16ChapterBG

CHAPTER XVI

The Nature of the Godlike and the Demoniac Mind

Those of Divine Nature

Translation and Comment by Dr. Radhakrishnan

Sanskrit Text, Transliteration & Word Translation by

Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच  

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः ।

दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ॥१६- १॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
abhayaṁ sattvasaṁśuddhir jānayogavyavasthitiḥ
dānaṁ damaś ca yajaś ca svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam 16.1

śrībhagavān uvāca
abhayam1 sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ2 jāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ3
dānam4 damaḥ5 ca6 yajaḥ7 ca8 svādhyāyaḥ9 tapaḥ10 ārjavam10 16.1

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: abhayam1 = fearlessness; sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ2 = purity of the mind; jāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ3  = steadiness in Yoga of knowledge; dānam4 = charity; damaḥ5 = self-control [of organs]; ca6 = and; yajaḥ7 = sacrifices; ca8 = and; svādhyāyaḥ9 = study of the scriptures; tapaḥ10 = austerity; ārjavam10 = rectitude... 16.1 continued.
 

The Blessed Lord said:

(16.1) Fearlessness, purity of mind, wise apportionment of knowledge and concentration, charity, self-control and sacrifice, study of the scriptures, austerity and uprightness.

l In Indian religious symbolism, the distinction between the devas, the shining ones and the asuras, the titans, the children of darkness is an ancient one. In the Ṛg.Veda we have the struggle between the gods and their dark opponents. The Rāmāyaṇa represents a similar conflict between the representatives of high culture and those of unbridled egoism. M.B. tells us of the struggle between the Pāṇḍavas, who are devotees of dharma, of law and justice, and the Kauravas who are lovers of power. Historically, mankind remains remarkably true to type, and we have today as in the period of the M.B. some men who are divinely good, some who are diabolically fallen and some who are damnably indifferent. These are the possible developments of men who are more or less like ourselves. The devas and the asuras are both born of Prajāpati. Chāndogya Up., I, 2, I.

 

अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् ।

दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥१६- २॥

ahiṁsā satyam akrodhas tyāgaḥ śāntir apaiśunam
dayā bhūteṣv aloluptvaṁ mārdavaṁ hrīr acāpalam 16.2

ahiṁsā1 satyam2 akrodhaḥ3 tyāgaḥ4 śāntiḥ5 apaiśunam6
dayā7 bhūteṣu8 aloluptvam9 mārdavam10 hrīḥ11 acāpalam12 16.2

 

ahiṁsā1 = non-injury; satyam2 = truthfulness; akrodhaḥ3 = freedom from anger; tyāgaḥ4 = renunciation; śāntiḥ5 = tranquility; apaiśunam6 = abstaining from slander; dayā7 = compassion; bhūteṣu8 = to all creatures; aloluptvam9 = absence of greed; mārdavam10 = gentleness; hrīḥ11 = modesty; acāpalam12 = absence of agitation... 16.2  Continued...

 

(16.2) Non-violence, truth, freedom from anger, renunciation, tranquillity, aversion to fault finding, compassion to living beings, freedom from covetousness, gentleness, modesty and

steadiness (absence of fickleness).

 

तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता ।

भवन्ति संपदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥१६- ३॥

tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucam adroho nātimānitā
bhavanti saṁpadaṁ daivīm abhijātasya bhārata 16.3

tejaḥ1 kṣamā2 dhṛtiḥ3 śaucam4 adrohaḥ5 na6 atimānitā7
bhavanti8 sampadam9 daivīm10 abhijātasya11 bhārata12 16.3

 

tejaḥ1 = vigor; kṣamā2 = forgiveness/patience; dhṛtiḥ3 = fortitude; śaucam4 = cleanliness; adrohaḥ5 = absence of malice; na6 atimānitā7 = absence of great haughtiness; bhavanti8 = are; abhijātasya11 = born of; daivīm10 = divine; sampadam9 = nature;  bhārata12 = O best of Bharatas. 16.3
 

(16.3) Vigour, forgiveness, fortitude, purity, freedom from malice and excessive pride―these, O Pandava (Arjuna), are the endowments of him who is born with the divine nature.

l The human race is not divided into the kingdom of Ormuzd and the kingdom of Ahriman. In each man are these two kingdoms of light and of darkness.

Ormuzd: chief deity of Zoroastrianism; source of light and embodiment of good.

Ahriman: Zoroastrianism the supreme evil spirit and diabolical opponent of Ormuzd

l The teacher has set forth the distinctive qualities of those who are seeking for the divine perfection. Now he states the qualities of those who aim at power, glory and easy life. The distinction is neither exclusive nor comprehensive. Many beings partake of the natures of both. M.B. says: "Nothing is wholly good or wholly evil."1

1 nātyantaṁ guṇavat kicin nātyantaṁ doṣava: tathā.

 

दम्भो दर्पोऽभिमानश्च क्रोधः पारुष्यमेव च ।

अज्ञानं चाभिजातस्य पार्थ संपदमासुरीम् ॥१६- ४॥

dambho darpobhimānaś ca krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva ca
ajānaṁ cābhijātasya pārtha saṁpadam āsurīm 16.4

dambhaḥ1 darpaḥ2 bhimānaḥ3 ca4 krodhaḥ5 pāruṣyam6 eva7 ca8
ajānam9 ca10 abhijātasya11 pārtha12 sampadam13 āsurīm14 16.4

 

dambhaḥ1 = Ostentation; darpaḥ2 = arrogance; bhimānaḥ3 = self-conceit; ca4 = and; krodhaḥ5 = anger;  ca8= also;  pāruṣyam6 = rudeness/roughness; ca10 = and; ajānam9 = ignorance; [are] eva7 = indeed;  abhijātasya11 = born of; āsurīm14 = demonic; sampadam13 = nature;   pārtha12 = O partha. 16.4
 

(16.4) Ostentation, arrogance, excessive pride, anger, as also harshness and ignorance, these, O Partha (Arjuna), are the endowments of him who is born with the demoniac nature.

 

दैवी संपद्विमोक्षाय निबन्धायासुरी मता ।

मा शुचः संपदं दैवीमभिजातोऽसि पाण्डव ॥१६- ५॥

daivī saṁpad vimokṣāya nibandhāyāsurī matā
śucaḥ saṁpadaṁ daivīm abhijātosi pāṇḍava 16.5

daivī1 sampat2 vimokṣāya3 nibandhāya4 āsurī5 matā6
7 śucaḥ8 sampadam9 daivīm10 abhijātaḥ11 asi12 pāṇḍava13 16.5

 

daivī1 = Divine; sampat2 = nature; [is]  vimokṣāya3 = for liberation; āsurī5 = demonic; matā6 = is intended; nibandhāya4 = for bondage; 7 do not; śucaḥ8 = grieve;  pāṇḍava13 = O Pandava; asi12 = you are; abhijātaḥ = born of; daivīm10 = divine; sampadam9 = nature. 16.5

(16.5) The divine endowments are said to make for deliverance and the demoniac for bondage. Grieve not, O Paṇḍava (Arjuna), thou art born with the divine endowments (for a divine destiny).

l The traditional virtues of a devout Hindu are brought together as indicating a "godly" state of life. The asuras are clever and energetic but suffer from an exaggerated egoism and have no moral scruples or spiritual aims.

 

The Nature of the Demoniac

 

द्वौ भूतसर्गौ लोकेऽस्मिन्दैव आसुर एव च ।

दैवो विस्तरशः प्रोक्त आसुरं पार्थ मे शृणु ॥१६- ६॥

dvau bhūtasargau lokesmin daiva āsura eva ca
daivo vistaraśaḥ prokta āsuraṁ pārtha me śṛṇu 16.6

dvau1 bhūta-sargau2 loke3 asmin4 daiva5 āsuraḥ6 eva7 ca8
daivaḥ9 vistaraśaḥ10 proktaḥ11 āsuram12 pārtha13 me14 śṛṇu15 16.6

 

[There are] dvau1 = two; [kinds of] bhūta-sargau2  = created beings; asmin4 = in this; loke3 = world:  daiva5 = divine; ca8 = and;  āsuraḥ6 = demonical: eva7 = indeed; daivaḥ9 = the divine; proktaḥ11 = has been spoken of;  vistaraśaḥ10 = expansively; [now] śṛṇu15 = hear; [about] āsuram12 = the demonical; me14 = from me;  pārtha13 = O Partha. 16.6 


 (16.6) There are two types of beings created in the world―the divine and the demoniac. The divine have been described at length. Hear from me, O Partha (Arjuna), about the demoniac.

See Bṛhadāraṇyaka Up., I, 3, I.

 

प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च जना न विदुरासुराः ।

न शौचं नापि चाचारो न सत्यं तेषु विद्यते ॥१६- ७॥

pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca janā na vidur āsurāḥ
na śaucaṁ nāpi cācāro na satyaṁ teṣu vidyate 16.7

pravṛttim1 ca2 nivṛttim3 ca4 janāḥ5 na6 viduḥ7 āsurāḥ8
na śaucam9 na api10 ca11 ācāraḥ12 na satyam13 teṣu14 vidyate15 16.7

 

āsurāḥ8 = Demonical; janāḥ5 = people; na6 = do not; viduḥ7 = know; pravṛttim1 = appropriate [permitted] action; ca2 = and; nivṛttim3 = prohibited action; ca4 = also;  na śaucam9  = neither purity; ca11 = and; na api10 = nor even;  ācāraḥ12 = good behavior;  na satyam13  = nor truthfulness; vidyate15 = exist; teṣu14 = in them. 16.7
 

(16.7) The demoniac do not know about the way of action or the way of renunciation. Neither purity, nor good conduct, nor truth is found in them.

 

असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम् ।

अपरस्परसंभूतं किमन्यत्कामहैतुकम् ॥१६- ८॥

asatyam apratiṣṭhaṁ te jagad āhur anīśvaram
aparasparasaṁbhūtaṁ kim anyat kāmahaitukam 16.8

asatyam1 apratiṣṭham2 te3 jagat4 āhuḥ5 anīśvaram6
aparaspara7  sambhūtam8 kim anyat9 kāma-haitukam10 16.8

 

 te3 = They [the Demonic and the Lokayātikas]; āhuḥ5 = say; jagat4 = world; [is] asatyam1 = unreal; apratiṣṭham2 = without basis; anīśvaram6 = without Controller or God; aparaspara7 = without [primordial] cause; sambhūtam8 = born of union between male and female. kim anyat8  = what other [cause is possible]; [except] kāma-haitukam9 = lust-cause [sexual union]? 16.8

(16.8) They say that the world is unreal, without a basis, without a Lord, not brought about in regular causal sequence, caused by desire, in short.

l apratiṣṭham2: without a basis, without a moral basis. This is the view of the materialists.

aparaspara7sambhūtam8: not brought about in regular sequence. It is interpreted in other ways also. The world presided over by Īśvara conforms to a settled order, where things proceed from others according to law and the materialists deny the order in the world and hold that things arise anyhow. They believe that there is no regular succession and that the world is there only for the sake of enjoyment.

l "This is the view of the Lokāyatikas that sexual passion is the sole cause of all living creatures." S.

 

एतां दृष्टिमवष्टभ्य नष्टात्मानोऽल्पबुद्धयः ।

प्रभवन्त्युग्रकर्माणः क्षयाय जगतोऽहिताः ॥१६- ९॥

etāṁ dṛṣṭim avaṣṭabhya naṣṭātmānolpabuddhayaḥ
prabhavanty ugrakarmāṇaḥ kṣayāya jagatohitāḥ 16.9

etām1 dṛṣṭim2 avaṣṭabhya3 naṣṭa-ātmānaḥ4 alpa-buddhayaḥ5
prabhavanti6 ugrakarmāṇaḥ6 kṣayāya7 jagataḥ8 ahitāḥ9 16.9

 

avaṣṭabhya3 = Holding; etām1 = this; dṛṣṭim2 = view; naṣṭa-ātmānaḥ4  = lost souls; alpa-buddhayaḥ5  = of meager intelligence; [and] ugrakarmāṇaḥ6 = violent actions; prabhavanti6 = become strong; [and] ahitāḥ9 = harmful; [causing] kṣayāya7 = destruction; jagataḥ8 = of the world. 16.9 
 

(16.9) Holding fast to this view, these lost souls of feeble understanding, of cruel deeds, rise up as the enemies of the world for its destruction.

 

काममाश्रित्य दुष्पूरं दम्भमानमदान्विताः ।

मोहाद्‌गृहीत्वासद्ग्राहान्प्रवर्तन्तेऽशुचिव्रताः ॥१६- १०॥

kāmam āśritya duṣpūraṁ dambhamānamadānvitāḥ
mohād gṛhītvāsadgrāhān pravartanteśucivratāḥ 16.10

kāmam1 āśritya2 duṣpūram3 dambha4A-māna4B-mada4C-anvitāḥ4D
mohāt5 gṛhītvā6 asad-grāhān7 pravartante8 aśuci-vratāḥ9 16.10

 

āśritya2 = given to; duṣpūram3 = insatiable; kāmam1 = lust; dambha4A-māna4B-mada4C-anvitāḥ4D = endowed with4D ostentation4A, pride4B, [and] arrogance4C; mohāt5 = due to delusion; gṛhītvā6 = pursuing; asad-grāhān7  = false premises; [they] pravartante8 = undertake; aśuci-vratāḥ9 = impure vows.16.10

 

(16.10) Giving themselves up to insatiable desire, full of hypocrisy, excessive pride and arrogance, holding wrong views through delusion, they act with impure resolves.

l Cp. Bṛhaspati Sūtra, which declares that kāma is the supreme end of man.1

1kāma evaika,puruśārthah.

 

चिन्तामपरिमेयां च प्रलयान्तामुपाश्रिताः ।

कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः ॥१६- ११॥

cintām aparimeyāṁ ca pralayāntām upāśritāḥ
kāmopabhogaparamā etāvad iti niścitāḥ 16.11

cintām1 aparimeyām2 ca3 pralayāntām4 upāśritāḥ5
kāma-upabhoga-paramāḥ6 etāvat7 iti8 niścitāḥ9 16.11

 

upāśritāḥ5 = Clinging to; aparimeyām2 = immeasurable/innumerable; cintām1 = cares;  pralayāntām4 = until death; ca3 = and; kāma-upabhoga-paramāḥ6 = having sense indulgence as the supreme goal; [they] niścitāḥ9 = determined; etāvat7 = so far; iti8 = thus.16.11


(16.11) Obsessed with innumerable cares which would end only with (their) death, looking upon the gratification of desires as their highest aim, assured that this is all.

This is the materialist doctrine which asks us to eat, drink and be merry, for death is certain and there is nothing beyond.2

2 Cp, yāvad jīvet sukhaṁ jīvet, ṛṇaṁ ktvā ghṛtaṁ pibet

bhaśmībhūtasya dehasya punar āgamanaṁ kutaḥ.

 

आशापाशशतैर्बद्धाः कामक्रोधपरायणाः ।

ईहन्ते कामभोगार्थमन्यायेनार्थसञ्चयान् ॥१६- १२॥

āśāpāśaśatair baddhāḥ kāmakrodhaparāyaṇāḥ
īhante kāmabhogārtham anyāyenārthasaṁcayān 16.12

āśā-pāśa-śataiḥ1 baddhāḥ2 kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ3
īhante4 kāma-bhoga-artham5 anyāyena6 artha-sacayān7 16.12

 

 baddhāḥ2 = Bound by; āśā-pāśa-śataiḥ1  = hundreds of fetters of hope; [hope-bonds-hundreds]; kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ3  = taking refuge in passion and anger [passion-anger-taking refuge]; īhante4 = they strive for; artha-sacayān7  = wealth accumulation; anyāyena6 = by unjust means; kāma-bhoga-artham5  = for the enjoyment of sense objects [passion-enjoyment- sense objects].   16.12

 

(16.12) Bound by hundreds of ties of desire, given over to lust and anger, they strive to amass hoards of wealth by unjust means, for the gratification of their desires.

 

इदमद्य मया लब्धमिमं प्राप्स्ये मनोरथम् ।

इदमस्तीदमपि मे भविष्यति पुनर्धनम् ॥१६- १३॥

idam adya mayā labdham imaṁ prāpsye manoratham
idam astīdam api me bhaviṣyati punar dhanam 16.13

idam1 adya2 mayā3 labdham4 imam5 prāpsye6 manoratham7
idam8 asti9 idam10 api11 me12 bhaviṣyati13 punaḥ14 dhanam15 16.13

 

[He thinks as follows:] adya2 = today; idam1 = this;  labdham4 = was gained; mayā3 = by me; prāpsye6 = I shall gain; imam5 = this;  manoratham7 = object desired by my mind; asti9 = there is; idam8 = this;  idam10 = this; api11 = also; [is] me = mine; dhanam15 = riches; bhaviṣyati13 = will come; punaḥ14 = again. 16.13
 

(16.13) "This today has been gained by me: this desire I shall attain, this is mine and this wealth also shall be mine (in future).

 

असौ मया हतः शत्रुर्हनिष्ये चापरानपि ।

ईश्वरोऽहमहं भोगी सिद्धोऽहं बलवान्सुखी ॥१६- १४॥

asau mayā hataḥ śatruḥ haniṣye ca aparān api
īśvaraḥ.aham aham bhogī siddhaḥ ahaṁ balavān sukhī  16.14

asau1 mayā2 hataḥ3 śatruḥ4 haniṣye5 ca6 aparān7 api8
īśvaraḥ9 aham10 aham11 bhogī12 siddhaḥ13 aham14 balavān15 sukhī16 16.14

 

asau1 = That; śatruḥ4 = foe; hataḥ3 = has been killed; mayā2 = by me; ca6 = and; haniṣye5 = I shall destroy;  aparān7 = others; api= indeed; aham10 = I am;  īśvaraḥ9 = God; aham11 = I am; bhogī12 = the experiencer/enjoyer; aham14 = I am; siddhaḥ13 = perfect;  balavān15 = strong; [and] sukhī16 = happy. 16.14
 

(16.14) "This foe is slain by me and others also I shall slay. I am the lord, I am the enjoyer, I am successful, mighty and happy.

l This is the greatest sin of all, the sin of Lucifer, the claim to be oneself the god-head. The temptation to achieve power and exercise sovereignty has been widespread. The disposition to dominate others has made man a slave. The divine souls reject the temptation as Jesus did in the wilderness. But the demoniac souls accept these ends and exalt pride, self-conceit, cupidity, hatred, brutality as virtues.

Lucifer = the leader of the rebellion of the angels: usually identified with Satan.

 

आढ्योऽभिजनवानस्मि कोऽन्योऽस्ति सदृशो मया ।

यक्ष्ये दास्यामि मोदिष्य इत्यज्ञानविमोहिताः ॥१६- १५॥

āḍhyobhijanavān asmi konyosti sadṛśo mayā
yakṣye dāsyāmi modiṣya ity ajānavimohitāḥ 16.15

āḍhyaḥ1 abhijanavān2 asmi3 kaḥ anyaḥ asti4 sadṛśaḥ5 mayā6
yakṣye7 dāsyāmi8 modiṣye9 iti10 ajāna-vimohitāḥ11 16.15

 

āḍhyaḥ1 = I am wealthy; abhijanavān2 = I am high-born; asmi3 = I am; kaḥ anyaḥ asti4  = who-else-is there; sadṛśaḥ5 = similar; mayā6 = to me; yakṣye7 = I will offer sacrifices; dāsyāmi8 = I shall give; modiṣye9 = I shall be full of joy; iti10 = thus; [thinks the one with] ajāna-vimohitāḥ11 = ignorance-delusion. 16.15

(16.15) ''I am rich and well-born. Who is there like unto me? I shall sacrifice, I shall give, I shall rejoice," thus they (say), deluded by ignorance.

 

अनेकचित्तविभ्रान्ता मोहजालसमावृताः ।

प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु पतन्ति नरकेऽशुचौ ॥१६- १६॥

anekacittavibhrāntā mohajālasamāvṛtāḥ
prasaktāḥ kāmabhogeṣu patanti narakeśucau 16.16

aneka-citta-vibhrāntāḥ1 moha-jāla-samāvṛtāḥ2
prasaktāḥ3 kāma-bhogeṣu4 patanti5 narake6 aśucau7 16.16

 

aneka-citta-vibhrāntāḥ1 = Disoriented by many thoughts [many-thoughts-bewildered by]; moha-jāla-samāvṛtāḥ2  = tangled in the net of delusion [delusion-net-tangled in]; prasaktāḥ3 = engaged in; kāma-bhogeṣu4 = enjoyment of sensual desires; [they] patanti5 = fall; aśucau7narake6 = into unclean hell. 16.16

(16.16) Bewildered by many thoughts, entangled in the meshes of delusion and addicted to the gratification of desires, they fall into a foul hell.

 

आत्मसंभाविताः स्तब्धा धनमानमदान्विताः ।

यजन्ते नामयज्ञैस्ते दम्भेनाविधिपूर्वकम् ॥१६- १७॥

ātmasaṁbhāvitāḥ stabdhā dhanamānamadānvitāḥ
yajante nāmayajais te dambhenāvidhipūrvakam 16.17

ātma-sambhāvitāḥ1 stabdhā2 dhana-māna-mada-anvitāḥ3
yajante4 nāma-yajaiḥ5 te6 dambhena7 avidhi-pūrvakam8 16.17

 

ātma-sambhāvitāḥ1 = Self-conceited; stabdhā2 = arrogant; dhana-māna-mada-anvitāḥ3  = possessed of wealth, pride and delusion [wealth-pride-delusion-possessed of]; te6 = they; yajante4 = perform sacrifices; nāma-yajaiḥ5 = sacrifices in name only;  dambhena7 = with vanity; avidhi-pūrvakam8  = devoid of sacred injunctions.16.17

(16.17) Self-conceited, obstinate, filled with the pride and arrogance of wealth, they perform sacrifices which are so only in name with ostentation and without regard to rules.

 

अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः ।

मामात्मपरदेहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः ॥१६- १८॥

ahaṁkāraṁ balaṁ darpaṁ kāmaṁ krodhaṁ ca saṁśritāḥ
mām ātmaparadeheṣu pradviṣantobhyasūyakāḥ 16.18

ahaṅkāram1 balam2 darpam3 kāmam4 krodham5 ca6 saṁśritāḥ7
mām8 ātma-para-deheṣu9 pradviṣantaḥ10 abhyasūyakāḥ11 16.18

 

saṁśritāḥ7 = Engaged in; ahaṅkāram1 balam2 darpam3 kāmam4 ca6 krodham5 =  egoism, strength, pride, lust, and anger;  abhyasūyakāḥ11 = the jealous or the envious; pradviṣantaḥ10 = hate; mām8 = Me; [abiding] ātma-para-deheṣu9  = in their own and other's bodies [as the Inner Abider].  16.18
 

(16.18) Given over to self-conceit, force and pride and also to lust and anger, these malicious people despise Me dwelling in the bodies of themselves and others.

l "God dwells as witness of their evil life.'' S.

 

तानहं द्विषतः क्रुरान्संसारेषु नराधमान् ।

क्षिपाम्यजस्रमशुभानासुरीष्वेव योनिषु ॥१६- १९॥

tān ahaṁ dviṣataḥ krurān saṁsāreṣu narādhamān
kṣipāmy ajasram aśubhān āsurīṣv eva yoniṣu 16.19

tān1 aham2 dviṣataḥ3 krurān4 saṁsāreṣu5 nar-adhamān6
kṣipāmi7 ajasram8 aśubhān9 āsurīṣu10 eva11 yoniṣu12 16.19

 

 tān1 = Those; [who are] dviṣataḥ3 = hateful; krurān4 = cruel; aśubhān9 = the inauspicious; nar-adhamān6 = the lowest of men; saṁsāreṣu5 = in the worlds; aham2 = I; kṣipāmi7 = throw; [them] ajasram8 = for ever;  āsurīṣu10 yoniṣu12 = into the demonic wombs; eva11 = indeed. 16.19


(16.I9) These cruel haters, worst of men, I hurl constantly these evil-doers only into the wombs of demons in (this cycle of) births and deaths.

 

आसुरीं योनिमापन्ना मूढा जन्मनि जन्मनि ।

मामप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय ततो यान्त्यधमां गतिम् ॥१६- २०॥

āsurīṁ yonim āpannā mūḍhā janmanijanmani
mām aprāpyaiva kaunteya tato yānty adhamāṁ gatim 16.20

āsurīm1 yonim2 āpannāḥ3 mūḍhāḥ4 janmani-janmani5
mām6 aprāpya7 eva8 kaunteya9 tataḥ10 yānti11 adhamām12 gatim13 16.20

 

āpannāḥ3 = Having obtained; āsurīm1 = demonic; yonim2 = womb; janmani-janmani5 = birth after birth;  mūḍhāḥ4 = the fools; aprāpya7 = without ever coming to; mām6 = Me;  eva8 = indeed; yānti11 = attain; gatim13 = states tataḥ10  adhamām12 = lower than that;  kaunteya9 = O Kaunteya.16.20  

 

 

(16.20) Fallen into the wombs of demons, these deluded beings from birth to birth, do not attain to Me, O Son of Kuntī (Arjuna), but go down to the lowest state.

l We are advised to shake off this demoniac nature. This does not mean predestination, for it is said that it is always open to us to turn Godward and achieve perfection. It is not impossible

at any stage. The Indwelling Spirit is in each soul and that means the hope of immortality is always there. Even the greatest sinner, if he turns to God, can achieve freedom. See IV..36.

 

त्रिविधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनमात्मनः ।

कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयं त्यजेत् ॥१६- २१॥

trividhaṁ narakasyedaṁ dvāraṁ nāśanam ātmanaḥ
kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobhas tasmād etat trayaṁ tyajet 16.21

trividham1 narakasya2 idam3 dvāram4 nāśanam5 ātmanaḥ6
kāmaḥ7 krodhaḥ8 tathā9 lobhaḥ10 tasmāt11 etat12 trayam13 tyajet14 16.21

 

idam3 = This; dvāram4 = gate; narakasya2 = of hell;  nāśanam5 = the annihilator; ātmanaḥ6 = of the self or soul; [is of] trividham1 = three kinds:  kāmaḥ7 = lust; krodhaḥ8 = anger; tathā9 = also; lobhaḥ10 = greed; tasmāt11 = therefore; etat12 = these; trayam13 = three; [should be]  tyajet14 = given up. 16.21

 

(16.21) The gateway of this hell leading to the ruin of the soul is threefold, lust, anger and greed. Therefore these three, one should abandon.

 

एतैर्विमुक्तः कौन्तेय तमोद्वारैस्त्रिभिर्नरः ।

आचरत्यात्मनः श्रेयस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥१६- २२॥

etair vimuktaḥ kaunteya tamodvārais tribhir naraḥ
ācaraty ātmanaḥ śreyas tato yāti parāṁ gatim 16.22

etaiḥ1 vimuktaḥ2 kaunteya3 tamaḥ-dvāraiḥ4 tribhiḥ5 naraḥ6
ācarati7 ātmanaḥ8 śreyaḥ9 tataḥ10 yāti11 parām gatim12 16.22

 

kaunteya3 = O Kaunteya; vimuktaḥ2 = liberated; etaiḥ1 = from these; tribhiḥ5 = three; tamaḥ-dvāraiḥ4 = gates to darkness;  naraḥ6 = a person; ācarati7 = does strive; śreyaḥ9 = for the good; ātmanaḥ8 = of the soul;  tataḥ10 = thereby; yāti11 = he obtains; parām gatim12 = Supreme Goal.  16.22 

 

(16.22) The man who is released from these, the three gates to darkness, O son of Kuntī (Arjuna), does what is good for his soul and then reaches the highest state .

 

यः शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य वर्तते कामकारतः ।

न स सिद्धिमवाप्नोति न सुखं न परां गतिम् ॥१६- २३॥

yaḥ śāstravidhim utsṛjya vartate kāmakārataḥ
na sa siddhim avāpnoti na sukhaṁ na parāṁ gatim 16.23

yaḥ1 śāstra-vidhim2 utsṛjya3 vartate4 kāma-kārataḥ5
na6 saḥ7 siddhim8 avāpnoti9 na sukham10 na parām gatim11 16.23

 

yaḥ1 = He; utsṛjya3 = having abandoned; śāstra-vidhim2 = scriptural injunctions;  vartate4 = acts; kāma-kārataḥ5 = under the dictates of desires; saḥ7 = he;  avāpnoti9 = attains; na6 = neither; siddhim8 = perfection;  na sukham10 = nor happiness; na parām gatim11 =  nor the Supreme State.16.23
 

(16.23) But he who discards the scriptural law and acts as his desires prompt him, he does not attain either perfection or happiness or the highest goal.

 

तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्यव्यवस्थितौ ।

ज्ञात्वा शास्त्रविधानोक्तं कर्म कर्तुमिहार्हसि ॥१६- २४॥

tasmāc chāstraṁ pramāṇaṁ te kāryākāryavyavasthitau
jātvā śāstravidhānoktaṁ karma kartum ihārhasi 16.24

tasmāt1 śāstram2 pramāṇam3 te4 kārya-akārya-vyavasthitau5
jātvā6 śāstra-vidhāna-uktam7 karma8 kartum9 iha10 arhasi11 16.24

 

tasmāt1 = Therefore; [let] śāstram2 = sacred texts; [be] te4 = your; pramāṇam3 = authority; kārya-akārya-vyavasthitau5  = in the determination of sanctioned action and prohibited action [san.action-proh.action-determination]. [After] jātvā6 = knowing; śāstra-vidhāna-uktam7= the sayings of Sastric injunctions [Sastras-injunctions- sayings]; arhasi11 = you should; kartum9 = perform; karma8 = action; iha10 = here [in this world].  16.24 

 

(16.24) Therefore let the scripture be thy authority for determining what should be done and what should not be done. Knowing what is declared by the rules of the scripture, thou shouldst do thy work in this world.

śāstra2:scripture.1

l The drive of desire must be displaced by the knowledge of right action, but when the supreme end of the freedom of spirit is attained, the individual acts not from instinct, not from law but from a deep insight into the spirit of all life. We generally act according to our personal desire, then regulate the course of our conduct by reference to prescribed social codes and ultimately attain a deeper intention of life's meaning and act according to its guidance. The prompting of desire (XVIII, 59), the guidance of law (XVI, 24) and the spontaneity of spirit (XVIII, 64; XI. 33) are the three stages.

ity daivāsurasaṁpadvibhāgayogo nāma oaśo 'dhyaya

This is the sixteenth chapter entitled The Yoga of the Distinction between the Divine and the Demoniac Endowments. 1 Cp, śāsti ya: sādhanopāyam puruṣāthasya nirmalam,

tathā eva bādhanāpāyam tat śāstram iti kathyate.