Bhagavad-Gita: 18 Chapters in Sanskrit


Download Bhagavadgita-all 18 chapters in Sanskrit, English,

transliteration and word for word translation.

Bhagavadgita in English








































You have your Google search engine tailored for this site.

Please enter the word(s) in the search box; it will take you to the file with that word in this web site. Enjoy your visit here.

Veeraswamy Krishnaraj, M.D

Support Wikipedia Sound-Sabda

Mark Twain said:  India is, the cradle of the human race, the  birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the  grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition.
Our most valuable and most constructive materials in the history of  man are treasured up in
India only.

Sabda is sound, which is more ancient than gods and men, precedes creation, and is eternal, indivisible, creative, and imperceptible in its subtle form. Sound is not just what you hear with your ear. Wherever there is motion and vibration of any kind that is sound, according to Tantra as said by Woodroffe. Movement causes sound; we do not have instruments to pick up the sound of the movement of subatomic particles.

Sound is classified as follows: Sphota, Nada, Anahata, and Ahata.

Vak (Vaak) means word, sound or sabda; the Latin Vox comes from Sanskrit Vaak.

Sphota (स्फोट) literally means bursting and is eternal, indivisible, creative, and imperceptible.  

Tantra literature goes further in elaborating Sphota. 

Sphota is derived from the world Sphut (स्फुट्) meaning to burst or to open like a bud. The implication is (as the bud opens) as the word is sounded or articulated, the meaning of the word is revealed. The letter or letters by themselves carry no meaning until we connect them with an object or idea. When that object or idea is cognized, Sphota takes place. Sphota, before it opens, is in an undifferentiated partless state. It resides in Sabda Brahman, the Brahman of Sounds. When it differentiates, it falls into two parts: Sabda and Artha, Sound and Meaning. Sound exists as Nada (नाद) in Sabda Brahman and the force that makes it blossom is Bindu (बिन्दु), which is also resident in Sabda Brahman. Unmanifested Sound = Avyakta Sabda; Manifested Sound = Vyakta Sabda. Bindu is enzymatic and has the same function as the Maya of Brahman of Upanishads. Brahman transforms into Isvara with Maya as an instrument or enzyme that makes the world visible to the senses. Maya of Suddha Saivism does not have the same meaning found in Upanishads. In the former, it means the building blocks of the universe--Tattvas or Saktis. But Maya (illusion) of Isvara, the clinical Brahman of both Siva and Vishnu, have the same functionality.

Refer to BG Chater 7 Knowledge and Realization: Chapter7, Verse 14 commentary on Maya.


Natural Sounds and Natural Names:

Inspiration for this article came from Natural Name by Woodroffe in Garland of letters. For better understanding, new terms introduced by me are as follows: Primary Essential Sound (Causal Stress Sound) and External Stress Sound (Stress).

There is movement in all that exists. All movements (and objects) emit sound whether you hear it or not. Remember atoms in objects spin and make sound but we cannot hear that sound.  If you can hear that sound and name it after the way it sounds that is Natural Name of that sound or the object that produced the sound. Cuckoo is named onomatopoeically so because it emits that which sounds like "cuckoo". In Tamil a Crow is named after its sound Ka (கா). Since it usually makes two consecutive Ka-Kas, it is called KAKA (¸ˇ¸ˇ). If you can hear the sound of the sap moving up the tree from its roots, you can give it a Natural Name. The Uncreated Brahman is Unmoving (Nispanda  निष्पन्द); the created world is moving and anything that moves makes sound. Sound is the basic phenomenon by which man apprehends the world. All else such as touch and feel, form and color, taste, and smell are all complex sounds. The skin, the eyes, the tongue and the nose are the peripheral organs that transmit the 'sound' to the respective cortex. Human ear and the brain cannot hear all sounds. Elephants in the wild communicate by sounds that humans cannot hear. Humans cannot smell what a dog smells. Smell is also a movement or sound. A dog can smell a narcotic 10 feet away from its source. Something moved from the narcotic to the nose for the dog to apprehend the narcotic. In like manner the Supreme Absolute Ear of Sakti can hear sounds in its purest state from all objects and that sound is the Natural Name for that object. Objects produce two kinds of sounds: Causal Stress Sound (Primary Essential Sound) and External Stress Sound. Let us take a tuning fork. There is a sound, though not audible to us, emanating from a non-vibrating tuning fork; that is the Causal Stress Sound we don't hear and yet is heard by the Supreme Absolute Ear of Sakti and accomplished Yogi and is produced by the motions of Subatomic Particles. When the tuning fork is subject to external stress (tapping), it vibrates and emits sound and that is the stress-induced sound heard by the Relative Ear. What the Yogi hears from the non-vibrating tuning fork is imperfect sound because only Brahman or Prajapati can hear the Natural Sound in its perfection with His Supreme Absolute Ear which is not gross or physical. Prajapati hears without ears, sees without eyes and walks without legs. The Prajapati utters the Causal Stress Sound  by His Supreme Tongue to his Sadhaka who hears it by his imperfect Relative ear in a distorted way. When the Yogi rises to the level of Prajapati, the Causal Stress Sound sounds true to its quality to him. The Yogi communicates the Causal Stress Sound to his disciples who hear the sound in varying degrees of imperfection. Mantra Sastra states that Bija (बीज) Mantras (Seed Mantras sounding the Sanskrit letters) represent the Natural Names. The breath consisting of Inspiration and Expiration emits the sound of Prana-Bija Mantra, Hamsa. The out-breath sound is Ham and the in-breath sound is Sa. Om is the sound that has come down from its pristine natural state to its present form, structure and sound through many MAnasaputras and a line of Gurus, who tried to reproduce the sound to the best of their ability. Woodroffe states that it is an open continuous sound uninterrupted by any consonant which clips it, vanishing as it were upward in the NAdabindu which is placed on the vowel.



Scientists Capture Sound of a Single Atom.  Sep 13, 2014

Scientists at Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden, have revealed that they have captured the sound of a single atom and it sounded like a D-note.

"We have opened a new door into the quantum world by talking and listening to atoms. Our long term goal is to harness quantum physics so that we can benefit from its laws, for example in extremely fast computers", said study co-author Per Delsing, a physics professor at the university.

The study saw creation of an artificial atom 0.01 millimeters long, which was placed on the end of a superconducting material. After this, sound waves were guided along the surface of the material and sound was bounced off of the atom. A tiny microphone located on the other end of the material recorded the sound that came back.




Interpretation of the term, "Natural".

1) The Supreme Absolute Ear (of God) hears the Primary Essential Sound (Causal Stress Sound) of an object without any distortion and He utters them with His Absolute Tongue without any distortion. Causal stress Sound that is emitted by the object  is the name of an Object.

2) When Prajapati (God) utters them to Yogis, what they hear varies according to their Relative Ear (of Yogi) and what they utter varies according their Relative Tongue. What we hear and utter are not Natural Sounds because we hear with imperfect relative ears and brain and utter with imperfect tongues. The Mantras Om, Ham, Ram are all distorted sounds as heard and uttered by the imperfect us; the degree of distortion depends on the nature and sensitivity of the Relative Ear and Tongue.

3) Cuckoo and the crow are named onomatopoeically from the sound they make. This is the sound they make when subjected to stress--External Stress-induced Sound. When the firewood is burning, it emits many sounds, which the Relative Gross Ear hears. The Causal Stress Sound or the Primary Essential Sound fire emits is Bija Mantra Ram रं  which only a Yogi hears. Various organs in the body make Causal Stress Sound Hamsa हंस and so on. Primordial Sounds descend to our relative levels according to our Relative Ears and Relative Tongues. Some do not descend to us at all.


 The Britisher heard the word Tiruvanantapuram (Tiru-Ananta-Puram) the name of a famous Temple Town in Kerala, dating back to 1000 B.C.. His relative ear, his relative tongue and his penchant to untwist his tongue made him say Trivandrum. He knows the word TRI (meaning three); he knows the word VAN ( for vehicle) and he knows the word DRUM (that you beat). He put them all together and used the corrupted word, TRIVANDRUM (Three + Van + Drum) for the sacred town. The original meaning of the word was Sacred-Endless-City. Tiru + Ananta + Puram = Sacred + Endless + City.  Thus the Sacred-Endless-City has come to be known as Three + Van + Drum.  Now you see how relative ear and relative tongue can alter the sacred sound and meaning of a word and create an ignominious name for a sacred city.  One can say it is the 'City of Lord Ananta.'  Ananta is a serpent; the endless coils represent endless time; Vishnu, who is beyond time, reclines on the bed of snake, Ananta. Vishnu is called PadmaNabhaSwamy (Lotus-navel-God  = one who has lotus sprouting from His navel). The navel lotus is His Baby, the universe and beings, on which sits Brahma the creator. --Krishnaraj

Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient city with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BC. It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BC. The city was the trading post of spices, sandalwood and ivory. However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was almost entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala. The early rulers of the city were the Ays. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the rulers of Venad.--Wikipedia.


4) Objects are named by Denotation and Connotation.

       de·no·ta·tion:  SaktyArtha, AbhidAsakti. Intrinisic, direct. Literal power or sense of the word. Primary name

1. the explicit or direct meaning or set of meanings of a word or expression, as distinguished from the ideas or meanings associated with it or suggested by it; the association or set of associations that a word usually elicits for most speakers of a language, as distinguished from those elicited for any individual speaker because of personal experience. Cf. connotation.

Ram is the Denotation of Fire. Ram is the Primary Essential Causal Stress Sound for Fire. Ram is the name for Fire that Yogi hears from the Absolute.

con·no·ta·tion: LaksyArtha, laksanAsakti  Secondary meaning, with attributes or qualities. Secondary Name

the associated or secondary meaning of a word or expression in addition to its explicit or primary meaning: A possible connotation of "home" is "a place of warmth, comfort, and affection." Cf. Denotation

Ram is the Denotation of Fire. Ram is the Primary Essential Causal Stress Sound for Fire. Agni, Vahni, HutAsana are connotation and the Secondary External stress-induced Sound for Ram.

Ram-रं is the Denotation of Fire. Ram is the Primary Essential Causal Stress Sound for Fire. Ram is the name for Fire that Yogi hears from the Absolute. Agni-अग्नि is the Sanskrit name (Connotation) for Fire; Agni is the connotated name heard by the ear. The Europeans hear the word Agni and their imperfect tongue called it Ignis. From Ignis came the word Ignition.

5) "Primary and Secondary names may be combined in such order (Krama) and metre or harmony (Chandah) that by vitalizing one another, these in combination may appear as an approximate name of thing or process.

Bible gives its version as to how the names of objects came about in Genesis II

18  And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.
19  And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.
20  And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.

Para Bindu is Sabda Brahman (SB) or Brahman of Sounds also known as Isvara. When SB undergoes differentiation, it becomes Avyak-tarava (Unmanifest Sound), which is the Hidden Word from which all manifested speech and denoted objects arise.  This is Para Sabda or Supreme Sound and its evolution is called Para Sabda Srsti or the birth of Supreme Sound.  Kundalini Sakti is Sabdabrahman when appears in the body of a human being, as in Muladhara Chakra. In Her Corporeal appearance She is called Kundalini SabdaBrahmaMayi. From Kundalini comes in a cascade form Dhvani, NAda, Nirodhika, Ardhendu, Bindu and Para, all in a linear fashion; the previous entity is the origin of the next entity. Kundalini and Sabdabrahman, an aspect of Caitanya or Consciousness point to one and the same entity.  Sakti is pervasion of Sattva Guna into Cit (SattvapravistA). When Sattva and Rajas pervade Cit (RajonuviddhA), it is called Dhvani; this is known as AksarAvasthA (Aksara + Avastha = Abiding in letter or Aksaram).  Nada is the Cit or Consciousness pervaded by Tamas (Tamonuviddha or AvyaktAvasthA).  Nirodhika is Cit with abundance of Tamas. Ardhendu is Cit with abundance of Sattva.  Bindu is Cit equal amounts of Sattva and Tamas.  All these pervasions by Gunas make the Sakti fully potent for manifestation and infuse Kriya Sakti to attain full creative perfection.  The sacred text says the Sakti is moved by Iccha (Desire), illumined by Jnana (Knowledge) and induced by Kriya (Action). ParA state is when Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are in equilibrium (SAmya). Since the three gunas are in equilibrium, there is no motion (Nispanda) in ParA. Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari are the manifested forms of unmanifested ParA, Para Bindu or Sabda Brahman. ParA is in Muladhara, Pasyanti in Svaddhisthana, Madhyama in Anahata and Vaikhari in the throat.

 Pasyanti state is when all the Gunas are disequilibrium. Madhyama is in two forms: Subtle and gross. In gross form it makes nine forms of sound: 1) Vowel sounds, 2) Kavarga: Ka series--5 in number, 3) Cavarga: Ca series--5, 4) Ṭavarga: Ṭa series, 5) Tavarga--Ta series, 6) Pavarga--Pa series, 7) Ya series--Ya, Ra, La,and Va, 7: Ksa


Kundali as she goes upwards from Muladhara in ParA state (Para-VAk or Cit Sakti), She is called UrddhavagAmini (the One who goes up). She becomes self-manifesting (SvyamprakAsA) Pasyanti (associated with Manas) in Susumna NAdi at the level of Svadhisthana Chakra. When She reaches the Heart Lotus, She becomes MadhyamA associated with Buddhi as form of NAdarupini. From Anahata She goes up as undifferentiated 'hum'. She appears at the chest, throat, teeth, nose, palate, and head, assumes the form of letters (Varna), emerges as Vaikhari (the mother of all sounds) from the root of the tongue and lips and becomes audible to the sense of hearing.

Para Vak of no vibration, Visual Pasyanti of mind, Jnana and general motion, Madhyama with Buddhi and specific ideation and articulating Vaikhari (when the originally mental sound or thought exhibits hardness and solidity) are Kundalini Sakti as She moves upwards.  Vaikhari = Vai = very; Khara = hard. another definition: Vai = certainly + Kha = cavity (of the ear) + R = to go or enter. the 3rd explanation: Vikhara is the Prana that produces Her.  Vaikhari is VirAtsabda meaning the manifested letters send sound waves in singles, syllables, words, and Mantras.  Vaikhari utterance is so sacred that all sounds are Mantras, which in every day speech mean letters, syllables and words used in UpAsanA and Mantryoga.

Sound, Meaning and Mantra: Sabda is Sound, Artha is meaning denoting the object, and Mantra refers to a sound form of Devata that the Sadhaka has not seen. Devata in Mantra exists only as a sound in this material world and not as a palpable entity. Mantra is like Love, which one can feel in the mind but cannot see, smell, touch or taste.  The first step is to transform the Mantra Sound of a Devata to a Power like Love by SAdhana Sakti. This power like love creates a mental impression and leaves a mental imprint, which is more than the memory left by the word of Mantra.  This imprint or mental image is a faint light unlike the mental image of a book, a pen etc.  By marrying the Mantra Sakti with SAdhana Sakti, the SAdhaka creates Consciousness of Devata in the mind, which grows as the SAdhaka becomes more and more efficient.  Devata Consciousness grows like Love.  Mantra is VAcaka Sakti, the power of word and Saguna Devata, Devata in the form of word and thus She is Mantramayi which is Her Gross Form (Sthula). In Her Light or Her Suksma form (Subtle form), She is Jyotirmayi. Jyoti = light.  The Direct Knowledge of the Light and merger with Devata Consciousness is Realization.  Mantra is Devata in Word Form. Yantra is diagrammatic representation of Devata on a plate, paper....Light is Her Subtle Form.

The sacred texts says the following. Japa or Mantra repetition wakes up Sadhaka's higher consciousness. The two moving lips of the Sadhaka are Siva and Sakti; Movement indicates Mithuna (Coition) of Siva and Sakti. The product is Bindu or Boy Siva (Bala Siva). All this is symbolism for the development of Devata Consciousness in the Sadhaka who can strengthen it for his good.

The Cosmic Mind (CM) is dreaming and thinks the dream-thoughts; the dream-objects that are thought of are in a subtle state. This is the Dream Sleep (Svapna) of the Cosmic Mind. CM is thus the subject and object (GrAhaka and GrAhya).

CM as a subject is Sabda or Sound. Thought is Mental Sound. The mental imagery of the dream-object is subtle Artha or meaning.  (You are the subject. Think of apple; you and your mind become apple, the object; you, your mind and the apple are one; thus CM is the subject, the dream-thought,  and the object.) This dream-thought before it becomes an object is called MadhyamA Sabda (Middle sound, Inner Naming, Hidden Speech). MAtrikA (Little Mothers) are the subtle forms of gross speech; Subtle Speech is anthropomorphized as Mother. The Consciousness of the CM differentiates into two: Subject and object.  Now the stage is set for the Cosmic dream-thoughts assume palpable objectivity; the Cosmic Mind projects the dream-thoughts on to the material plane and the dream-thoughts become palpable objects. This is the Jagrat or the Cosmic Waking State.  At this stage, the mental sound of Madhyama acquires Gross Sound or Speech through vocal organs. The speech is made of letters, syllables, words and sentences. The mental Sound has become the Manifested Sound or Name. The named physical objects denoted by speech assume Artha or Meaning or Form (Rupa).  A Single language was born, spoken and written in letters and words. Here is a Biblical description of how a single language and people were fragmented and scattered all over the globe.

The Tower of Babel: Bible says Babel was a city that united humanity, all speaking a single Adamic language and migrating from the east. Nimrod was the king and Babel was the city. The language of Adam and Eve was spoken by humanity and then Tower of Babel was built not for glory of God but for false man-made religion; Yahweh was offended by the edifice, confused the single language, fragmented the people and the language and scattered them all over the globe.

Kali withdraws the world, words, the letters and the world of duality of Aham and Idam  (I and This) and they all became one subsiding in Her Own Svarupa or nature (Her Consciousness).  That is the Cosmic Deep Sleep State (Svapna). Now The Cosmic Mind has to do the Dream-Sleep to create a new world of Logos and its products. Kali is the Originator of Sanskrit letters and wears them as a garland of letters marked on the skulls.



Nibodhikā is a phase of Avyakta-nada (Avyakta-nādātmikā), and is fire-like. Raghava-bhatta says: "Nāda exists in three states. When Tamo-guna is dominant, it is merely sound unmanifest (Avyakta-nada) in the nature of Dhvani (sound); when Rajo-guna is more dominant, there is sound in which there is somewhat of a placing of the letters1; when the Sattva­guna preponderates, Nada assumes the form of Bindu." Hence Nada, Bindu, and Nibodhika, are respectively the Sun, the Moon, and Fire,' and their activities are Jnāna, Iccha, and Kriya; Jnana, again, is Fire, Iccha the Moon, and Kriya the Sun. --Woodroffe

letters1 = Letters exit in undifferentiated form until they take a shape.


Nada: नाद. This sound is perceptible only to a Rishi. Nad is flow; Nada is sound.

Anahata अनाहत means unbeaten, unstruck, unwound, intact; new and unbleached; a sound that is produced by means other than by beating or of two objects striking each other. It generally means ‘OM.’ In this context it means that the sound is potentially existent, as in thought, preverbal in its evolution and expression.  It is latent sound, ready to unwind from the mind and find expression. Analogy used to hear the unstruck sound is to occlude or cover both your ears with the cupped palms and hear the buzz. Here it is not really an unstruck sound, because the blood flow in the capillaries and other blood vessels striking the vessel walls create that sound which is perceived by the auditory apparatus and interpreted as buzz by the hearing area of the brain. Anyhow that conveys the idea what an unstruck sound is.  In Yogis practicing meditation, it is a mystic sound whose origin is assumed to be transcendental. It is not hallucination, which, if it is, is welcomed by Yogis. It is also heard by the dying, whose origin is unknown. For Buddhists, it is ‘a sound of golden bell.’ In Kundalini Yoga (the fourth Chakra or plane, Anahata or heart Chakra), it is a sound of Sabdabrahman, which needs no clanging of two objects (to produce the sound). It is the sound not of the tongue or larynx, but of the spiritual heart. Devotee’s (Bhakta) attention is focused on Anāhata plane of the heart, while Yogis concentrate on Ajna Chakra of the glabella (forehead) and the Vedantists seek the Para Nada in Hiranya Garba, the Golden Egg of the inverted thousand-petaled Sahasrara Chakra on the crown. Brahma (Siva’s surrogate or manifestation for creation) is the source of all Sounds. (Kali worshippers differ to say that Kali is the origin of letters.) In Egyptian mythology, the heart is the center of consciousness. Thoughts in the heart morphed into words on the tongue which when uttered by Ptah became gods, people, cities, temples, and places of Egypt. Such is the power of words of the God Ptah of Memphis. Brahma had mind-born sons along the same lines as Ptah had thought and word-born beings. Egyptian god thinks in his heart while Brahma thinks in the head (four heads). Atum, the God of Heliopolis, the creator coexisted with Ptah in their creative process.  There is agreement between Egyptian and Indian view that the sound has its seat in the heart. According to Indian belief sound exists in all Kundalini Chakras. In the heart it exists as Anahata (unstruck sound). Bible says that God said, "let there be light; there was Light." Where did the God's word originate from: head or heart?

Ahata means struck, or beaten as a drum. It is a struck sound; it has a known origin. It encompasses all sounds heard and unheard by humans within the decibel and frequency range of animals and humans. It is unlike Nāda which is heard only by Rishis or Seers. 

Sound is of divine origin. In combination with Bindu (Light, Point), Nāda/Nada is the incorporeal cause of (this material world, including) personal god Siva and Sakti, from whom all tattvas and universe originated. Here personal god Siva (Isvara) is different from formless ParaSiva, who is ontologic and hierarchical  superior; the latter is the origin of Bindu and Nada. To put it differently, Isvara is the progeny (son, grandson etc) of God, Parasiva. Paraparam, the God (the Highest and Beyond the beyond), the male aspect, in Consciousness, consorted with Paraparai (the divine energy of Siva) and gives birth to Param (the excellent or the Supreme). Param, in union with Parai (Energy) gives birth to Nada (Sound) which unites with Bindu (Light), Siva and Sakti. Siva, Sakti, Nada and Bindu form the Quadplex or Tetralogy, the basis, on which all constructs of Saiva Siddhanta are built. With Jnana and Kriya Saktis (V2007*, equivalent to Sattva and Rajas), the Lord is the Sound (Nada) itself. Sound evolves from subtle to gross form. The Lord enters Muladhara plane as Paranada, the most subtle form of sound. As the sound rises through other planes and acquires more attributes, it ends in Vaikhari (speech), the gross sound which consists of Varna (letters of the alphabet), syllable, letter, pitch, Matra (measures), and Svara (accents, rhythm). Articulation or Vaikhari is the grossest expression of Divine Sound Energy. The Lord materializes first as Para Vani (Primal Subtle Sound) in Muladhara Chakra, materializes himself as Pasyanti in Manipura Chakra at the level of the navel, reveals himself as unexpressed Madhyama sound in Anahata Chakra at the level of the heart and eventually as Vaikhari speech in the throat. The Para sound exists in the body of Isvara; Pasyanti and Madhyama exist in the body of jiva; Vaikhari is the end result of differentiated sound. The same argument is applied to Kundalini Devi as the origin of the sound.

The Primal Sound is the most subtle and as it descends from Paranada, it assumes gross forms eventually resulting in speech. Kundalini Sound is classified as follows:

Para Nada (Vāni): (The Transcendental Sound) The Primal Sound’s seat is at the Muladhara plane of Kundalini. It is undifferentiated sound, though it is the source of root ideas or germ thoughts. It is not within the reach of ordinary consciousness. Nada Yogis claim that Para Nada is a high frequency sound, so high that it does not stir or produce vibrations; it is a still sound.

Pasyanti (seeing, observing—Visual Sound) Its seat is Manipura Chakra at the level of navel or Svadhistana plane . Yogis experience it in the form of color and form, which are common to all languages. It is akin to universal sign language, which is understood by all cultures, animals, birds, and humans. All body parts participate in Pasyanti language: the ears, the eyes, the limbs and so on. When someone bares his teeth, raises his sword or points his gun, that is a visual sound of aggression. The near comparison is sights and sounds in a dream, in which there is no actual sound; the ear does not hear because there is no external source for the sound; if the ear hears, you will wake up. It is neither produced by an instrument or by a vocal organ nor heard by anatomical ears.  It is a mental sound; it is heard by the inner ear (not the inner ear of anatomist).  Where is the visual aspect to this sound?  When you chant the name of Krishna or Ram silently within yourself while visualizing him in color and form, that visualization in the chant is Pasyanti. I understand that some Yogis experience synesthesia in that the letters appear in different colors.  Pasyanti's frequency is less than the high frequency sound of Para Nada. When you take, raise and flail a stick, the nearby bird flies off; that is the universal Pasyanti visual sound, interpreted by most land animals as visual sound of aggression. It is the visual language of the body. Pasyanti BhAva associated with manas is the state of Kundalini when she reaches Svadhistana plane.

Madhyama (middle, intermediate—Mental Sound): Its seat is the heart (Anahata Chakra). The sound is of the heart and not of the tongue, associated with Buddhi and NAda. The yogis experience flashes of transcendental knowledge from the Source. Its frequency is in the hearing range. Anahata sounds heard by the yogis are chini, chini-chini (onomatopoetic sounds), the sound of bell, conch, lute, cymbals, flute, drum, Mridanga (double-drum), and the last thunder. These ten Anahata sounds can be heard at random subsequently and only during meditation. Ahata Sound as opposed to Anahata is the sound that is produced by an external sound producer such as a drum and perceived by an anatomical sensory organ such as ear. Anahata sounds originating in the spiritual heart are perceived by the non-anatomical spiritual or subtle ear. Para Brahman is attained, when one hears the tenth sound; that is lysis or absorption; you and the sound become one; one enters into Bliss. As the Yogi hears these sounds, he becomes adept in knowing hidden things, hears ParA VAk, develops divine eye and eventually becomes one with Para Brahman.


Vaikhari: (Articulation, Speech) It is the speech that originates in the larynx. Vaikhari is the mother (origin) of letters of Alphabet (Varna), syllables (Pada),  words (Vak), and sentences (Vakya). Vaikhari speech is VikAra sound: modified sound from the larynx.

    The stages of sound from the most subtle to articulated sound have concordance with the evolution of Primal Being from Avyakta through Brahman, Isvara, Hiranyagarbha, and Virat, the last being the manifest world.

    The sound in Muladhara is Tamasic, impinges the mind upon arriving in Svadhistana or Manipura Chakras, takes on the color of Buddhi upon arriving in Anahata or heart plane and flows out in combinations of fifty letters upon the arrival of Kundalini in the Visuddha (larynx) plane.   SOUND.1.jpg




Nada Yogis and Tirumular believe that the universe originates from Sound. Sabda (sound) Brahman or Nada Brahman is the cause of the universe. All major and some lesser known religions pronounce Sound as the origin of the universe. (The primordial sound Om generates the cosmic energy which spreads like circles in the pond and becomes the Mahat, the immediate progenitor of the universe, according to one source.) Nada is the mother (originator) of five subtle elements, five gross elements, five motor organs, five sensory organs, four karanas, three gunas and others.


Fire exists in the wood as latent heat and fire, and that is (latent) Para Vani; friction of the wood manifests sparks and that is (the visual) Pasyanti; a small flame is Madhyama; and the big flame is Vaikhari.  Wind (air) is the mediator and facilitator of spark and fire as it is the mediator of Sound also; the (mediator) Lord serves the same purpose in sound and speech. Para Vani, Pasyanti, and Madhyama are the subtle sounds, remaining deep and unfathomable, while Vikhari is the gross sound, which can be quantified (and qualified). Vaikhari starts as Pranava (OM) and assumes characters and characteristics to become Vedas (and spoken and written words). Para resides in the breath or Prana, Pasyanti in mind, Madhyama in Indriyas (body parts and organs), and Vaikhari in larynx.

Paranada is the Supreme Sound Energy; it is transcendental. It shows as sprout in Para Vani, two leaves in Pasyanti, buds in Madhyama, blossoms in Vaikhari or Vak. Blossoms look beautiful but Vaikhari is the lowest of sounds; Para is the highest of sounds, because that is where the germ ideas originate.

ParA state is that state when Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are in equilibrium (SAmya). Pasyanti state is when all the Gunas are disequilibrium. Madhyama is in two forms: Subtle and gross. In gross form it makes nine forms of sound: 1) Vowel sounds, 2) Kavarga: Ka series--5 in number, 3) Cavarga: Ca series--5, 4) Ṭavarga: Ṭa series, 5) Tavarga--Ta series, 6) Pavarga--Pa series, 7) Ya series--Ya, Ra, La, and Va, 7: Ksa


The anatomical locations of the Sound Centers:







V2007* : Verse 2007 Tirumantiram


வைகரி யாதியும் மாயா மலாதியும்
பொய்கரி யான புருடாதி பேதமும்
மெய்கரி ஞானம் கிரியா விசேடத்துச்
செய்கரி ஈசன் அனாதியே செய்ததே.

Vaikari and rest of sounds,

Maya and rest of impurities,

Purush and rest of illusory Tattvas--All these,

Acting on Saktis, jnana and Kriya,

The Lord true from time immemorial made

Translation: Dr. B. Natarajan


Para Sound or transcendental Sound (Nada Tattva) originates from Siva Tattva, the First of the Suddha Tattvas and remains there in its most subtle state. (See file, Tattvas-36, for details on Tattvas.) Para Sound (Para Sabda) stays unmanifested in Kundali Sakti according to Tantras. It is a Tamasic sound in  Muladhara.  Pasyanti or visual sound originates from Sakti Tattva (Kundali Sakti), the 2nd of the Suddha Tattvas. Since Pasyanti sound is visual, Sakti Tattva is also known as Bindu Tattva, Bindu for Light. Creation is Sound and Light Show and therefore, Nada and Bindu are two sides of the same coin. But Nada is recognized as the origin of Bindu. While the coin is minted, Nada is the first stamp on the coin and Bindu is the 2nd stamp.


The fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet form the garland of heads (skulls) in Mahakali. She is the causal source of Sabda or sound and speech; she absorbs them back into herself at Maha Pralaya. Sabda Brahman or Sound Brahman is the manifest Brahman of sounds in all breathing creatures. Sabda finds expression in various creatures according to the level and sophistication of Sound Consciousness of Sabda Brahman in each species. When creation takes place, it is said that Viparita Maithuna (reversed coition) of  Mahakali and Mahakala (Sakti and Siva) takes place, and Bindu or seed is deposited in Prakrti resulting in the birth of Kundali Goddess in the nature and form of letters (Aksara).  Kundalini acquires three gunas one by one, Sattva first, Rajas next and Tamas last. If it were not for these gunas, Iccha, Jnana and Kriya Saktis will not be immanent in the goddess. When Sattva (goodness and virtue) enters her, she is called Cit-Sakti ; the condition results in Paramakasa-avastha (the state of Excellent dwelling or house). When Sattva and Rajas (motion and passion) enter her, she is called Dhvani (Sound); the condition is called Aksara-avastha (sound house). When Sattva, Rajas and Tamas enters her, she is called Nada (sound); the condition is Avyakta-avastha, unmanifest dwelling. When Sattva (Jnana) is dominant , she is half Moon (Ardhendu). When Tamas abounds in Nada, she is an obstructor (Nirodika). When both Sattva and Rajas are equal,  (Jnana and Iccha saktis, wisdom and will), she is Bindu. When Tamas enters her, the Lord or Goddess (Sakti) appears ready to create (Kriya sakti). At human level, Jnana, Ichha and Kriya (wisdom, will and action) are linear in that order; with Isvara, it is Ichha, Jnana and Kriya, linear in that order. The Great Will (Iccha Sakti) wells up in Isvara; the Lord knows (Jnana Sakti) what he wants to create; He acts on it (Kriya).  In men, a prior knowledge preconditions the will to act. Jnana Sakti is intrinsic in Siva Sakti. Kundali has the following features: Iccha, Jnana, and Kriya; the gunas; the garland of letters (Varnamala).

Notes: A latent mental sound is intonated or explodes from the glottis or voice box, Sphota happens and we hear the sound (Dhvani) which is registered by the ear because Dhvani carries vibration, frequency and decibel. Once the sound explodes in Sphota, attains the quality of sound in Dhvani, there must be something that can register the sound in consciousness via the ear; that something is Bindu, which is deified as deity, Sabdabrahman. For Dhvani or sound to acquire its qualities, Sattva, Rajas, and or Tamas pervades the sound. When the latent mental sound acquires Rajas (motion and passion), she is called Dhvani (sound).


Kundalini  settles down in Muladhara Chakra; She is known as Karana Bindu or Causal Bindu, the unmanifest precursor of sound (non-differentiated condition). When Karana Bindu undergoes evolution, it becomes Tribindu, three Bindus (Bindu, Nada and Bija); the first of the three is Karya Bindu (action Bindu), also called Sabdabrahman (Sound Brahman), which is static or motionless (Ni-Spanda, no motion) in Muladhara; sound is not in air for propagation. (Tri = three) When Sabdabrahman ascends to Manipura (Nabhi or Navel) area and associates with manas or mind, Pasyanti sound [Visual] sound is born. (Note 'Navel' is derived from Sanskrit word 'Naabhi.') This is first movement of sound, called Samanya-Spanda (common motion). When the modified Sabdabrahman proceeds from Manipura to the heart chakra and associates with buddhi, it becomes Madhyama or mental sound. This is special motion, called Visesa-Spanda. When this twice-modified Sabdabrahman proceeds to the larynx (Visuddha Chakra), its third motion is called distinct articulate sound. Sound and speech are compared to a tree: preverbal Vak (speech) sprouts in Para; Pasyanti leaf-bud sprouts, watered by mind; Madhyama flower-bud sprouts, nurtured and enriched by Buddhi (intellect); Vaikhari flower blooms as speech in the throat.



Sabda is divided into lettered and visual, and unlettered and audible (Varnatkamaka Sabda and Dhvanyatmaka Sabda).  The lettered sound is eternal while the audible sound is fleeting. All unlettered sounds like a roar, thunder, drum-beat, laughter, crying...are Dhvanis (mere sounds), while articulate speech can be put down in letters (Varnas). Dhvanis have no meaning, while Varnas have meaning. Dhvanis can be expressions of fright, anger, ....Dhvanis can become onomatopoeic sounds with meanings, while most of them have no meanings. Varnas are vocal articulate meaningful sounds. Dhvanis by and large are vocal or no-vocal sounds with or without meanings. The Hindu view is that the Varnas or letters are eternal from creation to dissolution.  The Sound Om goes on for ever from creation to dissolution. In the world of cacophony, one cannot hear this background sound of Om. But Yogis at an advanced stage of Sadhana (spiritual attainment) can hear this sound, when there is absolute quiet in the night. Dhvani is Anitya (non-eternal), indiscriminate and variable (VIkArI), while Varna-Sabda (letter-sound or Word-sound) is Nitya (eternal).

When an object is presented in the form of Varna (letters) or Dhvani (sound), the mind becomes the object and that is called Vrtti (mental modification).  When you hear the word APPLE, your mind becomes the apple. The palpable apple is the gross object (Sthula artha) and the mental apple is the subtle object (Mental impression). Woodroffe points that the mind is thus both a cognizer (GrAhaka) and cognized (GrAhya), revealer (PrakAsaka) and revealed (PrakAsya), denoter (VAcaka) and denoted (VAcya). VAcaka is the name (Apple) and Vacya is the object (the fruit) with the name.  The mind cognizes the apple, becomes the apple, reveals the apple, is the apple itself, the fruit (its body) and its essence (unmanifest seed or juice). The same principle is applied to a devotee who worships a deity. Chanting of Mantra makes mental modifications. The terms 'denoter' and the denoted are applied to Mantra, used in meditation. The power of Mantra is of two kinds: Vacaka Sakti and Vacya Sakti. Vacaka Sakti is to realize Saguna Brahman (Isvara, the fruit) and Vacya Sakti is to realize Nirguna Brahman (Brahman, the seed of the fruit). By meditating on the deity, he becomes the deity. There is an analogy given for this phenomenon, which is the Maxim of Wasp and Worm.  A worm thinks of the dreaded sting of wasp and is so much preoccupied with it, it does not think of anything else and becomes a wasp in its mind. The mind is the mirror of the object it thinks of.


Kundalini is represented as a serpent with fifty-one coils, which are the subtle forms of the fifty Sanskrit alphabets or Varnas (characters). This sound evolves from Para state at Muladhara to Vaikhari state in Visuddha Chakra, the throat center wherefrom articulate speech comes. 


One coil is Bindu; two coils, Prakrti-Purusa; three coils, three saktis, Iccha, Jnana, and Kriya and three gunas, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas; three and a half coils, creative force with multitudinous transformations (Vikrti); and so on.


Pasyanti state : Iccha (Will) Sakti at play. Madhyama state : Jnana (Knowledge) Sakti at play. Vaikhari State: Kriya (Action) Sakti at play.  All this means the progress from will, to knowledge, to action in terms of manifestation of sound from transcendental, visual, mental and articulation stages.


Kashmir Saivism gives a lot of information about the Nishkala Parama Siva, Siva, Sakti in relation to origin of letters, words, objects and the entire manifestation of the universe. This part of the article is notes from Siva Sutras, Translation and commentary by Jaideva Singh.


Here is a depiction of the origin of Tattvas from the Sanskrit alphabets.




ka kha ga gha ṅa

Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether:

5 Gross Elements


क ख ग घ ङ



ca cha ja jha na

Sound, Taste, Form, Touch, Smell: 5 Tanmatras


च छ ज झ ञ


ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha

Generation, Evacuation, ambulation, Grasp, Speech:5 Motor Organs


ट ठ ड ढ ण ṇ


ta tha da dha na

Ears, Tongue, Eyes, Skin, Nose: 5 organs of Sense.



त थ द ध न



pa pha ba bha ma

Mind, Ego, Buddhi, Prakrti, Purusha: Limited experient.


प फ ब भ म

I is Ahaṁ हं, wherein Bindu the dot is placed over m or the Sanskrit 'ha'. Aha stands for all objects in the universe, which abides in Siva in undifferentiated state.

Anuttara or the Highest Reality undergoes stress, known as Bindu, the dot, the point of coalescence of the universe. It is so dense it is called GhanibhUtA Sakti, the creative forces compacted into an undifferentiated point before its differentiation into subjects and objects. Bindu is also known as Cidghana or massive Consciousness, where in lies the potential universe. In AHAM-Ahaṁ , A is Siva and Ha is Sakti and m is the terminator. Bindu or Vindu is derived from vid (wit in English) meaning 'to know'.


ṭabîja: KUta is 'highest' or 'summit' and Bîja means 'seed'. The letter 'ksa' is a combination of two consonants (halanta) K and S. Kūa is the term for a combination of two vowels.

In the unmanifest state Kundalini Sakti is Bîja, the seed of all manifestation; in the manifest state she is Jiva or the individual soul. Kundalini is Visarga Sakti of Saiva's I-Consciousness; she is coiled three and half times as seen around the Linga. These three and half coils are aspects of I-Consciousness: Prameya, PramAna PramAtA and PramA (Object, Knowledge, Subject, and combined indistinguishable unity of subject and object. Sakti Kundalini is the dormant state of Sakti or ParA Sakti remaining as a serpent with three and half coils. Prana Kundalini is the second aspect whereby she manifests life, exists in the Jiva, and Her Samvit consciousness is transferred into Prana or breath. ParA Kundalini is when life moves into her original consciousness. At this stage, there is unity of I-Consciousness, the world, Self, and not-self.

Kundalini, going from Sakti to Prana aspect, manifests Vacaka and Vacya (Words and objects). Visarga Sakti proceeds from I-Consciousness to create human life and eventually helps the aspirants to reunite with I-Consciousness.

Visarga means emanation, manifestation or projection, coming from the Highest Reality--Anuttara. There are three aspects to Visarga:

1) ParApara Visarga. It is the letter 'a', also known as SAkta Visarga showing Bheda-abbheda, difference-non-difference, identical nature in the midst of difference. The letter 'a:'  ('ah'  )  has two dots; the upper dot is Siva; the lower dot is Sakti, who brings about manifestation of the universe.

2) Para Visarga, which is the letter 'aa' for Ananda or Ananda Visarga, also known as SAmbhava Visarga manifesting Abheda or non-difference.

3) Apara Visarga. It is the letter 'ha' ((ह) and Bheda Visarga showing difference. It is the lower manifestation, that is the universe.

The manifestation of the universe consists of VAcaka and Vacya: the subject and the object. There is a variation of the same theme in Thinkables and Speakables. From thought arises speech; from speech comes words; from words come subjects and objects. The universe expands from these words. SAktopAya is based on Mantras, that proceed from Matrika.



In Judaism, the belief is that the word of God (g-d) becomes an object, as is the view in Hinduism.  
Before eating other foods – She-Hakol, an observant Jew utters a prayer or blessing.

Before eating or drinking any foods not in the first four categories:

ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולם, שהכל נהיה בדברו.‏

Transliteration: Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu Melekh ha‑olam, she‑hakol nih'ye bidvaro.

Translation: "Blessed are You, LORD, our God, King of the universe, through Whose word everything comes into being. "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jewish_prayers_and_blessings


Siva Saktis are fivefold.: 1) Cit or Anuttara Sakti (letter 'a' ---) 2) Ananda Sakti (letter 'aa'--) , 3) Iccha Sakti (letter  'i', 'ii',  'Ṛ' 'Ṝ' 'Ḷ' 'Ḹ' --इ  ई, ऋ  ॠ  ऌ  ॡ , 4)  Jnana Sakti ('u' and 'ū'--उ  ऊ) and 5) Kriya Sakti ('e', 'ai', 'o', 'au'--ए ऐ  ओ  औ. The dot '•' represents the Consciousness of Siva, the point of coalescence of all manifestations. The double dot (:) means the upper dot is the resting Siva and the lower dot is manifesting Sakti. The vowels stand for the inner life of Siva; Anuttara (letter 'a' ---अ) is the most important letter of all, that controls and activizes all letters. The letters 'a'  'i'  'u' 'Ṛ'  'Ḷ' -- अ  इ  उ  ऋ   ऌ give rise to Consonants which stand for the Tattvas from Earth to Sadasiva. If 'a' is the inner abider of all letters, Siva is the Inner Abider of all Tattvas and thus identical with all beings and objects of the universe.

अ  आ  इ  ई  ऋ  ॠ  ऌ  ॡ  उ  ऊ  अ  इ  उ  ए ऐ  ओ  औ  •  

Nishkala Siva, the transcendent Siva creates his first creative Pulsation, Siva (Siva Tattva), in whom abides I-Consciousness (Aham), which is Vimarsa, containing all Vacakas (Varnas, letters) and Vacyas in a potential state as the peacock egg has the multi-colored peacock feathers in the latent form. AHAM: the 'a' is anuttara and 'ha' is visarga. From Aham, the latent form,  arises the Pasyanti, Madhyama, and Vaikari speech.




 This passage was in Tamil written by Ganapathy and reflects the teachings of

Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswati Swamy

சந்திரசேகரேந்திர சரஸ்வதி சுவாமிகள் (May 20, 1894 – January 8, 1994)

Translation by Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

Deivaththin Kural = The Call of the Divine.

Book 2

ஒலியும் படைப்பும் = Sound or Sabda and Creation

 August 25, 2013

What is Sabda (sound)? Today's science tells us it is vibration. Atom scientists and Einstein tell us when you go into an atom, all substances are one, non-dual or monistic. The world is all one flood of Sakti (electromagnetic flood). Why does this manifest as many disparate objects? The reason is one Sakti generates many disparate vibrations.

Tremor originates sound. For a particular sound to occur there must be an appropriate tremor.

One Sakti generates many vibrations, causing world creation, also known as respirations of Paramatman, which are the Veda sounds causing the creation of the world.

There are men and animals. Our health, welfare and feelings proceed from our Prana (breathing), which course along the body-wide Nadis causing vibrations resulting in good health or ill health. Yogic methods and breathing exercises (breath control = Pranayama), help direct Prana along the Nadis (Kundalini Channels) and obtain good health. Though you cut the blood vessels, they do not bleed. They can stop the heart and flow in the Nadis and remain alive in the underground in Samadhi. The poison from cobra and scorpion do not affect them. That is because they can control and regulate the Prana flow in the Nadis.

Prana is good not only for the body but also for the mind and mental health. The mind for thoughts and Pranasakti for the breath are harmonious here. The ebb and flow in the Nadi (calaṉam = சலனம் = movement) are the cause of good and bad thoughts. Your mind is tranquil and peaceful in the temple and in the presence of a great man and your breathing is normal. There is a rise (in respirations) because of consortium or anger. There is a difference in ebb and flow in the Nadis with regard to happiness from participating in Bajanai (singing devotional songs) or festival and those from sensual pleasures. Generally, breathing takes place via right nostril in noble pleasures. Prana takes place via left nostril in sensual pleasures. The breathing will be equal, regular and smooth via both nostrils, when meditation deepens in tranquil Satvastu (Paramatma, God, Universal Consciousness- state of Turiyatita). When the merger takes place (Union of Individual consciousness and Universal Consciousness = Turiyatita), the breath and the mind come to a standstill, but the life continues and Jnana (ஞானம் என்ற பேருணர்வு) and Realization become complete and perfect. Jiva's inert body and Caitanyam (pure spirit) thrive or perish because of the state of Prana. A healthy state of Prana is developing regular and smooth internal vibrations in the Nadis.

From Paramatma proceed many of these inert substances and Caitanya Vastus. They either thrive or wilt, wane and perish.


Brahmam is Nirguna (devoid of attributes) without movement, as said by Advaita. As defined by Advaitam, Brahmam in association with indefinable Maya Sakti (அநிர்வசனீயமான மாயாசக்தி) has disguised as the world.  Vēsham = disguise. Vēsham or Kīsham: who knows what it is? (Kīsham rhymes with Vēsham and has no meaning.) We have to accept the premise that the world is inert and the Jivas have intellect. When you consider Māyā, Isvara is the Māyin as Māyā's hypostasis. Though it is purported to be Māyāsakti, all these are movements originating from Supreme Reality. Yes, they are Vibrations. With all these movements, Parabrahman remains without motion inside endowed with Nirguna Sānta Vastu (நிர்குண சாந்த வஸ்து = Attributeless tranquil Reality).


We see movements in the universe. They are not haphazard but move according to an order beginning with the movements of the great sun and extending to a blade of grass, mosquito...

This order helps in the conduct of worldly life in an optimal manner. Paramatma has regulated all Natural Saktis and then created the worldly life. Besides, he has made allowance for some irregularity, which He enjoys to a certain extent. That also is helpful to our lives. 

We also see Nature's Sakti fail to observe what Paramatman ordained. The monsoon rains fail. Floods ravage the earth. Some preternatural events take place.

The mind of man goes awry to an extent still unknown and rambles as a small Satan. In this worldly life, there are decorum, discipline, self-restraint, orderliness, obligation... but this mind roams without self-restraint.

If Nature's Saktis are antagonistic to us, are there ways to make them right? Is there a way to stop the mind from going astray?

Movement and Sound are the cause for many events. To make world Saktis to help us and to purify our mind, we need Sabda or sound, which is Veda.

By control of breath and Yoga Marga (Yoga path), we can catch the breath of Paramatma and can perform acts for the welfare of the world and the soul. Though there are ebbs and flows in Nadis, they are not audible to the human ear. Science has shown us that there are sounds and lights beyond the reach of human ears and eyes.  

There is more. It is possible to reach the unreachable. As we listen to the music sung by the musician in the radio, we know his sounds become electromagnetic waves, which pervade the space and we do not hear until the radio box catches these waves and make them audible to us as music.

As I mention this, we do not see any conflict between religion and science, the latter helps the former to thrive and prosper. (The very first radio broadcast went on the air in the year 1906.)  A hundred years before the advent of telephone, radio...if the atheists raised objection to Veda Sabdas or Pranas, an answer would have been impossible. These scientific discoveries offer a lending hand (to our tenets).

The Sakti that is intrinsic to a radio box is attainable for individual embodied man (Jīva) with Caitanyam (pure spirit). He can do more. Tapas (austerity) gives that power. Tapas is to know the Truth, forego (luxurious) food and fares, the home and the family and direct and focus the mind on the ever-present Reality. We should not feel entitled to know the Truth because we put in so much effort. We should cultivate humility (விநயம்) that Truth in spite of our great efforts, will dawn and shine on us only as a Bhagavad Prasadam (favor and Bliss from God). Rishis, having excelled in Yoga and Tapas, rose to the pinnacle of Yogic attainment.

Rishis know the many sounds and movements that accompany creation of the world. As the radio converts the electromagnetic waves into sound waves, the Sabdas or sounds with the respective movements reached their ears. Those sounds, the Rishis gave us as the Veda Mantras.

Veda is Sruti by another name. Sruti is what we hear. Srótra is the ear that hears. Sruti is not a written text meant for reading, but is what a Guru teaches his Sisya (pupil) by oral tradition over many generations. A Guru cannot faithfully render the sounds on the written text and so should not put them on the palm leaf or paper. Zha (ழ) and nga (ங) sounds do not easily become alphabets. There are many sounds like them in Vedas. Guru can teach them only by oral-aural mode.

(Utāttam, aṉutāttam svaritam: rising, grave and intermediate accents of musical note)

Utāttam, aṉutāttam and svaritam are the musical notes in Vedas. In enunciation, some alphabets need rising notes, some falling notes, and some intermediate notes. However many diacritical marks are used, typographical errors creep in, enunciation is garbled and the fruits and effects are lost.  By uttering certain Aksharas with emphasis, and some softly, we create an appropriate movement or sound vibration. Mispronunciation brings different results.  Our feelings and sentiments, Devasaktis in charge of Nature and these intonations based on differences will change.

There is story in Veda Taittriya Samhita about unintended consequences resulting from mispronunciations and altered intonations. Dvashta, the divine tailor chanted a Mantra to have a son who will kill Indra. When he was chanting the Mantra, he mishandled the Utāttam and aṉutāttam in the pronunciation, so much so it sounded like he wants to have a son whom Indra will kill. It turned out the results were the opposite of what he wished for in the first place.

When we move the dial, a little error changes the wavelength of the station and the music. Likewise, change in Veda Sabdas results in different benefits.

That is why it is an established tradition that one should learn Vedas by hearing. Sruti in Sanskrit and "Unwritten word" (எழுதாக் கிளவி) in Tamil are the names for Vedas.

Rishis did neither compose the Vedas nor read them from the books. Rishis are Mantradristas meaning they saw the Mantras. The seeing in Tamil is Pārththal (பார்த்தல்). That is why a Brahmana is called pārppān (பார்ப்பான் = seer). The Rishis saw what ordinary folks could not see. Since Vedas came to the world from hearing in age-old times, Sruti was its name.  Mantra Drishtas, as term applies to Rishis who saw a series of Mantras in the expansive sky.

What is right here? Did they hear or see? If they saw the Veda Mantras, what was the written language in the sky? In ancient times, when there were no Devanagari, Grantham, and Brahmi, what was the language and script of the appearance of Mantras? It was not possible to write Veda Sabdas and Svaras in their original intent.

Though we say they saw or heard them, in fact they felt the Veda Mantras as a flash in their hearts during deep meditation. They may not have heard them or may not have seen them.

The assumption is Mantra Drishta knows by experience.

 One assumption is that Vedas are in the form of sound and therefore the Rishis had the Divine ears other than the anatomical ears to hear them.

Arjuna desired to see the Universal Form of Bhagavan. Gita says that Bhagavan Krishna told Arjuna that he would give him divine vision to him because he would not be able to see His Universal Form with anatomical eyes.

 As in the case of Arjuna developing the Divine Vision, it appears that, the Rishis developed the Divine Ears, which could perceive the Sabdas in the expansive ether.

 It is not just Vedas gave Sound Vibrations needed for World creation and life in the phenomenal world. Vedas also had Mantras that helped the soul merge with Paramatma Satyam beyond the confines of the phenomenal world. A traveler can trace his way back to his place of origin. Likewise, in the end Vedas take us to a place without vibrations (Asabda). The Nadi Vibrations induced by some Mantras take us there. (We go from Sound to Eternal Silence.) The Mahavacyas (Great Sayings), Pranavam and the like are of this nature.

 The reason for me to say all these things is that no one composed the Vedas.  Rishis did not compose them; Paramatma did not hold the stylus and the palm leaves and delved into his thoughts to write the Vedas.