Bhagavad-Gita:Chapters in Sanskrit
(All 18 chapters in Sanskrit, Transliteration, and Translation.)
Bhagavadgita in English
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The Tamil cultural tradition is independent, not derived, not imitative; it is
pre-Sanskritic, and from this point of view Tamil alone stands apart when
compared with all other major languages and literatures of India. There
exist in India only two great specific and independent classical and
historically attested cultures - the Sanskritic culture and the Tamil culture.
Tamil literature is the only Indian literature which is both classical and
modern; while it shares antiquity with much of Sanskrit literature and is as
classical, in the best sense of the word, as e.g. the ancient Greek poetry, it
continues to be vigorously living modern writing of our days. 'Tamil, one of the
two classical languages of India, is the only language of contemporary
India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past.'..."
The philosophical system of
a system, which may be ranked among the most perfect and cleverest systems of
Dr. Kamil Vaclav Zvelebil . sivagn24.jpg
Saiva Siddhanta is the Ultima Thule for the soul, after a long arduous journey in other religions.
Saiva Siddhanta holds the view that God has created many religions, each one of which is an exact fit for and compatible with the degree of maturity of the individual soul. Having experienced embodied life in each one of the external and internal religions, becoming mature in that religion and transcending all the internal controversies in that religion, the soul eventually will arrive at the just tenets of Saiva Siddhanta. After its arrival, the soul will acquire Jnana (Spiritual Wisdom) and attain liberation. In this context, other Hindu sects also belong to the external religions. The Internal Religions are Saiva Sects of which Saiva Siddhanta is the nucleus.
Every religion considers itself as the sole soul-savior excluding all other religions. Some consider it as a narrow parochial view. Saiva Siddhanta is the only religion that accepts all religions. It does not denigrate other religions, and accepts their tenets on their intrinsic value and worth. Number of followers, social-political-international clout, pervasive subversive tendencies, material wealth, proselytizing prowess... do not constitute the intrinsic value and strength of a religion.
Whom are we to believe when every religious leader claims he is the path to Abba, அப்பன் or Father in Heaven? Here is what Jesus Christ says.
John 14:6 (Bible New International Version) 14.6Jesus answered, "I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
In the same man the mother sees a son, while the wife at the same time sees differently with different results. The wicked see in God wickedness. The virtuous see in Him virtue. He admits of all forms. He can be moulded according to the imagination of each person. Water assumes various shapes in various vessels. But water is in all of them. Hence all religions are true. -Swami Vivekananda.
The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda
Volume 6 [ Page : 116 ]
NOTES TAKEN DOWN IN MADRAS, 1892-93
The father in heaven = Abba (APPAN = அப்பன் in Tamil.) Abba in many Indian languages mean Father.
We have to assume that Siva of Saivism and Father of the Christian faith are one and the same; different religions call Him by different names. Jesus in Arabic is īsa; in Tamil, the Supreme Being or God is called īsan (ஈசன்). In Sanskrit, it is īsvra (ईश्वर).
Hindus believe that Siva in Kailas, Vishnu in Paramapadam or Vaikuntam, Father
in heaven, and other Gods are different names for one God. God, all
religions, paths (spokes), and people form a wheel, the hub of which is God by
many names. Other religions do not embrace this view of the Hindus. Many
external religions behave as if it is a one-rim-one-spoke-one-hub outfit. The
people whirl around in the rim becoming dizzy at hearing many religious touts
(missionaries and zealots of other religions) declare that they will take them
to the hub of God along the spoke of their chosen path. These narrow-minded
touts with tunnel vision are hell-bent that they own God, don't seem to know and
don't want to know that the wheel has many spokes and thus many paths to the hub
of God. God, I am sure, is not in the sole possession of one people, one tout,
one zealot, one religion.... God owns us and not vice versa. By Veeraswamy
linked article: Primer in Saiva Siddhanta
Tamil font: Azhagi Font . Azhagi font is free for download and cost-free
Subject: Sivagnana Siddhiar Supakkam (சித்தியர் = A treatise on Šaiva Siddhānta). Verses 1-328
Supakkam = சுபக்கம் = The portion of Civa-ñāṉa-cittiyār that enunciates the principles of the Šaiva sect
Alternate spelling: Civajnaana Sittiyar
Author: Arul Nandi Sivanar
Language: Verses in Tamil
English Translation : V.Krishnaraj
Reference: Sivagnana Siddhiar Commentary in Tamil by S.S. Mani.
Reference: Tirumantiram by Tirumular. திருமந்திரம்
Reference: Indian Philosophy: Radhakrishnan
Reference: Saivism in Philosophical Perspective by K.Sivaraman
Reference: Tamil Lexicon
English Translation and notes: V.Krishnaraj. My input includes Translation, Commentary, Explanation of Technical Terms, further Explication, flowcharts and montages.
Sivagnana Siddhiar Supakkam by Arul Nandhi Sivanar = சிவஞான சித்தியர் சுபக்கம் -- அருள் நந்தி சிவனார்.
If you know Tamil, the words in the verses are put together so delightfully, you
will dissolve in them, would lose your body-consciousness and passage of time,
float in ambrosial bliss, feel endless thunderbolts of frisson and shed tears
without your awareness. One example: Verse 47.
This article delves in Nyaya Philosophy as found in Nyaya Sutras written by Aksapada Gautama (2nd Century B.C.) and explained by Saiva Siddhanta followers and also Saiva Siddhanta philosophy. Its main thrust is proof of existence of God (Siva), understanding God, the universe, plurality of souls, false identification of the soul with the body, senses and the mind (spiritual ignorance as an impediment to liberation), subsequent round of births and rebirths, and means to liberation and Centrality of Siva in the Universe. Many verses start with counterarguments, arguments, counter counterarguments, and proofs and end with conclusion. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
The Verses start off with Homage to Ganesa and Siva followed by Nyaya and Saiva Siddhanta philosophies; the latter receives extensive treatment. There are variations in terminology and interpretations according to the teachers of Nyaya philosophy in different parts of the country. The basic philosophy remains the same.
The philosophy and its explication by siddhantists is to establish the undoubted existence of God by all means available in a logical fashion.
By elucidating an object, the Siddhantists advance the existence of God. The proof should be incontrovertible, clear as day and perfect as Perfection Itself. All doubts should be identified and decimated; Counterarguments are raised and razed. The positive proofs should be established; negative factors are subjected to scrutiny, dismissal or acceptance; comparisons are made; and conclusion as to the existence of God is drawn by reason and logic. Once Godhood is established, the poet establishes the supremacy of Siva over all other surrogate gods, who are incapable of giving Arul ( = அருள் = Grace). He goes on to explain Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy with arguments, counterarguments, counter counterarguments, explications, examples and logical conclusions as found in the philosophy. Saiva Siddhanta philosophy is the epitome of human thought. I am yet to see a treatise of this nature in the study of God and a philosophy in such details. God is treated as if He is a scientific subject for characterization, elucidation and establishment. The only things missing are the physical test tubes and Bunsen Burner. Sivanar gives proof of Siva's effulgence, the Light of all lights. His laboratory is the universe.
There are six extant Saiva Schools at present. They are Saiva Siddhanta, Pasupata Saivism, Vira Saivism, Kashmir Saivism, Siva Advaita and Siddha Siddhanta.
Siva Siddhanta: In Rishi Tirumular's monistic theism (ca -200), Siva is material and efficient cause, immanent and transcendent. The soul, created by Siva, is destined to merge in Him. In Meykandar's pluralistic realism (ca 1200), God, souls and world are beginningless and eternally coexistent. Siva is efficient but not material cause. Highlighted are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.
Pashupata Saivism: This school, traced to Lakulisa (ca 200), is bhedadbheda, simultaneously monistic and theistic, emphasizing Siva as supreme cause and personal ruler of soul and world. The liberated soul retains individuality in its state of complete union with God. Final merger is compared to stars disappearing in the sky. Noted areas of influence (clockwise) include Gujarat, Kashmir and Nepal.
Vira Saivism: Made popular by Basavanna (1105-1167), this version of qualified nondualism, Shakti Vishishtadvaita, accepts both difference and nondifference between soul and God, like rays are to the sun. Siva and the cosmic force are one, yet Siva is beyond His creation, which is real, not illusory. God is efficient and material cause. Influential primarily in Karnataka.
Kashmir Saivism: Codified by Vasugupta (ca 800), this mildly theistic, intensely monistic school, known as Pratyabhijna Darshana, explains the creation of soul and world as God Siva's shining forth in His dynamic first impulse. As the Self of all, Siva is immanent and transcendent, a real but abstract creator-preserver-destroyer. Founded in Kashmir.
Siva Advaita: This monistic theism, formulated by Srikantha (ca 1050), is called Siva Vishishtadvaita. The soul does not ultimately become perfectly one with Brahman, but shares with the Supreme all excellent qualities. Appaya Dikshita (1554-1626) attempted to resolve this union in favor of an absolute identity -- Shuddhadvaita. Its area of origin and influence covers most of Karnataka state.
Siddha Siddhanta: Expounded by Rishi Gorakshanatha (ca 950), this monistic theism is known as bhedabheda, embracing both transcendent Siva Being and immanent Siva Becoming. Siva is efficient and material cause. The creation and final return of soul and cosmos to Siva are likened to bubbles arising and returning to water. Influential in Nepal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
Source: Dancing With Siva: By Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. Himalayan Academy Hawaii 96746-9304.
Pramana = Means to Knowledge. Prameya = object of Knowledge. Samshaya = doubt. Prayojana = Purpose. Drstanta = Analogy. Siddhanta = conclusion. More terms are found as discussion proceeds. sivagn4.jpg
Woodroffe: Serpent Power. CONSCIOUSNESS as one with dual aspect is Transcendent and Immanent. The Transcendental Consciousness is called the Paramatma, The consciousness which is embodied in Mind and Matter is the Jivatma. In the first case Consciousness is formless and in the second it is with form. Form is derivable from Consciousness as Power (Sakti). One of these powers is Prakrti-Sakti---that is, the immediate source of Mind and Matter. The corresponding static aspect is called Purusa. This term is sometimes applied to the Supreme, as in the name Brahma-purusa.1 Here is meant a centre of limited consciousness--limited by the associated Prakrti and its products of Mind and Matter. Popularly by Purusa, as by jiva, is meant sentient being with body and senses--that is, organic life.2 Man is a microcosm (Ksudra-Brahmanda)3. The world is the macrocosm (Brahmanda). There are numberless worlds, each of which is governed by its own Lords, though there is but one great Mother of all whom these Lords themselves worship, placing on their heads the dust of Her Feet. (Siva is Sakti; Sakti is Siva; there is Oneness.)
1 So it is said: Puruṣān na paraṁ kimcit sa kāṣtha sā parā gatih.
2 Dehendriyādiyuktah cetano jīvah. The Kulārnava-Tantra, r. 7-9, describes the Jīvas as parts of Siva enveloped in Māyā (which thus constitutes them as separate entities), like sparks issuing from fire-an old Vedāntic idea. As, however, Jīva in Māyāvāda Vedānta is really Brahman (Jīvo brahmaiva nāparah) there is according to such doctrine in reality no independent category called Jīva (Nahi jīvo nāma kaścit svatantrah padārthah.) Ātmā is called Jīva when with Upādhi---that is, body, etc. Philosophically, all Ātmā with Upadhi (attribute) is Jīva.
3 " Little egg (spheroid) of Brahmā."
The First six verses are eulogy to Ganesa and Siva.
Chapter One: Verse 1. Homage to Lord Ganesa with elephant face, the son of Siva and Parvathi.
Chapter One: Verse 1. Homage to Lord Ganesa with elephant face, the son of Siva and Parvathi.
ஒருகோட்டன் இருசெவியன் மும்மதத்தன்
Lord Ganesa sporting one tusk, two ears, three streaming musths, lolling proboscis, five hands (four legs and one proboscis), and an elephant face is the elder son of Siva who wears River Ganges, the crescent moon on his head and the Konrai flowers. if one worships and realizes Ganesa's sacred feet with dedication and love day and night, He directs his or her mind aright. Ganesa confers on His devotees the bliss of liberation, incomparably superior to that offered by Brahma and Vishnu.
= a state or condition in the rutting season in male elephants, accompanied by
the exudation of an oily substance from glands between the eyes and mouth.
Verse 2. Siva Beyond the beyond
அறுவகை சமயத் தோர்க்கும்
அவ்வவர் பொருள் ஆய் வேறு ஆம்
Let us rest Siva's feet on our crown and worship Him, who is the essence of each one of six religions, who is yet different from them all, whose essence is beyond the ambit of the tenets of Vedas and Agamas, who abides as Grace in our psyche, who remains our Mother and Father, and who is of plenitudinous permeation.
The six religions are according to Sankara's categorization, Sauram, Ganapatyam, Kaumaram, Vaishnavam, Saktham and Saiva (worshippers of Sun, Ganesa, Muruga, Vishnu, Sakti, and Siva).
Two Major divisions are as follows: Inner Religion1 (Samayam = சமயம் = religion) and Outer Religion2 (Pura Samayam (புற சமயம் = Outer Religion).
This classification expanded into four: Inner Religion1 (அக சமயம் = Aka samayam) followed in its periphery Inner External Religion 2 (அகம்-புறம் சமயம் or அகப்புறம் சமயம் = akam-puram samayam), followed by Outer Religion3 (புற சமயம் = Pura Samayam), and followed by Outer External Religion 4 (புறப்புற சமயம் = Purappura Samayam). Each of these broader categories have six religions, totaling to twenty-four religions. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
The book Dancing With Siva, says the following:
Modern history records six main schools: Saiva Siddhanta, Pashupatism, Kashmir Saivism, Vira Saivism, Siddha Siddhanta and Siva Advaita.
Tirumantiram speaks of, in its verses 1530, 1533, 1557, and 1558 six religions but does not list them.
This classification expanded into four: Inner Religion1 (அக சமயம் = Aka samayam) followed in its periphery Inner External Religion 2 (அகம்-புறம் சமயம் or அகப்புறம் சமயம் = akam-puram samayam), followed by Outer Religion3 (புறசமயம் = Pura Samayam), and followed by Outer External Religion 4 (புறப்புற சமயம் = Purappura Samayam). Each of these broader categories have six religions, totaling to twenty-four religions.
in the last 100 to 150 years, another classification was introduced with the arrival of Christianity and Islam. You may note that Sankara did not include Buddhism and Jainism which form the Outer External Religions (Outer External Religion 4) . (These four religions are like concentric circles one within the other. The Inner Religion is Saivism and the Outer External religions are Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.)
There is a broad classification of all religions into 4 categories: Akam1
(«¸õ = inside or Inner), Puram (ÒÈõ =
Outside = External), Akappuram2 («¸ôÒÈõ =
Inside-outside = Inner External), and Purappuram3 (ÒÈôÒÈõ
= Outside-outside = Outer External). This is placement of all religions
in their respective metaphysical space.
This classification came about when Saivism was under seize from external traditions. Mandalas of concentric circles were used to indicate centrality of Dharma and graded dilution of Dharma in a centrifugal fashion wherein lies the fourth space outside of Dharma (Outer External Religion 4 = புறப்புறம் = Outside-outside = Outer External). These outer External elements are the alien religions that reject Vedas, and include Judaism, Islam and Christianity in addition to Buddhism and Jainism. Arumuga Navalar was the first one to address and take on the challenge posed by the alien religions of the recent past. The alien religions were propagating false premises upon their arrival in India and Sri Lanka to support their tenets and disparage Saivism and Hinduism.
Akam is Dharma, the nucleus and Saivism. அகம் = literal meaning, Inside and I. புறம் = Outside.
Aham and Puram (அகம் and புறம்): Akam in its original intent and evocation means love between man and woman. Puram means heroism and generosity. Bhakti or devotion encompasses Akam and Puram, God and devotion. Akam, the human side of love transfigured to ecstatic love of God and Puram to hero worship of God. Manliness and heroism are attributed to God; womanhood and hero-worship are attributed to a devotee. By convention and Tantric precepts, people are divided into Pasu, Vira and Divya, which shows the progression of the human soul from animal instincts to hero to divine nature. This God-devotee or BhagAvat-BhAgavat relationship is compared to Purusa-Striya (Man-woman) relation in SriVaishnava Bhakti tradition. Aham = Eroticism. Puram = heroism.
The Saivites (and SriVaishnavites) had defeated the Jains and the Buddhists (on the debating platforms), considered to be the Outside-outside (Outer External--Purappuram) elements and facilitated mass conversions back to Saivism and Srivaishnavism. To this category, the alien religions were added by the Saivites. Saivism is the nucleus around which are the concentric aggregates of other religions and the outermost circle is made of Buddhism, Jainism, Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. Saivism is the innermost religion and the Dharma it represents; the Outer External religions are not Dharmic.
To emphasize that Siva is Foremost among gods of all sects and religions, Sivanar eulogizes Siva as follows.
Verse 115. Whatever god you have (may worship), Siva the Father, the Mother and PAkanar (the One beyond all Karmas) will become that god. Those gods (of other sects and religions) are subject to Vedanai (= வேதனை = pleasure and pain). The (lesser) gods are subject to death. They take birth. They perform deeds (that generate karma). Siva devoid of all these (burden of Karma, birth and death), knowingly dispenses Grace.
Buddhism died but is rising from the dead and showing the gem of a leaf bud now among the oppressed Hindus. Think of Ambedkar. Jainism is a flicker of its noble presence in Tamil Nadu. Alien religions of invaders and occupiers took their nascent roots and grew strong so as to oppress the native religions by virtue of the brutality and authority of the invaders and occupiers. The ruling British controlled the printing press and used it to advance Christianity and denigrate Hinduism. From around 1865, Tamils had access to the printing press and the Tamil polemical literature was blossoming in the wilderness of foreign religions. Many palm leaf religious texts were put on paper for the public to appreciate the greatness of the religion of the native soil. Arumuga Navalar (1822-1879) of Sri Lanka was in the forefront in this task.
With all the conversions in the name of Jesus Christ, the Curse of Caste is deeply embedded in the hyphenated Christians: Naidu-Christians, Reddy-Christians, Vellalar-Christians, Kamma-Christians, Dalit-Christians. Obviously the guaranteed salvation and equality in Christianly are defeated roundly by these hyphenations, separation and endogamous marriages. It is not uncommon among Christians to announce and claim superiority that their ancestors were Brahmins, Reddys, Naidus, Velalars, Chettiars.... Dalit-Christians politely called Adhi Dravidas are the bottom of the heap, which is regrettable, and offensive to the moral, legal and ethical concerns of a community, a nation and the world. The hyphenated Christians always fall back on their ancestral heritage, when it comes to marriage, social standing, association.... Dalits are escaping discrimination and segregation by education and migration into cities. Matrimonial columns are the place to find out about castes, hyphenated castes couched in code words and the desired prospective spouses. I had the opportunity to associate with ease with Muslims, Brahmin-Christians and Dalit-Christians in my professional and personal life. Dalit oppression and suppression are so locally pervasive, severe, and intolerable in some instances that they take refuge in the alien so-called Abrahamic creedal religions (formal creeds which of necessity limit and restrain thought, free will and intellectual pursuits.) which took upon the mantle to salvage the world of unbelievers and which are driven by prophets, dogmas, central authority, occupations, military campaigns, colonialism, organizations, misrepresentations, false promises, conversions, and wealth. Hindus are largely to blame for these conversions. If they don't treat their brethren well, they fall into the hands of alien religions. Once the conversions have been accomplished, the Hindu organizations bend over backwards to reconvert them back to the Hindu faith. In the west Christianity suffers the same malady by separation, race, color, ethnicity, abuse.... Black church burning is an example of intolerance of Christianity of blacks. We have our castes; they have the race.
Mark Twain (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910) in Bombay records a conversation he had with his servant, Manuel, the hyphenated Christian.
Page 5002/9190 Entire Collection of Mark Twain.Pdf on Scribd.com
"Name, Manuel. Yes, master."
"I know; but how did you get the name?"
"Oh, yes, I suppose. Think happen so. Father same name, not mother."
I saw that I must simplify my language and spread my words apart, if I would be understood by this English scholar.
"Oh, he,"--brightening a little--"he Christian--Portygee; live in Goa; I born Goa; mother not Portygee, mother native-high-caste Brahmin--Coolin Brahmin; highest caste; no other so high caste. I high-caste Brahmin, too. Christian, too, same like father; high-caste Christian Brahmin, master--Salvation Army."
PAGE 116 Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna 1836-1886
389. Once I was initiated by a Mohammedan teacher and was given the 'name' of Allah to repeat. I repeated the 'name' for several days, strictly observing the ways of Mohammedans and eating their food. During that period, I could not go to the temple of Mother Kali, or take the names of Hindu gods and goddesses.
981. The Master used to describe his mentality when he practiced Islamic Sadhanas, as follows: 'Then I used to repeat the name of Allah, wear my cloth in the fashion of the Mohammedans, and recite the Namaz regularly. All Hindu ideas being' wholly banished from the mind, not only did I not salute the Hindu Gods but I had no inclination even for visiting them. After passing three days in that way, I realized the goal of that form of devotion."
982. I had to practice the various religions once, Hinduism, Islam and Christianity, and I have walked the paths of the different sects of Hinduism again--the Sakta, the Vaishnava, the Vedantic and others. And I have found that it is the same God towards whom all are travelling, only they come through diverse ways.
Jesus Christ Person
of Interest Click here to go to the complete article.
The Prize and Price of conversion
This is an intellectual exercise for the mind and does not project any aspersions on anyone.
For the mature reader only
In the holy name of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ as he appears here will be frowned upon and discouraged to enter his own church simply because of his color, uncouth appearance, sayings, opinions and manners. (The Pharisees did not like him eating without washing his hands.) The church and the Master Painters had to give him a makeover to resemble his flock. If one moves with Ovis aries too long, one becomes it. The transformation with few brush strokes made him look European with broad forehead, divine blissful blue eyes, graceful and yet precipitous descent of the nose with nostrils pointing down (not the in-your-face double barrel nose with snipped sidewalls --Alar), oval eyes (not the anti-mongoloid slant), cascading blond or sandy hair with gentle waves (not black, scruffy, kinky, curly and unruly), determined chin, ethereal beard, empyreal countenance, overall Tejas (Splendor)....
Though I am a Hindu, I consider myself a Christian in spirit and thus conversion for me is redundant and unnecessary. I feel blessed to read and appreciate the Bible, bordering on a mild case of Bibliolatry. Henotheism is a feature of Hinduism and thus a belief I hold and Jesus Christ (and Buddha) fits very well in that belief.
Jesus Christ says: John 7:24 Stop judging by mere appearances, but instead judge correctly." NIV J 7:24
I found the Britishers civil, considerate and fond of curry houses and yet I presume some of them are not going to open their home and hearth and church to the 'wog'-Wily Oriental Gentleman.
Matthew 23:15 "Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You travel over land and sea to win a single convert, and then you make that convert twice as much a child of hell as you are.-- Jesus Christ.
London, June 29, 2010
Indian Christians feel unwelcome in U.K. churches PTI
Indian—origin Christians who feel unwelcome in mainstream churches in Britain are forming their own small churches where they sing and pray in Hindi, Gujarati, Tamil and Punjabi to the accompaniment of ‘dhol’ and other instruments.
Ram Gidoomal, a prominent member of the Asian community and chairman of the South Asia Forum, told PTI that there were at least 200 such small churches founded by disenchanted Christians (Read 'Brown Indians') across Britain as a response to feeling of rejection.
He said there were nearly 75,000 (Brown or Black) Christians with origins in the Indian sub—continent in Britain, and many of them felt unwelcome in mainstream churches.
The word flock in Bible means a group of animals (men [embodied souls] waiting for spiritual transformation); In Sanskrit and Tamil (more ancient than English) Flock is Pasu ( पशु, பசு). Siva, individual soul and bondage form a triangle: Pati-Paśu-Paśa (= पति-पशु-पश = Chief-animal-bondage). Pasu is the individual soul sporting a body. Siva is the shepherd, man is a tethered Pasu and the bondage (tether) is his terrestrial limitation.... Siva releases man from his bondage and gives him emancipation. In Christian tradition, the shepherd leads the flock (= Pasu = animal man = man with impurities and without spiritual attainment) to the Kingdom of Heaven. John 10:16 of Bible says: So there will be one flock, one Shepherd. In Tantric tradition Man comes in three flavors or mental states: animal, man, and Divine (Pasu Bhava, Vira Bhava and Divya Bhava). We are all animals (Pasu, menagerie) in human form as long as we do not have spiritual knowledge and attainment. Once we start acquiring spiritual knowledge, we become Vīra (Hero = man). Remember Sanskrit Vīra (is the), English 'Virile'; Latin 'Vir-, Viri- and Virtu-'; English 'Virtue'; and Roman 'Virtus' are cognate (derived from) with Sanskrit, the Mother of Indo-European languages. Once man becomes spiritual, he becomes Divya (Divine man). Remember the English word 'Diva' is derived from Sanskrit 'Divya or 'Deva.' Once man transcends all three states (example: Buddha, Jesus Christ), he becomes god.
Pasu Bhava is the least worthy. Vira Bhava Sadhakas perform rituals, pujas, charitable works, Yatras (pilgrimages) to Pithas (holy places), control of senses and Kulachara. Vira Bhava by itself does not offer Mukti (salvation); one has to step up to Divya Bhava for eventual Mukti. Divya Bhava consists of 1. meditation on the form, 2. thinking of Devata as pervading the whole universe with Her/His Tejas (Light and energy), 3. considering that the world and Atma are Her/His body. A Pasubhava consists of thinking of Devata, chanting of Mantras, prayer and worship progressing to Vira and Divya Bhavas.
I heard people say in humor that Jesus Christ of today will be put on 'No-Fly' list just because of his appearance and what he says.
In this piece, all events are referred back to the important Biblical sayings by Jesus Christ and their relevance to today's world. What Jesus Christ said then has more relevance to day than at any other time in the history of the world. Going by what the concerned talking heads say in the TV land, it appears they concur with the pronouncements of Jesus Christ; the words, events and circumstances are not much different from the days of Jesus Christ.
Jesus Christ spoke against Pharisees (Ritualists & money lenders), lawyers and Wall Street of olden days, Banks of his era....If Jesus Christ were to say what he said then at this moment in our history, he would be called a liberal, a communist, a democrat, Anti-republican, a socialist, anti-payday-lender, Pro and or Anti-Tea party, Anti-currency trader, Anti-establishment, Anti-Wall-street, Anti-bank, Anti-lawyer, Anti-Commodity trader, Anti-market, Anti-rich, Anti-Constitution, antisocial, pro gun-control, Anti, Anti and 'Anti everything the Good Successful and prosperous People' stand for.
Wanted poster. Jesus Christ: He is unarmed and dangerous. If anyone sees Him, do not take any action; call 911. Here is what He said and did, which makes Him a Person of Interest.
You may liberally apply the following verses to the modern events and
quickly find out their veracity or lack of thereof. These verses are
according to NIV Bible (New International Version).
sivagn27.jpg = JC
sivagn27.jpg = JC
1) Luke 11:42 "Woe to you Pharisees, because you give God a tenth of your mint, rue and all other kinds of garden herbs, but you neglect justice and the love of God. You should have practiced the latter without leaving the former undone. (Anti-Pharisee)
2) Luke 11:43 "Woe to you Pharisees, because you love the most important seats in the synagogues and respectful greetings in the marketplaces. (Anti-Pharisee)
3) Luke 11:44 "Woe to you, because you are like unmarked graves, which people walk over without knowing it." (A curse flung, stings)
4) Luke 11:46 Jesus replied, "And you lawyers, woe to you, because you load people down with burdens they can hardly carry, and you yourselves will not lift one finger to help them. (Anti-lawyer)
Luke 11:52 "Woe to you lawyers, because you have taken away the key to knowledge. You yourselves have not entered, and you have hindered those who were entering." (Anti-lawyer)
Luke 11:53 When Jesus went outside, the Pharisees and the lawyers (Scribes) began to oppose him fiercely and to besiege him with questions, (Pharisees and Lawyers gang up on Him.)
J2:14 In the temple courts he found men selling cattle, sheep and doves, and others sitting at tables exchanging money. (Against payday lenders, Anti-currency traders, and Anti-commodity traders; Anti-Bingo, Anti-church yard sale)
J2:15 So he made a whip out of cords, and drove all from the temple area, both sheep and cattle; he scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables. (alleged Felon)
L 12:33 Sell your possessions and give to the poor. Provide purses for yourselves that will not wear out, a treasure in heaven that will not be exhausted, where no thief comes near and no moth destroys. (Socialist and Communist, Revolutionary)
L6:24 "But woe to you who are rich, for you have already received your comfort. (Anti-Rich; Hater of the Rich, Anti-Republican)
L. 16:13 "No one can serve two masters. Either you will hate the one and love the other, or you will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and Money." (AntiBank, Antilobbyist, AntiRich, Anti-American Dream)
L. 16:14 The Pharisees, who loved money, heard all this and were sneering at Jesus. (The Rich gang up on poor Jesus.)
L. 16:15 He said to them, "You are the ones who justify yourselves in the eyes of others, but God knows your hearts. What people value highly is detestable in God's sight. (The moneyed, the privileged, the elitists, the powerful, and the Money lenders are up in arms.)
L. 7:42 Neither of them had the money to pay him back, so he canceled the debts of both. Now which of them will love him more?" (The nightmare of Bankers; Banks: Pay down your debt and keep your love to yourself.)
Mt. 5:39 But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. (This is offensive esp. to the gun owners. You strike me; I will blow your head off.)
L. 17.20 Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, "The coming of the kingdom of God is not something that can be observed, (JC faces the doubters.)
Mt. 19:14 Jesus said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these." (JC against legislators who oppose or did not vote for Universal Child Health Insurance and 'No Child Left Behind'.)
Mt. 20:1-16 Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard: Equal Pay for Unequal Work. Jesus Christ risked being sued by the lawyer for the day laborers. JC-Antilabor.
Mk. 12:1 The Parable of the Tenants Jesus then began to speak to them in parables: "A man planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a pit for the winepress and built a watchtower. Then he rented the vineyard to some farmers and moved to another place. Mk. 12:1
Mk. 12:2 At harvest time he sent a servant to the tenants to collect from them some of the fruit of the vineyard.
Mk. 12.3 But they seized him, beat him and sent him away empty-handed.
Mk. 12:4 Then he sent another servant to them; they struck this man on the head and treated him shamefully.
Mk. 12:5 He sent still another, and that one they killed. He sent many others; some of them they beat, others they killed.
Mk. 12:6 "He had one left to send, a son, whom he loved. He sent him last of all, saying, 'They will respect my son.'
Mk. 12:7 "But the tenants said to one another, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.'
Mk. 12:8 So they took him and killed him, and threw him out of the vineyard.
Mk. 12:9 "What then will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and kill those tenants and give the vineyard to others.
Mt. 21:45 When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard Jesus' parables, they knew he was talking about them.
Mt. 21:46 They looked for a way to arrest him, but they were afraid of the crowd because the people held that he was a prophet.
JC by parables accuses the priests and the Pharisees of murder. They looked for a way to arrest JC, who was popular with people and regarded a prophet. A case of the evil going free and the virtuous going into the slammer.
to be continued
High caste Christians discriminate against low caste Dalit Christians. Dalit = oppressed, untouchable, Adhi Dravidas, christened by Gandhi "Harijans (= Children of God). That tells me that we are all children of God.
Hindu Newspaper reports: Oct 8, 2009
VILLUPURAM: Alleging continued caste discrimination in the Roman Catholic Church, a section of the Adi Dravida Christians left Eraiyur and went to Elavanasurkottai, about three km from there, on Wednesday (Oct 7,2009).
About 85 members of the Makkal Manram, including 45 men and 40 women, led by Antony stayed put at Elavanusrkottai from morning to evening, boycotting the annual car festival of Our Lady of Rosary Church at Eraiyur.
They alleged that they were not allowed to use the common pathway to the cemetery and the common hearse kept in the church. Above all, the car procession deliberately avoided the Dalit colonies.
Shameless so-called caste Hindus:
December 25, 2008: MADURAI, India: After a decade-long struggle, Dalits* at Panthapuli village in Tirunelveli district entered the Kannanallur Mariamman temple with help of district officials defying a ban imposed by caste Hindus. Dalits, led by district collector G. Prakash and Superintendent of Police Asra Garg, entered the temple at Panthapuli near Sankarankovil on Wednesday, the 24th December 2008.
Dalits* (Harijans, Children of God, according to Gandhi, and untouchables according to the so-called caste Hindus, some of whom are ignominious godless hypocrites.) end of news.
Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna
1031. Why do religions degenerate? Rain water is pure, but by the time it reaches earth it gets dirty owing to the medium it passes through. If the roofs and the pipes and the channels are all dirty, the water discharged through them must also be dirty. (So religion gets defiled by the medium through which it manifests.)
Bhagavan Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita: BG 5.18: A learned humble Brahmin, a cow, an elephant, a dog, and even a dog-eater are seen with an equal eye by a Punditah (sage).
Government should establish a college of priests recruiting only the Dalits and lower castes to become Hindu priests to ensure that a qualified person of any caste can become a priest.
From Orphans to Priests, a noble example.
Parmarth Gurukul, Rishikesh India
At the sacred time of the Paush Purnima (full moon), 24 of the rishikumars had their official upanayana, or sacred thread ceremony. This ceremony marks the boy's official entry into the study of the vedas and the "gurukul" system. Although historically it was a ritual performed only for the brahmin caste, Pujya Swamiji made no distinctions between children born of different castes. Any of the boys who wanted to undergo the official ceremony - during which they also receive a sacred mantra from Pujya Swamiji - were welcome.
On 12 July 2005, Parmarth Gurukul accepted 91 new Rishikumars into the Gurukul. The children, all of whom come from poor, disadvantaged situations (some of whom are orphans, some who have one parent, some who have both but the parents cannot properly care for the children) received their janeo sanskar. The sacred thread ceremony is an important ritual in the life of a Hindu boy (see www.parmarth.com/sanskaras.htm for details of the meaning of this ceremony), and one which prepares him to study the scriptures. MAHAVI39.jpg
The conversion business seems to be thriving well in tribal areas and villages for a sack of rice, escape from Hindu oppression, promised equal treatment and liberation or some such thing. There is violence, death, destruction of property, and burning of temples and churches. Let us assume for the moment that the whole world has converted to only one religion. Will that stop wars, poverty, pestilence, occupations, internecine feuds and intramural or sectarian killings and all other atrocities and inequities and guarantee universal education and healthcare; good nutrition; comity of nations; peace; amity; arrest of global warming; saving the earth, air, water and eco system; prevention of green-house gases and rising oceans; fair distribution of wealth and resources? Certainly not. If a religion ignores all of the above and is looking for numbers, conversion is the way to go. The alien religions do not have a proven record of internal peace and harmony which very much invalidates the legitimacy of their purpose, desire and action to impose their will, material values, twisted precepts and unrefined tenets on a people who have a very long tradition of indigenous culture, universal values and deep-thought philosophy. I am yet to know one genuine conversion among ill-informed people on the basis of change of heart based on truth in religion.
A Hindu, as I am, is a Virtual Christian in spirit, because all that Jesus Christ said are in the sacred texts of Hinduism. A reasonable follower of Hinduism is an unknowing follower of Christianity and that being so, there is no absolute necessity to convert. Hinduism considers Jesus Christ as one of the sages. Hinduism encompasses and exceeds Christianity. I feel comfortable and feel divine presence in the temple as well as in a church.
Several years ago, my wife and I went on Greek Islands tour. Patmos was one such Island. The Sacred Grotto in Patmos: I went down the steps to the cave dwelling of St. John. A spontaneous overwhelming feeling of exhilaration, reverence and horripilation enveloped me and this feeling augmented when the guide pointed to us the ledge in the rock cave, on which St. John rested his head when he slept. I never had such intense feeling in my life except in Hindu temples. I felt I was in the divine presence. Prior to my visit, I had no knowledge of St.John. I am a Hindu; for a Hindu to experience such overwhelming feeling of divine presence in a Christian environment speaks of the Christian in me. I conclude that Christianity is part and parcel of Hinduism.
Here is something I recommend for everyone to read: Jefferson Bible.
The Jefferson Bible is a pure delight 'divested of supernatural events and misrepresentations which were added by the four evangelists.' --These words in quote are not mine.
The Americans who understood and know Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy were/are Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami and Satguru Bodhinatha Veylanswami of Kauai's Hindu Monastery. Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy is so rich that these two Americans knew the Real Thing when they saw one. At the same time take Governor Bobby Jindal. The Satgurus converted from Christianity to Hinduism and delved deep into Hinduism and Saiva Siddhanta. They attained spiritual perfection--Sadhana. What Jindal rejected in Hinduism, these two accomplished perfected souls saw and realized One man's trash is another's treasure. Perfection or choice is a measure of man and religion. sivagn8.jpg
November 3, 2015: Governor Bobby Jindal's bid for presidency is going nowhere. He is well-spoken and yet his appeal to the voting public is very limited to a few percentage points.
Sayings of Ramakrishna
18. He who feels thirsty does not discard the water of the river merely because it is muddy, nor does he begin to dig a well to find clear water. So he who feels real spiritual thirst does not discard the religion near at hand, be it Hinduism or any other, nor does he create a new religion for himself. A really thirsty man has no time for such deliberations.
1039. Remain always strong and steadfast in your own faith, but eschew all bigotry and intolerance.
To advance the career in foreign countries, Indian Diaspora change their first
names, last names, religion and or enter into a marriage of convenience to local
people not entirely out of love and conviction. The regrets they may have are
they cannot wash all the Hindu DNA off their genome, they are born with, no
matter what their religion is, cannot bleach their skin and change the eye
color. It is the Hindu DNA that brought them to the foreign shores and changing
all that is changeable but germane to one's very being is denying one's own
distinct identity and self-respect. I have witnessed preferential treatment of
Indian Christians in the West when it comes to jobs. Gov. Bobby (Piyush) Jindal
was elected Governor not only because he had such a brilliant (Hindu) mind and
superb resume but also mainly because he became a catholic. Being Hindu in body,
DNA, and physiognomy, ambivalent in soul and becoming a catholic in mind are
three different things. The body, mind and soul are split three ways and this
demands reintegration into one, which never happens. Body and face stay the
same; the soul and mind need reintegration to conform to the new faith. The
reason why I am stressing the body aspect of a person being Hindu is that when
there is a need for transplantation of an organ, the convert cannot go to his
new-found brethren and accept the organ, because his body will reject it. It is
more likely his genetic Hindu brethren are compatible with him. He has to go to
his own genetic kind to find a compatible donor, which is most likely a Hindu
blood relative. Would he refuse a Hindu kidney from his blood relatives out of
his religious conviction? Yes, one can change religion but cannot change the DNA
native to the body. The lily truth is that the convert does not become a lily
among lilies. Brown Rose, may be. There is no question a medley of flowers look
The Christians have an edge over Hindus. At the same time, I must admit, Hindus got into positions by sheer superior education, skills and competence. When it comes to political advancement of Indians in foreign shores as naturalized citizens, consider your religion first in the context of the voting public, who wants to know from you whether they can have a beer, go bowling or on a fishing trip with you. That is euphemism for confluence of values, comfort level, race, religion, education, intellect, amiability, political views, family values, legacy name and umpteen other parameters. If ethnic Indians (Hindus, Muslims and Christians) want to have a political clout in USA, multiply like..., become a vocal minority and flex your political muscles. The Americas will become brown like Indians in less than a few hundred years. Spanish will become the second language in par with English. America will not look like a peeled potato pilgrim of yesteryears but a bag of russet potatoes. The inexorable change has already taken place. The palette and tonality of race and ethnicity in America are showing signs of fading and getting swarthier by the day. There is a wave of 'Brownian Movement' in American melting pot milieu. Iceland may be the last holdout. The medley of flowers need in the future some rearrangement and reemphasis, representative of the census.
The following passage caught my attention. The notion that the oppressed Hindus will find haven in other religions is squarely defeated by fatwa like this in today's India. It is like the gamboling fish deciding whether to fall on the red-hot spit or sizzling pan.
'In fact, some Muslim jurists went to the extent of fabricating Prophetic narrations describing certain professions like “weaving, tailoring and hair cutting” as “despicable” and issued fatwas, declaring weavers, barbers and tailors to be not equal to those Muslims who pursue “respectable” professions.' Feb/2009.
By this fatwa, the most famous ancient Tamil poet Tiruvalluvar (திருவள்ளுவர்), being a weaver by profession would have been declared despicable. But The fatwa dispensers did not exist when the poet lived.
I see Nirvana in this Fatwa. Without barbers, weavers, tailors and cobblers we all can sport knee-length beards that will conceal our shame, strut in the open meadows in the company of peacocks free of clothes or sweat on a hot summer day, go shopping in the Malls utterly naked without our wallets and purses, visit our friends, in-laws and naked swamis sporting the new look, run marathons jiggling and jangling our assets without a stitch of clothes and worship in temples, mosques, and churches in our naked natal glory in much the same way before Adam and Eve ate the forbidden apple.
Verse 3. Siva's Greatness.
என்னை இப் பவத்தில் எடுத்து என்
You rescued me from birth in the Sea of Samsara. You enlightened my mind with your presence. You by your grace rested your feet on my head. You abide in Tiruvennai Nalur surrounded by groves and overcast by thunderous clouds. We hold Meykandan's treatise foremost and explicate Saiva Siddhanta's unassailable tenets.
Verse 4. Austerity, the Devotees and the Preceptors.
Having taken birth by the Tapas in the past lives, the Thondars with devotion are offered refuge. Spiritual preceptor teaches the treatise to those who desire liberation, attain Isan's lotus feet and obtain His boon.
Austerity. Thondar =
= Devotees, as slaves of God. Markkar =
= Spiritual preceptors or teachers. Isan =
Here the poet-saint talks about three classes of people: The Austere, the Devotees and the Materialist.
Samusiddhar = சாமுசித்தர்: Devotee of Siva with innate enlightenment owing to the influence of his meritorious deeds in previous births. These are the ones who took birth on this earth by Austerity in the past life. They are fully ripe souls ready to attain liberation in this birth. They do not need the assistance of sacred texts as written here (Sabda Brahman) for their salvation or preceptors.
Vainiyikar = வைநியிகர். விநயம் = Obeisance; reverence. These are the people who with the assistance of spiritual texts, ascertain what is eternal and what is not eternal, give up the life of falsehood and adopt a Sattvic life to attain liberation. The saint-poet says that the spiritual texts of this genre are written expressly for this class of people.
Pirakrutar = பிராகிருதர் = Materialist. Those who think that the phenomenal world is the ultimate Reality. Persons without divine illumination; ordinary men. This class is left unsaid by the author. The implied message of the author is that these souls are mired in the sensual world. That being so, they do not gain any benefit from texts with sacred knowledge. They are the lost souls.
There are three kinds of embodied souls in this world: Sakalar, Pralayakalar, and Vijnanakalar (For more details go to The soul according to Saiva Siddhanta. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj AVASTHAS-TIRUMA1.gif
Kevala: Soul plus Anava Mala.
Sakala: Soul plus three Malas and Siva Sakti.
Suddha: Soul plus Siva Sakti.
The embodied souls (We the people) have a load of Impurities (on our soul), which are Anava, Maya and Kanma Malas. Mala = impurity.
Anava Mala = ஆநவ மலம். egotism Impurity. Impurity which is eternally encasing the soul and lasting till its final liberation. Innate Impurity. Impurity that you are born with. Innate inability of the soul to identify itself with the Universal soul. It does not know its true divine nature. Impurity of smallness; Finitizing Principle. Let me explain this term Finitizing principle. The word Finitizing is not in the dictionary. Finite means having bounds or limits; not infinite; measurable. Thus Finitizing is having bounds, limits and not being infinite. Siva is Infinite, Individual souls are finite, limited in time and space. Siva the Infinite becomes finite soul in beings upon fragmentation of individual soul from the Universal Soul by self-imposed Upadhi (உபாதி = hindrance, obstruction, limitation), Parinama (பரிணாமம் = transformation, change as milk becoming curds or Yogurt) and Avidya (அவித்தை= spiritual ignorance). Thus each one of us is a fragment from Siva with limitation, transformation and spiritual ignorance. A fragment is not whole and thus limited. The unliberated individual soul has no anchor to the infinite Universal soul.
The soul is a fragment of the Universal soul as said before. When it chips away from the Universal soul, it becomes an orphan, thinks like an orphan, behaves like an orphan and forgets its Supreme origin. It assumes individuality (From Universality to individuality) and thus forgets its organic connection with the Universal soul, resulting in duality: individual soul and Universal Soul. The orphaned soul sticky like glue, has the tendency to attract impurity. This impurity is an envelope around the soul preventing Light of the Universal soul reaching it. It believes it is different, separate, and distinct from God and His world. Because of its orphan status, it has limited (human) consciousness as opposed to Universal superconsciousness of Siva. It is limited in every which way you look at it. When it matures, the enveloping shell falls off as the old plaster falls off an ancient wall and the soul merges with Siva. Once it chips off from the Universal Soul, it arrogates the right to sport egoism or individuality. This is the First Mala of the soul and the last Mala to fall off by the Grace of Siva-Sakti before it becomes one with Siva. No one knows why the individual soul chips off the Universal soul.
Maya Mala =
Once the orphaned soul with Anava Mala is born in this world with a body
(Corporeality), which is derived from Maya Tattva (Suddha-Asuddha Tattva), it is
afflicted with the second impurity. The body by its nature is limited in every
which way you measure it: that is Maya Mala. Since the body and the world take
their origin from Maya Tattva, it is called Maya Mala.
Kanma Mala = கரும மலம்: Once the embodied soul moves in this world, it has to work, which is Karma or Kanma, which is thought, word and deed. Work by its nature carries merit or demerit (புன்னியம் or பாபம்). They in turn are responsible for the rebirth of the soul again and again in a body of human, animal or plant depending on the proportional weight of these two. The soul has to bring these two to a zero sum status by erasing both of these (Iruvinai oppu = இருவினை ஒப்பு = equable resolution of the two acts).
Sakalar class soul
Pralayakalar class soul
Vijnanakalar class soul
3 Malas: Anava, Maya and Kanma
Anava and Maya Malas
In order to attain liberation, the first Impurity to get rid of is Kanma Mala. Then the soul graduates to the second stage, Pralayakalar class. Siva removes the Anava Malam (Individuality or egotism) and liberates the soul.
We and the world are made of Tattvas (that; building blocks). Siva-Sakti (Siva1, Sakti2) created Sadasiva3, Isvara4, Sadvidya5 to veil and reveal Grace (Anugraha = அனுக்கிரகம்). Isvara conceals Grace until the soul becomes pure. Once the soul is pure, Sadasiva confers Grace.
Anugraha = அனுக்கிரகம் = Function of showing grace, designed to liberate the souls from bondage, one of panca-kiruttiyam
Tattvas 36 in number in the descending order. The first five are Suddha or Pure Tattvas (1-5). The second 7 Tattvas are Suddha-Asuddha or Pure-Impure Tattvas (6-12). The Third category of Tattvas is Asuddha or Impure Tattvas (13-36).
Siva1, Sakti2, Sadasiva3, Isvara4, Sadvidya5, MāyA6, Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11, Purusa12 Prakrti Tattva13, Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing17 tactile sense18, vision and color19, tasting20, smell21, speech22, grasp23, ambulation24, evacuation25, procreation26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31, ether32, air33, fire34, water35 Earth36.
When Sakalars with three impurities get rid of
Kanma or Karma, they graduate to a higher class,
Pralayakalars. Sakalars with three Malas were wallowing in Asuddha
(impure) Maya ( 24 Tattvas beginning with #13 to #36) Go to
Tatttvas-36. Man's soul is Tattva#12. Having moved
to a higher ground, the Pralayakalars roil in
Suddha-Asuddha Maya Tattvas (Pure and impure Maya). Srikanta Rudras also belong
to this category. Once the Pralayakalars lose their Maya Malam, they become
Vijnanakalars with Anava Mala only. You might
remember that anyone having only Anava Mala is said to belong to Kevala state;
now Kevala state is the lowest rung of the ladder of liberation that
Vijnanakalars have to scale; they are still enveloped by Asuddha Maya. There are
four steps they have to ascend to reach Point Bliss: Each step one above the
other is a purer state, Kevala-kevala,
Kevala-sakala, Kevala-suddha, and Kevala-Arul. The 24 tattvas
(#13 to #36), known as Anma Tattvas belonging to the body, involute into
the soul of the aspirant (Tattva #12), as he moves from Sakalar state to
Pralayakalar state. This aggregate of 25 Tattvas merge into six Vidya Tattvas
(Suddha-Asuddha Tattvas, #6 to #11). This aggregate of 31 Tattvas
(#6 to #36) merges into Suddha Vidya Tattva (#5) of Suddha Tattvas, which
involutes into Isvaram(#4), Sadakhyam (#3) and finally into Sakti Tattva (#2).
Sakti stands with all the lower Tattvas involuted (dissolved or merged) in her
(#2) and Siva (#1) stands with her.
Verse 5. Siva the Supreme and the Indescribable.
குறைவுஇலா அளவி னாலும் கூறஒணாது ஆகி நின்ற
இறைவனார் கமல பாதம் இன்று இயம்பும் ஆசை
நிறையினார் குணத்தோர்க்கு எல்லாம் நகையினை நிறுத்தும் அன்றே. 5
By Vedas, Brahma, Vishnu, mind, speech, and all worldly flawless measures and scales, Siva remains indescribable whose lotus feet make it possible for me to cause mirth and happiness in the men of virtue and bliss by what I say with passion.
All four Vedas are incapable of ascertaining and uttering the Nature of Siva; thus they keep repeating, 'Not This, Not This (Neti, Neti)'. Vedas are Marai (மறை). S.S.Mani says that Marai in this context means the PAsa Jnanam. Brahma and Vishnu cannot fathom the Nature of Siva and thus have only Pasu Jnanam of Pasu or individual soul. That He is beyond words and Mind indicates He is beyond the reach of knowledge of PAsa and Pasu.
PAsa Jnanam =
= Knowledge obtained through the senses and the mind. Spiritual ignorance.
Pasu Jnanam = பசுஞானம் = The condition of the soul, in which its intelligence is obscured by its connection with matter. (Even Brahma and Vishnu because of their connection with matter have Pasu Jnanam.)
மறை (Marai = Vedas) means concealed and refers to concealed knowledge of the Vedas, which need the experts to explain their meaning
குறைவுஇலா அளவி = Worldly flawless measures like Pramanam (means of acquiring knowledge) does not offer any help to us in understanding Siva. . By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 6. Irul, Marul, Terul and Arul: Darkness, confusion, Perception, and Grace. Progression of Soul.
அருளினால் ஆக மத்தே அறியலாம்--அளவி னாலும்
தெருளலாம் -- சிவனை, ஞானச் செய்தியால், சிந்தை யுள்ளே
மருள் எலாம் நீங்கக் கண்டு, வாழலாம்; பிறவி மாயா
இருள் எலாம் இரிக்கல் ஆகும்; அடியரோடு இருக்கலாமே. 6
By Arul (அருள்
Grace) we can come to know Agamas. We can obtain clear perception (Terul =
by Alavai. We can by spiritual knowledge of the mind, we can remove Marul (மறுள்
confusion). By this Birth-Maya's Irul (இருள்
spiritual darkness) lifts. We can remain with Adiyars.
The poet introduces four technical terms of Saiva Siddhanta: Irul, Marul, Terul and Arul (இருள், மருள், தெருள், அருள்).
இருள் = iruL = Darkness (spiritual); மருள் = maruL = Confusion; தெருள் = TeruL = Clear Perception; அருள் = AruL = Grace.
The soul is enveloped in Darkness and thus is confused; once the darkness lifts with the help of Spiritual Knowledge, Grace descends into the soul.
The individual soul is conditioned by inferior knowledge (PAsa Jnanam and Pasu Jnanam = பாசஞானம் and பசுஞானம்). Only Siva is endowed with Pati Jnanam (பதிஞானம் = Knowledge of the Supreme Being). Pathi or pati means Master, Superior, Supreme Being.
Siva is knowable by four stepwise means: கேட்டல்1 , சிந்தித்தல் 2, தெளிதல்3, நிட்டை கூடல் 4 = kEttal1 , sindhiththal 2, thelithal3 nittai kUdal4 = Enquiry1 , Meditation2, doubtless clarity3, Meditation-merger 4 , all of which abide in ஆராய்ச்சி அநுபூதி (enquiry-perception). ஆராய்ச்சி = research.
கேட்டல்1 , சிந்தித்தல் 2 (kEttal, sindhiththal) abide in ஆராய்ச்சி or enquiry.
தெளிதல்3, நிட்டை கூடல் 4 (doubtless clarity3, Meditation-merger 4 ) abide in அனுபூதி (anupUthi = Realization, Perception, apprehension.
நிட்டை கூடல் 4
thelithal3 Doubtless clarity3
nittai kUdal4 Meditation-Merger4
நிட்டை கூடல் 4
ஆராய்ச்சி or enquiry
அனுபூதி (anupUthi = Realization
நிட்டை கூடல் 4
Verse 7. Means of Knowledge.
அளவை காண்டல் கருதல் உரை அபாவம் பொருள் ஒப்பு
அளவை மேலும் ஒழிபு உண்மை ஐதிகத்தோடு இயல்பு எனநான்கு,
அளவை காண்பர் அவையிற்றின் மேலும் அறைவர் அவை எல்லாம்,
அளவை காண்டல் கருதல் உரை என்ற இம் மூன்றின் அடங்கிடுமே. 7
ALavai (அளவை = Pramanam = Means of acquiring knowledge) consists of காண்டல்1 கருதல் 2 உரை3 அபாவம்4 பொருள்5 ஒப்பு6 (Direct Perception1 , Inference 2, Sacred Texts3, absence or non-existence4 , Inference from circumstances5, and Analogy6). Some add the following four, ஒழிபு, உண்மை, ஐதிகம், இயல்பு ( Indirect Knowledge, Existence, Tradition, and Nature) and bring them to ten. Some say that there are more than ten Alavais. Though there are many Means, all these can be brought under three entities: காண்டல் கருதல் உரை = Direct Perception, Inference and Sacred Texts.
Broad Classification: காண்டல் கருதல் உரை = Direct Perception, Inference and Sacred Texts.
காண்டல்1 = Direct Perception1, கருதல்2 = Inference2, உரை 3 = Sacred Texts3, அபாவம்4 = absence or non-existence4 பொருள்5 = Inference from circumstances5, ஒப்பு6 = Analogy 6.
ஒழிபு 7 = Indirect Knowledge7, உண்மை 8 = Existence8 ,ஐதிகம்9 = Tradition 9, இயல்பு 10 = Nature10.
Alavai = அளவை = Pramanam = Means of Acquiring Knowledge.
காண்டல்1 = Direct Perception1
கருதல்2 = Inference2
உரை 3 = Sacred Texts3
அபாவம்4 = absence or non-existence4
பொருள்5 = Inference from circumstances5
ஒப்பு6 = Analogy 6
ஒழிபு 7 = Indirect Knowledge7
உண்மை 8 = Existence8
ஐதிகம்9 = Tradition 9
இயல்பு 10 = Nature10.
அளவை is derived from ALa (அள) meaning measure. That which measures, weighs etc is அளவை.
அளவை = பிரமாணம் = (Pramanam) Means of acquiring certain knowledge, அளவை aḷavai , n. < அள-. 1. Measure, of which four kinds are mentioned in ancient literature, viz., எண்ணல், எடுத்தல், முகத்தல், நீட்டல். (நன். 290.) 2. Standard of measure; அள வுக்கருவி. 3. Means of acquiring correct know- ledge, which are three, viz., காண்டல், கருதல், உரை; தருக்கப் பிரமாணம். (சி. சி. அளவை.
பிரத்தியட்சம், அனுமானம், ஆகமம், உவமானம், அருத்தாபத்தி, அபாவம் (குறள், 252, உரை.) என அறுவகையாகவும் பிரத்தியட்சம், அனுமானம், ஆகமம், உவமானம், அருத்தாபத்தி, அனுபலத்தி, சம்பவம், ஐதிகம்.. Madras University Lexicon.
Means of acquiring knowledge.
Pratiyaksha Pramana1 : காண்டல் அளவை = Kandal Alavai = pratiyaksha Pramanam in Sanskrit = It is direct perception of an object with eyes and the five senses.
Anumana Pramana2 : கருதல் அளவை= Karuthal Alavai = AnumAna Pramanam in Sanskrit = Inference. Though you may not observe an object directly, studying another object invariably associated with the first object and confirming the validity of the first object is Inference. Smoke's invariable association with fire is AvinAbhAva in Sanskrit: necessary connection of one thing with another, inherent and essential nature. AvinAbhAva = அவிநா பாவம். Seeing the rising smoke at a distance, though the fire is not visible for the eyes, knowing that there is fire where the smoke is.
Agama Pramana3: உரைஅளவை. synonyms = ஆகம பிரமாணம். சத்தப் பிரமாணம், ஆப்தவாக்கியம் = Agama Pramanam, Sabda Pramanam, Apta Vakkiyam. Sacred Texts: It is the perception of an object or principle through the authority of Sacred Texts, which are revealed knowledge from God. This includes the sacred texts composed by the true devotees of God.
UpamAna Pramana4 ஒப்பு = உவமை = உவமானம் = UpamAnam in Sanskrit = Analogy. When asked what a feral cow looks like by a person who has not seen a feral cow, telling that the feral cow looks like a domestic cow is analogy.
Aruttapatti Pramana5: அருத்தாபத்தி = பொருள் = Arthapatti in Sanskrit = inference from circumstances , a disjunctive hypothetical syllogism. Example: Let us assume that a person is fasting. He is surrounded by observant people in the daytime, who have not seen him eating food. After 2 weeks, his body has not lost weight. That is knowing that the day-fasting person eats at night.
Abhava Pramana6: இன்மை = absence = அபாவம். Non-existence. AbhAva is the Sanskrit word for it. Absence is the opposite of presence and thus a means of knowledge. The statement that the rabbit does not have a horn is the knowledge of negativity to apprehend an object.
Some commentators add four more criteria to this list.
1: Paroksha Pramana7 = ஒழிபு = பா¡¢சேட அளவை = Indirect Knowledge as opposed to Pratyaksha, which is direct knowledge. Example: There were only four strong men of elephantine strength in the nation (Salliyan, SarAsanthan, Kisakan, and Bhima: For ease let us call them A B C D. C was killed by an unknown person at a particular place in the nation. The known A and B were not there at that time. It is thus the conclusion that D killed C.
2. Sambhava Pramana8 = சம்பவ பிரமாணம் = உண்மை = Probability evidence. Example: A man admits that he owns 100 gold pieces; it is reasonable to assume that he has 50 gold pieces. Fifty subsides in 100. That is Sambhava Pramana.
3. Aithikam9 = ஐதிகம் = Tradition. For generations, people say that a particular tree or house is the abode of spirits. For generations, it is said Chianciano Spa cures hepatic, biliary and bronchial conditions. That is tradition.
4. SubhAva Pramanam10 = சுபாவ பிரமாணம் = இயல்பு = Nature. Tree is by its nature a tree and nothing else.
Though there are ten Pramanas, they all subside in direct perception1. Analogy4 and Sacred Texts3. Negative proof6 and Nature10 subside in Direct perception1. Inference5, Analogy4, Indirect Knowledge7, and probability evidence8 subside in inference5. tradition9 subsides in Agamas3.
Verse 8. Direct Perception, definitive knowledge.
மாசு அறு காட்சி ஐயம் திரிவு இன்றி விகற்பம் முன்னா
ஆசு அற அறிவது ஆகும்; அனுமானம் அவினாபாவம்
பேசுறும் ஏதுக் கொண்டு மறபொருள் பெறுவது ஆகும்
காசு அறும் உரை இம்மானத்து அடங்கிடாய் பொருளைக் காட்டும் 8
Initial Perception is Nirvikarpam or undifferentiated knowledge. Later comes
clear knowledge without any fault, doubt and change. Anumanam or Inferential
knowledge is apprehension of an invisible object by its invariable and
inseparable quality (AvinAbhAvam). Objects that are beyond the pale of these two
precepts come under the purview of Sacred Texts (Urai or Agamas).
Direct Perception = Pratyaksha Pramana1 (= காண்டல் அளவை = Kandal Alavai) is the knowledge gained by direct perception of an object by the senses. The first impression is the general appearance or occurrence and is called Nirvikalpa Pratyyaksha (நிருவிகற்பக் காட்சி), Undifferentiated Knowledge. Vikalpam = difference. Nirvikalpam = undifferentiated. The next perception in sequence is Savikalpa Pratyyaksha (சவிகற்பக்காட்சி). Savikalpam is knowledge that comes with perception associated with appreciation of difference. One comes to know how an object is different from the rest. It is a definite identification of the object and its true nature. Savikalpa Partyyaksha is knowledge that is not tainted with doubt, confusion, and erroneous apprehension (திரிபு). Savikalpa Patyaksha is knowledge devoid of stain.
அளவை aLavai : Means of acquiring correct knowledge, which are three, viz., காண்டல், கருதல், உரை; தருக்கப் பிரமாணம்.
Perception = காண்டல் = Perception; means of perception; பிரத்தியட்சப்பிரமாணம் 1
Law of Inference = கருதல் = Law of Inference; அனுமானப்பிரமாணம்2
Sacred Texts = உரை = Agama Pramana3
தருக்கப் பிரமாணம். = Means of Reasoning, arguing, discussion, debate, disputation
Erroneous apprehension of objects of sense as mistaking a post for a thief is திரிபுக்காட்சி (erroneous perception). Inferential Knowledge = Anumana Pramana2 : அனுமான பிரமாணம் = கருதல் அளவை= Karuthal Alavai is knowing an object by its inseparable quality. When you enter a room, you get a waft of smell of roses. Though you may not see the flowers in the room, the knowledge that there must be rose flowers in the room comes from this kind of perception. This quality is called AvinAbhAvam (அவிநாபாவம் = Inseparable quality). From that causal basis, AnumAna pramAnam happens. Another example is the knowledge that where there is smoke, there is Fire.
The knowledge not encompassed by these two but learned from sacred texts composed by அருளாளன் (one full of Grace) சான்றோர் (The Learned) is termed உரைஅளவை (Agama Pramana3). We learn about Heaven and hell from the knowledge obtained from these sacred texts.
Verse 9. General Apprehension, Doubtful Perception, Erroneous Perception.
கண்ட பொருளை இரட்டுறவே கருதல் ஐயம் திரியவே,
கொண்டல் திரிவு ஆம் பெயர் சாதி குணமே கன்மம் பொருள் என ஐந்து ,
உண்டு அவ்விகற்ப உணர்வினுக்குப் பொருளின் உண்மை மாத்திரத்தின்,
விண்டல் இல்லா அறிவு ஆகும் விகற்பம் இல்லாக் காட்சியே. 9
Nirvikalpa Perception (நிருவிகற்பக் காட்சி) is general apprehension of an object without its specific properties. This is what happens at first exposure to or sight of an object. Subsequently, we come to know the object's name, genus, qualities, function, and substance, which constitute the five factors that separate the object from other objects. This elucidation of an object is termed Savikalpa Perception (சவிகற்பக்காட்சி). Knowledge of an object tainted with doubt is termed Doubtful knowledge (ஐயக்காட்சி = vision or perception too dim to decide whether a thing is this or that). Misperception of one object as another object is Erroneous Perception (திரிவுக்காட்சி).
விற்பகம் = Virpakam or Vikalpam = difference. நிருவிகற்பம் = Nirvikalpam = Devoid of difference. சவிகற்பம் = savikalpam = associated with difference.
Let us take a tree and elucidate the knowledge. Knowing it as an object is Nirvikalpam. Knowing it as a tree (name), Mango tree (genus) its sweet qualities (Characteristics), its blossoms and fruits (function), ripe delicious edible fruits (substance) constitute Savikalpam. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 10. 4-fold Perception, 2-fold Inference, 3-fold Perception by Sacred Texts.
காண்டல் வாயில் மனம்தன்வே தனையோ(டு) யோகக் காட்சி என,
ஈண்டு நான்காம் அனுமானம் தனக்கும் பிறர்க்கும் என்று இரண்டாம்,
மாண்ட உரைதந் திரமந்ததிரத்தோடு உபதே சச்சொல் என மூன்றாம்,
பூண்ட அளவைக்கு எதிர்புலன் தன் இயல்பு பொது என்று இரண்டாமே. 10
Perception of Knowledge (காட்சி அளவை) are fourfold; Sense perception, Mental Perception, Experiential Perception and Yogic Perception. Inference-perception is twofold: Inference from one's own perception and Inference employed to enlighten others. Perception by Sacred Texts is threefold: Mantra, Tantra and Initiation. The Nature of the objects apprehended by these means is twofold: Peculiar Quality and General Quality.
Katchi Alavai ( காட்சி அளவை = Perception by means of acquiring knowledge) is fourfold:
1) Sense Perception = வாயிற்காட்சி vāyir-kātci: Apprehending faculty of the senses; இந்திரியக் காட்சி.
2)Mental Perception = மானதக்காட்சி Mānatha-k-kātci = Determinate perception by the soul through the functioning of the intellect; ஆன்மா புத்திதத்துவத்தில் நின்று சவிகற் பமாய் அறியும் அறிவு.
3) Self-Consciousness or Experiential Perception = தன்வேதனைக்காட்சி = tanvētanai-k-kātci = Self-perception of pleasure and pain brought about by arāka-tattuvam, etc.; அராகாதிதத்துவங்களாலுண்டாகும் இன்பத் துன்பங்களை ஆன்மவறிவால் அறிகை. அருந்தின்பத் துன்பமுள்ளத் தறிவினுக் கராகமாதி தருந்தன்வேதனை யாங் காட்சி
4) Yogic Perception or Intuition = யோகக்காட்சி yōka-k-kātci = Yogic perception of the soul, transcending the limitations of time and place; ஆன்மா யோகசமாதியால் காலதேசங்களாற் கட்டுக்குட்படாது அறியும் அறிவு.
Inference = Anumana Pramana2 : கருதல் அளவை= Karuthal Alavai is towfold: 1) தன் பொருட்டு 2) பிறர் பொருட்டு = Inference from one's own perception and Inference employed to enlighten others.
Sacred Texts = Agama Pramana3: உரைஅளவை are threefold: 1) தந்திரம் = Tantra, 2) மந்திரம் = Mantra, 3) உபதேசம் = Upatecam. 1) Manual acts in performing sacrifices, worship, 2) Sacred formula of invocation of a deity, 3) Initiation into the mysteries of religion, by communication of the mantras.
Nature = SubhAva Pramanam10 = சுபாவ பிரமாணம் = இயல்பு = Nature: The nature of an object ascertained by means of perception are twofold: 1) தன்னியல்பு -- சிறப்பியல்பு and 2) பொதுஇயல்பு.
1) Peculiar Quality = தன்னியல்பு taṉ-ṉ-iyalpu = (Intrinsic) Peculiar quality, distinguishing feature or characteristic; சிறப்புக் குணம். அவ்வப்பொருள் கட்குக் கூறும் தன்னியல்பு பொதுவியல்பு மாத்திரை யின் முரணுதலால்
2) General Quality = பொதுஇயல்பு = That which is common or shared by many; generality.Verse 11. General Quality and Peculiar Quality.
அன்னிய சாதி யும்தன் சாதியும் அகன்று நிற்றல்
தன்னியல்பு அன்ன யத்தைத் தவிர்ந்துதன் சாதிக்கு ஒத்தல்
துன்னிய பொது இயற்கை; சொன்ன இவ்விரண்டி னுள்ளே
மன்னிய பொருள்கள் யாவும் அடங்கிடு மானம் உற்றால். 11
Peculiar Quality is remaining with its own special Nature, separate from the
Nature of one's own genus and that of another genus. General Quality is
remaining separate from the Nature of another genus and simultaneously abide in
the nature of one's own genus. Objects subjected to Means of Perception subside
within these two Natures.Peculiar quality (தன்னியல்பு
) is that quality which is removed from that of a different genus and from that
of the same genus and which sports one's own special nature. This is very much
what we call species.
General Quality (பொதுஇயல்பு) is that quality which is removed from a different genus and simultaneously concurs with that of the same genus.
Within the ambit of Peculiar and General quality falls all objects apprehended by Nirvikalpa and Savikalpa Perception (நிருவிகற்பக் காட்சி and சவிகற்பக்காட்சி).
Among the animals, cow belongs to Genus Bos. Buffalo and horse though they belong to Mammalia belong to different Families and genuses or genera. This difference in appearance is apparent upon observation. The poet says that a genus appears like its kind different from the other genus.
Example: Our cow is black with short horns and lacks the hump (as in a bullock). Though our cow has all the General Quality (பொதுஇயல்பு) of all the cows, it has its own peculiar markers (அடையாளம்), which are called Peculiar quality (தன்னியல்பு = one's own special quality). By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 12. Sense Perception and Intellectual Perception
ஓடு உணர்வு வாயில் ஒளி உரு ஆதி பற்றிச்
செயிர் உரு விகற்பம் இன்றித் தெரிவது இந் திரியக் காட்சி
அயர்வு இல் இந்திரிய ஞானம் ஐம்புலன் சார்ந்து உயிர்க்கண்
மயர்வு அற வந்த ஞானம் மானதக் காண்டல் ஆமே. 12
Soul's intellect, when at work, goes after the objects. It uses the five sensory
organs like the eyes. Its perception is based on and limited by the
organ-associated five Great Elements (like Fire); the latter's progenitors such
as Form and the rest are the five Tanmatras. Indriya KAtchi (Sense Perception)
perceives without the stain of doubt and erroneous apprehension the object's
general quality without knowing its name and genus. This is known as
sense-knowledge. The first knowledge engendered by and associated with the five
sense-organs takes a foothold in Chittam (Determinative Faculty) and remains in
memory; later Buddhi assigns a name, genus and such attributes to the object and
thus establishes a clear comprehension of the object. This is known as MAnatha
KAtchi (Intellectual Perception).
Sense Perception = Perception by the sense-organs = Indiriya katchi = இந்திரியக்காட்சி . perception by the sense-organs is also called Nirvikalpa Perception (நிருவிகற்பக் காட்சி) and Apprehending faculty of the senses (வாயிற்காட்சி) vāyir-kātci).
Intellectual Perception = மானதக்காட்சி Mānatha-k-kātci = Determinate perception by the soul through the functioning of the intellect.Verse
13. Self-Perception and Yogic Perception.
அருந்து இன்பத் துன்பம் உள்ளத்து அறிவினுக்
தரும் தன்வே தனையாம் காட்சி சமாதியால் மலங்கள் வாட்டிப்
பொருந்திய தேச கால இயல்பு அகல் பொருள்கள் எல்லாம்
இருந்து உணர்கின்ற ஞானம் யோகநல் காண்டல் ஆமே. 13
Experiential Perception or Self-perception is apprehension of pleasure and pain through five Tattvas like RAga and the rest. ( KAla7, Niyati8, KalA9, Vidya10, RAga11 .) Yogic Perception is destruction of Impurities (மலம்) by Samadhi, going beyond the Nature of Time and Place, knowing the objects in their essence, and having the Spiritual Wisdom (ஞானம்).
Yogi has to observe Ashtanga Yogam, an eight-limb observation.
Yoga, consisting of eight elements, viz., iyamam, niya- mam, ācaṉam, pirāṇāyāmam, pirattiyākāram, tāraṇai, tiyāṉam, camāti; இயமம், நியமம், ஆச னம், பிராணாயாமம், பிரத்தியாகாரம், தாரணை, தியானம், சமாதி.
சமாதி camāti , n. < samādhi. 1. (Yōga.) Intense contemplation of God, identifying oneself with Him, one of aṣṭāṅka-yōkam q.v.; அஷ்டாங்கயோகத்துள் மனத்தைப் பரம்பொரு ளோடு ஐக்கியப்படுத்தி நிறுத்துகை. (சிலப். 14, 11, உரை.)
தேசகாலம் tēca-kālam , n. < id. +. 1. Time and place; இடமும் பொழுதும். தேசகாலந் தெரிந்து பேசவேண்டும்.
Experiential Perception = தன்வேதனைக்காட்சி = tanvētanai-k-kātci = Self-perception of pleasure and pain brought about by arāka-tattuvam. in Sanskrit, this is called Experiential Perception is Soul's apprehension of the nature of pleasure and pain through five Tattvas, Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11 . go to TATTVAS-36 for more information of Tattvas. Experiential Perception is called Sva-Vedhana Pratyaksham.
Yogic Perception = யோகக்காட்சி yōka-k-kātci = Yogic perception of the soul, transcending the limitations of time and place; ஆன்மா யோகசமாதியால் காலதேசங்களாற் கட்டுக்குட்படாது அறியும் அறிவு. Yogic Perception is eight-limbed practice, decimates the impurities (மலம்), and perceives all objects as they are in their qualities without regard to Time or Place, while the Yogi is remaining in one place.
The aim of the various kinds of yogas is to destroy ego and find one’s true identity, that is Atman (soul); and the result is the experience, Kaivalya, bliss and liberation. Kaivalya is the state of absolute freedom and splendid isolation; Purusa detaches itself from prakriti. Before one experiences Kaivalya or Samadhi, one should make sure that one meets certain qualifications, known as Angas (which means limbs or body parts):
(1) இயமம் = Yama: sexual abstinence (celibacy), ahimsa (noninjury), no lies, no theft, no greed.
(2) நியமம் = Niyama: meditation on Brahman or Isvara; silence (mauna); study of Vedas (svādyāya), Upanishads, and moksa-promoting books; repeating of mantra OM; Tapas (ascetic practice); Sauca (clean body and mind) ; Santosha (contentment); Isvara Pranidhāna (submission to God, God-Pleasing actions).
(3) ஆசனம் = Asana: body positions and postures.
(4) பிராணாயாமம் = Prānayama: breath control .
(5) பிரத்தியாகாரம் = Pratyahara (withdrawal): no contact between senses and objects of senses. This should come natural to him.
(6) தாரணை = Dharana: concentration and focus of mind on an object or idea .
(8) சமாதி = Samādhi: Convergence, one-pointedness, Subject and object (Yogi) unity.
Yogis have the unique ability to see the present, the past and the future.
Kaivalya: In Srivaishnava tradition, Kaivalya has an added import. It is liberation of the soul from matter, karma and rebirth but it has not earned its right to live in Paramapadam or Vaikuntam, the Ultima Thule of the soul in Srivaishnava tradition. This is one of the divisive issues between Ten Kalais and Vada Kalais of Srivaishnavism. It appears that Ten Kalais are satisfied with Kaivalyam, a lower achievement; the Vada Kalais insist that Vaikuntam or Paramapadam is the Real Thing. Below, read Nammalvar's opinion on Kaivalyam and Paramapadam (Soul realization Vs God realization).
Nammlavar opines that Kaivalyam is inferior to God-realization (bhagavat-sākşātkāra). Kaivalyam is ātma-sākşātkāra, soul-realization, equable resolution of Punyam and Papam, supreme happiness, self-realization... Kaivalya is the existence of the soul enjoying the bliss of Jivatman (S.M.S.Chari) and NOT Paramatman or Bhagavat. That is serious. What is better? Soul realization or God Realization. Kaivalya is NOT the Real Thing in modern parlance, according to Nammalvar.
Verse 14. Proposition, Inference, Enlightenment.
பொருளைப் பார்த்து உணரத்,
தக்க ஞானம் தன்பொருட்டாம் பிறர்தம் பொருட்டாம் அனுமானம்,
தொக்க இவற்றால் பிறர் தெளியச் சொல்லம் ஆகும் அச்சொல்லும்,
மிக்க அன்னுவயத்தினொடு வெதிரேகக்சொல் என இரண்டாம். 14
Proposition is threefold. Cause is also threefold. Inference is twofold: inference from one's own perception and Inference employed to enlighten others. Enlightenment of others is twofold: Accord and Discord (negation).
Anvaya in Sanskrit is annuvayam (அன்னுவயம்) in Tamil.
Proposition (Pakkam = பக்கம் in Tamil and Paksham in Sanskrit = proposition, argument) is threefold. it is discussed in the verse 15.
Hetu (ஏது = Etu = Hetu in Sanskrit = Cause, Origin, Ultimate Cause, First Cause. Hetu's threefold nature is discussed in Verse 16.
Concomitance, Concordance, Accord (between proposition and Conclusion): அன்னுவயம் aṉṉuvayam , n. < anvaya. (Sans) logical connection of cause and effect , or proposition and conclusion. 1. Succession, connection; சம்பந்தம். 2. (Log.) Invariable concomitance between an antecedent and a consequent; 3. (Log.) Invariable co-existence between sādhanasādhya. Anvaya in Sanskrit = logical connection of cause and effect , or proposition and conclusion.
Negation: வெதிரேகம் = Negation (எதிர்மறை) Discord, Variance.
Inference = Anumana Pramana2 : கருதல் அளவை= Karuthal Alavai is towfold: 1) தன் பொருட்டு 2) பிறர் பொருட்டு = Inference from one's own perception and Inference employed to enlighten others.
Verse 15. Proposition, Simile and Counter Instance.
மூன்று பக்கம் பக்கம்
நிகரில் பக்கம் எனத்,
தோன்றும் பக்கம் துணிபொருளுக்கு இடம் ஆம்; உவமை நிகர் பக்கம்,
ஆன்ற பொருள் சென்று அடையாத இடம் ஆம் நிகரில் பக்கம் முதல்,
ஏன்ற இரண்டும் பொருள் உண்மைககு இடமாம் ஒன்று பொருள் இன்றாம். 15
There are three propositions: Proposition, Simile, and Counter Instance. Proposition abides in Major Term (Log.). Analogy abides in Simile. The proposed object does not abide in Counter Instance. Proposition and Simile are in concordance in relation to object. Counter Instance is negation of the object.
Proposition and Simile are in concordance in relation to object. (Proposition,) Fire on the mountain and (Simile) Fire in the Kitchen are in concordance.
Counter Instance is negation of the object. There is no Fire in the lake.
Pakkam, Nigarpakkam, Nigarilpakkam =
Proposition, Simile, and Counter Instance.
துணிபொருள் = Major Term (log.)
Syllogism: Logic. an argument the conclusion of which is supported by two premises, of which one (major premise = Fire) contains the term (major term) that is the predicate of the conclusion, and the other (minor premise) contains the term (minor term) that is the subject of the conclusion; common to both premises is a term (middle term) that is excluded from the conclusion. A typical form is "All A is C; all B is A; therefore all B is C."
predicate : that which is affirmed or denied concerning the subject of a proposition.
Nyaya's syllogism has five elements: (1) the proposition to be established; பக்கõ (Proposition: the hill is on fire); (2) Why? the reason (because it smokes); (3) Give me an instance. the example (சபக்கம் = நிகர்பக்கம் = simile = whatever has smoke has fire, for example, a kitchen; (4) the application (so does the hill); and (5) the statement of the conclusion (the hill is on fire). --Dr. Radhakrishnan. I have added the equivalent Tamil terms.
Fire is the Major Term.
The Hill is the Minor Term.
The Smoke is the Middle term connecting the Major and Minor Terms.
Kitchen Fire is the Simile or Analogy.
Absence of Fire in the Lake is the Counter Instance.
That there is fire on the hill is the Conclusion.
1) Proposition: பக்கம்: Proposition to be proved or established; Pakkam (Àì¸õ) = Paksham in Sanskrit = Argument, Thesis, Proposition. Example: the hill is on fire. அனுமானத்தின் உறுப்பினுள் மலை நெருப் புடைத்து என்றதுபோன்ற பிரதிஞ்ஞாவசனம்.
2) Simile = சபக்கம் capakkam = நிகர்பக்கம் . , n. < sa-pakka. (Log.) other spelling: Supaksham is supakkam (ÍÀì¸õ) in Tamil. An instance in which the major term is found concomitant with the middle term, as kitchen when fire is the major term. நிகர் = Simile. பக்கம் = proposition. நிகர்பக்கம் = a Simile to a proposition (the hill is on fire) is the Kitchen. நிகர்பக்கம் nikar-pakkam , n. < நிகர் +. (Log.) An instance in which the major term is found concomitant with the middle term.
3) Counter Instance = விபக்கம் = நிகரில் பக்கம் = vipakkam. Log.) Instance in which the major term is not found, as lake, where fire, the major term, is not found; Opposite view; This is the OPPOSITE of Nigarpakkam or Simile or Sapakkam. எதிரிடையான கொள்கை. அனுமானவுறுப்புள் துணிபொருளில்லா விடம். சபக்கத்துண்டாதலும் விபக்கத்தின்றியே விடுதலும் (மணி. 29, 123-4).Vipaksham in Sanskrit is Vipakkam (விபக்கம்) in Tamil. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Proposition is Mountain is on fire; Simile is the Kitchen (that has fire); the Counter Instance is the Lake (that is not on fire).
1. This mountain is on fire.
மேற்கோள் = துணிபொருள் = Major Term = principle. (Pratijñā)
சாத்தியம் = SAdhya in Sanskrit = Major Term in English (Log.)
2. Presence of smoke.
காரணம் = karanam = Kariyam = Cause or reason. (Hetu)
3. Where there is smoke, there is fire.
சபக்கம் = Simile or Example. Kitchen. (Drishtantam)
4. There is smoke on the hill.
பொருத்திப் பார்த்தல் = Concordance = Reaffirmation. (Upanayam)
5. Fire is not found in the lake
நிகர்பக்கம் = விபக்கம் = Counter Instance.
6. Therefore there is fire on the hill
முடிப்புரை = conclusion. (Nigamanam)
in Sanskrit =
துணிபொருள் = சாத்தியம் =SAdhya
= Major Term.
also known as Principle or doctrine conclusively established. Fire is the
Verse 16. Reason, Nature, Effect and Non-perception.
மூன்று ஆம் இயல்பு காரியத்தோடு அநுப லத்தி
ஓதன் இயல்பு மாமரத்தைக் காட்டல் உறுகா ரியம் புகைதன்,
ஆதயாய அனல்காட்டல் ஆகும் அநுப லத்தியது,
சீத மின்மை பனியின்மை காட்டல் போலும் செப்பிடினே. 16
Reasoning (Hetu) is three-fold: Own Nature, Effect, Non-Perception. Nature is to point out and identify an object as to what it is by its word. Effect or Result is to point out the cause of an object: upon seeing smoke, make a point that Fire is present. Non-Perception is realizing the non-existence of an object by knowing the non-existence of the example cited.
Hetu in Sanskrit = Reasoning; Statement of reason,
the second member of an Indian syllogism; middle term.
Hetu or ஏது is of three kinds: இயல்பு (Own nature or Inherent Quality), காரியம் (Effect, Result. subject ), and அனுபலத்தி (non-perception).
1) Inherent Quality (இயல்பு = iyalpu) is apprehending an object by the connotive power of the word.
2) Effect (காரியம் = KAriyam). Upon seeing the rising smoke in a distant hill, pointing out the presence of the causal Fire, for the smoke to rise. KAriya Hetu is apprehension of Smoke as the effect (KAriyam) from the Causal Fire (காரணம் = Cause).
3) Non-perception Inference= அனுபலத்தி = Anupalaththi = Anupalabdhi in Sanskrit:= non-perception, non-recognition) is apprehending the non-existence of an object based on the non-existence in the example cited. Inference of the absence of one thing from the absence of something else. Example: Knowing the non-existence of horned rabbit.
Opposite of upalabdhi (உபலத்தி)
as listed below.
(aṉupalatti-y-ētu = அனுபலத்தியேது= Inference of the absence of one thing from the absence of something else.)
Brilliant Perception: உபலத்தி = விளங்குதல். obtainment, acquisition, gaining understanding, clear and brilliant perception. Example: It is not winter because it is not cold.
Apprehension of absence of cause on account of absence of effect and on account of absence of cause, the absence of effect comes under the purview of non-perception (Anupalaththi = Anupalabdhi).
In other words: Apprehension of lack of effect proceeding from lack of cause and lack of cause leading to lack of effect subsides in non-perception.
Objective reasoning (காரிய ஏது) is that the object Smoke makes you realize that Fire is present. Non-Perception (Anupalabdhi = அனுபலத்தி) is having the sensation of Negation. Knowing absence of effect based on absence of Cause and absence of Cause based on the absence of effect constitutes Anupalabdhi (அனுபலத்தி). S.S. Mani gives this example: 'Now there is no Cold on account of no Snow.' The inverse is: 'Now there is no Snow on account of no Cold.' That is Anupalabdhi. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 17. Concomitance and Negation.
புகையால் அனல் உண்டு அடுக்களைபோல் என்னப் புகறல்
வகையாம் அனல் இ லா இடத்துப் புகை இன்று ஆகும் மலரினொடு,
முகைஆர் நீரிற் போல் என்று மொழிதல் வெதிரே கச்சொல்இவை,
தொகையால் உறுப்பு ஐந் தொடுங்கூடச் சொல்லு வாரம் உளர் துணிந்தே. 17
Smoke betrays fire. This is like the kitchen. As opposed to this, where there is
no fire, there is no smoke. This is Annuvayam (அந்நுவயம்
Invariable existence between cause and effect. Vettirekam (வெதிரேகம்-negation)
is like the co-existence of buds and blooms in the Lotus lake. These two have 5
Concomitance and Negation (அந்நுவயம் Vs வெதிரேகம்) are discussed under verse 15.
1. This mountain is on fire
மேற்கோள் = துணிபொருள் = principle. (Pratijñā)
2. Because there is smoke.
காரணம் = Karanam = Cause. (Hetu)
3. Where there is (no) smoke, there is (no) fire.
சபக்கம் = Simile or Example. Kitchen. (Drishtantam)
4. This mountain is not without smoke.
பொருத்திப் பார்த்தல் = Concomitance = Affirmation. (Upanayam)
5. Therefore there is fire on the mountain.
முடிப்புரை = conclusion. (Nigamanam)
Verse 18. Inference and its relationship with Karma.
நாற்றத் தால்அறிதல் பூர்வக் காட்சி அனுமானம்
ஓது முறையால் அறிவின்அளவு உணர்தல் கருதல் அனுமானம்
நீதி யால் முன் கன்மபலம் நிகழ்வ திப்போது இச்செய்தி
ஆதி யாக வரும்பயன் என்று அறிதல் உரையால் அனுமானம். 18
Inference is of three types. Purva Katcchi Anumanam (பூர்வக் காட்சி அனுமனம் = past perception inference = Inference derived from past perception) is to know the jasmine flower in the room by its smell though one may not see the flowers. Inference is to know the degree of intelligence from one's words. Inference is to know that past karma is bearing fruits in this life from the knowledge derived from the Sacred Texts and that merits and demerits of this life will bear fruits in the future life.
Three types of Inference: Past Perception Inference, Inference of intelligence from one's words, Inference of Karmic events from knowledge of Sacred Texts. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 19. God, Agamas and its three parts: Tantram, Mantram and Upadesam.
அநாதியே அமலன் ஆய அறிவன்நூல் ஆக மந்தான்
பின்ஆதிமா றின்றிப் பேணல் தந்திர மந்தி ரங்கள்
மனாதிகள் அடக்கித் தெய்வம் வழிபடும் வாய்மை யாகும்
தன் ஆதிஈறு இலாதான் தன்மை உணர்த்துதல் உபதே சந்தான். 19
God the beginningless Amalan (the Pure) is the Omniscient Knower of Agamas, which are considered the Testimonies (உரை) and consist of three parts: Tantram, Mantram and Upadesam. Tantram explicates the ritual aspect of worship. Mantras advise the control of the senses, concentration of the mind on the deity and the ways of worship. Updesam helps one to realize that He is without beginning and end and instruct others in self-realization.
Tantram refers to the sacred Texts; Mantram refers to refuge given by god to the seeking soul; Upadesam refers to religious instructions.
Verse 20. Flawed Inference and its consequences.
ஈண்டு பக்கப் போலி நான்கு ஏதுப் போலி ஒரு
வேண்டும் எழுமூன்று ஆகும் விளங்கு உவமைப் போலி ஈரொன்பான்,
காண்டும் தோல்வித் தானம் இரண்டு இருபத்து இரண்டாம் கருதில் இவை,
யாண்டம் ஒழிவர் அவை எல்லாம் அளக்கில் அறுபத்து ஐந்தாகும். 20
Any flaws in Inference (கருதல்
consisting of Perception, Reasoning and Analogy (பக்கம்,
renders it spurious, which leads to sophism (போலி)
and defeat in debate (Syllogism) with the opponent. Perception Sophism (பக்கப்
is fourfold. Erroneous Reasoning (ஏது
is threefold and expands to twenty-one types. Erroneous Analogy is twofold and
expands to eighteen types. Debate (தருக்கம்)
on account of inarticulateness results in bewilderment and arrest in speech: two
types of defeat in debate. Thus said expansively, all amount to twenty-two. The
grand total amounts to sixty-five points of sophism.
The three aspects of Sophism (போலி) in Sanskrit are பட்சா பாசம், ஹெத்துவாபாசம், and திருஷ்டாந்தாபாசம். தோல்வித்தானம் (Fault in syllogism) is Nigrakasthanam in Sanskrit. போலி is AbhAsa in Sanskrit (Sophism, Semblance of reason, fallacy).
பட்சா பாசம், ஹெத்துவாபாசம், and திருஷ்டாந்தாபாசம். தோல்வித்தானம் = தோல்வித்தானம் tolvi-t-tanam , n. Weak point in an argument or fault in a syllogism.
Verse 21. God as Dispenser. He is beginningless, Supreme Consciousness and Bliss
ஒருவனோடு ஒருத்தி ஒன்று என்று உரைத்திடும்
வருமுறை வந்து நின்று போவதும் ஆத லாலே
தருபவன் ஒருவன் வேண்டும் தான்முதல் ஈறும் ஆகி
மருவிடும் -- அநாதி முத்த சித்து உரு மன்னி நின்றே. 21
Male, Female and object making this world appear, live, and die. Because of it, there is an invariable need for a Dispensing Entity. He has no beginning and no end. He is the First to create, maintain, destroy and again recreate. He is Anadi Siththu uru Muththan (அநாதி சித்து உரு முத்தன் = He is beginningless, of the form of Supreme Consciousness, and of Plenitude of Bliss). He is of the form of Liberation and an embodiment of Cosmic Intelligence.
Male, Female and the object making this world appear, live, and die = This world is made of He, She and It, who appear, live and die. அவன், அவள், அது = He, She, It.
Verse 22. God's injunction in the manifestation, preservation and destruction of the world.
உதிப்பதும் ஈறும் உண்டென று உரைப்பது இங்கு என்னை?
மதித்துலகு அநாதி யாக மன்னியது என்பர் --என்னின்
இதற்கு யான் அனுமா னாதி எடேன் இப்பூ தாதி எல்லாம்
விதிப்படி தோற்றி மாயக் காணலான் மேதி னிக்கே. 22
How can it be said that this world is subject to creation and destruction? No one has seen its creation and its destruction. The Learned said that what does not lend itself for perception is not fit for acceptance. Some reject that the world is eternal. All objects of the world have their beginning from the aggregation of the Great Elements. By perception we can apprehend the injunction of God in the creation, existence and disappearance of the world.
Verse 23. Arguments for the existence of God.
இயல்புகாண் தோற்றி மாய்கை என்றிடின்
செயலதின் றியல்பு செய்தி செய்தியேல் இயல்ப தின்றாம்,
இயல்பதாம் பூதந் தானே இயற்றிடுஞ் செய்தி யென்னில்,
செயல்செய்வான் ஒருவன் வேண்டுஞ் செயற்படும் அசேத னத்தால்.
The materialist (உலகாயதன்) does not accept the idea of the necessity of God for creation of this world. The materialists say that it is the world's nature to appear and disappear and the need for God does not exist. They say appearance and disappearance are the qualities of objects. Some say the elements aggregate and separate on their own accord thus appearing and disappearing. The Great Elements are devoid of intelligence (Sat) and thus needs intelligent God above and separate from these elements to control them. Thus we realize that the non-sentient Asat objects are under His control.
Verse 24. Arguments for the existence of God.
நிலம்புனல் அனல்கால் காண நிறுத்திடும் அழிக்கும்
பலந்தரு மொருவ னிங்குப் பண்ணிட வேண்டா வென்னின்
இலங்கிய தோற்ற நிற்றல் ஈறிவை இசைத லாலே
நலங்கிளர் தோற்ற நாசம் தனக்கிலா நாதன் வேண்டும். 24
The materialist says that the four Great elements, Earth, Water, Fire, and Air aggregate together, manifest as the world, stay for a while and later undergo destruction. We can see this with our own eyes. They assert that there is no need for intervention by God . This premise is not acceptable. There must be a Supreme Being (நாதன்) who is not subject to creation and destruction. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 25. There is a Cause and its effect.
சார்பினில் தோன்று மெல்லாம் தருபவன் இல்லை
தேரின்இல் லதற்கோ தோற்றம் உள்ளதற் கோநீ செப்பாய்
ஓரின்இல் லதுவுந் தோன்றா துள்ளதேல் உதிக்க வேண்டா
சோர்விலா திரண்டு மின்றி நிற்பது தோன்று மன்றே. 25
All objects appear before our eyes and perish before our eyes, though they appear to be eternal. The former giving rise to the latter is the basis and support of the latter. Some say all manifest in this world, there is no God or creator in this world. If that is so, tell me: does a non-existent object come into being? Does the existent object come into being? Deliberating on this subject, one would conclude that the non-existent object would not manifest. If it is an existent object, there is no need for its creation. Barring these two objects, an existent object, having remained invisible to the eyes, manifest as an effect from cause.
The verse portrays a contrary view held by MAdhyamika Buddhists, Jains, and CauttirAntika Buddhists.
Middle-way Buddhist = மாத்யமிகன் = mAtyamikan = Middle-way Buddhist of Mahayana Tradition
Jain = சமணர் = camanar , Jains; சைனர்.
Sutra-Buddhist = சௌத்திராந்திகன் = cauttirAntikan , = Follower of Buddhist Sutras (Sutra-Buddhist). Follower or adherent of cauttirAntika sect of Buddhism; புத்தமதத்தில் சௌத்திராந்திகப் பிரிவைச் சேர்ந்தவன்.
Sutra-Buddhism = சௌத்திராந்திகம் cauttirāntikam , n. < sautrāntika. A school of Buddhism which admits the authority of the Buddhist Sūtras only; சூத்திரபிடகத்தைமட்டும் பிரமாணமாகக் கொள் ளும் பௌத்தமதப் பிரிவு.
Sutra-Buddhists (சௌத்திராந்திகன் ) vow that objects have momentary existence (manifest momentarily and perish momentarily). Their argument is called Kanapanga VAdam (Transience-argument = கணபங்க வாதம்). Their view is that as the objects appear and perish, the former object forms the basis for the later object. Non-existent object do appear in the horizon. Based on this doctrine, they assert that the hypostasis of a creative God is not necessary.
Object-Transience = கணபங்கம் kana-pankam : , n. That which is of momentary duration, transient; க்ஷணத்தில் தோன்றியழிவது. புத்தி கணபங்கமெனப் புத்திகெட்டபுத்தனுரை (சிவப். பிரபந். சிவஞா. நெஞ்சு. 210).
Saiva Siddhantists accept Carkariya VAtam (Object-Resident-in-the-Causal-Substance argument). Only Existent objects manifest; non-existent objects do not appear. Objects exist in the causal substance. Example: Pot exists in clay. The one remaining subtle in the Cause manifests as an object. Sutra-Buddhist (சௌத்திராந்திகன் ) does not accept this argument. Saiva Siddhantists embrace this viewpoint.
Causal argument: CarkAriya VAtam (சற்காரியவாதம் car-kAriya-vAtam ) declares that an object exists in its cause. Example: A pot exists in the clay.
சற்காரியவாதம் carkAriya-vAtam = , n. < id. + kārya. பொருள் காரணப்பொருளில் உள்ளது என்னுங் கொள்கை. (சி. போ. பா. 1, 2, பக். 64.)
Verse 26. The Potter, the Clay and the Pot Theory.
உள்ளதம் இலதும் இன்றி நின்றது ஒன்று உளதல்
இல்லதேல் இல்லை ஆகும் தோற்றமும் இசையாதாகும்
உள்ளகாரணத்தல் உண்டாம் காரியம் உதிக்கும் மண்ணில்
இல்லதாம் படம் கடாதி எழில்தரம் இயற்றவானால். 26
Buddhists of another sect declare an object heretofore unknown and uncharacterized, neither existent, nor non-existent will manifest. Is there an object like that in this world? Assuming it is present, it should be declared an existent object. If the answer is NO, declaring that the perishing non-existent object had an existence is an untenable proposition. Considering this premise on Indirect Knowledge ( ஒழிபு அளவை = Indirect Knowledge = Paroksha Pramana7 ), what becomes obvious is an existing object morphed from cause to an object (clay to pot) by the creative effort of God. From clay, does not cloth appear. But from the clay appears pot through the intermediation of a potter.
Based on the argument of Object-Resident-in-the-Cause (சற்காரியவாதம் car-kAriya-vAtam), this verse emphasizes by the work of the foremost of all workers, the Creator Himself created the object (Pot) from the existing substance (Clay).
Verse 27. Objects remain subtle until manifestation.
ஒருபொருள் ஒருவன் இன்றி உளது இலது ஆகும் என்னில்
தருபொருள் உண்டேல் இன்றாம் தன்மை இன்று; இன்றேல் உண்டாய்
வருதல் இன்று இலது கார்யம் முதல் உளதாகும் என்னில்
கருத காரியமம் உண்டாய் தோற்றமும் கருத்தா வால் ஆம். 27
Samanars (Jains) say with nonchalant ease, what is so unusual about an object appearing and perishing without the intermediation of a Doer (God)? Jains, when talking about an object, refer to it as existing and non-existing. This binomial characterization of an object is unacceptable. An existent object does not possess the nature of non-existence. A non-existent object does make a manifestation. They may advance an obviously faulty premise that a causal substance exists but caused manifest object does not exist. Caused manifest object resides in a subtle form in causal substance (Pot exists in a subtle form in the clay). The objects in subtle form manifest as the caused manifest objects by the act of the Agent or Doer (கருத்தா = karuththA = Doer or Agent = God). By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 28. Maya is the origin of the material World.
காயத்தின் அழிவு தோற்றம் கண்டனம் உலககில்
நீ இத்தை உரைத்த வாறு இங்கு என் எனின் நிகழத்தம்-- உண்மை
மாயத்த உலகம் பூநீர் தீவளி வானம் ஆதி
ஆய இத்தான் ஒன்றின் ஒன்று தோன்றி நின்று அழித லாலே. 28
We have witnessed the birth and death of body. But no one has witnessed the birth and death of the whole world. That being so, some question how one could tell the whole world in its entirety manifest (all at once) and perish all at once. Thus the created objects and the world in addition to Earth, Water, Fire, and Air make manifestation by virtue of Maya. That the objects in the world manifesting one by one, remaining for a while and later perishing is the paradigm for all objects and the world.
Mimamsakars are of the view that the world is not subject to destruction, while body is subject to birth, life and death. To contradict their view, this verse brings home the point that the world is also subject to creation, preservation and destruction.
Verse 29. Time is mediator of creation and destruction.
இடம் அழியப் பின்னும் ஓர்
பாரிடம் அழிவது இன்றாம் என்றிடில் பயில்விதது எல்லாம்
கார் இடம் அதனில் காட்டும் அங்குரம்; கழியும் வேனில்
சீர் உடைத்து உலகு காலஞ் சேர்ந்திடப் பெயர்ந்து செல்லும். 29
(This world, besides other things, has Earth, Mountains, and Oceans.) When one entity perishes, another entity comes into being. World does not come into destruction all at once. Some say there is no certainty that the world will rise again, once it meets destruction. Besides, we witness the seeds sprout during rainy season and grow into plants. When the (raging) summer arrives, we witness the fields of plants wilt and die. Likewise, we should realize that this world is subject to creation and destruction within the ambit of Time.
Mimamsakas raise doubts of this nature, which Arul Nandi Sivanar contradicts and advances the realized wisdom of Saiva Siddhanta.
Verse 30. Time is the Instrumental Cause in the creation.
காலமே கடவுளாகக் கண்டனம்.
காலமோ அறிவு இன்றாகும் ; ஆயினும் காரியங்கள்
காலமே தரவே காண்டும் காரணண் விதிய னுக்குக்
காலமும் கடவுள் ஏவலால் துணைக் காரணம்காண். 30
Some say Time is God. This premise is not acceptable. Time is devoid of Intelligence. (It is Asat.) Thus it is not capable of spontaneous acts. Time under the aegis of Omniscient God works as (துணைக்காரணம்) Instrumental Cause. (Time cannot be Nimitta Karanam --Efficient Cause.)
Let me explain a few of these terms. Generally there are three Causes: Efficient Cause; His Power (Sakti) is the Instrumental Cause or secondary Cause; Maya is the Material Cause. MAya Tattva is an evolute of Sakti Tattva and produces the material world. TATTVAS-36
Potter, instruments like wheel and stick, clay, and the pot (the world or finished product).
All that is manifest is Power (Shakti) as Mind, Life and Matter. Power implies a Power-Holder (Shaktiman). There is no Power-Holder without Power, or Power with out Power-Holder. The Power-Holder is Shiva. Power is Shakti, the Great Mother of the Universe. There is no Shiva without Shakti, or Shakti without Shiva. The two as they are in themselves are one. They are each Being, Consciousness and Bliss. These three terms are chosen to denote ultimate Reality, because Being or 'Is-ness', as distinguished from particular forms of Being, cannot be thought away. 'To be' again is "to be conscious" and lastly perfect Being-Consciousness is the Whole, and unlimited unconstrained Being is Bliss. These three terms stand for the ultimate creative Reality as it is in itself. By the imposition upon these terms of Name (Nama) and Form (Rupa) or Mind and Matter, we have the limited Being-Consciousness and Bliss which is the Universe. Woodroffe, Serpent Power, page23.
God as Efficient Cause = நிமித்தகாரணம் = Nimitta Karana in Sanskrit = Example the Potter. God is also known as கேவலப்பொருள் kEvala-p-porul = The Supreme Being, as the one without a second. (Determining Cause.) He is also AkArana, meaning that there is no cause other than Him.
நிமித்தகாரணம் nimitta-kāraṇam , n. < nimittakAranam; Of the three causes, காரணம் மூன்றனுள் குடத்துக்குக் குயவன்போலக் காரியத்தோடு அனு விருத்தியில்லா காரணம். அதற்கு நிமித்தகாரணங் கேவலப்பொரு ளென்பதூஉம் (குறள், 352, உரை). (தருக்கசங். பக். 24.)
கேவலப்பொருள் kēvala-p-porul , n. < id. +. The Supreme Being, as the one without a second; பரப்பிரமம். கேவலப் பொருளையே பாவித் தல் வேண்டுதலான் (குறள், 358, உரை).
Sahakari (cahakari) Karana = சககாரி காரணம்= துணைக்காரணம் = thunai-k-kAranam = Secondary Cause. Sakti or Power and Time are the secondary Causes. துணைக்காரணம். அடுத்துவருமனன சககாரிகளாம் (வேதா. சூ. 134).
துணைக்காரணம் tuṇai-k-kAraṇam. , n. Instrumental or secondary cause, as the potter's stick or wheel; குடத்துக்குத் தண்டு சக்கரம்போல் காரியநிகழ்ச்சிக்கு உதவியாயிருக்கும் காரணம். (தொ. சொல். 74, உரை.) Sanskrit equivalent term for this is Sahakari Karana.
Material cause, upAdana kArana is the Maya. Example: Clay
www.experiencefestival.com gives the following explanation.
efficient cause: (nimitta karana) That which directly produces the effect; that which conceives, makes, shapes, etc., such as the potter who fashions a clay pot, or God who creates the world.
- instrumental cause: (sahakari karana) That which serves as a means, mechanism or tool in producing the effect, such as the potter's wheel, necessary for making a pot, or God's generative Shakti.
- material cause: (upadana karana) The matter from which the effect is formed, as the clay which is shaped into a pot, or God as primal substance becoming the world.
Saivites say, Siva does not create this universe out of nothing. He is the efficient cause (Nimitta Karana); his sakti is the instrumental cause (Sahakari Karana); Maya is the material cause (Upadana Karana). The body and the organs with their functions are evolutes of Maya and its Tattvas. God is Jagat Karana Vastu (World Causal Substance). By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 31 Karma and elements, the latter's involution and Spontaneous recombination of elements to form objects are not tenable.
அழிந்தபின் அணுக்கள் தாமே அகிலமாய் வந்து
கழிந்திடும் கன்மத்து என்னில் கன்மமும் அணுவும் கூட
மொழிந்திடும் சடமே ஆகி மொழிதலான் முடியா செய்தி
ஒழிந்திடும் அணுர பங்கள் உலகு எலாம் ஒடுங்கம் அன்றே. 31
Some say,"After dissolution, the world subsides as atomic elements which are indestructible. These elements by virtue of Karma recombine and manifest as world." This premise is not acceptable, because Karma and elements (atoms) are devoid of intelligence (Asat). They do not have the ability to function on their own accord. Moreover, upon the dissolution of the world the subtle forms of elements undergo subsidence or involution (´Îì¸õ). That these subtle elements recombine to form the universe is not acceptable.
Modern science has not come up with a life form created in a lab. As of 2009, no one has yet synthesized a "protocell" using basic components which would have the necessary properties of life.-- Wikipedia.
Verse 32. Atoms are not the First Cause, but Maya is. Atom is a product and not the cause of the world.
காரண அணுக்கள் கெட்டால் காரிய உலகு என்னில்
காரணம் மாயை ஆகக் காரியம் காணலாகும்
காரணம் மாயை என்னை? காண்பது இங்கு அணுவே என்னில்
காரணம் மாயை யேகாண் காரியம் அணுவில் கண்டால். 32
Some say," Atoms are the Cause of the world. If atoms perish, this world being the Effect will also perish." The First Cause of the world is not the atom but Maya. Siddhantam declares that the world takes its origin as its effect or product from Maya. Contradicting this, they deny the role of Maya. Atoms are also the effect or the product and thus one should realize that atoms cannot be the First Cause of the world.
அணு = Atom. காரணம் = Cause. காரியம் = Effect or Product.
Verse 33. Atoms and objects are subject to destruction. Thus Maya and not Atoms is the First Cause .
காரியம் என்பது என்னை காரண அணுவை
காரியம் அவயவத்தால் கண்டனம் கடாதி போல;
காரிய உருவம் எல்லாம் அழிதரும் கார ணத்தால்;
காரிய உறுப்பு இல்மாயை தருமெனக் கருத டாயே. 33
Some say, "Atoms combine and give the object a form. Atoms are the First Cause of the world. Since they give form to an object, the atoms also should have a form." your premise indicates that atoms, the pot, and the objects have form, parts and limbs. Forms and objects with parts are subject to dissolution. Thus said, realize that the Formless and Eternal Entity devoid of destruction, MAya Tattva is the First Cause of the world.
Causal-Atom theorists say that many atoms combine to produce an object. This is called Sai-Yogam (union). For this union to take place, the atoms must have the form and parts which are subject to destruction. Therefore, Maya, devoid of these two impediments (உபாதி = obstruction) is the First Cause.
அவயவம் avayavam , n. < ava-yava. 1. Limb, part of body; உடலின் உறுப்பு. தங்க ளவய வம் போல்வன கொய்தார் (பாரத. வசந்த. 6). 2. Part, member; அங்கம்.
, n. < sai-yoga. 1. Union, absorption; கலக்கை. 2. See சை யோகசம்பந்தம். (சி. சி.) 3. Sexual union; புணர்ச்சி. இரவுபக லேழையர்கள் சையோக மாயினோம் (தாயு. எங்குநிறை. 9).
Verse 34. Maya is like the seed wherein lies the tree.
தோற்றமும் நிலையம் மீறும் மாயையின் தொழில் என்றே
சாற்றிடம் உலகம் வித்துச் சாகாதி அணுக்களாக
ஏற்றதேல் ஈண்டு நிற்கும் இல்லதேல் இயைவது இன்றாம்
மாற்றம்நீ மறந்தாய் இத்தால் மாயையை மதித்தடாயே. 34
The Learned say that Creation, Preservation, and Destruction are the three functions of Maya. Within the seed lies the subtle form of the tree in its parts such as the leaves and branches. That is how the tree grows and makes its appearance for us to see. If it is not that, the tree originating from the seed will not manifest. Don't forget this Truth. Thus by this you consider the importance of Maya.
Verse 35. Maya contains the world in a subtle form. Leaves of spray grow and fall; the leaves become manure and a spray again on the tree.
மாயையின் உள்ள வஞ்சம் வருவது போவது ஆகும்
நீ அது இங்கு இல்லை என்னில் நிகழ்ந்திடும் முயலின் கோடு
போய் உகும் இலைகள் எல்லாம் மரங்களின் புக்குப் போதின்
ஆயிடும் அதுவு என்னில் காரணம் கிடக்க ஆமே. 35
Maya in its subtle form contains this world, which makes its appearance and disappearance. (only Existent objects appear.) If it is not for this paradigm, we have to assume that the horn will grow on the rabbit. The contrarians will raise the question, "Do you suggest that the falling leaves should again take their place on the tree?" It is true that fallen leaves become manure in the soil and provide the nutrition for the tree to bear leaves. That happens on a seasonal basis.
Existent things manifest and non-existent things do not manifest. That is the accepted argument of Object-Resident-in-the-Cause (சற்காரியவாதம் car-kAriya-vAtam).
Verse 36. The Lord, the Hypostasis of the world.
கருதுகாரணம் உண்டாகக் காரியம்
வருதலால் அநாதி வையம் மற்று ஒரு கடவுள் இத்தைத்
தருதலால் ஆதயாகச் சாற்றல் ஆகும் மாயைக்கு
ஒருவன் ஆர் என் இங்கு என்னில் உள்ளவாறு உரைப்ப கேள் நீ. 36
It is explained that the cause is Reality and the effect arising from it will always remain a Reality (உள்பொருள்). Thus this world is Reality. Almighty Lord, the hypostasis of all that exists, creates this world which again subsides in Him; this changing condition posits that the world is subject to destruction. Who or what is this Maya? Let us hear it as it is said. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 37. Maya is the origin of man. Indirect knowledge suggests there must be a God.
புத்திமற் காரியத்தால் பூதாதி புருடன் தானும்
அத்தனு கரணம் பெற்றால் அறிதலால் அவற்றை மாயை
உய்த்திடும் அதனால் மாயைக்கு உணர்வு ஒன்றும் இல்லை என்றே
வைத்திடும் அதனால் எல்லாம் வருவிப்பான் ஒருவன் வேண்டும். 37
The world and the rest are created by the act of an Intelligent Supreme Being. Living Purusa (Purusa12 Tattva = human), though intelligent, is ignorant of things to begin with, acquires later the body, mind and other organs, and becomes intelligent and apprehending. Body, Mind, and other instruments of the body take their origin from Maya, which is unintelligent (and Jada =inert). based on this, considering them on the basis of Indirect knowledge (´Æ¢Ò = Paroksha Pramana = Indirect Knowledge), we come to realize that there must be a God who has the capability to create the world (and beings).
The poet says the creation of the world is an of Intelligence. it is like the fashioning of the pot from the clay. The elements are devoid of intelligence. Human being (Purusa12 ) becomes intelligent and apprehending only after his soul acquires the instruments of mind, the body and the rest. Maya the origin of body and mind is without intelligence. The poet establishes the premise that separate from all this, above all this and transcending the whole universe, there is a creative Supreme Being.
Verse 38. The Three Causes: First, Secondary and Efficient Cause (முதல் துணை நிமித்தம்)
காரிய கார ணங்கள் முதல் துணை நிமித்தம் கண்டாம்
பாரின்மண் திரிகை பண்ணு மவன் முதல் துணை நிமித்தம்
தேரின் மண் மாயை ஆக திரிகைதன் சத்தி ஆக
ஆரியன் குலால னாய்நின்று ஆக்குவன் அகிலம் எல்லாம். 38
In relation to cause and effect, three Causes are mandatory features: First
Cause, Secondary Cause, and Efficient Cause. The First Cause of the pot is clay;
the wheel and the stick constitute the Secondary Cause. The potter is the
Efficient Cause. Elucidation reveals that Maya, being the origin of the world
and objects is the First Cause. Maya is like the clay. God's Sakti is the
Secondary cause, like the potter's wheel. Siva is the Efficient Cause, like the
Verse 39. The evolution of Tattvas from Bindu (விந்து).
வந்திடும் விந்துத் தன்பால் வைகரி ஆதி மாயை
முந்திடும் அராகம் ஆதி முக்குணம் ஆதி மூலம்
தந்திடும் சிவன வன்தன் சந்நிதி தன்னில் நின்றே. 39
Maya's Avyakta (அவ்வியத்தம் = Unmanifest state) becomes Bindu Maya (the origin of the world and beings). Bindu (விந்து) gives rise to Vaikari Speech (and the preceding Madhyama, Pasyanti and the Para forms of speech). Five Tattvas like ArAkam (அராகம் = Raga11--the five Tattvas = Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11). Then comes the three Gunas (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas) from Prakriti (மூலம் = Mulam = the Root Substance = Prakriti in Sanskrit). All these come from Siva's Sakti under the aegis of Siva.
This verse is a condensed with so much meaning that it needs expansion and explanation. Siva's Sakti is known as Sakti Tattva, which is one among the five Suddha Tattvas (Siva Tattva, Sakti Tattva, Sadasiva tattva, Isvara Tattva and Sad-Vidya Tattva).
Before Siva-Sakti manifests matter, it exists in Unmanifest State which is the same as the Singularity of the Black Hole. It is Avyaktam( அவ்வியத்தம் ) and when it manifests it is Vyaktham ( வியத்தம் ). It has no mass and no dimension.
There are categories (Tattvas = from Tat in Sanskrit = That in English = Principles = Building blocks of Universe and beings): Suddha Tattvas, Suddha-Asuddha Tattvas, and Asuddha Tattvas. Suddha Tattvas are five; Suddha-Asuddha Tattvas are seven and Asuddha Tattvas are twenty-four; in all there are thirty six Tattvas, which constitute the Pure Principles like the Divinities, the Pure-Impure entities like Purusha the man and his vestures, and the Impure entities that constitute his mind, organs, and the elements. Here is a list of all Tattvas and go to TATTVAS-36 for greater details.
Siva1, Sakti2, Sadasiva3, Isvara4, Sadvidya5, MāyA6, Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11, Purusa12 Prakrti Tattva13, Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing17 tactile sense18, vision and color19, tasting20, smell21, speech22, grasp23, ambulation24, evacuation25, procreation26, sound27, touch28, form29, taste30, odor31, ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36.
Here are the Sanskrit and Tamil terms, color-coded for easy identification of the above Tattvas and the broad classification of the Tattvas below. These Tattvas proceed downwards from Sakti Tattva in a Cascade Fashion.
Suddha Tattvas = சுத்த தத்துவம் = தூய மாயை (ThUya MAyai).
Suddha-Asuddha Tattvas = சுத்த-அசுத்த மாயை = தூய-தூவா மாயை (ThUya-ThUvAMAyai).
Asuddha Tattvas = அசுத்த தத்துவம் = தூவாமாயை (ThUvAMAyai)
Bindu in Sanskrit is Vindhu (விந்து) in Tamil. Sivanar talks about Vaikari Speech, which is the articulated sound.
Verse 40. Vaikhari = Articulated Speech = வைகரி
வைகரி செவியில் கேட்ப தாய்,
அத்த வசனம் ஆகி
மெய்தரும் உதான வாயு மேவிட விளைந்த வன்னம்
பொய்யற அடைவு உடைத்தாய், புந்திகா ரணமது ஆகி
ஐயம் þல் பிராண வாயு அடைந்து ±ழுந்து அடைவு உடைத்தாம். 40
Vaikari is the speech that is heard by the ears of the listener and that is spoken by the speaker. The speech makes us realize the meaning of the words. It is the cause of communication and understanding between the speaker and the listener. It is the product of Udāna Prāna (¯¾¡É Å¡Ô = udaana vaayu), the Up-Breath or Ascending Breath). It rises on account of Prana VAyu in its pure form, acquires Buddhi and manifests in the form of sound
Udāna Prāna: Ascending breath. This energy is resident in the heart, throat, palate, and skull and between the eyebrows. Udana's headquarters is the throat--Visuddha Chakra of Kundalini. Udāna is the breath in the throat rising upwards. It is the expiratory air, which is needed for articulation. For more information of Breath, go to BG04, commentary on BG4.29-30 verses.
Vaikhari: (Articulation, Speech) It is the speech that originates in the larynx. Vaikhari is the mother (origin) of letters of Alphabet (Varna), syllables (Pada), words (Vak), and sentences (Vakya).
The stages of sound from the most subtle to articulated sound have concordance with the evolution of Primal Being from Avyakta through Brahman, Isvara, Hiranyagarbha, and Virat, the last being the manifest world.
The sound in Muladhara is Tamasic, impinges the mind upon arriving in Svadhistana or Manipura Chakras, takes on the color of Buddhi upon arriving in Anahata or heart plane and flows out in combinations of fifty letters upon the arrival of Kundalini in the Visuddha (larynx) plane. Vaikhari starts as Pranava (OM) and assumes characters and characteristics to become Vedas (and spoken and written words). Para resides in the breath or Prana, Pasyanti in mind, Madhyama in Indriyas (body parts and organs), and Vaikhari in larynx.
Paranada is the Supreme Sound Energy; it is transcendental. It shows as sprout in Para Vani, two leaves in Pasyanti, buds in Madhyama, blossoms in Vaikhari or Vak. Blossoms look beautiful but Vaikhari is the lowest of sounds; Para is the highest of sounds, because that is where the germ ideas originate. By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
ParA state is that state when Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are in equilibrium (SAmya). Pasyanti state is when all the Gunas are disequilibrium. Madhyama is in two forms: Subtle and gross. In gross form it makes nine forms of sound: 1) Vowel sounds, 2) Kavarga: Ka series--5 in number, 3) Cavarga: Ca series--5, 4) Ṭavarga: Ṭa series, 5) Tavarga--Ta series, 6) Pavarga--Pa series, 7) Ya series--Ya, Ra, La,and Va, 7: Ksa
Verse 41. Madhyama Sound = மத்திம வாக்கு
செவியினில் உறுதல் செய்யாது
ஒள்ளிய பிராண வாயு விருத்தியை உடையது அன்றி
தெள்ளிய அக்கரங்கள் சிந்திடும் செயலது இன்றி
மெ ள்ளவே எழுவது ஆகும் மத்திமை வேற தாயே. 41
Madhyama Vak (மத்திம வாக்கு) is the sound which is the subtle sound not heard by the ear, which remains without Vrtti (Å¢Õò¾¢ = . It is not the function of the Prana Vayu (பிராண வாயு = Life Breath) but that of the Udana Vayu (உதான வாயு = Ascending Breath). The Madhyama Vak is subtle so that the sound has not found expression (by the participation of larynx, teeth, tongue, and lips ).
Madhyama Vak (மத்திம வாக்கு) is the sensation within oneself and not heard by the ear. It does not have the Virutti (விருத்தி= function in this context) of Prana Vayu (பிராண வாயு= Life Breath). It does not entail as yet the participation of organs of sound intonation (Larynx, tongue, palate, teeth, and lips). It is subtle in its evolving state.
In this verse the poet suggests Madhyama Sound is a subtle stage before it finds audible expression in the larynx and such. It remains in the mind waiting for expression. It is not Prana Vayu (Life Breath = air going in and out of the lungs)
Verse 42. The evolution of speech from Para to Pasyanti to Madhyama to Vaikhari.
தோற்றுதல் அடை× ஒடுக்கி சொயம்பிர காசம் ஆகி
சாற்றிய மயிலின் அண்டம் தரித்திடும் சலமே போன்Ú அங்கு
ஆற்றவே உடைய தாகிப் பைசந்தி அமர்ந்து நிற்கும். 42
Pasyanti Vak (பைசந்தி ) is like the egg of a peacock. (Its colors abide within the egg, waiting for manifestation.) The egg does not express its different colors and remain in abeyance. Though Madhyama is responsible for differentiation and separation of letters, they remain in a subtle state without external manifestation in a self-effulgent state. Vannam (வன்னம் ) has two meanings, color and alphabets.
From the most subtle to Most expressive state, the speech goes from Para to Pasyanti to Madhyama and on to Vaikari. Para Sound, the repository of creative thoughts is without any vibration. Pasyanti is Visual sound. Example: Baring the teeth, a monkey exhibits visual sound of aggression and annoyance without uttering a sound. Man knits his eyebrows in anger; that is the visual sound of anger. Visual sound takes on colors where the Yogi sees Sanskrit letters and Mantras in colored characters. Madhyama sound is the middle sound which has acquired Buddhi (intellect) and waiting for expression. Vaikari is the articulate sound.
Para Vak is of no vibration; Visual Pasyanti is of mind, Jnana and general motion; Madhyama is with Buddhi and specific ideation and Vaikhari is articulation.
The sound in Muladhara is Tamasic, impinges the mind upon arriving in Svadhistana or Manipura Chakras, takes on the color of Buddhi upon arriving in Anahata or heart plane and flows out in combinations of fifty letters upon the arrival of Kundalini in the Visuddha (larynx) plane.
Sound and speech are compared to a tree: preverbal Vak (speech) sprouts in Para; Pasyanti leaf-bud sprouts, watered by mind; Madhyama flower-bud sprouts, nurtured and enriched by Buddhi (intellect); Vaikhari flower blooms as speech in the throat.
Madhyama (middle, intermediate—Mental Sound): Its seat is the heart (Anahata Chakra). The sound is of the heart and not of the tongue, associated with Buddhi and NAda.
Verse 43. God is the repository of Subtle Sound.
ஓர் சோதியாய் அழிவது இன்றி
ஆக்கிடும் அதிகாரத்திüÌ அழிவினை தன்னைக் கண்டால்
நீக்கம் இல் அறி× ஆனந்தம் முதன்மை நித்தியம் உடைத்தாய்ப்
போக்கொடு வரி× இளைப்பும் விகாரமும் புருடன் இன்Ú ஆம். 43
Subtle Sound (சூக்கும வாக்கு) is inner effulgence and eternal. It does not rise and subside as Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikari. It is of the form of intellect without destruction. It extracts victory from the other three. He who realized the Subtle sound gains intellect, Bliss, Supremacy, Eternality. Death, birth, distress, and change are not his lot.
Subtle sound is Para Vak in Sanskrit. The Para sound exists in the body of Isvara; Pasyanti and Madhyama exist in the body of jiva; Vaikhari is the end result of differentiated sound.
The Primal Sound is the most subtle and as it descends from Paranada, it assumes gross forms eventually resulting in speech. Kundalini Sound is classified as follows:
Para Nada (VAni): (The Transcendental Sound) The Primal Sound’s seat is at the Muladhara plane of Kundalini. It is undifferentiated sound, though it is the source of root ideas or germ thoughts. It is not within the reach of ordinary consciousness. Nada Yogis claim that Para Nada is a high frequency sound, so high that it does not stir or produce vibrations; it is a still sound.
Verse 44. Suddha Maya or Pure Maya undergoes augmentation and not transformation.
நிகழ்ந்திடும் வாக்கு நான்கு நிவிர்த்தாதி
திகழ்ந்திடும் அஞ்ச தாகச் செயல்பரி ணாமம் அன்று
புகழ்ந்திடும் விருத்தி ஆகும் படம் குடில் ஆனால் போல
மகிழ்ந்திடும் பிரமம் அன்று மாமாயை என்பர் நல்லோர். 44
These four sounds shine as five by joining Nivirtti and the rest. They do not undergo Parinamam (Transformation). They undergo augmentation and are worthy of praise. Augmentation (Virutti = விருத்தி) is likened to a cloth becoming a tent. The Catta Brahmavadis (சத்தப்-பிரமன் = Sabda Brahman in Sanskrit and Sound Brahman in English) call this Brahmam. According to Saiva Siddhanta this is Suddha Maya (தூய மாயை = மாமாயை).
Objects undergo Parinamam (பாரிணாமம்)Transformation. They are of two kinds: Total Transformation and partial Transformation. When milk becomes Yogurt (Curds or தயிர் in Tamil), it is total Parinamam. When you find a worm in the butter, it is Partial Transformation. The whole butter has not undergone transformation in this instance to become a glob of worms.. Anything that undergoes transformation is not a Pure Principle. Only non-eternal objects undergo transformation or mutation. Suddha Mayai (தூய மாயை = Pure Maya) undergoes Augmentation (Virutti = விருத்தி) and not transformation.
The five KalAs are listed here from Gross to Subtle forms: Nivirtti, pirathitcai, vitthai, santhi, santhiyathIthai-- நிவிர்த்திகலை, பிரதிட்டாகலை, வித்தியாகலை, சாந்திகலை, and சாந்தியதீதகலை.
பஞ்சகலை pañca-kalai. These are known as Pancha-Kalai or five Spheres of Action of Siva.
Nivrrti-Kalai= நிவிர்த்திகலை It is the sphere of action of the Energy of Siva which emancipates the soul from bondage.
Piratitta-Kalai = பிரதிட்டாகலை. Siva Sakti takes the Jivama (the individual soul) to Mukti or liberation.
VittiyA-Kalai = வித்தியாகலை It is the Energy of Siva which gives the liberated souls, knowledge through actual realization of seven kinds: Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11 Purusa12 and Mayai..
SAnti-Kalai = சாந்திகலை It is the Sphere of action of Siva which calms down all the turbulent elements in fully ripe souls.
SantiyatIta-Kalai சாந்தியதீதகலை It is the Sphere of action of Siva whereby Siva removes all afflictions in the realized and tranquil soul who has experiential Spiritual Knowledge and who relinquished desire and aversion.
These spheres of action of Siva correspond to Vaks (Sound or word): Vaikari, Madhyama, Pasyanti, Sukshma, and Ati-Suksma.
Sivanar the poet rejects premise that the Vaks are Brahmam. Saivasiddhas say that they are of the form of Suddha Maya.
Verse 45. Suddha MAyA is the origin of gods and words.
வைத்துறும் பதங்கள் வன்னம் புவனங்கள் மந்தி ரங்கள்
தத்துவம் சரீரம் போகம் கரணங்கள் தாõ ±லாமும்
உய்த்திடும் வைந்த வõதான் உபாதான மாகி நின்றே. 45
Not only entities like Vittai, Vittai-isar, Sadasivar but also Words, Letters, Earth, Mantras, Tattvas, Body, Bhogam, and Organs depend on Suddha Maya (வைந்தவம்)) as the material cause or the Causal Agent.
வைந்தவம் = Pure Maya.உபாதாணகாரணம் = உபாதாணாம் = material cause.
வித்தை (Vittai) = Vidya in Sanskrit = The deities are endowed with knowledge for liberation.
அத்துவாக்கள் = Attuva = Adhva in Sanskrit = steps or paths (to Liberation)
Adhvas = Attuvas:பதம்1, வன்னம்2, புவனம்3, மந்திரம்4 , தத்துவம் 5 , சா£ரம்6, போகம்7, கரணம்8 = Words1 , Letters2, Earth3, Mantras4, Tattvas5, Body, Bhogam, and Organs are known as Attuvas (Adhvas = அத்துவாக்கள்) are paths to liberation. Here Body, Bhogam and Organs are listed and not mentioned by Tirumular in Verse 2184 in Tirumantiram.
Tattva = Principles. Bhogam = Enjoyment.
The point here is that we worship Siva with words, letters, earth, mantras, Tattvas, body, Bhogam and organs and thus they become the paths to liberation.
Tirumular listes only 6 Adhvas: Padam1 , Varnam2, Bhuvanam3, Mantram4, Tattvas5 Kalas 6. Kalas is not mentioned in Sivagnana Siddhiar.
S.S. Mani says the following. Vittai (வித்தை) is Mantresurar (மந்திரேசுரர்) who abides in Suddha-Vidya Tattva (Sadvidya5). Vittai-Isar (வித்தையீசர்) is Mantramayesurar (மந்திரமயேசுரர்) abiding in Isvara Tattva( Isvara4). Sadasivar abides Sadakhya Tattva (Sadasiva3 ). In a later comment, I mention the hierarchy of these Theogonic entities.
There are deities in Sadvidya tattva worshipping Matresurar and they are Ananthar1, Sukumar2, Sivoththamar3, Ekanethirar4, Ekauruththirar5, thirimurththar6 , Seekandar7, and Sikandi 8 = அநந்தர்1, சூக்குமர்2, சிவோத்தமர்3, ஏகநேத்திரர்4, ஏக உருத்திரர்5, திரிமூர்த்தர்6 , சீகண்டர்7, சீகண்டி8. eight in all.
The worshippers abiding and worshipping Sadasiva are Pranavar1 , SAdAkiyar2, ThIrththar3, Karanar4, Susilar5, Isar6, Sukkumar 7, kAlar8, ThEkEsurar9, and Ambu10, = பிரணவர்1 , சாதாக்கியர்2, தீர்த்தர்3, காரணர்4, சுசீலர்5, ஈசர்6, சூக்குமர் 7, காலர்8, தேகேசுரர்9, அம்பு10 ten in all.
All the three main entities (Vittai (வித்தை), Vittai-Isar (வித்தையீசர்) ,and Sadasivar (சதாசிவர்) need Pure Attuvas (அத்துவாக்கள்) the Words, Letters, Earth, Mantras, Tattvas, Body, Bhogam, Organs for purification and liberation.
Adhva = Attuva = அத்துவா is defined as Higher steps or paths by Tirumular in Tirumantiram (Verses 2184, 2185, 2186).
Verse 2184. Six Paths or Higher Steps: There are 36 Tattvas. There are 7 crore (1 crore = 10 million) Mantras. There are 51 Varnas (letter-sounds). There are 224 Bhuvanas, beside global constellations. There are 81 Padas. There are 5 Kalas. There are Six Adhvas (Higher Paths): Mantram, Padam, Varnam, Bhuvanam, Kalas, and Tattvas.
Verse 2185. The Yogis Ascend beyond the three spheres (Sun, Moon, and Fire) within. Having crossed they merge with the twenty-five Tattvas. They channel the breath through the Susumna Nadi. They search. lose their self-consciousness and remain so there. Self-consciousness = body consciousness. (They become superconscious and merge with Siva.)
Verse 2186. Turiyatita = State beyond the 4th. Being awake within the awake state (Jagrat in Sanskrit = சாக்கிரம் in Tamil = waking state), experiencing the other states (Svapna = Dream State = கனவு, and Susupti = Deep Sleep State = சுழுத்தி), and having trained the body and the breath, they attain Turiyatita (துரியாதீதம்).
Attuva = அத்துவா path. . (Saiva.) The paths to liberation are மந்திராத்துவா1, பதாத்துவா 2, வர்ணாத்துவா3, புவனாத்துவா 4, தத்துவாத்துவா5, கலாத்துவா6 MantrAttuvA1, PatAttuvA 2, VarnAttuvA 3, PuvanAttuvA 4 , tattuvAttuvA5, and KalAttuvA6 . They are paths to liberation in the form of Mantras1, words2 , letters3, worlds4 , Reals5 and Panchakalai6 (Five arts), each of which, in initiation, is shown to be absorbed by the Tirōdhāna-śakti (திரோதானசத்தி).
Notes: Tirodhana Sakti is the Veiling power of Siva. It veils the Spiritual Knowledge and Grace from the not-yet-ripe souls. Once the souls are mature and all the Malas (impurities) are shed, the souls get Anugraha (Grace). Impure souls are not fit for Siva's Grace.
They are paths to liberation in the form of Mantras, words, letters, worlds, Reals and Panchakalai.
அத்துவாசுத்தி = அத்துவசுத்தி =
attuva-cutti = 'Purification
of attuvas,' annihilation, by the Guru while initiating, of all the karmas which
remain stored as cancitam in the six attuvas, leading to the sundering of the
bonds of māyai and āṇavam and eventually to liberation;
தீக்ஷாகாலத்தில் ஆசாரியன் ஆறு அத்து வாக்களிலுஞ் சஞ்சிதமாயிருந்த கன்மங்களை யெல்லாம் நசிப்பிகை.(சைவச். ஆசாரி.64)
attuvā-caivam n. Saiva sect holds that an initiate should by introspection
perceive the six attuvƒs and meditate on Siva who is beyond them, one of 16
சைவம் பதினாறனுள் ஒன்று.
By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 46. Three Classes according to Malas
மூவகை அணுக்க ளுக்கும் முறைமையால் விந்து ஞானம்
மேவின தில்லை ஆகில் விளங்கிய ஞானம் இன்றாம்
ஓவிட விந்து ஞானம் உதிப்பதோர் ஞானம் உண்டேல்
சேவுயர் கொடியி னான்தன் சேவடி சேரலாமே. 46
Three classes of souls have not acquired the Bindu Jnanam so that they do not have the shining wisdom necessary for liberation. When the Bindu Jnanam dawns on them, they would reach the feet of Siva, whose flag flies high.
There are three classes of souls depending upon the number of impurities (Mala).
Vijnanakalar - a person with one mala-- Only Anava
Pralayakalar - a person with two malas--Anava and Maya Malas
Sakalar - a person with three malas--Karma, Maya, and Anava Malas.
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Siddhantists says that Vijnanakalar souls are gods with Anava Mala; Pralayakalar souls are godlings; Sakalar souls are humans, demons and gods, Brahma and Vishnu. Why Brahma and Vishnu? Because they accumulate Malas (impurities) by their creative and protective functions. All three classes of souls have in common Anava mala which is erased by the Grace of Siva.
Vijananakalars recieve jnana from Siva himself in the first person; Siva manifests as divine god in the second person to the Pralayakalars afflicted with Anava and Maya Mala; Siva manifests to Sakalars with three Malas in human Guru form (Satguru). The first two manifestations are direct and the third is indirect.
Anava Mala: Anavam comes from the word ANU, meaning atom, smallness, finitude. This impurity is congenital, intrinsic, and innate to every soul; there is no embodied soul without it, Brahma and Vishnu included. As the individual soul splits off from the Great Soul (chip of the Old Block), it immediately feels like an orphan separate from the Great Soul, God. The orphan soul feels its smallness, limitation, imperfection, ignorance, and darkness and seeks knowledge through the senses of the body, forgetting its connection to and origin from the all-knowing Great Soul. This smallness and orphan status make the soul feel apart from its Father, thereby acquiring the feeling of I, Mine, Me, My, pride, individual identity, will, limited knowledge and action (Iccha, Jnana and Kriya), which lead to other malas and accumulation of Karma. It is darkness (irul), causes confusion (Marul) and ignorance (Avidya), and remains antithetical to Grace (Arul). Here the soul feels like an orphan, as if it is not connected to the Great Soul, Pure Consciousness or God. It is due to ignorance and matter enveloping the soul, preventing vision of the Great Soul. It is full of ego. It is a case of I, Me, My, and Mine, a quadrilateral corral for Pasus. Anava Mala is compared to verdigris covering copper or husk covering rice (Anava Mala covering soul). I. The I of Siva has the power of creation, preservation, destruction and many more i does not have. Besides, the person refers the I to his body and not to the soul; that is the second problem. If the person still insists on referring to himself as the I, then he should acknowledge its origin from Siva and thus should have the knowledge that his or her soul is the I and the body is my.
I = metaphysical, the EGO; the nominative singular pronoun, used by a speaker in referring to himself or herself.
Life in Muladhara and Svadhisthana Chakras and below is one of Anava Mala. Grace of God erases Anava mala. Yoga and Jnana Margas remove Anava mala. Siddhiar explains Anava mala as follows: It is a single entity, but has many powers and functions. It has no beginning and clouds knowledge and action which the individual souls are intrinsically capable of; it projects an illusion of autonomy; like verdigris on a copper vessel, it is a stain on the soul. Sivajnana Bodham succinctly puts it: Innate Anavamala precludes knowledge to the soul. This is a case of a soul that is intelligence and consciousness, distinct from inner organ and senses, and is held prisoner by Anva Mala, which (soul) seeks the help of sense organs to know things; the derived knowledge is false. Since the soul gathers useless knowledge through the sense organs, which are products of Maya, it has gained no knowledge (spiritual knowledge).
How could a soul which takes origin from Siva be stained with Anava Mala? Siva is pure and so its derivative also must be pure. The following explanation is offered to clear this apparent anomaly. The covering of the soul with Anava Mala does not exclude the innate presence of Siva's Consciousness or intelligence in a soul. Anava Mala, which has no power over Siva, does not prevent the residence of Siva in the soul. Though an umbrella casts a shadow, the umbrella and the shadow do not affect the sun. The umbrella does not hide the sun but hides the person who holds it; thus, Anava Mala like an umbrella hides the soul from Siva and Siva himself is not hidden. By Siva, Siva Sakti is meant.
Anavamala is innate to the soul; it projects, I, Me, Mine, and Mineness which generate desire, passion and possessiveness, which are qualities that lead the soul away from Siva. Tirodhanasakti obscures the Truth from Anma (individual soul) prone to Anavamala, which drives the embodied soul to seek pleasures of the world; Siva provides the opportunity for gratification. It is like the mother putting the baby to the breast, when it cries. Anavamala makes the body-soul hunger for worldly experience as a baby hungers for mother’s milk. Siva lets the soul mature in this world of kaleidoscopic experiences. Thus, Anavamala is a centrifugal force taking the soul away from its source, Siva Sakti. Siva in his munificence offers Grace (Arul, Anugraha) to the soul by removing Anavamala which obscures vision of God and comes between the individual soul and Siva, and takes the soul on its centripetal journey to Siva Sakti.
ஆணவம் Anavam ,. 1. Pride, arrogance, egotism; 2. See ஆணவமலம். (திருமந். 2241.)
ஆணவமலம் Anava-malam , n. < āṇava +. (Saiva.) Matter which is eternally encasing the soul and lasting till its final liberation, one of mu-m-malam; மும்மலங்களு ளொன்று. (சி. சி. 2, 80, மறைஞா.)
ஆணவமறைப்பு Anava-maraippu Ignorance in which souls are enveloped because of Anavam; ஆணவமலத்தால் ஆன்மாவுக் குண்டாகும் அஞ்ஞானம். (W.)
Kanma mala: In Kanma (Karma) Mala, the past is catching up with the present; the past may be recent or one or many births in the past. Kanma mala brings the soul and body together in a being. It is the karma from the past or the karma made new. karma is thought, word and deed that bring punyam or papam, meritorious or painful consequences. The Karmas of past lives cling like Vasanas (fragrance to the subtle body) and has the tendency to confer Samskaras, tendentious behavior, which might reinforce punyam or papam; thus, the actions tend to feed upon themselves like a closed loop and produce more of the same. The proper thing to do is to consume the fruits of bad and good karma and get Karma to a zero-sum status, conducive to liberation. Good and bad karma cannot cancel each other; they have to be enjoyed and suffered. Spiritual practices and love of God can erase Kanma mala. Kriya Marga (Agamic rites and ceremonies) remove Karma mala.
Maya Mala: It is the material cause of the universe; Asuddha Tattvas make up our body and give us the soul-body experience and limited spiritual knowledge in this world; spiritual practices, love of God, Chariya, worship of God-in-form in a temple remove Maya Mala.
As man eliminates Karma Mala and Maya Mala, Anava Mala seems to expand to take their place, and fill the vacuum and becomes stronger; the I-factor is a dominant impurity, which is erased by Grace of God. All these malas lead man down their paths - Margas, Anava, Kanma and Maya. These margas should be supplanted by Charya, Kriya, Yoga, Jnana Margas, Prapatti, Saranagatti and attainment of higher Chakras, Ajna and Sahasrara.
Attuva-Suddhi, Purification of Attuvas are necessary for liberation. மந்திராத்துவா1, பதாத்துவா 2, வர்ணாத்துவா3, புவனாத்துவா 4, தத்துவாத்துவா5, கலாத்துவா6 . MantrAttuvA1, PatAttuvA 2, VarnAttuvA 3, PuvanAttuvA 4 , tattuvAttuvA5, and KalAttuvA6 . They are paths to liberation in the form of Mantras1, words2 , letters3, worlds4 , Reals5 and Panchakalai6 (Five arts), each of which, in initiation, is shown to be absorbed by the Tirōdhāna-śakti (திரோதானசத்தி). By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Verse 47. Singularity, expansion, contraction, difference-non-difference from God.
அருவினில் உருவம் தோன்றி
உருவினில் உருவமாயே உதித்திடும் உலகம் எல்லாம்
பெருகிடும் சுருங்கும் பேதா பேதமோடு அபேத மாகும்
ஒருவனே எல்லாம் ஆகி அல்லவாய் உடனும் ஆவன். 47
From the Formless come into existence Forms. Then come into existence the parts. From the forms come into existence more forms. All the world expands and contracts. They (objects) are different from one another. All differences subside in non-difference. All become one with Him. (He is non-different from the objects of the world;) He becomes all. (My translation does not do justice to the ambrosial beauty of this verse.)
The above is literal translation of the verse and needs commentary. Here the poet expresses the most modern concept that the world takes origin from and subsides in Singularity. Formlessness is அருவி in Tamil. In English it means formlessness, Singularity or unmanifest state. He also gives an unmistakable opinion that the world expands and contracts, again a modern concept. Another great concept is we, the objects, and the world are one with, different from and non-different from God.
The explanation is as follows in line with Saiva Siddhanta doctrine. The world, beings, and objects before making a manifestation are in a subtle state, from which come into existence the parts. The subtle entity is Mayai (மாயை), from which come the Tattvas, which have three qualities Sattva, Rajas and Tamas and which in a cascade fashion give rise to more Tattvas. Thus we have objects with forms. The world expands and contracts. The objects are different from one another. There comes non-difference. All differences subside in non-difference. All become one with Him. Thus He is one with all; the objects are different from each other; He is non-different from the objects of the world. Thus the subtle and the gross are in Him and take origin from Him; the objects are non-different from Him, different from each other and subside in Him.
அருவி aruvi , n. < a-rupin. That which is formless, shapeless.
Verse 48. Counterargument and dismissal with analogy
அருஉரு ஈனதாகும் விகாரமும்
வருவதும் இல்லை என்னின் வான் வளி ஆதி பூதம்
தருவது தன்னின் மேக சலனசத் தங்க ளோடும்
உருவமின் உருமேறு எல்லாம் உதித்திடும் உணர்ந்து கொள்ளே. 48
I stand to disprove the premise, the Formless will not create objects with forms and Transformation (Vikaram = விகாரம்) will not arise from the Immutable (அவிகாரம் = Avikaram). Of the five Great Elements, Ether is formless and homogeneous. All of you agree that other elements like Air (Fire, Water, and Earth) arise from Ether. In the formless homogeneous sky, appear the clouds, movement, and sounds of thunder, and lightning. In like manner from the formless Mayai come into existence the world's objects. Thus one should come to that realization.
Verse 49. The counter-argument posed, and answer in the next verse.
கடாதி எல்லாம் வருவது குலாலனாலே
எண்ணிய உருவம் எல்லாம் இயற்றுவன் ஈசன் தானும்
கண்ணு காரியங்கள் எல்லாம் காரணம் அதனில் காண்பன்
பண்ணுவது எங்கே நின்று இங்கு என்றிடில் பகரக்கேள் நீ. 49
From the clay, come the pots on account of the potter. All thinkable forms come into existence on account of Isan (God). All thinkable objects (pots) are seen in the First Cause (the clay with the help of Instrumental Cause the wheel). What is produced from what is the question. You, Listen as I explain.
Clay is the First Cause of the pot, produced by the potter. What is the First Cause of the world? From what the world is produced is the question in the counter-argument.
Verse 50. God as the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer.
சீலமோ உலகம் போலத் தெரிப்பரிது
கோலமும் அறிவார் இல்லை ஆயினும் கூறக்கேள் நீ
ஞாலம் ஏழினையும் தந்து நிறுத்திப்பின் நாசம் பண்ணும்
காலமே போலக் கொள் நீ நிலைசெயல் கடவுட் கண்ணே. 50
His Nature is hard to fathom unlike perceiving the world. No one knows His Form and Nature. Though it is as such, listen as I elaborate further. He gave us the seven worlds; He preserved them; later He destroyed them in time: that is what all accept. That is the State of Affairs of the Lord, as you should realize.
Time is controller of all events. When God created this world, He was the Animator and yet He stands aloof acting through His Sakti.
Verse 51 Siva involved in and yet detached from the world
கற்றநூல் பொருளும் சொல்லும்
கருத்தினில் அடங்கித் தோன்றும்
பெற்றியும் சாக்கி ராதி உயிரினில் பிறந்து ஒடுக்கம்
உற்றதும் போல எல்லா உலகமும் உதித்து ஒடுங்க
பற்றொடு பற்றது இன்றி நின்றனன் பரனும் அன்றே. 51
Studied texts, meanings and words abide in intellect and appear as recollection (on demand). it is like Life (on earth) as Wakefulness and its dissolution . it is like the creation of the world and its dissolution. He remained involved and yet unattached. That is the Supreme Being.
Explanation: Studied texts, meanings and words abide in intellect and appear as recollection (on demand). and yet the intellect is not irrevocably attached to them. In like manner, God creating and destroying the universe is not attached to the world.
Life is subject to five states (Avastha = அவத்தை): in Sanskrit, Jagrat1, svapna2, Susupti3, Turiya 4, Turiyatita5 = நனவு1, Ĩ