva5 ca6
indriyāṇi7 daśa8 ekam9 ca10 pa˝ca11 ca12 indriya-gocarāḥ13 13.5

 

mahābhūtāni1 = The great elements; ahaṅkāraḥ2 = ego; buddhiḥ3 = Buddhi/intellect; avyaktam4 = the unmanifest; daśa8 = the ten; indriyāṇi7 = sense organs; eva5 = indeed; ca6 = and;  ekam9 = the one [the mind]; ca10 = and; ca12 = also; pa˝ca11 = the five; indriya-gocarāḥ13 = objects of the senses. 13.5

 

 (13.5) The great (five gross) elements, self-sense, understanding as also the unmanifested, the ten senses and mind and the five objects of the senses.

á These are the constituents of the field of Kṣetra, the contents of experience, the twenty-four principles of the Sāṁkhya system. The distinction of mental and material belongs to the object side.

They are distinctions within the "field" itself.

á The body, the forms of sense with which we identify the subject belong to the object side. The ego is an artificial construction obtained by abstraction from conscious experience. The witnessing consciousness is the same whether it lights up the blue sky or a red flower. Though the fields which are lit up may be different, the light which illumines them is the same.

 

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं संघातश्चेतना धृतिः ।

एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम् ॥१३- ६॥

icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ saṁghātaś cetanā dhṛtiḥ
etat kṣetraṁ samāsena savikāram udāhṛtam 13.6

icchā dveṣaḥ1 sukham duḥkham2 saṅghātaḥ3 cetanā dhṛtiḥ4
etat5 kṣetram6 samāsena7 savikāram8 udāhṛtam9 13.6

 

icchā dveṣaḥ1 = desire, hatred; sukham duḥkham2 = happiness, sorrow; saṅghātaḥ3 = the agglomerate [of body and organs, made of 25 elements]; cetanā = sentience; [and] dhṛtiḥ4 = firmness: etat5 = this; kṣetram6 = field; udāhṛtam9 = is described; samāsena7 = in brief; [with the] savikāram8 = modifications. 13.6
 

(13.6) Desire and hatred, pleasure and pain, the aggregate (the organism), intelligence and steadfastness described, this in brief is the field along with its modifications.

á Even the mental traits are said to qualify the field because they are objects of knowledge. The knower is a subject and the turning of it into an object or a thing means ignorance, avidyā. Objectivization is the ejection of the subject into the world of the objects. Nothing in the object world is an authentic reality. We can realize the subject in us only by overcoming the enslaving power of the object world, by refusing to be dissolved in it. This means resistance, suffering. Acquiescence in the surrounding world and its conventions diminishes suffering; refusal increases it. Suffering is the process through which we fight for our true nature.

 

Knowledge

 

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् ।

आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥१३- ७॥

amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṁsā kṣāntir ārjavam
ācāryopāsanaṁ śaucaṁ sthairyam ātmavinigrahaḥ 13.7

amānitvam1 adambhitvam2 ahiṁsā3 kṣāntiḥ4 ārjavam5
ācārya-upāsanam6 śaucam7 sthairyam8 ātma-vinigrahaḥ9 13.7 

 

amānitvam1 = Humility; adambhitvam2 = nonostentation; ahiṁsā3 = non-injury; kṣāntiḥ4 = patience; ārjavam5 = straightforwardness;  ācārya-upāsanam6  = service to teacher; śaucam7 = purity; sthairyam8 = steadfastness; ātma-vinigrahaḥ9  = self-restraint; 13.7  continued.

 

(13.7) Humility (absence of pride), integrity (absence of deceit), non-violence, patience, uprightness, service of the teacher, purity (of body and mind), steadfastness and self-control. 

 

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहंकार एव च ।

जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ॥१३- ८॥

indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam anahaṁkāra eva ca
janmamṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkhadoṣānudarśanam 13.8

indriyārtheṣu1 vairāgyam2 anahaṅkāra3 eva4 ca5
janma6A-mṛtyu6B-jarā6C-vyādhi6D-duḥkha6E-doṣa6F-anudarśanam6G 13.8

 

vairāgyam2 = non-attachment; indriyārtheṣu1 = to sense objects; anahaṅkāra3 = paucity of egoism; eva4 = indeed; ca5 = and; anudarśanam6G = having insight into; doṣa6F = suffering related to [fault or evil]; janma6A = birth; mṛtyu6B = death; jarā6C = old age; vyādhi6D = disease; duḥkha6E = sorrow...  13.8 continued

 

(13.8) Indifference to the objects of sense, self-effacement and the perception of the evil of birth, death, old age, sickness and pain.

 

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।

नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥१३- ९॥

asaktir anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu
nityaṁ ca samacittatvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu 13.9

asaktiḥ1 anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ2 putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu3
nityam4 ca5 sama-cittatvam6 iṣṭa-aniṣṭa-upapattiṣu7 13.9

 

asaktiḥ1 = detachment; anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ2 = absence of attachment or mineness;  putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu3 = for son, wife, & home; ca5 = and; nityam4 = constant; sama-cittatvam6  = mental equilibrium; [on] iṣṭa-aniṣṭa-upapattiṣu7 = attainment of the desirable and the undesirable... 13.9  (continued)

 

(13.9) Non-attachment, absence of clinging to son, wife, home and the like and a constant equal-mindedness to all desirable and undesirable happenings. 

 

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।

विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥१३- १०॥

mayi cānanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī
viviktadeśasevitvam aratir janasaṁsadi 13.10

mayi1 ca2 ananya-yogena3 bhaktiḥ4 avyabhicāriṇī5
vivikta-deśa-sevitvam6 aratiḥ-jana-saṁsadi7 13.10

 

ananya-yogena3 = dedicated concentration; ca2 = and; avyabhicāriṇī5 = unswerving; bhaktiḥ4 = devotion; mayi1 = to Me; vivikta-deśa-sevitvam6  = resorting to solitary places [solitary-places-resorting]; aratiḥ-jana-saṁsadi7 = dissatisfaction [discomfort] in the company of people [dissatisfaction-people-assembly]... 13.10
 

(13.10) Unswerving devotion to Me with wholehearted discipline, resort to solitary places, dislike for a crowd of people.

 

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् ।

एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥१३- ११॥

adhyātmaj˝ānanityatvaṁ tattvaj˝ānārthadarśanam
etaj j˝ānam iti proktam aj˝ānaṁ yad atonyathā 13.11

adhyātma-j˝āna-nityatvam1 tattva-j˝āna-artha-darśanam2
etat3 j˝ānam4 iti5 proktam6 aj˝ānam7 yat8 ataḥ anyathā9 13.11

 

adhyātma-j˝āna-nityatvam1 = steadfastness in the attainment of knowledge of the Self [Self-knowledge-steadfastness] tattva-j˝āna-artha-darśanam2  = contemplation and insight into knowledge of Reality [Truth-knowledge-insight-contemplation]: etat3 = this; proktam6 = is declared; iti5 = thus; [as]  j˝ānam4 = knowledge;   yat8 = that which is; ataḥ anyathā9 = other than this [than this-other]; [is] aj˝ānam7 = non-knowledge. 13.11
 

(3.11) Constancy in the knowledge of the Spirit, insight into the end of the knowledge of Truth-this is declared to be (true) knowledge and all that is different from it is nonşknowledge.

á It is clear from this list of qualities that j˝āna or knowledge includes the practice of the moral virtues. Mere theoretical learning will not do.1 By the development of moral qualities the

light of the ever changeless Self witnessing all but attached to none is discriminated from the passing forms and is no more confused with them.

I nāyam ātmā pravacanena labhyo, na medkayā, na bahunā śrutena.

Kaṭha Up., II, 22; Muṇḍaka Up., III, 2-3.

 

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते ।

अनादि मत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥१३- १२॥

j˝eyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj j˝ātvāmṛtam aśnute
anādimat paraṁ brahma na sat tan nāsad ucyate 13.12

j˝eyam1 yat2 tat3 pravakṣyāmi4 yat5 j˝ātvā6 amṛtam7 aśnute8
anādimat9 param10 brahma11 na12 sat13 tat14 na15 asat16 ucyate17 13.12

 

pravakṣyāmi4 = I will explain; tat3 = that; yat2 = which; [is] j˝eyam1 = knowable; [by] j˝ātvā6 = knowing;   yat5 = which; aśnute8 = one attains; amṛtam7 = ambrosia/immortality. param10 = The supreme; brahma11 = Brahman; [is] anādimat9 = one without a beginning. tat14 = That; ucyate17 = is said to be; na12 = neither; sat13 = being; na15 = nor; asat16 = non-being. 13.12 

 

(13.12) I will describe that which is to be known and by knowing which life eternal is gained. It is the Supreme Brahman who is beginningless and who is said to be neither existent nor

non-existent.

anādimat param: beginningless supreme. S.

anādi matparam: beginningless, ruled by Me. R.

It is eternal, lifted above all empirical oppositions of existence and non-existence, beginning and end, and if we realize It, birth and death happen to be mere outward events which do not touch the eternity of the self.

The Knower of the Field

 

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् ।

सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥१३- १३॥

sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṁ tat sarvatokṣiśiromukham
sarvataḥ śrutimal loke sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhati 13.13

sarvataḥ1 pāṇi-pādam2 tat3 sarvataḥ4 akṣi-śiraḥ-mukham5
sarvataḥ6 śruti-mat7 loke8 sarvam9 āvṛtya10 tiṣṭhati11 13.13

 

sarvataḥ1 = Everywhere; pāṇi-pādam2  = hands and feet; sarvataḥ4 = everywhere; akṣi-śiraḥ-mukham5  = eyes, heads and faces; sarvataḥ6 = everywhere; śruti-mat7 = having ears:  tat3 = That; tiṣṭhati11 = exists; āvṛtya10 = pervading; sarvam9 = everything; loke8 = in the world. 13.13 


 (13.13) With his hands and feet everywhere, with eyes, heads and faces on all sides, with ears on all sides, He dwells in the world, enveloping all.

á As the one subject of all objects of experience, He is said to envelop all and have hands and feet, ears and eyes everywhere. Without the seeing Light, there is no experience at all. As the Supreme has the two aspects; the one of transcendence and detachment and the other of immanence in each particular union with the not-self, It is described in a series of paradoxes. He is without and within, unmoving and moving, far away and near, undivided and yet divided. M.B. says that when the self is associated with the modes of nature, it is called Kṣetraj˝a; when it is released from these it is called the Paramātman or the Supreme Self.1

1 atma kṣetraj˝a ity uktaḥ saṁyuktaḥ áprakṛtair guair

tair eva tu vinirmukta paramātmety udāhta.

Sāntiparva, 187, 24.

 

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम् ।

असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥१३- १४॥

sarvendriyaguṇābhāsaṁ sarvendriyavivarjitam
asaktaṁ sarvabhṛc caiva nirguṇaṁ guṇabhoktṛ ca 13.14

sarva-indriya-guṇa-ābhāsam1 sarva-indriya-vivarjitam2
asaktam3 sarva-bhṛt4 ca5 eva6 nirguṇam7 guṇa-bhoktṛ8 ca9 13.14

 

[He is] sarva-indriya-guṇa-ābhāsam1 = the light of all organs and Gunas [all-organs-Gunas-light]; sarva-indriya-vivarjitam2  = abstaining from all sense organs [all-organs-abstaining]; asaktam3 = unattached; sarva-bhṛt4 = supporter of all; ca5 = moreover; eva6 = indeed; nirguṇam7 = devoid of Gunas; ca9 = also; guṇa-bhoktṛ8 = enjoyer of Gunas. 13.14.  Guna = Sattva, Rajas and Tamas = Virtue, passion and darkness.


(13.14) He appears to have the qualities of all the senses and yet is without (any of) the senses, unattached and yet supporting all, free from the guṇas (dispositions of prakṛti) and yet enjoying them.

á This verse makes out that the Supreme is the mutable and the immutable, the all and the one. He sees all but not with the physical eye, He hears all but not with the physical ear, He knows all but not with the limited mind. Cp.. Śvetāśvatara Up., III, 19, "He sees without the eye, He hears without the ear." The immensity of the Supreme is brought out by the attribution of qualities (adhyāropa) and denial (apavāda).

 

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च ।

सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् ॥१३- १५॥

bahir antaś ca bhūtānām acaraṁ caram eva ca
sūkṣmatvāt tad avij˝eyaṁ dūrasthaṁ cāntike ca tat 13.15

bahiḥ1 antaḥ2 ca3 bhūtānām4 acaram5 caram6 eva7 ca8
sūkṣmatvāt9 tat10 avij˝eyam11 dūrastham12 ca13 antike14 ca15 tat16 13.15

 

[What is] bahiḥ1 = outside; ca3 = and; antaḥ2 = inside; eva7 = also; [in]  bhūtānām4 = beings; acaram5 = the non-mobile; ca8 = and; caram6 = the mobile; tat10 = That; sūkṣmatvāt9 = on account of subtleness; [is]  avij˝eyam11 = unknowable; ca13 = and; tat16 = That; [is] dūrastham12 = far away; ca15 = and; antike14 = near. 13.15


 
(13.15) He is without and within all beings. He is unmoving as also moving. He is too subtle to be known. He is far away and yet is He near.

 

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम् ।

भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥१३- १६॥

avibhaktaṁ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktam iva ca sthitam
bhūtabhartṛ ca taj j˝eyaṁ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca 13.16

avibhaktam1 ca2 bhūteṣu3 vibhaktam4 iva5 ca6 sthitam7

bhūta-bhartṛ8 ca9 tat10  j˝eyam11 grasiṣṇu12 prabhaviṣṇu13 ca14 13.16

 

j˝eyam11 = Knowable; tat10  = That [Para Brahman]; [is] avibhaktam1 = undivided; ca2 = and; vibhaktam4 = divided; bhūteṣu3 = in all beings; ca6 = and; iva5 = in the same manner;  sthitam7 = Existing; bhūta-bhartṛ8 = Sustainer of beings; ca9 = and;   grasiṣṇu12 = Devourer; ca14 = also; prabhaviṣṇu13 = the Creator.13.16
 

(13.16) He is undivided (indivisible) and yet He seems to be divided among beings. He is to be known as supporting creatures, destroying them and creating them afresh.

á Cp. Dionysius: "Undivided in things divided." All things derive from Him, are supported by Him and taken back into Him.

 

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते ।

ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम् ॥१३- १७॥

jyotiṣām api taj jyotis tamasaḥ param ucyate
j˝ānaṁ j˝eyaṁ j˝ānagamyaṁ hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam 13.17

jyotiṣām1 api2 tat3 jyotiḥ4 tamasaḥ5 param6 ucyate7
j˝ānam8 j˝eyam9 j˝āna-gamyam10 hṛdi11 sarvasya12 viṣṭhitam13 13.17

 

tat3 = That; [is]  jyotiḥ4 = the Light; api2 = even;  jyotiṣām1 = of lights; [It] ucyate7 = is said; [It is] param6 = beyond; tamasaḥ5 = darkness; [It is]  j˝ānam8 = knowledge; [ It is] j˝eyam9 = knowable; [It is] j˝āna-gamyam10 = the Known; [It] viṣṭhitam13 = exists; hṛdi11 = in the heart; sarvasya12 = of everyone.13.17
 

(13.I7) He is the Light of lights, said to be beyond darkness. Knowledge, the object of knowledge and the goal of knowş ledge-He is seated in the hearts of all.

á The Light dwells in the heart of every being. Many of these passages are quotations from the Upaniṣads, See Śvetāśvatara Up., III, 8 and I6; Īśa UP; 5; Muṇḍaka up; XIII, 1, 7; Bhadşāraṇyaka Up., IV..4, I6.

 

The Fruit of Knowledge

 

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः ।

मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥१३- १८॥

iti kṣetraṁ tathā j˝ānaṁ j˝eyaṁ coktaṁ sanāsataḥ
madbhakta etad vij˝āya madbhāvāyopapadyate 13.18

iti1 kṣetram2 tathā3 j˝ānam4 j˝eyam5 ca6 uktam7 samāsataḥ8
mat-bhakta9 etat10 vij˝āya11 mat-bhāvāya12 upapadyate13 13.18

 

iti1 = Thus; kṣetram2 = the field; tathā3 = also;  j˝ānam4 = the knowledge; ca6 = and; j˝eyam5 = the knowable; uktam7 = were spoken of;  samāsataḥ8 = briefly. mat-bhakta9 = My votary; vij˝āya11 = knowing; etat10 = this;  upapadyate13 = attains; mat-bhāvāya12  = My nature.13.18

 

(13.18) Thus the field, also knowledge and the object of knowledge have been briefly described. My devotee who understands thus becomes worthy of My state.

á When the devotee sees the Eternal Indwelling Divine, he puts on the divine nature with the characteristics of freedom, love and equality. "He attains unto my state."

 

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि ।

विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान् ॥१३- १९॥

prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva viddhy anādi ubhāv api
vikārā˝ś ca guṇāṁś caiva viddhi prakṛtisaṁbhavān 13.19

prakṛtim1 puruṣam2 ca3 eva4 viddhi5 anādi6 ubhāu7 api8
vikārān9 ca10 guṇān11 ca12 eva13 viddhi14 prakṛti-sambhavān15  13.19

 

viddhi5 = Know; prakṛtim1 = Nature; ca3 = and; puruṣam2 = the individual souls; [are]  ubhāu7 = both; eva4 = indeed; anādi6 = without beginning; ca10 = and ; viddhi14 = know; api8 = also; vikārān9 = transformation [change]; ca12 = and; eva13 = indeed; guṇān11 = Gunas; [are]  prakṛti-sambhavān15  = born of Nature.13.19

 

(13.I9) Know thou that prakṛti (nature) and Puruṣa (soul) are both beginningless; and know also that the forms and modes are born of prakṛti (nature).

á As the Supreme is eternal, so are His prakṛtis.1 Through the possession of the two pṛakrtis, nature and soul, Īśvara causes the origin, preservation and dissolution of the universe. The puruṣa described in this section is not the multiple puruṣa of the Sāṁkhya but the Kṣetraj˝a who is one in all fields. The Gītā does not look upon prakṛti and Puruṣa as two independent elements as the Sāṁkhya does but looks upon them as the inferior and the superior forms of one and the same Supreme.

1nityeśvaratvād Īśvarasya, tat prakṛtyor api yuktaṁ nityatvena bhavitum. S.

 

कार्यकरणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।

पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥१३- २०॥

kārya karaṇa kartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate
puruṣaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṁ bhoktṛtve hetur ucyate 13.20

kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtve1 hetuḥ2 prakṛtiḥ3 ucyate4
puruṣaḥ5 sukha-duḥkhānām6 bhoktṛtve7 hetuḥ8 ucyate9 13.20

 

prakṛtiḥ3 = Nature; ucyate4 = is said to be; hetuḥ2 = the cause of;  kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve1 = agency to body and sense organs [body-organs-agency].  puruṣaḥ5 = The individual soul [the self]; ucyate9 = is said be; hetuḥ8 = the cause; bhoktṛtve7 = in the experiencing; sukha-duḥkhānām6 = of happiness and sorrow. 13.20

 

(13.20) Nature is said to be the cause of effect, instrument and agent (ness) and the soul is said to be the cause, in regard to the experience of pleasure and pain.

The body and the senses are produced by prakṛti and the experience of pleasure and pain is by the puruṣa subject to certain limitations. The blissful nature of the self is stained by joy and sorrow on account of its identification with the objects of nature.

kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtve1: For kāryakaraṇakartṛtve, there is another reading "kāryakāraṇakartṛtve." See Franklin Edgerton: Bhagavadgita, Vol. I, p. I87 note.

 

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्‌क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् ।

कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥१३- २१॥

puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijān guṇān
kāraṇaṁ guṇasaṅgosya sadasadyonijanmasu 13.21

puruṣaḥ1 prakṛtisthaḥ2 hi3 bhuṅkte4 prakṛtijān5 guṇān6 

kāraṇam7 guṇasaṅgaḥ8 asya9 sad-asad-yoni-janmasu10 13.21

 

puruṣaḥ1 = Purusa [Jivatma, the individual living soul]; prakṛtisthaḥ2 = abiding in Prakrti; hi3 = indeed; bhuṅkte4 = enjoys; guṇān6  = Gunas; prakṛtijān5 = born of Nature. guṇasaṅgaḥ8 = Attachment to Gunas; [is] kāraṇam7 = the cause; sad-asad-yoni-janmasu10  = of birth in good or evil wombs [good-evil-womb-birth];  asya9 = for that Jivatma. 13.21

(13.2I) The soul in nature enjoys the modes born of nature. Attachment to the modes is the cause of its births in good and evil wombs.

 

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः ।

परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥१३- २२॥

upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ
paramātmeti cāpyukto dehesmin puruṣaḥ paraḥ 13.22

upadraṣṭā1 anumantā2 ca3 bhartā4 bhoktā5 maheśvaraḥ6
paramātma7 iti8 ca9 api10 uktaḥ11 dehe12 asmin13 puruṣaḥ14 paraḥ15 13.22

 

maheśvaraḥ6 = Mahesvara [Great Lord]; uktaḥ11 = is said to be; upadraṣṭā1 = the Witness; anumantā2 = the Approver; ca3 = and; bhartā4 = the Supporter; bhoktā5 = the Enjoyer;  paramātma7 = the Supreme Soul; ca9 = moreover; iti8 = thus;  api10 = even; asmin13 = this; paraḥ15 = Supreme; puruṣaḥ14 = Purusa; [is] dehe12 = in the body.13.22


(13.22) The Supreme Spirit in the body is said to be the Witness, the Permitter, the Supporter, the Experiencer, the Great Lord and the Supreme Self.

Here the Supreme Self is different from the psychophysical individual who becomes the immortal self by transcending the separatist consciousness, due to entanglement in the activities of prakṛti. In the Gītā, no distinction is made between the knower of the field and the Supreme Lord.1

1 kṣetraj˝eśvarayoḥ bhedānabhyupagamād gītāśāstre. S.

 

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह ।

सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥१३- २३॥

ya evaṁ vetti puruṣaṁ prakṛtiṁ ca guṇaiḥ saha
sarvathā vartamānopi na sa bhūyobhijāyate 13.23

yaḥ1 evam2 vetti3 puruṣam4 prakṛtim5 ca6 guṇaiḥ7 saha8
sarvathā9 vartamānaḥ10 api11 na12 saḥ13 bhūyaḥ14 abhijāyate15 13.23

 

yaḥ1 = He who; evam2 = thus; vetti3 = knows; puruṣam4 = man; ca6 = and; prakṛtim5 = nature; saha8 = with; guṇaiḥ7 = Gunas/qualities; [though] vartamānaḥ10 = living; sarvathā9 api11 = in all ways; saḥ13 = he;  na12 abhijāyate15 = is never born; bhūyaḥ14 = again.  13.23 
 

(13.23) He who thus knows soul (puruṣa) and nature (prakṛti) together with the modes, though he acts in every way, he is not born again.

sarvathā9 vartamānaḥ10 api11: though he acts in every way, whatever state of life he may be in. R.

Different Roads to Salvation

 

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।

अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥१३- २४॥

dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecid ātmānam ātmanā
anye sāṁkhyena yogena karmayogena cāpare 13.24

dhyānena1 ātmani2 paśyanti3 kecit4 ātmānam5 ātmanā6
anye7 sāṅkhyena yogena8 karma-yogena9 ca10 apare11 13.24

 

dhyānena1 = By meditation; kecit4 = some; paśyanti3 = see/realize; ātmānam5 = Self; ātmani2 = in the self;   ātmanā6 = through Buddhi/mind/intellect; anye7 = others; sāṅkhyena yogena8  = through Sankhya Yoga; ca10 = and; apare11 = others; karma-yogena9  = through Karma Yoga. 13.24


 (13.24) By meditation some perceive the Self in the self by the self; others by the path of knowledge and still others by the path of works.

Sāṁkhya here stands for j˝āna.

 

अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते ।

तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः ॥१३- २५॥

anye tv evam ajānantaḥ śrutvānyebhya upāsate
tepi cātitaranty eva mṛtyuṁ śrutiparāyaṇāḥ 13.25
anye
1 tu2 evam3 ajānantaḥ4 śrutvā5 anyebhyaḥ6 upāsate7
te8 api9 ca10 atitaranti11 eva12 mṛtyum13 śruti-parāyaṇāḥ14 13.25

 

 tu2 = But;  anye1 = others; evam3 = thus; ajānantaḥ4 = ignorant of [Yogas]; upāsate7 = worship; śrutvā5 = by hearing; anyebhyaḥ6 = from others [gurus or teachers]; ca10 = and; te8 = they; api9 = also;  eva12 = indeed; atitaranti11 = cross over; mṛtyum13 = death; śruti-parāyaṇāḥ14 = by trust in what they heard.13.25


 (13.25) Yet others, ignorant of this (these paths of yoga) hearing from others worship; and they too cross beyond death by their devotion to what they have heard.

Even those who rely on the authority of teachers1 and worship according to their advice have their hearts opened out to the grace of the Lord and thus reach life-eternal.

1śrutiparāyaṇāh, kevalaparopadeśapramāṇāḥ svayaṁ vivekarahitāḥ. S.

 

यावत्संजायते किंचित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ।

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥१३- २६॥

yāvat saṁjāyate kiṁcit sattvaṁ sthāvarajaṅgamam
kṣetrakṣetraj˝asaṁyogāt tad viddhi bharatarṣabha 13.26

yāvat1 sa˝jāyate2 ki˝cit3 sattvam4 sthāvara5 jaṅgamam6
kṣetra-kṣetraj˝a-saṁyogāt7 tat8 viddhi9 bharatarṣabha10 13.26

 

yāvat1 ki˝cit3 = Whatever; sa˝jāyate2 = comes into existence; sattvam4 = beings; sthāvara5 = immobile; [and] jaṅgamam6 = mobile; viddhi9 = know; tat8 = that; [it happens from] kṣetra-kṣetraj˝a-saṁyogāt7 = union of the field and the knower of the field  [field-knower of the field-union]   bharatarṣabha10 = O the best of Bharatas.13.26
 

(13.26) Whatever being is born, moving or unmoving, know thou, O Best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), that it is (sprung) through the union of the field and the knower of the field.

All life is a commerce between self and not-self. According to S., the union of the two is of the nature of adhyāsa, which consists in confounding the one with the other. When the confusion is cleared, bondage terminates.

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम् ।

विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥१३- २७॥

samaṁ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhantaṁ parameśvaram
vinaśyatsv avinaśyantaṁ yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati 13.27

samam1 sarveṣu2 bhūteṣu3 tiṣṭhantam4 parameśvaram5
vinaśyatsu6 avinaśyantam7 yaḥ8 paśyati9 saḥ10 paśyati11 13.27

 

saḥ10 = He; yaḥ8 = who; paśyati9 = sees; avinaśyantam7 = the imperishable; parameśvaram5 = Supreme Lord; samam1 = equally; sarveṣu2 = in all; tiṣṭhantam4 = existing; vinaśyatsu6 = perishable; bhūteṣu3 = beings; paśyati11 = [really] sees.13.27


 (13.27) He who sees the Supreme Lord abiding equally in all beings, never perishing when they perish, he, verily, sees.

He who sees the Universal Spirit in all things, sees and becomes himself universal.

"Never perishing when they perish.'' If all things are in a continual state of evolutionary development, then there is no unchanging God. Bergson, for example, makes God wholly immanent in the world, changing as it changes. An evolving God who is conceived as a part of the process of development of the world will cease to exist, when the universe ceases to move. The second law of Thermodynamics suggests a condition of eventless stagnation and perfect rest. An evolving or emergent God cannot be either the creator or the savior of the world.. He is not an adequate object for the religious emotions. In this verse, the Gītā assures us that God lives and endures even when the universe ceases to exist.

 

समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम् ।

न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥१३- २८॥

samaṁ paśyan hi sarvatra samavasthitam īśvaram
na hinasty ātmanātmānaṁ tato yāti parāṁ gatim 13.28

samam1  paśyan2 hi3 sarvatra4 samavasthitam5  īśvaram6
na hinasti7 ātmanā8 ātmānam9 tataḥ10 yāti11 parām gatim12 13.28

 

paśyan2 = Seeing; īśvaram6 = the Lord; samam1 = equally;  hi3 = indeed; sarvatra4 = everywhere; samavasthitam5  = equally abiding; [everywhere] [he] na hinasti7 =does not injure/destroy;  ātmānam9 = Self; ātmanā8 = by the self/mind; tataḥ10 = therefore; [he] yāti11 = attains; parām gatim12  = the supreme goal.13.28

 

(13.28) For, as he sees the Lord present, equally everywhere, he does not injure his true Self by the self and then he attains to the supreme goal.

 

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः ।

यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ॥१३- २९॥

prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni sarvaśaḥ
yaḥ paśyati tathātmānam akartāraṁ sa paśyati 13.29

prakṛtya1 eva2 ca3 karmāṇi4 kriyamāṇāni5 sarvaśaḥ6
yaḥ7 paśyati8 tathā9 ātmānam10 akartāram11 saḥ12 paśyati13 13.29

 

yaḥ7 = He who; paśyati8 = sees; karmāṇi4 = activities; kriyamāṇāni5 = being performed; sarvaśaḥ6 = in many ways; prakṛtya1 = by Nature; eva2 = indeed; ca3 = and;  tathā9 = also; ātmānam10 = the Self; [as] akartāram11 = the non-agent; saḥ12 = he; paśyati13 = sees. 13.29   
 

(13.29) He who sees that all actions are done only by nature (prakṛti) and likewise that the self is not the doer, he verily sees.

The true self IS not the doer but only the witness. It is the spectator, not the actor. S. says that there is no evidence to show that there is any variety in him who is non-agent, unconditioned and free from all specialities, as there is no variety in the sky.1 Actions affect the mind and understanding and not the self.

1 kṣtraj˝am akartāraṁ sarvopādhivivarjitam.á nirguasyākartur

nirviśeasy akāśasyevā bhede pramāṇānupapattiḥ.

 

यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति ।

तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म संपद्यते तदा ॥१३- ३०॥

yadā bhūtapṛthagbhāvam ekastham anupaśyati
tata eva ca vistāraṁ brahma saṁpadyate tadā 13.30

yadā1 bhūta-pṛthak-bhāvam2 ekastham3 anupaśyati4
tata5 eva6 ca7 vistāram8 brahma9 sampadyate10 tadā11 13.30

 

yadā1 = When; anupaśyati4 = one sees/realizes; bhūta-pṛthak-bhāvam2  = the state of diversity and individuality of beings [living beings-diverse-state]; ekastham3 = abiding in One; ca7 = and; [which are His] vistāram8 = expansions;  tata5 eva6 = from That also; sampadyate10 = he attains;  brahma9 = Brahman; tadā11 = at that time.13.30 
 

(13.30) When he sees that the manifold state of beings is centered in the One and from just that it spreads out, then he attains Brahman.

When the variety of nature and its development are traced to the Eternal One, we assume eternity. "He realizes the all-pervading nature of the Self, inasmuch as the cause of all limitation is absorbed into the unity of the Self." Ᾱnandagiri.

 

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः ।

शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥१३- ३१॥

anāditvān nirguṇatvāt paramātmāyam avyayaḥ
śarīrasthopi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate 13.31

anāditvāt1 nirguṇatvāt2 paramātmā3 ayam4 avyayaḥ5
śarīrasthaḥ6 api7 kaunteya8 na karoti9 na lipyate10 13.31

 

avyayaḥ5 = The immutable; paramātmā3 = Supreme Soul; [is] anāditvāt1 = without beginning; [and] nirguṇatvāt2 = without attributes; api7 = though; śarīrasthaḥ6 = dwelling in the body; kaunteya8 = O Kaunteya; ayam4 = [This] It; na karoti9 = neither acts; na lipyate10  = nor is stained. 13.31
 

(13.3I) Because this Supreme Self imperishable is without beginning, without qualities, so, O Son of Kuntī (Arjuna), though It dwells in the body. It neither acts nor is tainted.

 

यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते ।

सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥१३- ३२॥

yathā sarvagataṁ saukṣmyād ākāśaṁ nopalipyate
sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate 13.32

yathā1 sarva-gatam2 saukṣmyāt3 ākāśam4 na upalipyate5
sarvatra6 avasthitaḥ7 dehe8 tathā9 ātmā10 na upalipyate10 13.32

 

yathā1 = As; sarva-gatam2 = all-pervasive; ākāśam4 = Ether; na upalipyate5 =  is not stained; saukṣmyāt3 = due to its subtle nature; sarvatra6 = everywhere; tathā9 = likewise; ātmā10  = the Self;  avasthitaḥ7 = present; dehe8 = in the body;  na upalipyate10 = is not stained [ by the Gunas due to its Nirguna state]  13.32
 

(13.32) As the all-pervading ether is not tainted, by reason of its subtlety, even so the Self that is present in every body does not suffer any taint.

 

यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः ।

क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥१३- ३३॥

yathā prakāśayaty ekaḥ kṛtsnaṁ lokam imaṁ raviḥ
kṣetraṁ kṣetrī tathā kṛtsnaṁ prakāśayati bhārata 13.33

yathā1 prakāśayati2 ekaḥ3 kṛtsnam lokam4 imam5 raviḥ6
kṣetram7 kṣetrī8 tathā9 kṛtsnam10 prakāśayati11 bhārata12 13.33

 

yathā1 = As;  ekaḥ3 = one; raviḥ6  = sun; prakāśayati2 = lights up; imam5 = this;  kṛtsnam lokam4 = whole world; tathā9 = likewise; kṣetrī8 = the Knower of the field; prakāśayati11 = illuminates; kṛtsnam10 = all; kṣetram7 = field/body; bhārata12 = O Bharata [Arjuna]. 13.33

 

(13.33) As the one sun illumines this whole world, so does the Lord of the field illumine this entire field, O Bharata (Arjuna).

The knower of the field illumines the whole field, the entire world of becoming. 

 

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।

भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ॥१३- ३४॥

kṣetrakṣetraj˝ayor evam antaraṁ j˝ānacakṣuṣā
bhūtaprakṛtimokṣaṁ ca ye vidur yānti te param 13.34

kṣetra-kṣetraj˝ayoḥ1 evam2 antaram3 j˝āna-cakṣuṣā4
bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣam5 ca6 ye7 viduḥ8 yānti9 te10 param11 13.34

 

ye7 = They who; viduḥ8 = know; antaram3 = the difference; kṣetra-kṣetraj˝ayoḥ1 = between the field and the Knower of the field; ca6 = and; evam2 = thus; j˝āna-cakṣuṣā4 = the eye of wisdom; [focused on] bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣam5 =  liberation of beings from Nature [beings-Nature-liberation]; te10 = they; yānti9 = attain;  param11 = the Supreme. 13.34

 

(13.34) Those who perceive thus by their eye of wisdom the distinction between the field and the knower of the field, and the deliverance of beings from nature (prakṛti), áthey attain to the Supreme.

bhūta-prakṛti: the material nature of beings.

iti... kṣetrakṣetraj˝avibhāgayogo nāma trayodaśo 'dhyāya á

This is the thirteenth chapter entitled The Yoga of the Distinction between the Field and the Knower of the Field.