Bhagavad-Gita: 18 Chapters in Sanskrit


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There are a host of Vaishnava web sites which parlays a great wealth of information on Srivaishnava Mantras.

I have been notified by a SriVaishnavite that these Mantras are a secret to be revealed to the deserving and the properly initiated. Sri Ramanuja revealed the first Mantra TiruMantram1 (Om Namo Narayanaya)  to the 'Vulgar People' from the top of the temple tower. It is thus no more of a secret. His Acharya Goshthipurna regarded common people as 'Vulgar People' who are not fit to chant the Mantra. The third Mantra is the verse from Bhagavadgita (BG 18.66), which everybody can get from the books. More importantly, the verse says anyone who surrenders to Bhagavan Krishna will attain Moksa; that includes the vulgar people, the Tribals, the Chandalas and the Mlecchas. Only the twice-born are eligible to practice the Yogas; the others have no other device except Surrender to Bhagavan, who loves all mankind irrespective of the caste. Man can make any rule; Bhagavan gave us all a device Surrender, not subject to the man-made rule. Thus it is no more of a secret. The second Mantra is the one used to initiate Brahmana Ramanuja by a Pucca (pure) Sudra (the 4th caste down the line: the 'vulgar people'), Mahapurna, who according to a Brahmana Acharya Goshthipurna, would have been characterized as 'Vulgar people.'   The second Mantra is a Tantric Mantra, accessible to all. Tantrics are the most egalitarian of all, though they practice Tantric rituals. The greatness of Srivaishnavism is that there is no caste barrier in attaining Narayana. Many Alvars are Non-Brahmins and Sudras.  The most prolific and the foremost Alvar Nammlavar belongs to the class of Vulgar People--Sudras. Ramanuja's wife, a practicing Brahmana Lady, picked a quarrel with 'polluted' Sudra Mahapurna's wife for drawing water from the same well. That incident precipitated expulsion by Ramanuja of his Brahmana wife to her parent's house.  A wife drives a man from marital bed to ascetic life: some wife she is.  Ramanuja from that day on became a Sannyasi and gave up marital life. Brahmana Ramanuja is the universal man in its purest sense. More Glory to him.

Chandala = one who is born of a Sudra father and a Brahmana mother; a vile person. You cannot get any lower than this according to purists.  Mlecchas = the foreigners.

Initiation of Ramanuja into Mantraratna (Dvayamantra) by a Sudra (Vulgar People), Mahapurna.

Sriman Nārāyana charaṇau saranam prapadyē

Srimathē Nārāyanāya nama:



The Royals were in the forefront in South-Asian Religions.

 The Voice of Vivekananda from the past: an Egalitarian Benevolence

(Swami Vivekananda's opinion: Supreme tenets of Hinduism originated from the ruling kings of different eras. The ritual Hinduism is the product of Brahmins. The kings freely gave away and popularized their teachings. The Brahmins (priests) kept their rituals and their purported meaning under wraps and practiced them for a livelihood. The Hindu is burdened with these mindless rituals. Take Bhagavadgita: It came from the mouth of Krishna, a king and an incarnation of Vishnu, the God. Take Buddha: He was a prince. He gave away all his teachings free of charge.

The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Volume 1 [ Page : 452- 453 ] THE GITA I

 Mahavira was born a prince. He established the central tenets of Jainism.

Mahavira (599 BCE- 527 BCE) recommends Mahavrata (Great vows--you remember the Great Vows we make every New Year) for the liberation of the soul:  renunciation of  1) killing, 2) untruths in all its forms, 3) greed, and 4) sexual pleasure, 5) attachments to living beings and inanimate things.  Though Mahavira was a prince, he wandered around and wore only one  loincloth for one year; when it was no longer wearable, he was walking the earth naked. He did not have any possessions, neither a begging bowl nor a staff. That is extreme renunciation (of attachment). His vow of Ahimsa (non-injury) took him to extremes in allowing insects, bugs and other critters dine on him without any interference.


  Sri U. Ve Velukkudi Krishnan Swamy

Proper way for initiation and chanting of Mantras:  

First you have to get panca samskaram under an acharyan (teacher) and only then you become eligible to chant rahasya traya (Secrets three). Dvayam2 (twofold or two line Mantra) can be chanted always but not to be heard by others. Tirumantram1 (sacred Mantra) during morning hours after bath and during tiruvaradhanam. Caramaslokam3 (Last couplet) is not a Mantram. It can be chanted in the morning and not necessary after that.

Our purvacharyas have not commented on Srimad Bhagavatam. But later one Sri Veeraragahavacharya has extensively commented on this based on visistadvaita philosophy. A person who has undergone samasrayanam should chant dvayam2 always and tirumantram1 and caramaslokam3 occasionally. 

 panca samskaram = पञ्च-संस्कार = five-part purifications. tiruvaradhanam = திருவாராதனம் tiru-v-ārātaṉam: Worship of a deity. samasrayanam = समाश्रयण = attaching oneself to... = Initiation by a teacher.

Krishnan Swamy:

Samasrayanam is surrendering to ones acharya. Panca samskara is the five sacraments that are administered to the one who has surrendered to an acharya with an objective of getting Ramanuja sambandham and eventually attaining moksham.


Acharya is the one who 1. has mastered all the sastras and esoteric meanings for himself 2. preaches it to others and makes them follow the same. Sriman Narayana grants moksham (Vaikuntam = Sri Vaishnava heaven) based on the recommendation of an Acarya - who is Sri Ramanuja. WE get related to Sri Ramanuja through the 74 simhasanadhitpatis whom he established. Panca samskara is the procedure which an acharya administers on a sishya (pupil, aspirant) to make him eligible for Ramanuja sambandham (connection to Guru lineage, relation) and eventually moksham.


Tirumantra1 (திருமந்திரம்) is the temple of Bliss, Carama Slokam3 (BG18.66) (சரமசுலோகம்) the temple of flowers and Dvaya2 (துவயம்)the  temple of duty. --Yamunacharya.
Srivaishnava Mantras are passed down as secret to the deserving disciple by the Vaishnava Acharya during initiation. The disciple offers his surrender at Naaraayana's feet and the revered line of Acharya-Gurus. The Acharya and the disciple live and maintain a sattvic life in accordance with Vaishnava tenets.
These three secrets reveal the absolute status of Naaraayana and Sri, and relative status of Jivatma; His JagatkAranatva (Primary Cause of Creation); His AudhAratva, being the supporter of the Universe;  Paramatma's ownership of Jivatma; Unity in Bimodality, Sri's inseparability from Naaraayana; His pervasion in beings and universe; Naarayana being the Hypostasis or Basis for all Chetanams and Achetanams; Naaraayana's Supremacy as Sarvesvara; Sesha's dependence and servitude to bimodal Seshi; Sesha's renunciation;  Removal of all obstacles in the service of the Lord; Sri's mediation on behalf of Chetanams; His Feet as the Means (உபாயம் = Upayam) to attain the Lord; Atma Samarpanam (ஆத்மஸமர்ப்பணம் = dedication of self = ஆத்மநிவேதனம் = Offering oneself) by the Jivatma to Paramaatma as Prapannan; simple means to attain Him without the need for cumbersome Yogas (Sarva Dharman); forgiveness of  sins; Exclusive surrender to Naaraayana only as precondition to Naaraayana's Grace; VAtsalyam (வாத்ஸல்யம்) by the Lord; Paramatman's feet as the Object and Goal of Prapatti and Surrender; Removal of all impediments to Moksa; Total Surrender as the guarantor of relief from grief.

Initiation of Ramanuja into Mantraratna (Dvayamantra) by a Sudra, Mahapurna.

Sriman Nārāyana charaṇau saranam prapadyē

Srimathē Nārāyanāya nama:

Page 13, Ramanuja's Teachings in His Own Words by Yamunacharya.

Ramanuja begged Mahapurna (a Sudra by birth) to accept him as his disciple and teach him all that was good for the soul. Mahapurna obliged,  initiated Ramanuja as his disciple with Mantraratna and ordained him to become the successor to Yamuna-Alavandar. He taught him Dvayamantra, which explained the dual nature of God as father and mother. Ramanuja took Mahapurna home, kept him there as his guest for six months, sat at his feet and learnt from him all that was to be known about Sri Vaishnava secrets and doctrines. 

 Page 17  ibid

Ramanuja came to see his guru Sri Mahapurna at his residence at Srirangam. In an attitude of veneration and humility he prostrated before his Guru and begged him to pardon for the insult offered by his wife. Purna said he never knew that there was anything to pardon. Ramanuja wanted to learn all about the Dvaya mantra (Mantra Ratna). Mahapurna imparted to Ramanuja the essentials of religion of Vaiṣṇavism viz., there is but one God. He is all merciful and is therefore our way. He is all-knowing and Almighty. The soul's end and aim is therefore eternal loving service at his holy feet. With these words Mahapurna directed him to Gosthipurna for further teaching.

Page 19-20: ibid

Initiation of Ramanuja into Tirumantra (= Mula Mantra = Om Namo Narayana) by Gothispurna

Ramanuja after 18 frustrating rejections was initiated into Tirumantra by Goshthipurna (Tirukkottiyūr Nambi) with the caveat not to reveal it to 'vulgar people'. Ramanuja in his compassion for humanity ascended to the top of Gopuram (tower) and announced it to all the assembled 'vulgar people' as characterized by Goshthipurna .

 The eight-syllabled mantra of which the first word is Om, the second is Nama and the third Nārāyaṇāyā (Om Namo Nārāyaṇāyā) is a pledge that man takes at his initiation into Sri Vaisnavism that henceforward he would live only for Nārāyaa and not for himself. The Lord (Bhagavān) and those who belong to God (the bhāgavatas) become the objects of his devotion and service. --Ramanuja, page 50 ibid.

Ramanuja says, "May I submit that it is but little sacrifice for one sinner to make, inasmuch as it brings salvation to many. Moreover all the merits of that wholesale salvation goes to you (Goshthipurna ), because of the holy secret, having been learnt from your great self. These reasons emboldened me to infringe thy holy command. It was compassion for mankind that rendered me blind to thy injunctions. I ask forgiveness."  Do with me, holy Sire, what thou wilt." Gosthispurna was struck dumb at this reasoning. And his own heart moved. "O, that this idea never entered my crippled heart," said he excitedly. "My heart, which would not ere (before) this be moved with love for all mankind. Strange I never felt the all-embracing love of Ramanuja.' Thus vehemently venting forth the new and strange emotions striving in his breast, Purna rushed forward and embracing Ramanuja continued :-"Holy son, thou art mine, My own indeed art thou. Thy name shall henceforth be Emberumānār (எம்பெருமானார்). The creed that I gave thee was hitherto known as the creed of the high Vedanta. But 'henceforth it shall be known to the world' as the creed of Emberumānār. Not only that which thou hast already heard from me shall thou hear from me. Secrets there are yet." So went on Purna, in the exuberance of his strangely awakened love for Ramanuja. Ramanuja stretched himself before his Guru, rose and left for Srirangam with his "Staff and Pennant".

Ramanuja initiates his disciples into Carama Slokam:  page 20-21 ibid

Ramanuja initiated Kuresa and Dasarathi into the final teaching (Carama sloka of the Gita), Ramanuja said to each of them "let every trace in thee cease of the three-fold egotism, which troubles mankind, that of talent, wealth and ancestry.

In the midst of many assembled disciples Ramanuja said : 'Do you see'? Dasarathi (தாசரதி) is now a changed person. If he had any notion of self-esteem before, it has disappeared now. What a transformation? Rise, Dasarathi: Thou art now qualified to hear high lessons of the spirit. I will reveal them at once." So saying, he communicated to him the essence of the Gita teachings, and exclaimed joyously, "Aye, Dasarathi, now indeed I may claim as my own, my staff and pennant".  (Ramanuja called his disciples Kuresa and Dasarathi his pennants.)

Naaraayana and the related features are described as follows: Sarvesvara; being JagatkAranatva ( being the Causal Agent); AdhAratva (being the basis and supporter of the universe); Niyantratva (being the Controller of the universe); Sesitva (being the Lord of the universe); AntaryAmI (Indwelling Soul); Sesin (Sovereign of the Universe); NityavibhUti  = நித்தியவிபூதி = the eternal abode of Vishnu--Paramapadam; Devadideva (God of gods); Ubhayavibhuti-nathatva (Lordship of transcendental and physical universe); Moksa-pradatva (the ability to confer moksa or liberation); Paratattva (Supreme Tattva); Sadguna Vishnu; Possessor of six qualities: Jnana, Sakti, Bala, Aisvarya, Virya, Tejas (Omniscience, Omnipotence, Strength, Sovereignty, Energy, splendor); Saulabhya (Easy accessibility, Affability); Sausilya (Gracious Condescension); VAtsaya (Loving disposition); Krpa (Compassion); Audarya (Generosity); Bandhutva (friendly relationship).
Narayana taught Tirumantram or Moola Mantram (மூல மந்திரம்) to Sage Nara. Vishnu revealed and taught Dvayam or Mantra Ratnam ( துவயம் / மந்திர இரத்தினம்) to Mahalakshmi. Krishna Bhagavan uttered the Charama Slokam (சரமசுலோகம்) to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurushetra.

சரமசுலோகம் carama-culōkam चरम स्लोक, n. . Verse which teaches the means of attaining final bliss.

Man's ultimate Goal is Moksa or liberation. To reach Moksa, Swami Desikan (1268-1369 CE) advocated  Artha Panchakam (அர்த்தபஞ்சகம்) five Truths, principles or doctrines: Para SvarUpam1, Sva svarUpam2, Virodhi Svarupam3, UpAya SvarUpam4 , Purushartha SvarUpam5 (பர ஸ்வரூபம்1, ஸ்வ ஸ்வரூபம்2, விரோதி ஸ்வரூபம்3, உபாய ஸ்வரூபம்4, புருஷார்த்த ஸ்வரூபம்5 ). Swami Desikan dedicates these verses to Lord Varadaraja Perumal of Kanchi, the temple town near the present-day Chennai. 

 1) பர ஸ்வரூபம்1 Para Svarupam refers to Bhagavan.
2) ஸ்வ ஸ்வரூபம்2 Sva Svarupam refers to the Jivatma, the embodied soul roiling in the sea of Samsara and who experiences and enjoys 
3) விரோதி ஸ்வரூபம்3 Virodhi Svarupam refers to the obstacles encountered by the aspirant to attain the feet of Bhagavan and Moksa.
4) உபாய ஸ்வரூபம்4 Upaya Svarupam refers to the means (ways, paths) available for observation by the Mumukshu. The ways are 
mainly Prapatti, Yogam and or Bhakti Yogam. 
5) புருஷார்த்த ஸ்வரூபம்5  Purushartha Svarupam refers to the fruit of Bhagavat Anubhavam experienced by observation of Upayams.

அமலன் அவியாத சுடர் அளவில்லா ஆராமுதம்
அமல உருக் குணங்கள் அணி ஆயுதங்கள் அடியவர்கள்
அமல அழியாத நகர் அழிந்து எழும் காவுடன் எல்லாம்
கமலையுடன் அரசாளும் கரிகிரிமேல் காவலனே.

The pure, the inextinguishable flame, limitless, incomparable Nectar
Pure qualities, sports weapons, .......

Amalan aviyAtha-sudar aLavillaa-AarAmudham

amala uru guNangaL aNi aayudhangal adiyavarkaL

amala azhiyAtha nahar azhinthu yezhum kaavudan yellAm

Kamalayudan arasALum Karigiri mERk-KaavalanaE



Om namo Narayanaya.

Om namo Nārāyaṇāya


“Sriman nArAyana CharaNau SaraNam PrapadyE,

SrimatE nArAyanAya Nama:”

Sriman Nārāyana charaṇau saranam prapadyē

Srimathē Nārāyanāya nama:

As there are two sentences, it is called Dvayam. This is a tantrika mantra. Hence, all can recite it without any restriction. This mantra helps to do Sarangathi to Lakshmi Narayana. Sri Ramanuja’s Sararnagathy Gadya ‘is an elaborate explanation of Dvayam. Though there are eight words; while reciting, it will be six words only. In consideration of its deep meaning and non-restriction, this mantra is considered unique and is termed “Mantra Ratna”--jewel amongst mantras. For reciting it, there are no restrictions of any kind viz. place, time, person, sex, race, color, caste, creed...etc.

Sarama Sloka: Bhagavadgita Verse 18.66

सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।

अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥१८- ६६॥

sarvadharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja
ahaṁ tvā sarvapāpebhyo mokṣyayiṣ
yāmi mā śucaḥ 18.66

sarva-dharmān1 parityajya2 mām3 ekam4 śaraṇam vraja5
6 tvām7 sarva-pāpebhya
8 mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 ma10 śucaḥ11 18.66


parityajya2 = abandoning; sarva-dharmān1 = all duties; śaraṇam vraja5  = take refuge; mām3 = in Me; ekam4 = only/alone . ௬ aham6 = I; mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 = shall deliver; tvā7 = you; sarva-pāpebhya8 = from all sins. ௬ ma10 = do not; śucaḥ11 = worry.18.66


18.66:  Abandoning all duties, surrender unto Me only. I shall deliver you from all sins. Do not lament.

This is what Sri Krishna told Arjuna and hence called ‘Sarama sloka’ (meaning ’a last resort Verse’). Sri Krishna himself has suggested that Sararnagathy is the easiest and best approach to Moksha. Sarama sloka brings out the fruits of Saranagati.

Sarama Sloka is the divine command to perform Saranagati; Dvaya Mantra is for chanting any time anywhere for performing Prapatti. Tirumantra is the condensed Essence of the preceding two Mantras.

Pranavam (Om) is the base upon which Namo Narayana finds expansion. Dvayam expands on Tirumantram. Sarama Slokam expands on Dvayam.  Self is explained in Tirumantram. Once Self is understood one can go to Dvayam that explains the means. Charama Slokam explains the goal. This is the order in which the three Mantrams are learnt and recited. The three Mantrams encompass the self, the means and the goal.
  describes many aspects of Srivaishnavism including the Three Secret Mantras.

1. Ashataksharam (eight-syllable Mantra) Tirumantram

ஒம் நமோ நாராயணாய  =  नमो नारायनाय

Om namo Nārāyaṇāya

Om Namo Naaraayanaaya

Om1 Na2 mo3 Naa4 raa5  ya6  naa7 ya  

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ஓம் மோ நா ரா ணா
Om Na Mō Nā Rā Ya Nā Ya





The first and the most important is called Ashtakshara. This consists of 8 syllables and is in the form of three words. The first word is a single syllable Om. The second word is Namaha. The third word is Narayanaya. So, the ashtakshara is OM NAMO NARAYANAYA. This means "Salutation to Narayana". We will discuss the deeper meaning later.

Divayaprabhandam956 ஓம் நமோ நாராயணாய  Om Namo Narayanaya.

குலம் தரும்; செல்வம் தந்திடும்; அடியார்

                படுதுயர் ஆயினல்லாம்,

நிலம் தரும் செய்யும்; நீள்விசும்பு அருளும்;

                அருளொடு பெருநிலம் அளிக்கும்;

வலம் தரும்; மற்றும் தந்திடும்; பெற்ற

                 தாயினும் ஆயின செய்யும்;

நலம் தரும் சொல்லை நான் கண்டுகொண்டேன்

                 நாராயணான்னும் நாமம். (2) 1.1.9

It gives greatness; It gives wealth; it flattens all miseries; it gives the home of liberation; it gives Bhagavan's Grace; It enables you to perform your Dharma; it gives you the strength to realize Him; It does more things than a begetting mother does; It gives many good things; I found that Narayana Mantra.  Translation by Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

The following explanation is drawn from Desikan (1268-1369 CE). Sri Vaishnavas use ManipravAla Tamil, a fusion of Sanskrit and Tamil. They can speak in Manipravala Tamil from A to Z so much so only the person brought up in Vaishnava tradition and environment can understand them. Wherever possible I use common terms with bracketed Manipravala Tamil or vice versa. 

Example: Cit = Chit = (in Manipravala) ChEtanam.

Mantram is that which protects. man = to think, meditate. Tra = to protect or liberate. Meditation on Mantra protects and liberates the aspirant.


Om Namo Naaraayanaaya

Om = AUM. AUM  (ஓம்) written on paper looks like the dextrorotatory (வலம்புரி) conch  of Lord Vishnu. Here A stands for Narayana; U for Sri; and M for Chetanams (sentient intelligent beings). AUM integrates all three.

The Sanskrit Alphabet A is the truncated form of the verb 'Ava' meaning 'to protect'. Thus the protector is Vishnu or Naaraayana.  U is for Lakshmi or Sri, the Consort of Vishnu. M stands for Jivatma or the embodied soul or Chetanam, the sentient intelligent being. Jivatma M is of the image of Knowledge, sentient, intelligent and yet atomic. In the phenomenal world, knowledge contracts and expands depending upon his merits and demerits. Upon release, Knowledge is Ananda or Bliss. Narayana is the hypostasis, The Essential Indispensable Supporting Element or Basis (ஆதாரம்) of all that exists. Sri (His Consort) is His constant companion. We are called by the technical term Cetanams or Chetanams (சேதனம்), and form His body (Sarira = சரீரம்). The first letter A means Protection offered by Narayana and thus He is  the Creator of all and Sarva Raksakan (சர்வ இரட்சகன்), the universal protector. Akaram demands that we meditate on the Protector of all. Akaram = letter A (). The protection that He offers is dependent on the nature and quality of the recipient soul in terms of spiritual maturity and attainment. For Samsaris (சம்சாரி = we the people, the unliberated), he provides food, shelter and protection from enemies. Mumukshus receive liberation from the bonds of Samsara and attain Paramapadam (Vaishnava Heaven, Vaikuntam). Bhagavan guarantees that the Muktas and Nityasuris do not suffer any interruption from rendering their service to Him and prevents them from falling out of Paramapadam. The 4th case Adimai (அடிமை = slavery) to the Lord (Seshi = சேஷி  = Master) remains hidden in AkAram.

Samsari = சம்சாரி  = he or she who leads worldly life subject to death and rebirth 

Mumukshu(s) = முமுட்சு = the one who is eager for salvation and attained renunciation.

Mukta= முக்தர்  =  Perfected soul. Nityasuri= (நித்தியசூரி)  permanent resident of Vaikuntam or Paramapadam--SriVaishnava Heaven.

Bhagavan in connection with Sri protects us. Bhagavan and Sri are integral and inseparable Duo. One without the other is inconceivable. Sun and its radiance are inseparable and so are Bhagavan and Sri and thus we are the servitors of Bhagavan and Sri.

Here is what Nammazvar says about Sri as being one with Bhagavan.

Nalayira Divya Prabhandam (NDP) Verse 3559 (Thiruvaimozi 6.10.10)

அகலகில்லேன் இறையும் என்று அலர்மேல் மங்கை உறை மார்பா!
நிகர் இல் புகழாய்! உலகம் மூன்று உடையாய்! என்னை ஆல்வானே!
நிகர் இல் அமரர், முனிக்கணங்கள் விரும்பும் திருவேங்கடத்தானே
புகல் ஒன்று இல்லா அடியேன் உன் அடிக்கீழ் அமர்ந்து புகுந்தேனே.

He (Vishnu) is of the chest wherein resides the milk-ocean born lotus-seated Lady who says she would never leave Him. You are of incomparable great fame. You own the three worlds. You reign over me. Incomparable gods desire the Lord of sacred hills worshipped by the Munis.  I am the servitor without a refuge, having attained and seated under Your feet.

(O God! You hold on your chest the Lotus-damsel You are of inimitable fame. You own the three worlds. You are my Ruler. You, of the Tiruvenkatam Hills, are the desire of the inimitable Munis. I, having no refuge, abide at Your Feet and attain refuge. )

அமலன் அவியாத சுடர் அளவில்லா ஆராமுதம்
அமல உருக் குணங்கள் அணி ஆயுதங்கள் அடியவர்கள்
அமல அழியாத நகர் அழிந்து எழும் காவுடன் எல்லாம்
கமலையுடன் அரசாளும் காரிகிரிமேல் காவலனே.

False knowledge and ignorance have cast us in the sea of Samsara (worldly life) because we believe that we are our own master. (The common saying that I am my own man is a false statement in Sri Vaishnavism. No one except Sriman Narayana qualifies to claim that medallion.) That is false knowledge and ignorance. We fail to recognize that Bhagavan is Sesi (Master) and we are Sesa (servitor). Claim of independence from the Lord is Ahamkaram and Mamakaram. (Ego and self-conceit = அகங்காரம்--மமகாரம்).

Everyday we talk about crossing the sea of Samsara for the express, intense and ultimate purpose of Moksa. What is Samsara? 

Here is the definition of Samsara in the words of Candidasa in Jaiva Dharma by ThAkura, page 173-174.

The jiva is an eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa, but he forgets this and takes on a material body. Influenced by the qualities of material nature, he derives happiness and distress from material objects. For the privilege of enjoying the fruits of his material activities, he must wear a garland of birth, old age, and death.

The jiva sometimes takes birth in a high position and sometimes in a low position, and he is led into innumerable circumstances by his repeated change of identity. Hunger and thirst spur him to action in a body that may perish at any instant. He is bereft of the necessities of this world, and is cast into unlimited varieties of suffering. Many diseases and ailments appear, which torment his body. In his home, he quarrels with his wife and children, and sometimes he goes to the extent of committing suicide. His greed to accumulate wealth drives him to commit many sins. He is punished by the government, insulted by others, and thus he suffers untold bodily afflictions.

He is constantly aggrieved by separation from family members, loss of wealth, theft by robbers, and countless other causes of suffering. When a person becomes old, his relatives do not take care of him, and this causes him great distress. His withered body is ravaged by mucus, rheumatism and a barrage of other pains, and is simply a source of misery. After death, he enters another womb and suffers intolerable pain. Yet despite all this, as long as the body remains, his discrimination is overpowered by lust, anger, greed, illusion, pride, and envy. This is samsara.  

The Sentient Soul is different from Isvara and from 24 Tattvas (Prakrti, Mahan, Ahankaram, 10 Indriyas, mind, 5 Tanmatras and 5 Bhutas. Jiva is deluded into thinking that soul's own form is body, an aggregate of 5 great elements and the organs. It is worthwhile to remember that the soul is Jnana Svarupam (the form of spiritual knowledge), its attribute is Jnana and its form is subservient to the Lord and Sri (Divya Tampati = Divine wedded Couple = திவ்ய தம்பதிகள்) to obtain salvation. The sentient soul is Makaram (the M in AUM) and atomic in nature and size.

Once the Chetanam understands the meaning of Pranavam (AUM), all false knowledge falls by the wayside and one realizes that the Atma is not Sariram (body) but knowledge and is Sesa of Bhagavan dependent on the Lord for liberation. This will take him to Vaikuntam.

Alvar explores the dependent and servile nature of Chetanam or Jivatman in relation to Paramatman by everyday analogy. These verses are from Divyaprabhandam.

Mother and Child (688)

Husband and Wife (689)

Raja and Praja (690)

Doctor and Patient (691)

Ship and lone bird (692)

Sun and Lotus (693)

Nimbus Cloud and Tender Sprouts (694)

Ocean and River (695)

The Rich and the Riches (696)

Paramatma and Jivatma (697)

Verse 688.  Kulasekarar

Angry Mother and crying child  = God and His devotee

தருதுயரும் தடாயேல் உன் சரண் அல்லால் சரண் இல்லை
விரை குழுவும் மலர்ப் பொழில் சூழ் வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மானே
அரிசினத்தால் ஈன்ற தாய் அகற்றிடினும் மற்று அவள்தன்
அருள் நினைந்தே அழும் குழவி; அதுவே போன்று இருந்தேனே. (688)

O AmmAn of Vittuvakkodu (O God) surrounded by fragrant flower groves.  If it is not  for Your feet for the relief of my miseries, there is no other refuge. Though an angry mother rejects her child, the child counting on the compassion of his mother cries for her grace (solace); I am in a similar position with you.

Loyalty of the wife to her husband = loyalty of devotee to Bhagavan.

689: Kulasekarar:

கண்டார் இகழ்வனவே காதலன்தான் செய்திடினும்
கொண்டானை அல்லால் அறியாக் குலமகள் போல்
விண் தோய் மதில் புடை சூழ் வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மா! நீ
கொண்டாளாயாகிலும் உன் குரைகழலே கூறுவேனே. (689)


O the Lord of Vittuvakkodu surrounded by sky-scraping high walls. Though the lover is the subject of contempt, the good wife knows not any one other than her husband.  Having made me your slave and not given me the needed refuge, I will seek only your sacred feet for refuge.

Errant King and Faithful subjects

690. Kulasekarar

மீன்நோக்கும் நீள் வயல் சூழ் வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மா! என்
பால்நோக்காயாகிலும் உன் பற்று அல்லால் பற்று இலேன்
தானநோக்காது எத்துயரம் செய்திடினும் தார்-வேந்தன்
கோல்நோக்கி வாழும் குடி போன்று இருந்தேனே.


O Lord of Vittuvakkodu surrounded by fields with leaping fish. Though You may not turn your sights on me, I will not love anyone else. Though the king inflicts misery on his subjects by neglect, I remain like the subjects who look up to the Royal Scepter.

691. குலசேகரர்.  Doctor and Patient

வாளால் அறுத்துச் சுடினும் மருத்துவன் பால்
மாளாத காதல் நோயாளன் போல் மாயத்தால்
மீளாத் துயர்தரினும் வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மா! நீ
ஆளா உனது அருளே பார்ப்பன் அடியேனே. --691


O Lord of Vittuvakkodu!  Though the doctor cuts and burns (one's boil or flesh), the patient has an abiding love (for the doctor). Though You inflict  a heap of unbearable miseries on me by Your Maya, I will, as your slave, always seek your compassion (அருள்).

692. குலசேகரர். The Bird on the mast of the ship plying the vast ocean.

692. குலசேகரரர். The bird on the mast of the ship plying the vast ocean.
வெங்கன்-திண்களிறு அடர்த்தாய்! வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மானே!
எங்குப் போய் உய்கேன்? உன் இணையடியே அடையல் அல்லால்
எங்கும் போய்க் கரை காணாது எறிகடல்வாய் மீண்டு ஏயும்
வங்கத்தின் கூம்பு ஏறும் மாப் பறவை போன்றேனே.

O the killer of the rutted charging elephant (Kuvalayapida), O Vittuvakkodu Amman!  If I do not take refuge at Your feet, where am I going to get redemption. I am like the bird perched on the mast of the ship plying on the high waves of the vast ocean, who flies out and returns to the mast again, not seeing the shore.

693 Kulasekarar  The Sun and the Lotus

செந்தழலே வந்து அழலைச் செய்திடினும் செங்கமலம்
அந்தரம் சேர் வெங்கதிரோற்கு அல்லால் அலராவால்;
வெந்துயர் வீட்டாவிடினும் வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மா! உன்
அந்தமில் சீர்க்கு அல்லால் அகம் குழைய மாட்டேனே.

The lotus bud blossoms out as the crimson sun rises and yet withers from under the scorching sun. O Lord of Vittuvakkodu, though You do not abolish my severe miseries, my Aham will not melt except on account of Your limitless auspicious qualities.

694. Kulasekarar.  Nimbus clouds and the tender sprouts

எத்தனையும் வான் மறந்த காலத்தும் பைங்கூழ்கள்
மைத்து எழுந்த மா முகிலே பார்த்திருக்கும்; மற்று அவைபோல்
மெய்த் துயர் வீட்டாவிடினும் வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மா! என்
சித்தம் மிக உன்பாலே வைப்பன் அடியேனே.

O Vittuvakkottu Amma!  Though it rains from the skies, the tender sprouts keep looking at the dark clouds.  Though my physical miseries do not leave me, I the servitor at your feet, will cast my mind on you only.

695 Kulasekarar. The Ocean and the River

தொக்கு இலங்கி யாறெல்லாம் பரந்து ஓடித் தொடுகடலே
புக்கு அன்றிப் புறம்நிற்க மாட்டாத; மற்று அவை பொல்
மிக்கு இலங்கு முகில்-நிறத்தாய்! வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மா! உன்
புக்கு இலங்கு சீர் அல்லால் புக்கிலன் காண், புண்ணியனே.

All meandering rivers find their abode (refuge) in the sea. Where else will they go?  O Vittuvakkottu Amma of the color of dark nimbus clouds! O Virtuous One (PunniyanE)! I will not take refuge anywhere else except immersing in your auspicious qualities.

696. Kulasekharar.  The Rich and the Riches.

நின்னையே தான் வேண்டி நீள் செல்வம் வேண்டாதான்
தன்னையே தான் வேண்டும் செல்வம்போல், மாயத்தால்
மின்னையே சேர் திகிரி வித்துவக்கொட்டு அம்மனே!
நின்னையே தான் வேண்டி நிற்ப்பன் அடியெனே.

O Vittuvakkottu Amman!, the wielder of the effulgent round discus. The immense wealth that I keep rejecting keep coming back to me. Your Maya does not accept me and I the Adiyen will stand steady wanting to refuge in You only.   Adiyen  = The One who serves at Bhagavan's feet.

697. Kulasekharar. Paramatman and Jivatman.

வித்துவக்கோட்டு அம்மா! நீ வேண்டாயே ஆயிடினும்
மற்று ஆரும் பற்று இலேன் என்று அவனைத் தாள் நயந்து
கொற்ற வேல்-தானைக் குலசேகரன் சொன்ன
நற்றமிழ் பத்தும் வல்லார் நண்ணார் நரகமே.

Vittuvakkottu Amma!  Though You want me not, I will not show affection to anyone else. I the spear-wielding king implore at His Feet and say that they who show proficiency of the the ten Tamil verses will not go to hell.

Om Namo Naaraayanaaya

One should realize that nothing belongs to you and everything belongs to Him including you (Chit) and the Achit. He owns us lock, stock and barrel. This is reflected by the word Nama in the Mantra.  Nama = (Na + Ma) = (No +Yes). No, you don't own anything; Yes, He owns everything.  Nama = நம = Bowing, salutation, obeisance, reverence; வணக்கம்; நமக்கரிதல்.

Om Namo Naaraayanaaya

Narayana = Nara + Ayanam.

The word Nara (Na + Ra) means no destruction and indicates eternality. Ayanam is the abode, refuge, the means, the goal, the fruit, the hypostasis of the Naarams (embodied souls). It also means that Chit and Achit (Sentient and insentient or Chetanams and Achetanams) are the objects of His pervasion. He is the universal Pervader. He is Isvara, Antaratman, Antaryami, Antarvarti and Paramatman (ஈஸ்வரா, அந்தராத்மன், அந்தர்யாமி, அந்தர்வர்தி, பரமாத்மன் = The Lord, Inner Soul, Inner Guide, Inner Dweller, Supreme Soul).

Antaryami = Suksma Vasudeva. He exists as a subtle form in the spiritual heart of all beings. Upon physical death, Antaryami guides the soul through Murdhanya Nadi (Susumna Nadi) out of the physical body and takes the soul to Paramapadam.

He is the abode of Chit and Achit.

You have the right and obligation to perform Purushartam (புருஷார்த்தம்: தருமம், அருத்தம், காமம், மோட்சம் = dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksa). The embodied souls have forgotten to perform their obligation and chose to pursue sense pleasures so much so they accumulate Karma and roil in the sea of Samsara. Desikan advises to immerse oneself in Bhagavath Kaimkaryam (devoted service to the Lord) to obtain Moksam.

 Lexicon Madras University:

புருஷார்த்தம் puruṣārttam

, n. < puru- ṣārtha. Objectives worthy of human pursuit, four in number, viz., tarumam, aruttam, kāmam, mōṭcam; தருமம், அருத்தம், காமம், மோட் சம்


What is meant by Achit. It is Matter as depicted in the flowchart.

2. Dvaya mantram  (two line mantra.)

ஸ்ரீமந்நாராயண சரணௌ சரணம் ப்ரபத்யே
ஸ்ரீமதே நாராயணாய நம:

“Sriman nArAyana CharaNau SaraNam PrapadyE,

SrimatE nArAyanAya Nama:”

Sriman-Nārāyana-charaṇau saranam prapadyē

Srimathē Nārāyanāya nama:

श्रीमन्नारायणचरनौ शरणं प्रपद्ये

श्रीमते नारायणाय नमः


Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye

Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.


Charanau = feet

prapadye = Prostrate, fall down

namah = obeisance, homage


Sriman Naaraayana Charanau Saranam Prapadye

Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.



Sriman  Narayana   feet  surrender  fall prostrate

Srimathe  narayanaya  obeisance


Sriman  Narayana, I fall down and surrender at your feet

Sriman Narayana my obeisance to you.


In the First Line the embodied soul (JIvam) invokes Bhagavan for protection (Rakshanam இரட்சிப்பு = protection, salvation). JIvam: ஜீவம்--சீவான்மா) is derived from 'Jivi' --ஜீவி--for eating or consuming; Jivam is the one who eats, meaning the embodied soul. The second line indicates the surrender of the embodied soul to Bhagavan and transfers the burden of protection, and fruits (பழம்) squarely on the shoulders (at the feet) of Bhagavan, known in this context as Saranagata Vathsalan (சரணாகத வச்சலன்).  வச்சம் = vatsa = calf. The embodied soul in Srivaishnavism is compared to the calf in relation to the cow. The cow soon after birth licks the calf clean; in like manner, Bhagavan forgives all sins of the Jivam and wipes his slate clean of all sins so that he can go to Vaikuntam. This cow-calf relationship known as Vatsalyam is akin to Sesi-Sesa (Bhagavan-servitor) relationship. Vatsalyam (வச்சலயம்) is the parental love. The entire burden of giving salvation to the Prapannan is in the hands of Bhagavan, once Saranagati takes place.


There are many and varied translations of this verse, the authors citing inner meanings.

श्रीमन्नारायणचरनौ = SrIman nArAyaNa charaNau = With Sri Lakshmi, the auspicious Narayana- His divine feet
शरणं = SaraNam = take refuge (His feet are the refuge of Chetanams (souls) and the means for liberation.
प्रपद्ये = prapadyE = fall at His feet (We accept His feet as the refuge.), prostrate
श्रीमते = SrImatE = Lakshmi (and)  Lakshmi of the form mercy, and mediator between Narayana and the Chetanams
नारायणाय = nArAyaNAya = for Narayana, the supporter and maintainer. aya = wishing an impeccable service.
नमः = nama: =  obeisance (not mine. This destroys the attitude of "I am the doer, enjoyer, knower and the only devotee.)"



श्रीमन्नारायणचरनौ शरणं प्रपद्ये

श्रीमते नारायणाय नमः

Śrīman-nārāyaṇa-caraṇau-Śaraṇaṃ prapadye

Śrīmate Nārāyanāya namaḥ 

Śrī = Śrī, Consort of Narayana; man [mat] = with; nārāyaṇa = Nārāyaṇa; caraṇau = feet; Śaraṇaṃ = refuge; prapadye = I fall;

Śrīmate = With Śrī; Nārāyanāya = for Nārāyanā; namaḥ = obeisance.

I, seeking refuge, fall at the feet of Nārāyanā associated with Śrī ;

Obeisance to Nārāyanā associated with Śrī.




Śrīman-nārāyaṇa-caraṇau-Śaraṇaṃ prapadye

Śrīmate Nārāyanāya namaḥ 

Śrī = Śrī, Consort of Narayana; man [mat] = with; nārāyaṇa = Nārāyaṇa; caraṇau = feet; Śaraṇaṃ = refuge; prapadye = I approach;

Śrīmate = With Śrī; Nārāyanāya = for Nārāyanā; namaḥ = obeisance.


Dvaya Mantra has two lines and a total of six words.  It condenses a ten-point reference as follows:

  1. Goddess Lakshmi is the mediator between the Jiva and the Lord
  2. They are the divine couple, always together. (Divya Tampati = Divine wedded Couple = திவ்ய தம்பதிகள்)
  3. The Lord is of auspicious nature.
  4. His form is divine.
  5. His feet are the means of liberation from the world of Samsara.
  6. We accept His feet as the means of liberation.
  7. Lakshmi and Narayana are our goal.
  8. His control and power are inimitable, absolute and irrevocable.
  9. We worship Him.
  10. We destroy the inimical stance of “I and Mine,” the enemies of our soul.


Dvayam Mantra can be recited by any one at any time. There are ten meanings with ten Padams or words. This write-up is based on, Dhvya Churukku (துவயச்சுருக்கு) and other sources.

The Ten words are Sri, Sriman, Naaraayana, Charana, Sarana, Pra and Padh, Prapadhye, Sriman Naaraayana, the 4th case, and Nama.

Dva in Sanskrit and Duo in Latin mean two and are cognate words. This Mantra comes directly from Bhagavan in response to the request made by Sri (பிராட்டி) to ease the burden of the Jivas (embodied beings).

(Piratti =பிராட்டி = Goddess = Here LakshmiFemale of Piran (பிரான்).  பிராட்டி = Lady, mistress; Goddess தலைவி. பிரான் = Lord, king, chief, master; தலைவன். Piran = God; கடவுள். பிரான்).


Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye

Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.


The first part of the Mantram explains the Means (உபாயம் = UpAyam = Means) and the second part talks about Fruit (Palan = பலன்) resulting from employment of the means.

What is SAdhana: SAdhana is Jnana1 , Sravana2, Manana3 , NidhidhyAsana4 , UpAsana5 (Spiritual Knowledge1 , Study of Sacred Texts2, Contemplation3 , Meditation4 , Worship5), which are the UpAya or means to attain Moksa. This is also known as Bhakti Yoga. Prapatti is the easier alternative to Bhakti Yoga, entails complete surrender to God and is suitable for those who do not possess the ability or eligibility to perform Bhakti Yoga.

Commentators say that Nammalvar recommends Bhakti Yoga and or Prapatti for the spiritual aspirants as the means to attain Moksa. He adopted Prapatti as the means to attain the feet of Lord of Tiruvenkatam Hills.

Sriman Naaraayana Charanau  is the means. This invokes Bhagavan's divine feet for protection (Rakshanam = Protection)

Saranam Prapadye is the FruitHere the embodied soul surrenders at the feet of the Lord; thus the burden of protection falls at the feet of the Lord, who is the Saranagatha Vathsalan (சரணாகத வச்சலன் = surrender-The Man capable of Great Love = The God who offers Great Love to the Surrenderer). The responsibility now is in the hands of the Lord to free the devotee from the shackles of Metempsychosis and offer him salvation. One should remember that reaching the Feet of Bhagavan is the Fruit by itself.


Swami Desikan characterizes Dhvaya Mantram as the dawn after the KaaLa Raathri (காள இராத்திரி = Black Night) and the Sararnagathy Mantram of the Lord.  The Mantram offers both Means and the Object of attainment (UpAyam and UpEyam = உபாயம்--உபேயம்).  When the Black Night ends, we get the Dawn of Realization.

Dhvayam has the distinction of being the King of mantras (Mantrarajam - மந்திரராஜம்). The mantra has to be obtained from an Acharya as Upadesam (உபதேசம் = initialization, communication of initiatory Mantra). Once Saranagathy is made and initiatory Mantra was received, the Prapannan should
act like a Krutha Kruthyan (One who done (has fulfilled), what he is supposed to do).
The Prapannan (பிரபன்னன் = He who accepts God as his sole refuge) should do Atma Samarpanam (ஆத்ம சமர்ப்பணம்), dedication of his soul to the Lord.


The birth of Dhvaya Mantra

The Mother (Piratti, Maha Lakshmi, Consort of Vishnu) could not bear to see the miseries of the Chetanams (embodied sentient souls) in the sea of Samsara and therefore upon request from Her, the Lord revealed the Dhvaya Mantra to the Chetanams. Since He formulated the mantras at the instance of Mother, it is superior to all Srutis. The Mantra contains 10 meanings. Desikan characterizes Lakshmi, the Mother Goddess as "Innamuthil PiranthAL --இன் அமுதில் பிறந்தாள்" the One born of Ambrosia" meaning that she took birth in the causal milk ocean churned for Nectar of immortality. The Lord is characterized as PeNNamudhu uNDa PerumAn (பெண்ணமுது உண்ட பெருமான்) meaning that He is Peruman, the imbiber of the Feminine Nectar. (பெருமான் = Great or Noble Person or God.). Desikan says that the Lord put two words from Katha Upanishad together and formulated the Mantra. Desikan adds: தன்  உரை  மிக்க தனம் என  தந்தான்  (he gave His best and the highest wealth and gift).

He offered the Mantra as His gift to humanity and everlasting (wealth that will never be lost-- தொலயா நிதி) weal and wealth to all.


The six meanings of "Sri" Sound

Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye

Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.

Sri Sabdam  has six separate meanings: Sreeyathe, Srayathe, Srunothi, Sravayathi, Srunathi and Sreenathi.  Sabdam = sound, word.

 Here is a comparative interpretation of  the meaning of Sri.

1) SRNATI = Nikhilan dosan = Sri removes all sins.

1) SruNAthi: ஸ்ருணாதி. SruNAthi: She banishes. She banishes the Moksha VirOdhis for the Mumukshus (Those who desire Moksham). Virodhi = enemy.         

2) SRINATI = cagunair jagat = Sri nourishes the world by Her virtues.

2) SreeNAthi: ஸ்ரீணாதி. SreeNAthi: She makes the jeevans attain a ripe stage fit to qualify for Moksham. She perfects the ChEtanam to perform Kaimkaryam for Her Lord.

3) SRIYATE = caakhilair nityam = Sri is resorted to by all beings forever.

3) Sreeyathe: ஸ்ரீயதே: SreeyathE: She is reached by all those, who want ujjeevanam (upliftment) from SamsAric sorrows.

4) SRAYATE = PARAMAPADAM = Sri stays in the Highest abode.

4) SrayathE: ஸ்ரயதே: SrayathE: To save her suffering children, she approaches Her Lord.

5) SRNOTI = Sri hears the petitions. 

5) SruNothi: ஸ்ருணோதி. SruNOthi: She listens to the chEthanams who pray to her to place them at the sacred feet of Her Lord.

6) SRAVAYATI = Sri makes the Lord hear.

6) SrAvayathi: ஸ்ராவயதி. SrAvayathi: She makes the Lord listen to Her regarding the sufferings of the jeevans.

Kaimkaryam  = கையிங்கியம் alternate spelling கயிங்கரியம் = Service to Bhagavan.  கை = hand. Kaimkaryam is what is done by hand, mind and soul of the aspirant.

Sri is the mediator between Chetanams and Bhagavan and so is called Purushakara. In the Acharya Parampara, Sriman Narayana is the First Acharya; 2nd is Sri Herself; 3rd is Vishvaksena. Other Acharyas come later.


ஓர் உயிராய் நின்ற ஒண் இன்ப சுடர் உருத்தனிலும்
பேர் உருவத்திலும் பின் அதில் தோற்றும் உருக்களிலும்
ஓர் உருவான உலகிலும் ஏற்கும் உருக்களினால்
சேருதல் மன்னு செய்யாள் அன்பர் நம் மனம் சேர்ந்தனரே. (3)

ஓர் உயிராய் நின்றார் = 'He (Bhagavan) stood as Life' meaning He is the One Inner Abider in sentient beings and insentient objects. ஒண் இன்ப சுடர் = One Effulgent Bliss Form. ஏற்கும் உருக்களினால் சேருதல் மன்னு செய்யாள் = In all His Assumed Forms, Sri assumed appropriate complementary forms.  அன்பர் நம் மனம் சேர்ந்தனரே = The dear One (Sri) abides in our heart, (mind and soul). (Just a diversion: The poetical Tamil ஒண் sounds similar to One in English, meaning one.)
He is Inner Abider in all Chetanams and Achetanams. He abides as the effulgent Bliss Form. He is of many forms. He is of the Jnana form. He has the world and the souls as His body. Sri is the constant companion of Baghavan in all His forms. He has taken his abode in our heart and mind.
Sriman means also the husband of Sri. Just an aid to remember: Who is the Man of Sri? Her Man is Naaraayana. Or Naaraayana is Sri's Husband or Consort. Remember that Lord Vishnu was the Original Man, Purusha.

The meaning of Naaraayana

Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye

Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.

காரணமாய் இரையாயாய்க் கதியாய் அமரும் பதியாய்

ஆரணம் ஓதும் அனைத்துறவாய் அகலா உயிராய்ச்

சீர் அணியும் சுடராய்ச் செறிந்து எங்கும் திகழ்ந்து நின்ற

நாரணனார் நமக்காய் நல்கி நாம் தொழ நின்றனரே. (4)

The word Naaraayana: It has two meanings. He is the Causal Agent (காரணம்) of all living beings (Janthu = சந்து). Naaram = நாரம் = water; living beings, souls. Naaram (நாரம்) = The living beings born of Naran (நரன் = நரம் = literal meaning is human being; in this context it means Bhagavan). Naaraayana = Vishnu reposing in waters. (Just remember that we are Naaram (water) because 60-70% of our body is made of water.) Naaraayana is the One who moves in Causal Waters. He is the One who is the abode of Causal Waters.

The second meaning of Naaraayana is that He is the Ruler of all.

aayana ஆயண as in Naaraayana) literally means repose and according Vaishnava Acharyas means உபாயம், பலன், and ஆதாரம் (Means, Fruit, Hypostasis or Base).

Thus Naaraayana is the Lord and becomes the Means and the Goal for all, who subside in the Divine Repository (Base).

The meaning of Charana

Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye

Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.

வான் அமர் மன் உருவாயவகையால் அதில் நாலுருவாய
மீனமது ஆமை கேழல் முதலாம் விபவங்களுமாய்
ஊனமர் உள்ளுருவாயஒளியாத அருச்சையுமாம்
தேனமர் செங்கழலான் சேர்த்தனன் கழல் என் மனத்தே.


Charanau = சரண = foot. This refers to the Holy feet of Bhagavan and also the Divine Auspicious Form (திவ்ய மங்கள் விக்கிரகம்).  Here Form means His body.


1) வான் அமர் மன் உருவாய் வகையால் அதில் நாலுருவாய் =
வான் அமர் மன் உருவன்
Bhagavan possessed of the Form in the Abode of gods, Vaikuntam or Paramapadam. Para Vasudeva in Sri Vaikuntam. This is Para Form -- Supreme Form--Para Vasudeva in Vaikuntam.


2) வான் அமர் மன் உருவாய் வகையால் அதில் நாலுருவாய் = = This refers to the four forms, generally known as Vyuha manifestation. See the flowchart below. The foursome are Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. This is the Vyuha Form.  VyUha in this context means form or manifestation.


3) மீனமது ஆமை கேழல் முதலாம் விபவங்களுமாய்: Fish, Tortoise, and other incarnations: Varaha (Boar), Narasimha (Man-Lion), Kurma (Tortoise), Matsya (Fish), Vamana (Dwarf), Parasurama (The Rama with Battle-axe), Rama, Krishna, and Buddha).

4) ஊனமர் உள்ளுருவாய் ஒளியாத அருச்சையுமாம்: The Inner Abider (Antaryami) in the corporeal beings. This is the Antaryami Form.
5) ஊனமர் உள்ளுருவாய் ஒளியாத அருச்சையுமாம்: manifested Image Form (Temple images) for worship by the devotees of the Lord. Example: SriRanganathar in Srirangam, Varadaraja Perumal of Kanchi and Sri Venkatesvara of Tirupati. This is Archa Form.

6) தேனமர் செங்கழலான் என் மனத்தே சேர்த்தனன்: The Lord wearing the anklets entered and abided in my heart.





Human beings do not have the privilege to worship the first four forms (Para, Vyuha, Vibhava and and Antaryami forms. Archa form (Image form) is the centerpiece of Vaishnava worship. Saranagati/Prapatti is performed to the Archa form.  Since Bhagavan is a pervader, He pervades and abides in the icon once Pranaprathista (Infusion of life) is performed.



The placement  of Aniruddha-Pradyumna-Samkarshana-Vasudeva in the configuration is as depicted in the table.


The configuration gives centrality to Vasudeva and Samkarshana; Aniruddha and Pradyumna flank both of them on either side, Aniruddha on your extreme right and Pradyumna on your extreme left.






Son of Lord Krishna and Rukmini

Brother of Lord Krishna, aka Baladeva

Lord Krishna Himself, son of Vasudeva and Devaki

Grandson of Lord Krishna and Son of Pradyumna (incarnation of KAma, god of love)

Dream sleep

Deep Sleep









All qualities

Sustenance (Protector)

Knowledge and Intellect



Mind and senses

Presiding deity: Brahma


Presiding deity: Rudra

Presiding deity: The Soul

The presiding deity: Moon










Jnāna (Wisdom)





Aisvarya (Auspiciousness)

Aisvarya (Auspiciousness)





Sakti (Energy/Power)





Bala (Strength)





Virya (Valor)





Tejas (Splendor)



The Rays of the Sun




Color of  Raiment





Weapons in four hands

Bow, Arrows, Conch, and abhaya mudra

Plough, Pestle, Conch, and Abhaya mudra

Discus and Mace, Conch, and Abhaya mudra

Sword, club, Conch, and Abhaya mudra

Special weapons

Bow and arrows

Plough and pestle

Discus and mace

Sword and club

Alternate configuration

Right upper: M

Right lower:C

Left upper:L

Left lower:D

Right upper: L

Right lower: C

Left upper: D

Left lower: M

Right upper: D

Right lower: C

Left upper: L

Left lower: M

Right upper: D

Right lower: L

Left upper: M

Left lower: C

Banner, Emblem

Makara (crocodile)

Tala  (palm tree)

Garuda (Eagle)

Mrga (deer)

The meaning of the word Saranam.
Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye
Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.

வேறு ஓர் அணங்கு தொழும் வினை தீர்த்து எமை ஆண்டிடுவான்
ஆறும் அதன் பயணும் தந்து  அளிக்கும் அருளுடையான்
மாறு இலதாய்  இலகும் மது மெல்லடிபோது இரண்டால்
நாறுதுழாழ் முடியான் நமக்குச் சரண் ஆயினனே-- 6

Bhagavan the wearer of Tulasi on his crown abolishes the Karma of metempsychosis from worshipping lesser gods. Thus He reigns over us and gives us the means, the fruit and the Grace. Resolute in His Grace, His nectarine tender feet become the refuge of Sarnagathan.
நாறுதுழாழ் முடியான் நமக்குச் சரண் ஆயினனே: The wearer of fragrant Tulasi garland on His crown.
வேறு ஓர் அணங்கு தொழும் வினை தீர்த்து எமை ஆண்டிடுவான்: ...He brings relief from the karma of worshipping the lesser gods.
 வேறு ஓர் அணங்கு தொழும் வினை தீர்த்து எமை ஆண்டிடுவான்: (Having abolished our karma), He reigns over us.
ஆறும் அதன் பயணும் தந்து  அளிக்கும் அருளுடையான்: The path (means) and its fruit: He gives.
ஆறும் அதன் பயணும் தந்து  அளிக்கும் அருளுடையான்: Having given them, He is the Granter of Grace.
மாறு இலதாய்  இலகும் மது மெல்லடிபோது இரண்டால்: Unwavering (unchanging, resolute) grantor.
மாறு இலதாய்  இலகும்  மது  மெல்லடிபோது இரண்டால்: Radiant Honeyed tender pair of sacred feet (Radiant nectarine feet).
நாறுதுழாழ் முடியான் நமக்குச் சரண் ஆயினனே: Bhagavan becomes the refuge (of the Saranagathan: சரணார்த்தி = சணாகதன் = one who seeks refuge).
The meaning of Prapadye: (PR) PAdYE VERB: PREFIX: “PRA”
Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye
Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.
பெருவது நாம் பொியோர் பெறும்பேறு என நின்ற எம்மை
வெறுமை உணர்த்தி விலக்காத நன்னிலை ஆதாிப்பித்து
உறுமதியால் தனை ஒண்சரண் என்ற உணர்வு தந்த
மறுவுடை மார்பனுக்கே மன்னடைக்கலம் ஆயினமே. --(7)
Bhagavan gives us the realization that we an attain what the great men obtain by difficult-to- perform Yogas. He resolutely supports us and gives us the Jnanam to perform Saranagati to Him. Thus in the Lord we take refuge. The commentators say that Prapadye stands for Jnanam or knowledge and Great Faith in Bhagavan. Falling at the feet of Bhagavan means that one has abiding faith in Bhagavan and brings Spiritual Knowledge.
The meaning of the word 'Sriman Naaraayana' Uttara PAkam (உத்தரபாகம் = பிற்பகுதி = the latter part).
Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye
Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.

சுருங்கா அகிலம் எல்லாம் துளங்கா அமுதக் கடலாய்
நெருங்காது அணைந்து உடனே நின்ற நம் திருநாரணனார்
இரங்காத காலங்கள் எல்லாம் இழந்தபயந்பெற ஓர்
பெருங்காதல் உற்று இனிமேல் பிரியாமை உகந்தனமே. (9)

Srimathe emphasizes and confirms the premise that the Mother (Piratti = பிராட்டி) and Bhagavan are an inseparable integer and Mother always remains with Him at all times, during Upaya anushtanam (உபாய அனுட்டானம் = observance of means), serves as Means (Upayam) in the same capacity as Bhagavan, ensures Her presence during Phalan-granting tasai (பலன் தசை = fruit-bearing state) and graciously accepting Kaimkaryam (service to Bhagavan) from Prapannan on behalf of Her and Bhagavan.
நம் திருநாரணனார் = Our Tirunaananaar refers to Naaraayana with the following characteristics. The fruit (பலன்) consists of being the God of gods and all, the inimitable nectar of Kalyana Gunas (Auspicious qualities), Aisvaryams (ஐச்சுவாியம் or ஐசுவாியம் = wealth, the quality or nature of the Lord), Divya Mangala Vigraham (திவ்ய மங்கள விக்கிரகம் = Divine Stainless form) and Svamithvam (ஸ்வாமித்வம்--Ownership of the souls and the universe, godhood, the quality of being God).
The 4th case linked with Naaraayana sabdam or sound or word.
கடிசூடு3 மூன்றும்4 கழல்1 பணிந்தார்க்குக்2 கடிந்திடவே5
முடிசூடி6 நின்ற7 முகில்8 வண்ணனார்9 முன் உலகளந்த
அடிசூடும் நாம் அவர் ஆதரத்தால் உடுத்தக் களையும்
படிசூடி  அன்புடனே பணிசெய்யப் பணிந்தனமே. (10)
கழல் பணிந்தார்க்குக் கடிசூடு மூன்றும் கடிந்திடவே முடிசூடி நின்ற முகில் வண்ணனார் = They who prostrate at the sacred feet of Bhagavan, He remains as the protective Cloud Cover banishing the three kinds of scorchers that the devotees are faced with.
There are three scorchers or miseries in the world and Bhagavan protects His devotees from these miseries: Exogenous misery, endogenous misery and theogenous misery (Adhibautika, adhiatmika, Adhidaivika).
Exogenous misery, Adhibautika: Misery inflicted by others, wars, natural disasters on which one has no control.
Endogenous misery, Adhiatmika: Misery coming from inside the body such as illness, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease....
Theogenous Misery, Adhidaivika: This dispensation is from God according to merits and demerits of a person. BG02: verse 2.44 commentary.
More on the miseries, which Bhagavan removes.
Generally Prarabdha Karmic fruit comes in three flavors: Adhibautika, Adiyatmika, and Adhidaivika (Exogenous, Endogenous and Theogenous).
Adhibhautica Karma brings bitter fruits from external agents such as heat, cold, rain, storm, thunder, earthquake, floods, pestilence, tsunamis and other natural disasters.
The souls after death go to the world of Brahma, or Indra, live among gods and enjoy bliss, eating fruits of good deeds. Once this pleasant sojourn in heaven is over, it is time to eat the bitter fruits of evil deeds; the soul is taken to Yama, the god of death, who dispenses appropriate fruits for the sins. The suffering involves incineration, dipping in hot oils and other unspeakable hellish experiences. Once the fruits are eaten in heaven and hell, the soul returns to earth to expiate the remaining karma.
Adhiatmika Karma brings fruits from one's own body by way of disease, suffering, misery, old age and others.

Adhidaivika karmic fruit originates from God and determines the heredity, ancestry, and environment of the eater of the fruit. The birth may be of high, average or low status with its fruits; the souls after departure may enter heaven or hell for pleasure or pain. Vedas pronounce the word of God. The violator goes to hell and suffers; the complier goes to heaven and enjoys bliss. The Lord dispenses fruits according the merit or demerit of one's karma; that is the will of God. Suffering in hell abolishes sins.

கடிசூடு3 மூன்றும்4 கழல்1 பணிந்தார்க்குக்2 கடிந்திடவே5
முடிசூடி6 நின்ற7 முகில்8 வண்ணனார்9 முன் உலகளந்த
அடிசூடும் நாம் அவர் ஆதரத்தால் உடுத்தக் களையும்
படிசூடி  அன்புடனே பணிசெய்யப் பணிந்தனமே. (10)
முடிசூடி நின்ற முகில் வண்ணனார் = Cloud-colored One wearing a crown. calls Bhagavan Neela Megha Shyamala Rajan (நீல மேக ஸ்யாமள ராஜன் = blue-cloud black king--The beauty and sacralization of the name are lost in translation. Vishnu is always depicted as having the color of the dark-blue Nimbus Clouds.
முன் உலகளந்த அடிசூடும் நாம் = We wear His sacred feet that once (in three steps) measured or traversed the whole world. It is submission, subservience, honor, grace and salvation to have Bhagavan's feet rest on the footstool of our head.
அவர் ஆதரத்தால் உடுத்தக் களையும் படிசூடி = He shows His love to us. We wear the Vasthram (வஸ்திரம் = garment, a waist cloth; Dhoti) that he wore and shed, eat the Prasadam (பிரசாதம் = favor, grace, it generally means food served to God and partaken by the devotees)
அன்புடனே பணிசெய்யப் பணிந்தனமே = We lovingly perform service to Him and prostrate at His feet.
 Nama: the meaning of the Sabdam, Sound or Word. Uttara PAkam (உத்தரபாகம் = பிற்பகுதி = the latter part).
Sriman Naaraayana Charanau, Saranam Prapadye
Srimathe naaraayanaaya namah.

தனது அன்று இவையெனத் தான் அன்று என மறை சொன்ன வெலாம்
தனதென்றும் யான் என்றும் என்ணுதலால் வரும் ஈனமெலாம்
மனது ஒன்றி இன்று நம என்றதே கொண்டு மாற்றுதலால்
தனது அன்றி ஒன்றும் இல்லாத் தனித்தாதை சதிர்த்தனனே.
There are two syllables in NaMa = Na + Ma = No + Yes or Not Mine. No, all this is NOT mine; Yes, all this belongs to Bhagavan. The renunciation of Ahamkaram and Mamakaram which are part of one's svaroopam (ஸ்வரூபம் or சொரூபம் = Real nature; natural state or condition.), Gunam (குணம் = Attribute, property, quality.), and sariram (சாரீரம் = body)
Ahamkaram and Mamakaram. (Ego and self-conceit = அகங்காரம் ---மமகாரம்).
தனது அன்று இவையெனத் தான் அன்று என மறை சொன்ன வெலாம் = All this is not mine. I am not all this, meaning I am not the body, made of matter. That is what the Sacred Texts say.
தனதென்றும் யான் என்றும் என்ணுதலால் வரும் ஈனமெலாம் = This is mine and I am...: all these thoughts bring miseries.
மனது ஒன்றி இன்று நம என்றதே கொண்டு மாற்றுதலால் = Change the attitude and focus your mind on NaMa
தனது அன்றி ஒன்றும் இல்லாத் தனித்தாதை சதிர்த்தனனே = Attitude of none are mine destroys (Ahamkaram and Mamakaram) and Bhagavan stands to gain.
The ten meanings of Dhvaya Mantram
சேர்க்கும் திருமகள் சேர்த்தியின் மன்னுதல் சீர்ப் பொியோற்கு
ஏற்கும் குணங்கள் இலக்காம் வடிவில் இணையடிகள்
பார்க்கும் சரண் அதில் பற்றுதல் நம்நிலை நாம் பெறும் பேறு
ஏற்கின்ற எல்லைகள் எல்லாம் களையறவு எண்ணினமே.
1) சேர்க்கும் திருமகள் = The Tirumakal who is united with Naaraayana. Tirumagal = Sri, Lakshmi, The sacred daughter of Samudra Raja--the daughter of the Ocean.
2) சேர்த்தியின் மன்னுதல் = Sri and Naaraayana as always together
3) ஏற்கும் குணங்கள் = His auspicious qualities
4) இணையடிகள் = pair of feet
5) பார்க்கும் சரண் = seeking refuge
6) அதில் பற்றுதல் = To embrace (the feet)
7) நம்நிலை = The steadfastness of Bhagavan
8) நாம் பெறும் பேறு = The blessings or gain that we obtain
9) எல்லைகள் = Goal
10) களையறவு = the destruction and removal of (Ahamkaram and mamakaram).
The following is an extract from
1) சேர்க்கும் திருமகள் = Meaning of Sri Sabdham found in the Poorva BhAgam of Dhvaya Manthram
2) சேர்த்தியின் மன்னுதல் = “SErtthiyin mannuthal” = the meaning of “MAdhuph” section of “SrImath”.
3) ஏற்கும் குணங்கள் = the meaning of Naaraayana Sabdam.
4) இணையடிகள் = the meaning of Charana Sabdam.
5) பார்க்கும் சரண் = the meaning of Sarana sabdam.
6) அதில் பற்றுதல் = the meaning of the prefix, Pra united with Padh.
7) நம்நிலை = the quality of Sriman naaraayanan as the Uttama Purushan and its meanings.
8) நாம் பெறும் பேறு = the meaning of Sriman Naaraayana sabdam found in the Utthara Bhagam.
9) எல்லைகள் = the meaning of the fourth case (aaya).
10) களையறவு = the meaning of the nama sabdam.


Charama Sloka: Charama Slokam

सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज

अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः18.66

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaraṇaṁ vraja

Aham tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucaḥ

Charamasloka Churrukku  = சரமஸ்லோகசுருக்கு = A short version

Meaning of the Charamslokam by Vedanta Desikan in a short form

The remaining ten Paasurams interpret the following words respectively :

(1) Sarva-dharmān parityajya

(2) mām

(3) ekam

(4) śaraṇaṁ

(5) vraja

(6) Aham

(7) tvāṁ

(8) sarva-pāpebhyo

(9) mokşayişyāmi

(10) mā śucaḥ

The Full meaning of Charama Slokam

கல்லார் அகலும் கருமமும் ஞானமுங் காதலும்
மற்றெல்லா நிலைகளுக்கு ஏற்ப விதித்த கிரிசைகளும்
வல்லார் முயல்க வலியிழந்தார் என்றனைத் தொழுகென்று
எல்லாத் தருமமும் உரைத்தவன் இன்னடி சேர்ந்தனமே.

Bhagavan says to Arjuna and indirectly to us that once Saranagaty is made to Bhagavan, all the powerless souls can stop grieving any more.

வல்லார் முயல்க வலியிழந்தார் என்றனைத் தொழுகென்று: Let the competent ones keep trying
(pursuit of) the difficult-to-practice Bhakti Yogam. Let the powerless and the weakest
offer their worship to Me.

எல்லாத் தருமமும் உரைத்தவன் = He is the One who has given instructions on all Dharmas.
இன்னடி சேர்ந்தனமே = Desikan says in this verse that he himself attained His feet by Saranagati.

Karma, Jnana, and Bakti Yogas can be practiced by competent Yogis and not by ordinary men and women. Almost all of them drop out after repeated failures. All those failures do have recourse to Saranagati, which is easy to perform by anybody to attain liberation (Moksa).

வெறுமை உணர்ந்து அது முனனிட்டு வேறு அங்கம் இல்லை எனக்
குறியவன் இன்னற எட்டக் குறித்திடுங் கோணைதுறந்து
உறுமயன் அத்திரம் என்னப் பொறாநிலை ஓர்ந்திடவோர்
அறநெறி யன்றுரைத் தானழி யாவற மாயினனே.

The six meanings of '(1) Sarva-dharmān parityajya'.

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaraṇaṁ vraja

Aham tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucaḥ

1st meaning of Sarva-dharmān parityajya : வெறுமை உணர்ந்து = Realizing the emptiness or powerlessness of the Chetanam. வெறுமை  means uselessness, profitlessness or poverty. When one is faced with poverty or lack of means to attain Moksa, one has to perform Saranagati.

Give up all Dharmas.  This is the advice Bhagavan gives to Arjuna and us and to recommends Prapatti Yogam

2nd Meaning Sarva-dharmān parityajya : அது முன்னிட்டு = 'On account of it' meaning that the Chetanam is destitute of means (அகிஞ்சனன் = Destitute person; தாரித்திரன்) . Destitution or poverty of means is known as Akincanyam --அ(ஆ)கிஞ்சன்யம். This condition of the
Chetanam is called KArpanyam (Kārpaṇyā = wretchedness, poverty).

3rd meaning of Sarva-dharmān parityajya: வேறு அங்கம் இல்லை என: meaning there are no other limbs or ramifications. அங்கம் means literally 'limb'.  Prapatti Yogam easily observable Angams: Ānukūlya Sakalpam, Prātikūlya Varjanam, Gopttva Varaam, Kārpayam, Mahā Viśvāsam, Ātma-nikşepa.  Bhakti and other Yogas has Yama, Niyama and other limiting limbs hard to observe. Bhakti and other Yogas have 8-point do's and Dont's, which are hard to observe or follow.

4th meaning of Sarva-dharman parityajya: குறியவன் இன்னற எட்டக் குறித்திடுங் கோணைதுறந்து = refers to a person of low stature (in height) abandons his many attempts to reach the honeycomb on the tree branch while jumping up and down. As the dwarf cannot reach the honeycomb and abandons his effort, the Chetanam should abandon all Yogas and other futile efforts to attain Moksa and go for Saranagati. குறியவன் = the one who aims to reach the honeycomb.

5th meaning of Sarva-dharman parityajya: Man should abandon all his futile efforts and adopt Prapatti Yogam. It is like a man holding on to a straw to stop from drowning.

6th meaning of  Sarva-dharman parityajya: உறுமயன் அத்திரம் என்னப் பொறாநிலை ஓர்ந்திடவோர்: This is an analogy. If one has a doubt on the efficacy of Asthiram (Brahmasthiram = Brahma's missile) and if he sends another to reinforce it, the Brahmastharam will not be effective. This is Brahmasthara Nyayam, Doctrine or philosophy. The advice is that one should not doubt the efficacy of Prapatti Yogam. 

The meaning of the word 2) Maam (To Me = Bhagavan) who has the Inimitable qualities.

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām2 ekam śaranam vraja

Aham tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucah

வாரிதி  விட்டு  மலர்மகளோடு மதுரை வந்து

பாரத  வெஞ்சமர்  பார்மகள்  பாரஞ்  செகவுகந்து

சாரதி யாய் முன்பு தூதனுமாய்த்  தளரும்  விசயன்

தேரதில்  நின்றவனைத்  தேற்றினான்  திறமாயினமே.

Me (maam2) describes his qualities. Who is Me?

Having left the Ocean, Bhagavan came to Madurai with Malarmagal (flower-daughter, Sri or Lakshmi). He served as the envoy earlier. He served as the Charioteer for Visayan (Arjuna).  He infused strength to enfeebled Arjuna. Commentators interpret Mam as referring to Inseparable Sri also, since there is a reference to Malarmagal.

வாரிதி = ocean.  வெஞ்சமம் = war.  தளரும்  = enfeebled. விசயன் = Arjuna  திறம் = firmness, stability.

This verse extols the inimitable qualities of Bhagavan.

Bhagavan has the following qualities: Saulabhya (Easy accessibility, Affability); Sausīlya (Gracious Condescension); Vātsalya (Loving disposition); Kpa (Compassion); Audārya (Generosity); Bandhutva (friendly relationship).

Saulabhya = Easy accessibility, Affability. Bhagavan makes Himself easily accessible to His devotees by manifesting Himself in different forms either in Vibhava or Archa forms. (See the Five forms of Vishnu flowchart.above) Because of this easy access, we can approach Him and obtain salvation. Nammalvar extols His easy access in the following verses in Divyaprabhandam.

பத்து உடை அடியவைக்கு எளியவன் 2921

எளிவரும் இயல்வினன் நிலை வரம்பு இல பல பிரப்பாய் --2922.

யாரும்  ஓர் நிலைமையன்  என  அறிவு  அரிய எம்  பெருமான்

யாரும்  ஓர் நிலைமையன் என அறிவு  எளிய எம்  பெருமான்--2924

Sausīlya (Gracious Condescension). Bhagavan condescends to the level of human beings and interacts with them without any reserve. His condescension shows when He offered himself as the charioteer for Arjuna, when Rama embraced Guha, the hunter. Though the Alvars called Bhagavan in the form of Krishna as a 'Butter Thief' he condescended to them and granted Grace. Bhagavan lived among the cowherds showing his Sausilya. Alvars see the divine hand in that Bhagavan chose the humble Alvar of lowest birth to sing His glory.

Vātsalya (Loving disposition). He shows theloving nature to His devotees, despite their sins and shortcomings as in the case of mother to the child and the cow to its calf by licking it clean soon after birth.

Kpa (Compassion). Compassion and Grace (அருள்) are synonymous in the mind of Alvars. The Cosmic Creator out of Mercy and Grace incarnates Himself in human form to shower Grace on His devotees.  nammalvar extols the virtue of Bhagavan as conferring compassion and Grace to him by blessing him with spiritual and poetical knowledge on someone like him without in return demanding any spiritual discipline. That is compassion and Grace.

He sings as follows:

உயர்வு அற  உயர்  நலம்  உடையவன் எவன்?  அவன்.

மயர்வு அற  மதி-  நலம் அருளினன் எவன்?  அவன்.

அயர்வு  அறும்  அமரர் கள் அதிபதி எவன்?  அவன்

துயர் அறு  சுடர்-- அடி  தொழுது எழு என் மனனே!--2899 Divyaprabhandam

Who is of Higher virtue than the highest? (It is) Him.

Who is the One who removes ignorance and grants knowledge? (It is) Him.

Who is the Chief of all indefatigable gods? (It is) Him.

O my mind! Worship His grief-removing effulgent feet and rise.

Now we come to Ekam and its definition.

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaranam vraja

Aham tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucah

தன்னருளால்  பெறும்  சாதனம்  சாதகன்  என்று  இவற்றைத்

தன்ணுடன்  எண்ணுதல் நீங்கத்  தனித்து  ஒரு  சாதனமாய்ப்

பொன்  அருலோடும்  அப்பூமகளோடும்  புகழ்  நின்ற

இன்னுரைய  ஈசனையே  ஏகம் எண்ண  விசைந்தனமே.

தன்னருளால்  பெறும் = What is obtained by the Grace of Bhagavan. it is the Grace of the Lord that gives the Means.

சாதனம்  சாதகன்  என்று  இவற்றைத் தன்ணுடன்  எண்ணுதல் நீங்கத் =  He removes the ego of possessing the means and being the pursuer from the psyche of the individual soul.

 சாதனம் (sAthanam = means, Instrument). சாதகன் (sAthakan = One who is advanced in the pursuit of the MEANS of attaining salvation.) SAthanam is the Means and and SAthakan is the Pursuer.  The idea of  Means and the Pursuer belongs to the individual soul is a wrong notion. If it is not for Bhagavan, the means and the pursuer do not exist. Thus Bhagavan removes the ego of the individual soul as owning the means and himself.

Ekam (only) indicates ஏகத்துவம் (Ekattuvam) Oneness; this oneness includes Sri in its essence.  Ekam attached to Mam (MAm Ekam) gives a special meaning (விசேட அர்த்தம் = VisEsa Artham) to the combined words. That special meaning refers to Bhagavan. Bhagavan or Sarvesvaran (சர்வேச்சுரன் = சர்வேஷ்வரன் = The Supreme Ruler of All) is the Fruit (பலன்) to be enjoyed by the aspiring soul. The Lord is the Goal. The Means to the fruit is Parpatti Yogam or Upayam (the five tenets of Prapatti).

Thus the word Ekam encompasses in its content and meaning both UpAyam and Phalan  (Means and Fruit),  which are no other than Bhagavan Himself.

In order for the Chetanam to observe 5 tenets of Prapatti Bhagavan's Grace is necessary. Bhagavan induces man to use his body, mind and organs to perform the means (UpAyams = உபாயம்).

There are two kinds of UpAyams: SiddhOpAyam and SaadhyOpAyamSiddhOpAyam = Siddhi + UpAyam = The One who existed before all else + Means. SaadhyOpAyam = Saadhya + UpAyam.  Saadhya = Saadhana Steady and persevering practice = Bhakti, Jnana and Karma Yogas.

Because Bhagavan existed before all else, He is known as SiddhOpAyam and the means also carries the same name.  Siddhopayam is to declare Prapatti in full faith and observance and take refuge at His feet.

SaadhyOpAyan is performing the Yogas, which are difficult to perform because of powerlessness,  inability, lack of will and persistence and uncertain results.

Bhagavan recommends Siddhopayam for His devotees because it is a sure-fire means to attain liberation.

Between Siddhopayan and Sadhyopayan, Siddhopayan is like quenching urgent thirst by drinking water from a pond and the latter is digging a well to obtain water to quench the thirst.

Bhagavan accepts Prapatti as Vyajam (வியாஜம் = a pretext for the real thing). Prapatti is an acceptable, alternate, effective and working paradigm for attaining Paramapadam (பரமபதம் = Supreme Place = Vaishnava heaven)

Bhagavan does not expect any more or other endeavors from the Mumuksus.  Even Nammalvar did not perform Bhakti, Jnana or Karma Yogas. He recommended Prapatti as a means to Moksa (liberation). The more important reason that the Vaishnava Theologian did not practice Yogas is because of his caste (he is not a Brahmana).  Upanishads forbid low-cast people (except Brahmana, Ksatriya and Vaisya) to practice Yogas. Nammalvar being a Sudra was ineligible for the Yogas. he pursued Prapatti as this was the only recourse he had to attain moksa.

Prapatti has two principles as its mainstay: 1) God as Sarvesvara (சர்வேஸ்வரன்) endowed with DayA (தயை = compassion), Omniscience (sarvajnyatva), and Omnipotence (saravasaktitva). he is the ONLY refuge (Saranya) for those aspiring for liberation. 2) The individual souls (Chetanams) mired in Samsara is not capable of any means other than Him to break the bonds of Samsara and attain liberation.

பொன்  அருலோடும்  அப்பூமகளோடும்  புகழ்  நின்ற

இன்னுரைய  ஈசனையே  ஏகம் எண்ண  விசைந்தனமே.

His golden Grace and the Flower-wife (பிராட்டி = consort of Vishnu) are both One and the means and the Goal.

Nammalvar sings the following verse Tiruvaimozi 5.7.10 or Divyaprabhandam Verse 3416.

ஆறு  எனக்கு  நின்  பாதமே  சரண்  ஆகத்  தந்தொழிந்தாய்; உனக்கு  ஓர்கைம்

மறு  நான்  ஒன்று  இலேன்;  எனது ஆவியும்  உனதே-

சேறு  கொள்  கரும்பும்  பெரும்  செந்நெலும் மலி  தண்  சிரீவரமங்கை

நாறு  பூந்  தண்  -  துழாய்  முடியாய்!  தெய்வ --  நாயகனே.

My refuge is Your Feet: that was Your doing.  What am I going to do as a return for your Grace?  I have nothing to handover to You. My life is Yours (My soul is Yours).  O Wearer of fragrant Sacred Basil on your hair, O God of gods, You abide in the cool City of Sirivaramangai where the the sugar cane and luscious paddy grow.

These are the conditions for claiming the use of Prapatti: Ākiண்sanya, absolute inability to perform Bhakti Yoga; Ananya-gatitva (அனன்னிய கதித்துவம்), lack of any refuge other than God.

Swami Desikan says that Prapannan should perform Atma Samarpanam or Atma Niksepa with its 5 limbs of Prapatti.

Atma Samarpanam is Angi (Primary Limb) and the other five are the secondary limbs (Angam). All are important.

Prapatti is a discipline with 1 Angi and 5 Angas  to follow: Ātma-nikşepa is the primary Angi or component; The 5 Angas areĀnukūlya Sakalpam, Prātikūlya Varjanam, Gopttva Varaam, Kārpayam, Mahā Viśvāsam,

Ātma-nikepa = Casting the soul (at His feet) for protection and worship. (the Most Important).

Ānukūlya Sakalpam = Doing only god-pleasing acts.

Prātikūlya Varjanam = Not doing god-displeasing acts.

Gopttva Varaam = Seeking  and requesting God for protection.

Kārpayam = Feeling humility for helplessness to perform other means of salvation.

Mahā Viśvāsam = Irrevocable and absolute faith in God as the sole protector.


The Meaning of the word, 'Saranam Vraja'.

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaranam vraja

Aham tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucah

ஊனி ல்  இணைத்து உழல்விக்கும்  வினைக்கடளுள்  விழுந்த

யான்  எனதான  குணங்கள்  எனக்கு  இசை  நல்வழியும்

தான் உதவித்-தனை  தந்திட  நின்ற  தனித்  தருமம்

நான்  இனி  வேறு ஓர் பரம் நணுக வகை  பரநணு  காவலை  நல்கியதே.

ஊனி ல்  இணைத்து உழல்விக்கும்  வினைக்கடளுள்  விழுந்த  யான்  எனதான  குணங்கள்  =Having been united with corporeal body, the soul falls in the swirling sea of Samsara.

எனக்கு  இசை  நல்வழியும் தான் உதவி   தனை  தந்திட = You (Bhagavan) has pointed the good path and extended a helping hand to the suffering me.

தனை  தந்திட  நின்ற  தனித்  தருமம் = He gave Himself as Siddhopayam, the special Dharma.

நான்  இனி  வேறு ஓர் பரம் நணுக வகை  பரநணு  காவலை  நல்கியதே. =  I do not have to approach anyone else because Bhagavan gave me the protection.

The meaning of the word Vraja

கடு  வினை  நாம்  பெறும்  பேற்றைத்  தகைந்தமை  கண்டு  நம்மேல்

ஏற்று  தொடை  விலகாமல்  இசைந்து  ஒரு  காலம்  துணிவுடனே

உடைமை  அடைக்கலமாக  அடைக்கும்  உகப்பதனால்

அடை  யென  அன்று  உரைத்தான்  அடைவித்தனன் தன்னடியே.

The severe Karma prevented us from gaining Moksam. That we found out.

We should not abandon the Sacred Texts, and do only acts that please Bhagavan.

We should entertain Mahavisvasam towards Bhagavan.  We should dedicate our soul to Him.

That day in the past, He instructed (Arjuna) to seek and take refuge at His feet and us now to do the same.

Saranam Vraja = Take Refuge. It means Atma Samarpanam (Dedication of the soul) to Bhagavan. It corresponds to the Main Tenet  (Angi = main aspect) Atma Niksepa. interprets the words as aspects of Prapatti.

கடு  வினை  நாம்  பெறும்  பேற்றைத்  தகைந்தமை  கண்டு  நம்மேல் = Kārpayam = Feeling humility for helplessness to perform other means of salvation.

தொடை  விலகாமல் = Prātikūlya Varjanam = Not doing god-displeasing acts.

இசைந்து  = Ānukūlya Sakalpam = Doing only god-pleasing acts.

துணிவுடனே = Mahā Viśvāsam = Irrevocable and absolute faith in God as the sole protector.

அடைக்கலமாக = Gopttva Varaam = Seeking  and requesting God for protection.

அடை = Ātma-nikepa = Atma Samarpanam = Dedication of the soul to Bhagavan. Casting the soul (at His feet) for protection and worship. (the Most Important).



mām ekam śaranam vraja = Take Refuge in Me only.

Lord Oppiliappan in Tiruvinnagaram, a form of Lord Vishnu has the above Inscription on the palm of His Right Lower Arm.

The Oppiliappan Koil (Tiruvinagaram) is located at Thiru Nageswaram near Kumbakonam in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu.

The Lord in this temple bears the charama slOkam in His right hand palm as "maam Ekam Saranam vraja" and offers abayahastham. Hence this is also known as the "paripooraNa chranaagathi" offering kshethram.

Lord Oppilappan, the main deity, blesses one and all, with His "Panchaavataram" or five forms,viz. Hema (Ponnappan), Muktha (Mutthappan), Mani (Maniappan), Vyoma Pureesan (ViNNagarappan) and Matpathi (Ennappan).

The Meaning of AHAM

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaranam vraja

Aham tvā sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucah

கான்  என்ற  வேதங்கள்  காக்கும்  பரன் என்று  காட்ட  நின்றோன்

தான்  என்று  அறியகிலார்க்கு  அறிவிக்கும்  தனித்திறலோன்

வான்  ஒன்றினாரோடு மானிடன்  என்ன  அவதரிப்பான்

நான்  என்ற நம்  திருமால்  நம்மை  நல்  பதம்  சேர்த்திடுமே.

Jungle, that is what the Vedas are (because we don't know their meaning.  Supreme Protector that He is.

 Ignoramuses he shows to, as to who He is. 

Incarnation as a human He takes.

AHAM is What our Tirumal is.  His Feet are our refuge. He will take us to Moksa.

AHAM is the Supreme 'I' of Bhagavan, who condescended to offer refuge at his Feet to the Prapannans who surrendered at His feet with Mahavisvasam (Great Loyalty and Faith) and thus would be led into Moksam.

தன்னிலை காட்டி தனிமை உகந்து  தனித்தகவால்

அன்னிலை  தீர  அடைக்கலம்  கொண்டு  அடி  சேர்த்திடவே

பல்நிலை  மூல  யெழுத்திலும்  பாண்டவன்  தேர்தனிலும்

முன்னிலை  கொண்ட  பிரான்  எமை  முன்னிலை கொண்டனனே.

His svarupam He showed to us, which is different (from those of The Chetanams and Achetanams).

Saving us from our Samsaric state, he offered us Refuge at His Feet.

Knowing our many other futile means, pursuits, and inability, He took pity on us.

The First that Bhagavan is, He has brought us to the forefront (for taking us to Moksam).


முன்னிலை  கொண்ட  பிரான் = Piran (Bhagavan) who is in the Forefront, meaning that He is the First letter (A) of the alphabet, he is the First in the universe,  and that He sat in front of Arjuna as his Charioteer.

The Meaning of the word Tva = You.

Bhagavan addresses Arjuna and all Chetanams individually.

The following is adapted from Sadagopan. org.

Bhagavan says the following by the word ''Tva''.Because of my upadesam (உபதேசம் = Spiritual Instruction, communication of Mantras) you have become familiar with the Mantrams. Your Vivekam (விவேகம் = Discrimination, the capacity to reason and distinguish)  has been awakened. You have given up futile means and pursuits in this world. You have now the fruit. Now you know the hard path of Yogas.  You now know I am your Means and Goal and I destroy your moksa virodhis (மோட்ச விரோதி = they who are impediments to Moksa). Bhagavan has taken the burden of protection of the Chetanams.  Because you have performed Saranagati (சரணாகதி), you are now kiruta-kiruttiyan (Krutha Kruthyan = கிருதகிருத்தியன் = One who has done his duty).

The meaning of the word SarvaPApebhyo.

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaranam vraja

Aham tvā sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucah

காடுகளோ  நரகோ  கடிதாம்  கரளத் திரளோ

சூடு  விட  அனலோ  தொலையா  நிலை  நள்ளிருளோ

சாடு  படச்  சரணல்  அன்று  சாடிய  சாரதியார்

வீடு  செய்வித்து  நமை  விடுவிக்கின்ற  பாவங்களே.


Jungles, hell, poison, raging fire, everlasting dark night are the descriptive of sins.  Bhagavan will release us from the sins and take us Home (வீடு = Home = வைகுண்டம் = Vishnu's heaven). Bhagavan will trample on the papams as He did before on a demon.

Here Paapam (பாபம்)  indicates Religious demerit. The opposite of Paapam is Punyam (புண்ணியம்), Religious Merits. Punyam takes a person to a temporary heaven; once the term and lease come to an end, the soul is put back on the earth in the embodied form. Krishna's heaven is a permanent place for the liberated. Once the Prapannan takes and practices the vows of Prapatti/Saranagati, Bhagavan takes him to the Permanent Paramapadam (பரமபதம் = Supreme Abode or வைகுண்டம் = Vishnu's Heaven).

Papam in this context includes both Merits and Demerits. Sarva means all. Sarva Paapebhyo = all sins; all Karmas. Both are binding and send the soul to the world of miseries. There is no permanent relief or liberation from them. For Mumukshu (முமுட்சு = one who is eager for salvation), both Svargam (சுவர்க்கம் = lower heaven = Indira's heaven, the world of gods) and Narakam (நரகம் = infernal region) are no bargain. His goal is Bhagavan's feet and destination Vaikuntam.

Sri Vaishnavism lists the following as the agents of bondage: AVidya (அவித்தை = Spiritual ignorance) generates Papam. Vasanas (வாசனை = Predisposition in the present life due to the experiences of a former birth) are like genes; they have the predilection to make a person behave the way he behaves. It is like the fragrance that sticks to the clothes. Association with Prakrti (பிரகிருதி = Original producer or passive creative power of the material world). Once these are driven away by Saranagati, Shackles fall off from the Jivatman (சீவாத்மா or சீவாத்துமா = Individual soul/Living being). All papam accumulated before Saranagati.

The meaning of Moksaisyami

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaranam vraja

Aham tvā sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucah


சென்று  உயர்  வான்  அமர்ந்து  அவ்வடியாருடன்  சேர்ந்திடவே

இன்று  எனில்  இன்று  நாளை எனில்  நாளை  இனிச்செறிந்து

நின்ற  நிலை நின்  அனைத்து  வினையும் நின்  விட்டகலக்

கன்றி  விடுப்பன்  என்றான்  கருத்தால்  நமைக்-காத்திடுமே.

Bhagavan gives Prapannan relief from all the bondages and miseries of this world and let him join others in Vaikuntam. He could let the Prapannan (both the distressed and the satisfied Prapannans) attain Videha Mukti (incorporeal liberation, meaning liberation following death) today or tomorrow as he desires. This shows his willingness and flexibility to oblige the Prapannan.  Bhagavan will destroy all the Karmas (Vinai = வினை).   Bhagavan would protect us.

Mukti is of two kinds: Videha mukti and Jivan Mukti. The first one means 'liberation without the body' and after death; that is Bodiless liberation (Incorporeal liberation). Sirviashnavas believe only in Videha mukti. They say that a person may be perfect and yet when that perfect soul as long as it wears a body does not enjoy Moksa. Body has no place in Vaikuntam. Every liberated incorporeal soul is a Pure Spirit, Which goes through many purifications on the way to Vaikuntam. The Pure Spirit is divested of all connections to body, world, gender, Karma, Impressions, Vasanas or any other accretion it may have before arrival in Vaikuntam.

Saivas believe that a perfect man can attain liberation while alive in this world. That is Jivan Mukti. It is like Early Admission when a lucky Senior is admitted into a Ivy League College before the general admission. Jivan Mukta has a reserved seat in Saiva Heaven.

The Meaning of Maa Sucha

Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekam śaranam vraja

Aham tvā sarva-pāpebhyo mokşayişyāmi mā śucah


அறிவும்  அனைத்தும்  இலா அடியயோமை  அடைக்கலம் கொண்டு

உறவு  என  நின்ற  எல்லாம்  உறவே  நின்ற  தான்  எமக்காய்

மறு  பிறவித்  துயர்  வாராவகை  மனம் கொண்டு  அகலா

இரைவன்  இன்னருளால்  எங்கும்  சோகம்  தவிர்த்தனனே.


maa sucha means 'do not grieve'. Bhagavan offers his assurance to Chetanam that He will release the Prapannan from all the sorrows of the world and offer him protection and refuge. He will prevent the Prapannan from taking another birth full of misery. Thus He removes all grief and grants Grace (அருள்).

Varadaraja Perumal of Kanchi has the 'Maa Sucha' engraved on His palm.

Here is the staircase to Paramapadam. As you see, the liberated soul has to dip into river and lake for purification before it comes before Narayana. This is the Empyreal Highway to Vaikuntam.



This is a review of the subject already dealt with before.

1. Ashataksharam (eight-syllable Mantra) Tirumantram

ஒம் நமோ நாராயணாய

Om namo Nārāyaṇāya

Om Namo Naaraayanaaya

Om1 Na2 mo3 Naa4 raa5  ya6  naa7 ya  

திருமந்திரச்சுருக்கு by Swamy Desikan

Short treatise on Thirumantiram


Tirumantira surukku consists of 10 verses explicating in its essence the meaning of திருமந்திரம், மூல மந்திரம், அஷ்டாக்‌ஷரம், திருவட்டெழுத்து, the other names for Om Namo Nārāyanāya.

Tirumantira surukku consists of 10 verses explicating the meaning of திருமந்திரம், மூல மந்திரம், அஷ்டாக்‌ஷரம், திருவட்டெழுத்து. This is the sacred 8-syllable Mantra of Sri Vaishnavites, that can be chanted by all castes. It encompasses  the triad: Isvara, Chit and Achit. Tirumangai Azvar received Upadesam from the Lord Himself.

The Mantra has eight syllables: Om Na-Mo Nā-rā-ya-nā-ya.

1) Sriman Narayana is Sarva Rakshakan (Protector of All).

2) He and Sri His consort are inseparable.

3) He is eternal.

4) He inculcates spiritual knowledge and shows the embodied souls the paths to liberation.

5) He is of inimitable beauty and auspicious qualities.

6) Souls and matter originate from Him.

7) He is the path and the Goal of the embodied souls.

8) He is the hypostasis of Chit and Achit and the indweller of all.


சீவாத்துமா =  cīvāttumā = Individual soul, opp. to paramāttumā; சிற்றுயிர். 

1) Individual soul has Jnanam.

2) Jnana is his intrinsic quality.

3) He is anu-atomic in size and different from Isvara and Achit.

4) He is the servitor (Seshi); Bhagavan (and Sri) is Sesha (Master).

5) Because of his constraints, the indvidual soul is limited and not a master.

6) He is always dependent on Bhagavan.

7) He is not free by any measure.

8) The liberated individual soul performs daily service to the divine couple in Sri Vaikuntam.

Explication of Akāram

நா லர் மறை நால் ஒன்று நலம் திகழ் மறை ஒன்று ஒராது

ஆவலிப்பு அலைக்கும் மோகத்து அழுந்தி நின்று அலமர்கின்றீர்

தூ வலம் புரியா ஒன்றில் துவக்கமாம் வண்ணம் ஒன்றால்

காவல் என்று அகரத்து அவ்வாய்க் கருத்துறக் காண்மின் நீரே. (1)

Pranavam (AUM - Om) is the essence of four Vedas.  OM is the Supreme Mantra like the Supreme Brahman. You suffer agitation from haughtiness, delusion, attachment, confusion and sorrow. OM when written in Tamil resembles the dextrorotatory Conch (வலம்புரி சங்கு). (AUM has three letters.) Akaram, the first letter 'A,' means and stands for protection, offered by Bhagavan. One should realize the purpose of Akaram as the protector. The dative 4th case 'Av' of Akaram points to the object, the Bhagavan as the protector.

 The Fourth Case and its meaning

இளக்கமின் மயக்கம் தன்னால் யான் எனக்கு உரியன் என்னும்

களக்கருத்து ஒன்றே கொண்டு கடு நரகு அடைந்து நின்றீர்

விளக்கும் அவ்வெழுத்தில் நாலாம் வேற்றுமை ஏற்றி வாங்கித்

துளக்கமில் அடிமை பூண்டு தூயராய் வாழ்மினீரே. (2)

O Embodied souls! You have been too lax and too ignorant; You feel that you are your own man; If you hold that one and only false idea, you will end up in severe hell. The explicatory 4th dative case means you are the servitor to the Lord (Sesan to Seshi). Get it right (in your head) that He is the Protector. Your agitation of mind will come to a naught, having become His slave and living a life of purity.

The meaning of Ukāram

அப்பொருள் இகந்து மற்றும் அழித்து எழுவார் தாளில்

இப்பொருள் இகந்தவன் பால் இரங்கினீர் வணங்கி வீழ்ந்தீர்

உப்பொருள் உள்ளி மற்றோர் உயிர் தனக்கு உரிமை மாற்றி

எப்பொருள் பயனும் ஈது என்று எண்ணினிர் எழுமினீரே. (3)

Akaram stands for the Lord. Violation is not performing Saranagati to the Lord; you cried pitiably, fell at the feet of and worshipped the lesser gods, which only gives death and rebirth. Let us think of the 2nd letter Ukaram ('U') of Pranava, AUM. It transfers the ownership of the Jivatma from the lesser gods to Bhagavan.  Rise up knowing that the Lord would give the rewards of your (prapatti's) efforts.

 Vaishnavism's another coordinate view of AUMAkArO Vishnu vAsakah: The A in OmkAra (AUM) is Vishnu.  OmkAra is unique in that it exists as one syllable in Om, three letters in AUM and three sentences.  When the Vedas are distilled, each Veda offers an essence of eight syllables; three of them offer a total of 24 syllables: the Gayatri Mantra.  When Gayatri Mantra is further condensed, AUM comes into being. 

AUM has two forms: Asamhithākāram and Samhithākāram: Disjointed entity and Joined entity Samhithai = சம்மிதை. put together, connected, joined. It means to say AUM as one-syllable sound, Om Asamhithai is to disjoin and present it as A U M.  Veda's seed is Pranavam (Om),  which on particularization yields Vyahrti.

Vyahrti.  Utterance, speech, declaration, statement. The mystical mantras or utterance of the names of the upper seven worlds (viz. Bhur, bhuvar [or bhuvah], svar, mahar, janar, tapar, satya , the first three of which, called ‘the great Vyahrtis,’ are pronounced after Om by every Brahmana in commencing his daily prayers and are personified as the daughters of Savitri and Prisni).

Gayatri Mantra:

Om bhur-bhuvah-svah = Om, world, atmosphere and heaven (Vyahrtis)

tat savitur varenyam THAT Light (sun) adore

bhargo devasya dhimahi = Splendor divine meditate

dhiyo yo nah prachodayAt = Intelligence who our inspires

Pranavam (Om) is the head of Srutis (Vedas).  Sruthi Sirasi VithIrththE.  He (Vishnu) abides on the head of the Vedas; thus, Pranavam is Vishnu. 

A of Aum is Vishnu; U is Mahalakshmi; M is the JIva, the individual soul A () is the standard-bearer for Vishnu's creation, maintenance and destruction.  The syllable stands for protection offered to His slaves (the Prapannans who declared surrender and received Raksa--refuge from Bhagavan). It is a common theme that all human beings can relate to Vishnu effectively as slaves (தாது - slave or servitude) of Vishnu.  Servitude serves the devotee well among all other ways one can relate to Vishnu.  He abides in Om.  A connotes Vishnu's  eternal and irreversible ownership of the Jivatma (the individual soul).

U of Aum refers to Mahalakshmi as his consort, His eternal proximity to Her and exclusive one to one relationship between the two.

M is the individual soul, who is the property of Vishnu.

AUM essentially means that the individual soul exists for Vishnu only or Jivatma belongs to Sri-associated Vishnu.  Once Jiva is accepted as Prapannan (a devotee declared as having surrendered and been accepted by Vishnu as His slave), Vishnu offers him protection.  AUM is like a parade of individuals one behind the other. A is the leader, U is the consort and M is the Jiva.  This configuration is a common theme in Ramayana in that Rama (A) is Bhagavan leading U Sita and M Lakshmana, who is there to do Kainkaryam (devoted service) to Rama and Sita.  The trio is the Omkara or Pranavam walking, talking, and breathing.

Likewise Jiva is there to do Kainkaryam to Vishnu.  The same theme is sung in verses in Mahabharata.  Krishna sits in the forefront of Pranavam (the chariot is of Pranava form) offering protection to Arjuna in the Mahabharata war.  Offering of protection means eradication of all undesirable qualities like lust anger greed delusion,  pride, and envy and inculcation of desirable qualities.  Krishna in Bhagavad Gita (16.2-3) gives a list of good qualities:  Ahimsa, truthfulness, freedom from anger, renunciation, tranquillity, abstaining from slander, compassion to all creatures, absence of greed, gentleness, modesty, absence of fickleness  (absence of agitation),  vigor, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness, absence of malice, and absence of pride: These are the qualities of the one born of divine nature.

The West gives a list of seven deadly sins: pride , covetousness, lust , anger , gluttony, envy, and sloth; the seven sins cause spiritual death.

Atma (soul) exists  for Vishnu Bhagavan. One should perform Atma Samarpanam (votive offering of one's soul) at the feet of  Bhagavan, who shines in AUM.  Kainkaryam is the loving devoted service a votary does at the feet of Bhagavan waiting on Him with folded hands and awaiting His orders.  Jivatma does not have bliss of his own. It is Bhagavat Kainkaryam that brings bliss and Moksa.  Serving the devotees of Bhagavan is one of the greatest Kainkaryams one can do.  Your object is His feet. Take the bow of AUM; engage the Atma as the arrow in the bow; take aim at Bhagavan's feet and shoot Atma of an arrow at his foot so that it embeds in it.  Keep thinking of His feet and nothing else. He will shower His blessings on you in due course of time.  This is the surrender of your soul at the feet of Atma and holding on to It fast.


Second meaning of Ukāram

என்றும் ஓர் தம் இன்றி இரவியும் ஒளியும் போல

ஒன்றி நின்று உலகு அளிக்கும் உகம் இடிந்து அடிமை வைத்தீர்

ஒன்று மூன்று எழுத்தை ஒன்றும் ஒன்றில் ஒன்றுடைய முன்னே


ஒன்றிய இரண்டை உள்ளி உளார் என உய்ம்மினீரே. (4)

As the sun and light exist together always without any blemish, Bhagavan and Sri stand together offering protection to the world. Both of You inducted us into slavery. The One syllable (Om) contains three syllables AUM) in it. (The third syllable is makaram.) The prefixal two syllables (AU) together hold inside them Bhagavan and Piratti: let them bless you with liberation.


The meaning of Makāram (the M in AUM)

தத்துவம் அறுநான்கோடு தனி இறை அன்றி நின்ற

சித்தினை உணராது என்றும் திரள் தொகையாகி நின்றீர்

மத்தனைத் தனி விடாதே மையிலா விளக்கம் ஆக்கி

உத்தமன் அடிமையான உயிர் நிலை உணர்மினீரே. (5)


Tattvas are 24 in number, separate from Cit and Isvara. Cit, not realizing the difference among the three, mistakenly beleives that the soul is the aggrgate of tattvas. Do not leave out the Ma, which is the Jivatma. When you have clear faultless explanation of meaning of AUM, you will realize your nature-that your life is that of a slave to paramatman.

The Sentient Soul is different from Isvara and from 24 Tattvas (Prakrti, Mahan, Ahankaram, 10 Indriyas, mind, 5 Tanmatras and 5 Bhutas. Jiva is deluded into thinking that soul's own form is body, an aggregate of 5 great elements and the organs. It is worthwhile to remember that the soul is Jnana Svarupam (the form of spiritual knowledge), its attribute is Jnana and its form is subservient to the Lord and Sri (Divya Tampati = Divine wedded Couple = திவ்ய தம்பதிகள்) to obtain salvation. The sentient soul is Makaram (the M in AUM) and atomic in nature and size.

Once the Chetanam understands the meaning of Pranavam (AUM), all false knowledge falls by the wayside and one realizes that the Atma is not Sariram (body) but knowledge and is Sesa of Bhagavan dependent on the Lord for liberation. This will take him to Vaikuntam.

Alvar explores the dependent and servile nature of Chetanam or Jivatman in relation to Paramatman by everyday analogy. These verses are from Divyaprabhandam.


Mother and Child (688)

Husband and Wife (689)

Raja and Praja (690)

Doctor and Patient (691)

Ship and lone bird (692)

Sun and Lotus (693)

Nimbus Cloud and Tender Sprouts (694)

Ocean and River (695)

The Rich and the Riches (696)

Paramatma and Jivatma (697)

'Sarira-sariri ( Sarira = cit and acit = sentient souls and insentient matter) is the inseparable body of the Over-Soul Isvara.' The individual soul (Jivatma) is inseparable and integral part of Sarira (Body) of the Supreme, the Universal Soul or Soul of souls. The awakened soul is of the realization that it is part of the Sarira (body) of the Supreme Being.

If you are unfamiliar with terms Sariri, Sarira, Seshi, and Sesha, let me give you a little help to remember. The words that end with I are the Lord. the words that end with A refer to the individual souls of sentient and insentient beings (and matter).  Sariri and Seshi refer to the the Lord (indicates ownership) and Sarira and Sesha refer to the body of the Lord, and the servitors, the individual souls. The individual souls of all beings collectively form the body (Sarira) of the Lord (Sariri).  He is Seshi, the Lord, the Master, and the Owner and we are the Sesha, servitors and slaves. Living entities and matter make the body (Sarira) of the Lord.





mini-MAXI Relationship

embodied soul Vs Universal Soul

mini-MAXI Relationship

embodied soul Vs Universal Soul






Sariri-Owner of body





Sambandha-the Supported




Niyama-the Controlled

Niyanta-the Controller

Raksya-the protected

Raksaka-the Protector




The explication of Namah

தனது இவை அனைத்துமாகத் தான் இறையாகும் மாயன்

உனது எனும் உணர்த்தி தாராது உமக்கு நீர் உரிமை உற்றீர்

எனது இவை அனைத்தும் யானே இறை எனும் இரண்டும் தீர

மன் எனும் இரண்டில் மாறா வல்வினை மாற்றுவீரே. (6)

Isvara claims all these as His alone. Mayan does not give you the notion that any of these is yours; thus, you have no ownership of any of these (worldly objects). Two syllables Na and Ma announce that all these are Him/His alone. Could you alter anything in the unchangeable karma or the irrevocable denial, explicit in the two syllables: Na+Ma = Not for +Jivatma?

Explication of Naara

அழிவு இலா உயிர்கட்கு எல்லாம் அருக்கனாய் அழியா ஈசன்

வழியிலா வழி விலக்கும் மதி எழ மாய மூர்த்தி

வழிவிலாது இவை அனைத்தும் வயிற்றில் வைத்து  உமிழ்ந்த மாலை

நழுவிலா நார வாக்கில் நாடி நீர் அணுகுவீரே. (7)

ISan and the souls are eternal and indestructible. He inculcates in us the mind to take the obstruction-free path of Saranagati. The Maya Brahman kept all these in His stomach and vomited them out. Tirumal's firm word 'Naara' is what we should seek.

The first line says that the individual souls and the Universal Soul are indestructible and eternal. The 2nd line says that he removes all the obstacles for the souls take the right path.

The third line indicates Bhagavan safe-keeps the souls and matter (Chit and Achit) within Him between destruction (Pralaya) and creation. The fourth line says that we should all seek refuge in the word Nāra.

Explication of the word 'Ayana.'

வயனம் ஒன்று அறிந்து உரைப்பார் வன் கழல் வெள்கி

நயனம் உள் இன்றி நாளும் நள் இருள் நண்ணி நின்றீர்

அயனம் இவ்வனைத்துக்கும் தான் அவை தனக்கு அயனம் என்ன

பயனுமாய்ப் பதியுமான பரமனைப் பணிமினீரே. (8)

The ignorant ones leave the sermon (உபநியாசம்) of the knowledgeable Vedists. They lose the eyes (eyesight) and remain in the darkness of night of spiritual ignorance. Lord Narayana is the Ayanam: abode, the goal, the means, the hypostasis of all that exists: Chit and Achit. Let us render service (kaimkaryam) to Paraman.


The explication of the fourth case in Nārāyana

உயர்ந்தவர் உணர்ந்தவாற்றால் உவந்த குற்றேவல் எல்லாம்

அயர்ந்து நீர் ஐம்புலன்கட்கு அடிமை பூண்டு அலர்மர்கின்றீர்

பயந்து இவை அனைத்தும் ஏந்தும் பரமனார் நாமம் ஒன்றில்

வியந்த பேரடிமை தோற்றும் தோன்றச்செய்தல் வேற்றுமை மேவுவீரே. (9)

The High Ones accept the services of the disciples. You become slave to the five senses and indulge in fear and slander.  Do kainkaryam in the name of Paramanar (Bhagavan). The fourth case, associated with the Ashtaksharam, points to Bhagavat Kaimkaryam, in which you should do to gain liberation.


The secrets for the believers

எண்டிசை பரவும் சீரோர் எங்களுக்கு ஈந்த எட்டில்

உண்டவாறு உரைப்பார் போல ஒன்பது பொருள் உரைத்தோம்

மண்டு நான் மறையோர் காக்கும் மா நிதி இவை அனைத்தும்

கண்டவர் விள்ளார் விள்ளக் கருதுவார் கண்கிலாரே. (10)

The Acharyas famous in all directions give instructions true to the text. Likewise we passed on the instructions of nine pasurams of Prabhandam. We won't reveal to the unfit and undeserving all these greatly treasured sacred texts saved by the Vedists.



Bhagavan enters into a Covenant with His devotees for their liberation and admission into Vaikuntam.

சரமஸ்லோக சுருக்கு = Charama Sloka Surukku by Desikan (1268-1369 CE)

Reference: Sadagopan. org

Condensed Explication of Bhagavadgita verse 18.66

Desikan composed eleven Pasurams in Tamil to explain the meaning of the Bhagavad Gita verse 18.66 : Charama Slokam.

BG 18.66

सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।

अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥१८- ६६॥

sarvadharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja
ahaṁ tvā sarvapāpebhyo mokṣyayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ 18.66

sarva-dharmān1 parityajya2 mām3 ekam4 śaraṇam vraja5
aham6 tvām7 sarva-pāpebhyaḥ8 mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 ma10 śucaḥ11 18.66

parityajya2 = abandoning; sarva-dharmān1 = all duties; śaraṇam vraja5  = take refuge; mām3 = in Me; ekam4 = only/alone .  aham6 = I; mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 = shall deliver; tvā7 = you; sarva-pāpebhyaḥ8 = from all sins.  ma10 = do not; śucaḥ11 = Do not grieve.18.66

सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज | अहं   त्वां  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66

18.66:  Abandoning all duties, surrender unto Me only. I shall deliver you from all sins. Do not lament (grieve).

sarvadharmān parityajya = सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य  Abandoning all duties

Mām = मां  In me

ekaṁ = एकं  = alone, only

śaraṇaṁ = शरणं = refuge

Vraja = व्रज  = take to or Choose

Aham = अहं   =  I  = Bhagavan Krishna

Tvā   = त्वा   = You = Arjuna

Sarvapāpebhyo  = सर्वपापेभ्यो  = from all sins

mokṣyayiṣyāmi = मोक्षयिष्यामि  = shall deliver

mā śucaḥ = मा शुचः = do not grieve.

सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज | अहं   त्वां  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66


கல்லார் அகலும் கருமமும் ஞானமுங் காதலும்

மற்றெல்லா நிலைகளுக் கேற்ப விதித்த கிரிசைகளும்

வல்லார் முயல்க வலியிழந்தார் என்றனைத் தொழுகென்

றெல்லாத் தரும முரைத்தவ னின்னடி சேர்ந்தனமே (1)

The ill-equipped ones will abandon the practice of Karma, Jண்āna and Bakthi yogas. The competent people practice rites and ceremonies commensurate with these and other Yogas. All others unable to practice the Yogas should worship Me and seek surrender at My feet, who has made instructions on all Dharmas. I myself surrendered at Your feet.



सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।

अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥१८- ६६॥


sarva-dharmān1 parityajya2 mām3 ekam4 śaraṇam vraja5
aham6 tvām7 sarva-pāpebhyaḥ8 mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 ma10 śucaḥ11 18.66


Explication: sarva-dharmān parityajya  = सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य = Abandoning all duties


வெறுமை உணர்ந்து அது முன்னிட்டு வேறு அங்கம் இல்லை எனக்

குறியவன் இன் உறவு எட்டக் குறித்திடும் கோணை துறந்து

உறும் அயன் அத்திரம் என்னப் பொறா நிலை ஓர்ந்திடவோர்

அற நெறி அன்று உரைத்தான் அழியா அறமாயினனே. (2)

Based on the fact of Realization of incapacity (to attain liberation through Yogas), there is no other recourse beyond the 5 Angas (அங்கம்). It is like the dwarf who unable to reach the honeycomb abandons his efforts. It is like launching Bramasthram; doubting its efficacy, launching another Brahmasthram invites harm. Uttering the path of Virtue that day, he became the indestructible Virtue himself.

The following is based on interpretation of Charama Sloka Churukku by Sri Varadachari Sathakopan of

Six meanings of Sarva Dharman =  सर्वधर्मान्

1) வெறுமை உணர்ந்து = Realization of emptiness (and incapacity to undertake paths to liberation or Moksa)

Disqualification, inability, Incapability:  Some of the aspirants to liberation are not qualified to practice Yogas; the Twice-born only are qualified to perform the Yogas; the rest are left to their own devices. This is where an alternate path becomes important for the aspirant to Moksa (mumuksu).

2) அது முன்னிட்டு = That being in the forefront = Emptiness or Helplessness in the forefront = Lack of ways and means.

The Mumuksu has the sense of helplessness (Akinchanyam = आकिंचन्य want of any possession, utter destitution. Kārpaṇyam =

 कार्पण्य poverty, pitiful circumstances, poorness of spirit) because of inability to practice Yogas. That helplessness stands in the forefront as an obstruction to attaining Moksa. This is known as Kārpaṇyam.


3) வேறங்கம் இல்லை என = No other subsidiary path.

Prapatti has one Angi and 5 angams only. Ānukūlya Saṅkalpa, prātikūlya-varjanam, Karpaṇyam,  mahā-visvāsam, Goptṛitva-varaṇa are the Angams. Ātma nikṣepa is the Angi or the principal component of Prapatti. Varnāśrama Dharma is the overhang that effectively prevents the non-dvijas or the incapable divijas to practice yoga.


4) குறியவன் இன் உறவு எட்டக் குறித்திடும் கோணை துறந்து

The helpless state of the frustrated aspirant is compared to a dwarf trying to reach the honeycomb on the distant tree branch. His efforts are fruitless.  This is analogy to portray the inability or disqualification of the aspirant to practice Bhakti yoga. One needs to give up these lofty, fruitless and frustrating efforts, (in favor of Self-surrender).

5. Another analogy compares man (weighed down with a load of sins) grabbing a blade of grass as a floatation device in a raging river. This man is incapable of doing Bhakti yoga.

6. உறும் அயன் அத்திரம் என்னப் பொறா நிலை ஓர்ந்திடவோர்

Brahmastra Nyayam: Brahma Weapon Maxim

Other ways (Yogas) are daunting, full of hazards and impediments. Prapatti is easy and efficacious; because of the ease, it may be viewed as inefficacious in obtaining Mokṣam. This doubt and dither about its efficacy is an impediment to progress to Mokṣam. The analogy is like launching efficient Brahma missile with no confidence in it and launching it again. It is bound to fail.

Here is the supporting verse from Divyaprabhandam.

Divyaprabhandam 896:

குளித்து மூன்று அனலை ஓம்பும் குறிகொள் அந்தண மைதன்னை,

ஒளித்திட்டேன் என்கண்இல்லை நின்கணும் பத்தன் அல்லேன்,

களிப்பது என் கொண்டு? நம்பீ. கடல்வண்ணா! கதறுகின்றேன்,

அளித்து எனக்கு அருள்செய் கண்டாய் அரங்கமா நகருளானே.


O My Lord! I, as a Brahmana, lost the privilege of raising the three household fires after daily ritual ablution. I am no more Your Bhakta. What do I have to be jubilant about?  O Nambi!  O Lord of the color of the ocean! I lament and cry aloud. O Dweller in the city of Arangama Nagar! Please grant me Grace. --Krishnaraj

The following are the implications of the word 'Sarvadharman Parityajya': Dr. C. Umakantham Associate Professor S.V. University 

1.       Inability to perform the duties beyond one's capabilities makes one suitable for adopting the Sadhana of Saranagati.

2.       Total ignorance of other Sadhanas becomes a qualification for Saranagati.

3.       Giving up all rites or Dharmas becomes an Anga for Saranagati.

4.       Non-indulgence in trying to perform what one is not capable of.

5.       Being uninterested in doing what one is unable to do.

6.       The principle of Brahmastra which states that resorting to use any other accessory or Anga would render the entire attempt a failure.


सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज 

अहं   त्वां  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66

sarva-dharmān1 parityajya2 mām3 ekam4 śaraṇam vraja5
aham6 tvām7 sarva-pāpebhyaḥ8 mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 ma10 śucaḥ11 18.66


The Meaning of 'mam' (= माम् = in ME). Verse Explicating 'Mam.'

வாரிதி விட்டு மலர் மகளோடு மதுரை வந்து

பாரத வெஞ்சமர் பார்மகள் பாரஞ் செக உகந்து

சாரதியாய் முன்பு தூதனுமாய்த் தளரும் விசயன்

தேரதில் நின்றவனைத் தேற்றினான் திறமாயினமே. (3)

Leaving the Milk-Ocean, lord Narayana moved to Madurai along with the flower-goddess.

Earth-daughter =பார் மகள்சாரதி = charioteer. தூதன் = envoy. விசயன் = Vijayan.  தேர் = chariot.

Mam (माम्) refers to Narayana who gives refuge and protection, forgiving the Bhaktas of all their sins; Sri intercedes on behalf of the Baktas and helps the Jivas attain liberation. Mam also brings into focus His Kalyana Gunas like Saulabhya, Sauśīlya. Vātsalya, Kṛpā, Audārya, Bandhutva (Easy accessibility, Gracious condescension, loving disposition, Compassion, Generosity, Friendly disposition).

Krishna in the service of Arjuna sits on the chariot with feet hanging down on the sides, his hands holding reins and whip, and his dust-laden hair all mussed up; yet He is the Paramatman, declares Bhagavad Gita to His disciple and offers refuge to humanity.

Desikan declares that 'Mam' (in Me) is Bhagavan, the Savior. He along with Sri left His Serpentine bed in the Milk-Ocean to Mathura. Mam also means that He as the Consort of Sri, Narayana, Sauśīlyan, Seshi,... is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent. 

Saulabhya, Sauśīlya. Vātsalya, Kṛpā, Audārya, Bandhutva, Svāmitvam (Easy accessibility, Gracious condescension, loving disposition, Compassion, Generosity, Friendly disposition, Lordship & proprietorship).

Vātsalya is loving disposition of Bhagavan towards Arjuna as the cow licks the calf clean as soon it is born. Likewise, Bhagavan erases the sins and indiscretions of the aspirants (Mumuksus) and embraces them.

Svāmitvam: Lordship, Proprietorship. He is the owner and Lord of Chit and Acit. He is second to none. There is no one like Him.

Sauśīlyam: This is the ability to condescend to the level of the devotee, as a prince would condescend to a pauper with undiminished zest and respect so that the pauper and the prince are in a comfort zone. Krishna condescended to act as the charioteer to Arjuna.

Saulabhyam: Ordinarily, the Lord is hard to approach to the seers. Saulabhyan (He with saulabhyam) presented Himself in His Universal Form to Arjuna (which caused him some trepidation) and resumed his usual form at Arjuna's request.

The use of the phrase 'மலர் மகளோடு’ (along with Sri) means that he is integral with Sri, whom he never leaves.

1) The secret of His incarnation (Avatara Rahasyam). It is real and not Indra Jālam or magic.

2) As Avatara in the forms of Rama and Krishna, He remained true to His Kalyana Gunas.

3) As Avatara, He is endowed with pure Sattva (Suddha Sattva Mayam), devoid of Rajas and Tamas Gunas.

4) His Avatara is devoid of any Karmic consequences as Jivas (We the people) are and has the divine stamp of Sankalpam (Volition).

5) The reason for His Avatara is the ascent of Adharma and descent of Dharma.

6) The fruit of His Avatara is not for His benefit but for that of His devotees.

வாரிதி விட்டு மலர் மகளோடு மதுரை வந்து

பாரத வெஞ்சமர் பார்மகள் பாரஞ் செக உகந்து

சாரதியாய் முன்பு தூதனுமாய்த் தளரும் விசயன்

தேரதில் நின்றவனைத் தேற்றினான் திறமாயினமே. (3)

1) The first line: The first four maxims of Avatara Rahasyam explain the words, " வாரிதி விட்டு மலர் மகளோடு மதுரை வந்து

2) The second line: பாரத வெஞ்சமர் பார்மகள் பாரஞ் செக உகந்து is explained by the fifth maxim.

3) The third line: “சாரதியாய் முன்பு தூதனுமாய்த் தளரும் விசயன்” denotes the 6th Maxim, commitment of the Lord to His devotees.

Mam holds in its depths the auspicious qualities of the Lord extolled in Tirumantram and Dvayam.

4) The fourth line: தேரதில் நின்றவனைத் தேற்றினான் திறமாயினமே He Consoled Arjuna in his chariot and induced stability in him.


Explication of Ekam

सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज 

अहं   त्वां  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66


தன் அருளால் பெறும் சாதனம் சாதகன் என்று இவற்றைத்

தன்னுடன் எண்ணுதல் நீங்கத் தனித்து ஒரு சாதனமாய்ப்

பொன்னருளோடும் அப்பூமகளோடும் புகழ் நின்ற

இன்னுரை ஈசனையே ஏகம் எண்ண விசைந்தனமே (4)

1) Ekam (alone) combined with singular Maam refers to the Paramatman or Sarvesvaran, who is the goal (fruit) of the Mumusus.  Prapatti is the means (Upayam) to attain the goal. He is the path and the fruit.  சாதனம் சாதகன் என்று இவற்றைத் தன்னுடன் எண்ணுதல் நீங்க.  We have to remove the notion that the means and the aspirant (Mumuksu, the Moksa aspirant) are in us and in our capacity. We have to remove the ego, "I am the doer."

2) Ekam removes the notion of independence of Jivatma from Bhagavan (SvaprAdhAnya NivAraNam) For the Jivatma to perform Prapatti needs the Kataksha Anugraham (Glance and Grace) of the Lord.  (This glance which

results in moksha katAksham has happened long before most samskaras are performed, long before the soul meets the Acharya that will guide him towards moksha, long before any punya karmas are performed by the individual.-- Jaganath Bharadwaj

Bhagavan has complete control over us; we are only limited beings. He is the one who guides us through the path or means by virtue of Glance and Grace. The inductive persuasion comes from Him. Jivatma uses his god-given body, limbs, organs and senses to  walk along the path of Prapatti as laid out by Him. The Prapannan, limited as he is, cannot obtain complete freedom enjoyed by the Lord. The learned ones dismiss the idea that the Jivatma with limited power can be the second SiddhOpAyam. We could be SaadhyaOpAyam by doing Prapati. This idea finds resonance in சாதகன் என்று இவற்றைத் தன்னுடன் எண்ணுதல் நீங்க.

3) UpAyam is twofold: SiddhOpAyam and SaadhyOpAyam. Bhagavan is SiddhOpAyam, because that Upayam exists from beginningless time. Saadhyopayam, the means available to the Jivatma, consists of Yogas and Prapatti.

Eka asserts the Saadhyopayam and Siddhopayam are not interconnected, the former is lower and the latter is the highest. Man is kept under check because of his acts disapproved by the Lord. After succesful complettion of Bhakti or Prapatti, The Causal Agent for MoksAnugraham is the Lord and his Sankalpam. Once proven of the inability to perform the Yogas, the Lord takes the burden of Moksa-DhAyakan (Freedom Nourisher) and confers freedom to the prapannan who completed required Angams. Prapannan = பிரபன்னன் = He who accepts God as his sole refuge. The Lord brings about Sadacharya Sambhandham.  Prapatti also according to Bhagavan becomes the dictum for liberation. It is VyAja (pretext, excuse, stand-in). Prapatti is the stand-in for those who cannot do the Yogas.

சாதகன் என்று இவற்றைத் தன்னுடன் எண்ணுதல் நீங்க: One cannot connect Bhagavan with VyAja- that is we cannot take Prapatti-VyAja as the measure or standard- Vyāja Mātra Prapatti. It is only a great measure of Bhagavan's compassion.  This idea is implied in this phrase. ஒரு சாதனமாய்ப் பொன்னருளோடும் அப்பூமகளோடும் புகழ் நின்ற  ஈசன் = He is the renowned Isan who stands with Grace and Flower-goddess.

4) Bhagavan does not obstruct Prapatti and Yogas in obtaining their stated goal for the Prapannan: Liberation. Actually He bears the burden of making sure that the Upayas do what they are meant to do. He stands alone by Himself to bear the burden. That is what is meant by 'Eka' word-sound.

5) Bhagavan does not impose any other requirements apart from the completion of the five Angams of prapatti. Thanittu or தனித்து carries this added meaning.

6) சாதனமாய் நின்ற ஈசன். He stood as the Upayam. Yogas are hard to practice and thus a workable alternative such as self-surrender (prapatti) became the pathway to liberation.

The words பொன்னருளோடும் அப்பூமகளோடும்  refer to His golden grace and His constant companion the flower-goddess (Sri). Desikan declares that Sri and Bhagavan act as one entity during the progress of Prapannan along the path of Prapatti.


सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज

अहं   त्वां  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66

Explication: शरणं  = Surrender

ஊனில் இனைத்து உழல்விக்கும் வினைக்கடளுள் விழுந்த

யான் எனதான குணங்கள் எனக்கு இசை நல் வழியும்

தான் உதவித்-தனை தந்திட நின்ற தனித்-தருமம்

நான் இனி வேரு ஒர் பாரம் நணுகா வகை நல்கியதே (5)

The Soul united with the body whirls around in the Karmic Ocean. Bhagavan confers Gunas to the embodied soul, enabling them to follow good paths. He helps them by giving Himself to the embodied souls as special Dharma. I make sure that no more burdens approach the Jivatmas and confer a special Dharma: so said the Lord.

ஊனில் இனைத்து உழல்விக்கும் வினைக்கடளுள் விழுந்த:

Karma unites the soul with the body and makes the Jivan to jostle in the Karmic Ocean.

யான் எனதான குணங்கள்: He confers His Gunas so as to lift them out of this ocean.

தனை தந்திட நின்ற தனி தருமம்: He gives Himself as a special Dhrama: SiddhOpAyam.  

நான் இனி வேறு ஒர் பாரம் நணுகா வகை நல்கியதே: I (Bhagavan) make sure that any other burden does not approach the Jivatma and act as the savior.



सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज

अहं   त्वां  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66

Meaning of Vraja = व्रज = take to, Choose.

கடு வினை நாம் பெறும் பேற்றைத் தகைந்தமை கண்டு நம்

மேல் தொடை விலகாமல் இசைந்து ஒரு காலம் துணிவுடனே

உடைமை அடைக்கலமாக அடைக்கும் உகப்பதனால்

அடை என அன்று உறைத்தான் அடைவித்தனன் தன்னடியே. (6)

Severe Karma caused obstruction of Liberation. Knowing that, we do not abandon the precepts (Angis of Prapatti), do acts pleasing to the Lord, proceed with trust, rise to take refuge in the Lord, and pledge (your soul to the Lord). This what the Lord instructed. Let us reach the shores of Bliss and attain His Feet.


Vraja means 'take to or choose.'  Take (or Seek) Surrender at the feet of the Lord. Surrender obviously means that the aspirant dedicates his soul to the Lord. That is Atma Samarpanam.

The Aṅgas (limbs) of Prapatti are mentioned in the poem are as follows:

தொடை விலகாமல் = Not abandoning the precepts of Prapatti = prātikūlya-varjanam.

இசை(ந்து) = To do acts in harmony with Lord's Wish = Ānukūlya-saṅkalpa.

துணிவு(டனே) = Belief, Trust = Mahā Viśvāsam = Great Loyalty or faith as the sole protector.

கடு வினை நாம் பெறும் பேற்றைத் தகைந்தமை கண்டு = Severe Karma caused obstruction to Liberation, Knowing that. This line of text means The state of the Jivatma is in Kārpaṇyam ௭ கார்ப்பணியம். humility from helplessness.

அடைக்கலம் = Refuge, (Seeking) Protection = Goptṛtva-varaṇa = Pleading with God for His protection.

அடை =  Pledge what is personal = Atma Samarpanam = Soul dedication.

அடைவித்தனன் = To cause to obtain (Bliss)

The five precepts are as follows: The Aṅgas ௭the limbs.

1) Ānukūlya-saṅkalpa, 2) prātikūlya-varjanam, 3) Kārpaṇyam, 4) Mahā Viśvāsam, 5) Goptṛtva-varaṇa.

The 6th one is the principal called Aṅgi. 6. ātma Nikṣepa = Soul Dedication.

The Aṅgas has no value unless the 6th principal is accomplished.



सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज

अहं   त्वां  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66 

अहं = aham = அகம்.  Explication of Aham

கான் என்ற வேதங்கள் காக்கும் பரன் என்று காட்ட நின்றோன்

தான் என்று அறியகிலார்க்கு அறிவிக்கும் தனித்திறலோன்

வான் ஒன்றினாரொடு மானிடன் என்ன அவதரிப்பான்

நான் என்ற நம் திருமால் நம்மை நல் பதம் சேர்த்திடுமே

Forest are the Vedas (difficult to wade thrrough). The Vedas point to the savior Lord (as savior Supreme). The Omnipotent Lord lets Himself known to the ignorant. From among the celestials, the Lord chose to take Avatara as man. Aham (= I = Naan) is our Lord Tirumal; us to His feet joins He.

கான் என்ற வேதங்கள் = Forest are the Vedas; காக்கும் பரன் என்று காட்ட நின்றோன் = The Vedas point to the savior Lord (as Savior Supreme).  தான் என்று அறியகிலார்க்கு அறிவிக்கும் தனித்திறலோன் = The Omnipotent Lord lets Himself known to the ignorant. வான் ஒன்றினாரொடு மானிடன் என்ன அவதரிப்பான் = From among the celestials, the Lord chose to take Avatara as man. நான் என்ற நம் திருமால் நம்மை நல் பதம் சேர்த்திடுமே = Aham (= I = Naan) is our Lord Tirumal; us to His sacred feet joins He.

For us, it is very difficult to research the Vedas and draw its essence. They point to the fact that the Lord is omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient and most of all the savior of humanity. He came down to earth in His Avatars as Rama and Krishna. Aham is the Lord ready and willing to take us to His sacred feet, once we simply and faithfully surrender unto Him.


सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज

अहं   त्वा  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66

 Tvā = You. Explication of the word 'tvā or you.'

தன்னிலை காட்டி தனிமை உகந்து தனித்தகவால்

அன்னிலை தீர அடைக்கலம் கொண்டு அடி சேர்த்திடவே

பல்-நிலை மூல எழுத்திலும் பாண்டவன் தேர் தனிலும்

முன்னிலை கொண்ட பிரான் எமை முன்னிலை கொண்டனனே. (8)

The Lord showed us His unique and inimitable form (SvarUpam = சொரூபம்), different from the embodied souls. You have become my favorite (by your self-surrender) and uniquely worthy. To put an end to the state of Samsara, you sought refuge in Me and joined at My feet. The Lord is in the forefront in the Seed Syllable (AUM), in the chariot of Pandava, Arjuna. Us He put in the forefront.

தன்னிலை காட்டி தனிமை = His unique and inimitable status. அன்னிலை தீர = To remove that state (of Samsara). அடைக்கலம் கொண்டு அடி சேர்த்திடவே = Attaining refuge and joining at the Feet of the Lord. மூல எழுத்திலும் பாண்டவன் தேர் தனிலும் முன்னிலை கொண்ட பிரான்  = He is in the forefront of the Seed Mantra (AUM) and the Chariot as the Charioteer for Arjuna. எமை முன்னிலை கொண்டனனே = He put us in the forefront to grant liberation.

Tvaa is explaind as follows: Bhagavan put in the forefront us (Tvā = You) to grant Moksa. Tva means several things.

1) The Jivatma fulfilld the tenets of Prapatti.  2) The Jivatma made a self-surrender.  3) The Jivatma has acquired Tattva Traya Jண்ānam.  4) The Jivatman has realized the need to attain the Feet of the Lord.  5) The Jivatman realized that Yogas are hard way to attain Him.  6) The Jivatma realized that the Lord is the only goal.  7) As a beneficial reward of Saranagathy, the aspirant enjoys कृत कृत्य = kṛita kṛitya = well done what is to be done. Having done what has to be done, the aspirant earns the privilege of being addressed by the Lord as tva.  Bhagavan put us in the front as 'you.' (Tvā = You)

கிருத்தம் kiruttam = kṛta. कृत That which is done, made, produced

கிருத்தியம் kiruttiyam , n. < kṛtya. कृत्य 1. Act, action, operation, function.


सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज

अहं   त्वा  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66

सर्वपापेभ्यो  = sarva-pāpebhyaḥ8 = from all sins

காடுகளோ1 நரகோ2 கடிதாம் கரளத்-திரளோ3

சூடு விடா அனலோ4 தொலையா நிலை நள்ளிருளோ5

சாடு படச்-சரணால் அன்று சாடிய6 சாரதியார்

வீடு செய்வித்து நமை விடுவிக்கின்ற பாவங்களே.7 (9)

Explication of Sarva-papebhyah

Is it the dense forest of (sins)?1  Is it the hell?2 Is it the poisonous tumor?3 Is it the unremitting heat?4  Is it the unending pitch darkness?5 The Lord will destroy (these sins) as He roped, beat and kicked the Asura in the day past.6 He is the Charioteer who will let us loose from the clutch of sins and take us home (வீடு = home = Paramapatham, Vaikuntam).7

1) Avidya: Spiritual Ignorance. Every thought, word, and deed carry a load of Karma, good or bad.

2) Vasanas and Samskaras: The Karma from the past life leaves residuals and tendencies. These also help create more Karma in this life.

3) Man is endowed with Icchai, Kriyai and faustian knowledge. These also help generate more Karma. Desire is unremitting and creates more desires and more Karma.

4) The Jivatma is an aggregate (Samashti = समष्टि ) of soul, gross body, and subtle body. Pure soul is free of these adjuncts.

5) With the Anushtanam (अनुष्टान = carrying out) of Prapatti, the sins  are expunged. The Lord will expunge the Karmas as infant Krishna kicked and killed the Cart-Demon. 



सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज

अहं   त्वा  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66


Explication: मोक्षयिष्यामि  mokṣyayiṣyāmi9   = shall deliver or liberate


சென்று உயர் வானம் அமர்ந்து அவ்வடியாருடன் சேர்ந்திடவே

இன்று எனில் இன்று நாளை எனில் நாளை இனிச்செறித்து

நின்ற நிலை நின்  அனைத்து வினையும்  நின் விட்டு அகல

அன்றி விடுப்பன்  என்றான்  கருத்தால்  நமைக் காத்திடுமே (10)

The liberated ones will go to the highest heaven and join the Servitors of the Lord. The attainment is according to your desire: If it is today, it is today; if it is tomorrow, it is tomorrow. All accumulated karmic accretions will leave you. The Lord would provide refuge and protection.

Bhagavan says that He would expunge all his karmas, take him to Vaikunta to join the Muktatmas, and permit him to perform Kaimkaryam to Him.

There are two kinds of Prapannas: ārtā and Dripta (the Miserable and the Confident). The explanation is as follows.

Here is an explanation of ārtā and Dripta from

(The synonyms for Prapatti used in this chapter are Saranagati, Nikshepa, Nyasa, Tyaga and Sannyasa.)

1. Prapatti is defined as the mental attitude consisting of a determination which results in prayer of supplication by a person who has a desire to attain a goal but no means thereto.

4. Bhagavan Vishnu kindly instructed Vishvaksena in the type of Refuge known as Arta Prapatti (the surrender of the miserable); and it has five accessories (angas).

19. Even though He is merciful, capable and the Lord of all beings, yet unsolicited He will not protect, therefore one should apply oneself to supplication.

20. To say; “Lord please protect me!” is what is known as choosing one's protector. Therefore it is important is actually invite the saving Grace.

21. But Prapatti is the means to receive the Grace of God by one who desires it. Atma-nikshepa (self-resignation to the care of God) is the relinquishing of any rights one may have to the rewards of one’s actions, which results in the surrender to Kesava (God).

22. One should avoid self-exertion in both the method (Upaya) and the result (phala), both of which belong to the Lord (Swamyayatta);16 [and it is] also [plain] that Nikshepa has accessories.

Notes 16 Prapatti is a surrendering of oneself into the protective embrace of the Lord ௭ much like a drowning person who surrenders herself to the lifesaver who then does the work of bringing her to the beach. Struggle is necessary while trying to stay above water but the struggle becomes a threat to life if continued after the lifesaver has taken hold of one.

23. In Arta-Prapatti (the surrender of the desperate) all the afore mentioned aspects of Prapatti are combined at once. But in Dripta-prapatti (the surrender of the confident) they manifest themselves in succession.

24 ௭ 25. The division of Prapannas into Arta and Dripta is mentioned in Srimad Ramayana:௮ “Even an enemy who takes refuge with another, whether an Arta or a Dripta aught to be protected by a well-cultured person by even giving up his own life

26. One who is averse to the idea of taking another body is called a Dripta (confident). One who grieves even while in this body which is the result of past Karmas is called an Arta (the miserable).17

Notes 17A Dripta’s present contentment arises not out of any physical happiness which he disregards, but out of realising the working of God’s will in everything; so a Dripta is not dissatisfied with this body, because it is given by God and he is fully prepared to fulfill his temporal duties, but longs for the union with God after death. An Arta's misery is not out of any physical suffering which is nothing to him. But he feels miserable even at a moment's separation from God; and consequently grieves at this body which keeps him away from the Divine Union.

27. Prapatti also is therefore mentioned as divided into Arta and Dripta. However there aught to be the firm conviction that the way for the attainment of God is He Himself.

23. That which is known as Sadhya-bhakti (love as the end) is also a form of Prapatti. The anecdotes of the Bhagavata conveying this message are as follows.

29. A Prapanna (the one who seeks refuge) is like the Chataka bird, prapattavya (one who gives refuge) is like the pigeon. These functions of the protected and the protector are indicated by the characteristics of these birds their analogies.18

Notes 18 The Chataka bird in Indian poetry is supposed to live solely on raindrops ௮ at the end of summer the Chataka bird waits patiently and desperately for the monsoon to quench its unbearable thirst ௮ in the same way the prapanna desperately waits for Moksha. And God is like the pigeon of the story in the Srimad Bhagavatam. In a storm, a luckless and forlorn hunter took shelter under the tree in which the pigeon was living. After kindling a fire to warm the hunter he dropped himself into the fire in order to appease the hunter’s hunger.


सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य  माम्  एकं  शरणं व्रज

अहं   त्वा  सर्वपापेभ्यो  मोक्षयिष्यामि  मा शुचः 18.66

Explication: मा शुचः = mā śucaḥ = Do not grieve.

அறிவும் அனைத்து இலா அடியோமை அடைக்கலம் கொண்டு

உறவு என நின்றது எலாம் உறவே நின்ற தான் எமக்காய்

மறு பிரவித்-துயர் வாரா வகை மனம் கொண்டு அகலா

இறையவனின் அருளால் எங்கள் சோகம் தவிர்த்தனனே. (11)

The servitors lacking spiritual knowledge (the Yogas) are taken in for protection by Bhagavan. Relationship as it stands between Bhagavan and the jivatma is intact. The devotee is of the mind not to have the misery of rebirth. Because of Bhagavan's ever abiding irremovable Grace, our grief cease and become extinct.

1) Grief suffered by the servitor is on account of innate inability to perform the yogas to attain liberation. The Yogas take long to bear fruits. Bhagavan removes that impediment, dispenses with the yogas and institutes Prapatti (self-surrender) for the benefit of the feckless servitors.

2) Completion of Prapatti as Upayam, puts the burden of protection on Bhagavan Himself. Bhagavan being what He is, would not let down His servitors.

3) Yogas are for the privileged twice-borns thus making them impossible for other castes to practice them. Prapatti is the universal panacea for both the qualified and the unqualified (privileged and unprivileged) Bhaktas as the tool for liberation. All Jatis are welcome. The despondent Bhakta should leave aside his sorrow, join other Prapannans and practice Prapatti.

4) Prapatti is five-part Upayam for all to practice with ease, as opposed to Jnana, Karma, Bhakti...yogas.

5) Prapatti's ease of practice does not diminish its efficacy. The servitor can put himself at ease because Prapatti is backed by the full faith and guarantee of Bhagavan Himself. I (Bhagavan) am Siddhopayam; you can cast aside your sorrows, doubt and dither.

6) Any deficiency in Nitya and Naimitika Karmas done for Bhagavan's pleasure without expectation of fruits is excused and does not vitiate attainment of liberation.

7) pirāyaccittam.  Expiatory ceremony for past sins. Do not worry over infractions and sins during Prapatti. Bhagavan forgives them.

8) If one is Arta Prapatti Prapannan, he can attain Moksa prapatti immediately by the Grace of Bhagavan.

9) If one is a Dripta Prapatti Prapannan, all the merits stay in place between Prapatti and attainment; the infractions and papams after Prapatti will be expunged by the grace of Bhagavan. 

10) Do not entertain and grieve over the notion that you will be born again from karmic action following Prapatti even when you are a Dripta Prapatti Prapannan.

11) Kaivalyam is not in your cards; liberation and entry into Vaikuntam are guaranteed after completion of Prapatti.