Bhagavad-Gita: 18 Chapters in Sanskrit


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Tantric Principles

"When we think we know we cease to learn."

--Dr. Radhakrishnan

The Principal Upaniṣads page 529 Taittiriya Upaniṣad. By Dr. Radhakrishnan. December 10, 2013

Patañjali (second century BCE ) in his Mahābhāṣya (Kielhorn's ed., p. 6) says there are four steps or stages through which knowledge becomes fruitful. The first is when we acquire it from the teacher, the second when we study it, the third when we teach it to others and the fourth when we apply it. Real knowledge arises only when these four stages are fulfilled.

"Further the Tantras are concerned with Science, Law, Medicine and a variety of subjects other than spiritual doctrine or worship. Thus Indian chemistry and medicine are largely indebted to the Tantrikas. The main subjects of Tantra are Mantra and Sadhana in all its forms. It is also the chief repository of Yoga  practice, and its general range of subject, as hereafter mentioned, is encyclopaedic."  --Woodroffe.

Tantra = (Tan + Tra) = (spread + save) = Spread to save = Spread the knowledge (Jnana) that saves.

Knowledge is to know. Knowledge: acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study or investigation; general erudition: knowledge of many things. --Random House Dictionary. 

Knowledge (Prama) has four constituents: Pramāt, Prameya, Pramiti, and Pramāa (subject, object, the resulting state of cognition, and the means of knowledge. --Dr. Radhakrishnan.

The means to Prama (knowledge) are  Pratyaksha, Anumana and Upamana (Perception, Inference, and Analogy).    

Prama is knowledge; Pramana is the means to acquire knowledge; Prameya is an object of certain knowledge. Pramana leads to right apprehension of an object and helps us test the validity of knowledge. The seers and sages used these tools to establish the existence of God beyond doubt.

Pramana  (means) according to Vedanta.

1) Pratyaksha 2) Anumâna 3) Upamâna 4) Sabda or âpta Vacana 5) An-upalabdhi or Abhâva-Pratyaksha 6) Arthâpatti
1) Perception by the senses 2) Inference 3) Analogy 4) Verbal authority or revelation (Agamas) 5) Negative proof 6) Inference from circumstances.
(Schools below)       Teacher Bhatta Prabhakara
Carvaka not accepted not accepted not accepted not accepted not accepted
Buddhist Buddhist not accepted not accepted not accepted not accepted
Vaishesika Vaishesika not accepted not accepted not accepted not accepted
Samkhya Samkhya Samkhya not accepted not accepted not accepted
Dvaita Dvaita not accepted Dvaita not accepted not accepted
Vishistadvaita Vishistadvaita not accepted Vishistadvaita not accepted not accepted
Nyaya Nyaya Nyaya Nyaya not accepted not accepted
Purvamimamsa Purvamimamsa Purvamimamsa Purvamimamsa not accepted Purvamimamsa
Advaita Advaita Advaita Advaita Advaita Advaita
Prabhakaras Prabhakaras Prabhakaras Prabhakaras not accepted Prabhakaras
Bhattas Bhattas Bhattas Bhattas Bhattas not accepted

As you see, all schools accept Pratyaksha (perception by the senses).

In the Purvamimamsa tradition, the teacher Prabhakara accepts the above four pramanas and adds postulation (arthapatti).

The teacher Bhatta accepts a sixth pramana called non-cognition (anupalabdhi).

Carvaka (materialist School) accepts Pratyaksha (Perception) as the sole source of knowledge.

Buddhist and Vaishesika Schools accept two Pramanas: Perception and Inference.

Vishistadvaita School accepts three Pramanas: Perception, Inference and Verbal Authority (Sruti and Smrti Texts).

Dvaita School accepts three Pramanas: Perception, Inference and Verbal Authority (Sruti and Smrti Texts).

 Samkhya accepts the first three: PerceptionInference Analogy (and Sabda--Testimony).

NyAya accepts the first four as the means (PerceptionInference Analogy, Verbal authority or revelation (Agamas).

Advaita School accepts all six Pramanas from stance of empirical reality (Vyavahare bhattanayah).

Other schools add Sambhava, equivalence; atihya, traditional or fallible testimony; and ceshta, gesture (body language).

The Vaisheshika School does not recognize Upamana-Analogy and Sabda-verbal Authority as ways of acquiring knowledge like the Nyaya School.

ANUMANA: Acharya of Kanchi says: How are we to know the Paramatman (God)? He alone is not known. It is to know Him that we must employ anumana, the method of inference. To know the rest "pratyaksa pramanas" or direct sources of knowledge are sufficient.  Knowing an object on the basis of another known object is anumana (inference). When we hear the roar of the thunder we know, by inference, that there are clouds [that the sky is overcast]--Kanchi Acharya.

Tamil Saiva Siddhanta texts explicate Pramanam (Means) as follows.

பிரமாணம் = Pramanam  (Log.) Means of acquiring certain knowledge, being six, viz., 1) pirattiyaṭcam, 2) aṉumāṉam, 3) ākamam, 4) uvamāṉam, 5) aruttāpatti, 6) apāvampirattiyaṭcam,  Additional ones: 7) aṉupalatti, 8) campavam, 9) aitikamS,10) subhāva Pramānam


1)   பிரத்தியட்சம் = Pratyaka = Direct perception; 2) அனுமானம் = Anumana = Inference;

3) ஆகமம் = Agama = Sacred Texts; 4) உவமானம் = Upamana = Analogy;

5) அருத்தாபத்தி = Special Quality = Inference from Circumstances = (presumption,

Belief on probable grounds, Special Quality); 6)  அபாவம் = Abhāva Non-existence;

7) அனுபலத்தி = anupalaththi Indirect evidence; 8) சம்பவம் = Sambhava = Probability evidence;

9) ஐதிகம் = Aithikam Tradition; 10) சுபாவ பிரமாணம் = Svabhāva Piramānam = Nature. Madras University Lexicon.


Thus Pramana or the means of acquiring knowledge is six-fold: 1) Direct Perception, 2) Inference, 3) Sacred Texts, 4) Analogy, 5) Inference from circumstances, 6) Non-existence.

Others are 7) Indirect Knowledge, 8) Probability evidence, 9) Tradition, 10) Nature.

பிரமாணம் = Pramana = அளவை = Means of acquiring knowledge.
Pratiyaksha Pramana1 : காண்டல் அளவை = Kandal Alavai = pratiyaksha Pramanam in Sanskrit = It is direct perception of an object with eyes and the five senses.
Anumana Pramana2 : கருதல் அளவை= Karuthal Alavai = AnumAna Pramanam in Sanskrit = Inference. Though you may not observe an object directly, studying another object invariably associated with the first object and confirming the validity of the first object is Inference. Smoke's invariable association with fire is AvinAbhAva in Sanskrit: necessary connection of one thing with another, inherent and essential nature. AvinAbhAva = அவிநா பாவம். Seeing the rising smoke at a distance, though the fire is not visible for the eyes, knowing that there is fire where the smoke is.
Agama Pramana3: உரைஅளவை. synonyms = ஆகம பிரமாணம். சத்தப் பிரமாணம், ஆப்தவாக்கியம் = Agama Pramanam, Sabda Pramanam, Apta Vakkiyam. Sacred Texts: It is the perception of an object or principle through the authority of Sacred Texts, which are revealed knowledge from God. This includes the sacred texts composed by the true devotees of God.
UpamAna Pramana4 ஒப்பு = உவமை = உவமானம் = UpamAnam in Sanskrit = Analogy. When asked what a feral cow looks like by a person who has not seen a feral cow, telling that the feral cow looks like a domestic cow is analogy.
Aruttapatti Pramana5: அருத்தாபத்தி = பொருள் = Arthapatti in Sanskrit = inference from circumstances , a disjunctive hypothetical syllogism. Example: Let us assume that a person is fasting. He is surrounded by observant people in the daytime, who have not seen him eating food. After 2 weeks, his body has not lost weight. That is knowing that the day-fasting person eats at night.
Abhava Pramana6: இன்மை = absence = அபாவம். Non-existence. AbhAva is the Sanskrit word for it. Absence is the opposite of presence and thus a means of knowledge. The statement that the rabbit does not have a horn is the knowledge of negativity to apprehend to an object.
Some commentators add four more criteria to this list.
1: Paroksha Pramana7 = ஒழிபு = பாரிசேட அளவை = Indirect Knowledge as opposed to Pratyaksha, which is direct knowledge. Example: There were only four strong men of elephantine strength in the nation (Salliyan, SarAsanthan, Kisakan, and Bhima: For ease let us call them A B C D. C was killed by an unknown person at a particular place in the nation. The known A and B were not there at that time. It is thus the conclusion that D killed C.
2. Sambhava Pramana8 = சம்பவ பிரமாணம் = உண்மை = Probability evidence. Example: A man admits that he owns 100 gold pieces; it is reasonable to assume that he has 50 gold pieces. Fifty subsides in 100. That is Sambhava Pramana.
3. Aithikam9  = ஐதிகம் = Tradition. For generations, people say that a particular tree or house is the abode of spirits. For generations, it is said Chianciano Spa cures hepatic, biliary and bronchial conditions. That is tradition.
4. SubhAva Pramanam10 = சுபாவ பிரமாணம் = இயல்பு = Nature. Tree is by its nature a tree and nothing else.

Though there are ten Pramanas, they all subside in direct perception1.  Analogy4  and Sacred Texts3. Negative proof6 and Nature10 subside in Direct perception1.  Inference5, Analogy4, Indirect Knowledge7, and probability evidence8 subside in inference5.  tradition9 subsides in Agamas3.

"Sabda-pramana" is verbal testimony, the pronouncements of the Vedas (Sacred Texts) and the words of great men. When the scriptures speak of things that we do not know or understand, their words must be accepted as authority. The Naiyayikas, or exponents of Nyaya, believe that the Vedas are the words of Isvara. The words of great men who are wedded to truth are also verbal testimony. --Kanchi Acharya.

Pratyaksa or perception in the sensual world is a sure-fire way of sensing and acquiring knowledge. "Perception cannot arise unless there is conjunction of self with mind.  Knowledge is a mark of the self. The cause of perception is contact of the sense-organ and the object."--Nyaya Sutras 2.1.22-23-25  Sense-knowledge is a certain acquisition but expressing what one feels in words may be a problem. Some sense-knowledge may be inexpressible. There two kinds of Perceptions: Indeterminate (nirvikalpa) and Determinate (savikalpa).  In Indeterminate Perception it is simple uncritical apprehension, the basis for future knowledge of the object; in the Determinate perception, we acquire the knowledge of  the genus of the perceived object and the specific qualities which distinguish it from other members of the class and the union between the two (Radhakrishnan). In determinate perception, an object's detailed characteristics are noted. Physical stimuli that an object emanates and impinge on the senses by way of its size, color, heat, odor, taste, etc constitute the determinate Perception. It is a subject and object contact by the senses (of the subject). (This includes seeing, tasting, hearing and physical contact.) The stimulus may be a single kind of stimulus or it could be multiple disparate stimuli as in combination of sound, seeing and vibration coming from one source or multiple sources at the same time. The perceptions could be Ordinary (laukika) and Extraordinary (alaukika). The Ordinary dichotomizes into Internal (manasa) and External (bahya) Perceptions.  Internal Perceptions happen in the Cognizing Mind which is subject to dualities such as pain and pleasure, like and dislike and mental modifications. Activity of the Mind is independent of the activities of the senses which gather the stimuli. The Mind or Manas is the Central Processing Agent, Modulator and Coordinator. The ultimate purveyor of all stimuli and the mind is the self. The External Perceptions are the sensory perceptions generated by direct contact by the organs of smell, taste, sight, touch and sound which are associated with earth, water, fire, air and ether.

Elements acquire solidity from Ether to Earth.

→  →  →  →  →  →  →  → →  →  →  → →  →  →  →  →  →  →  →  →  →  →  →   →  →  →  →  →  →  →  → 

from                         ethereal,                  gaseous,                   igneous,                      liquid, and                 solid states of matter.

Elements Ether Air Fire Water Earth
Qualities Sound Sound Sound Sound Sound
Qualities   Touch Touch Touch Touch
Qualities     Form Form Form
Qualities       Taste Taste

With Ether there is propagation of sound; with Air, there is propagation of sound and apprehension of touch; with fire, there is apprehension of sound, touch and form; Water is associated with sound, touch, form and taste; Earth is associated with sound, touch, form and taste. What all this means is there is augmentation of qualities from Ether to Air to Fire to Water to Earth--from ethereal, gaseous, igneous, liquid, and solid states of matter.

Nyaya Sutras say that the Senses are products of Elements. Thus nose, tongue, eye, skin and ear are products of earth, water, light, air, and ether. Smell, taste, color, touch, and sound are the objects of senses and qualities of earth, water, light, air, and ether.

The explanation is as follows. The special quality (ies) of each element is (are) highlighted. The heavier Earth has five qualities (Gunas): form, flavor, smell, fire (temperature), and sound. Earth's special quality is smell. Water has the qualities of  flavor, sound, touch and form. Fire has the qualities of sound, touch and form. Air has the qualities of sound and touch (as it grazes your skin). Ether has one quality, that of sound; Air is an evolute of Ether and has one additional quality Touch; Fire is an evolute of Air (It dies if not for air) and has three qualities, those of air and its own special quality, form. Water is an evolute of Fire and has all the qualities of Fire (If you take fire or heat off from the water, it  becomes ice.) and a special quality, Flavor. Earth is an evolute of water (think of minerals in water forming earth, remember stalagmites and stalactites forming from dripping water in Luray Caverns) has all the qualities of all preceding elements and a special quality, smell


Extraordinary Perceptions are three: Perception of Classes (samanya laksana), Complicated Perception (jnana laksana), Yogic Perception (yogaja) = (Classes, Association and Intuition)

Perception of Classes (samanya laksana). As you walk along the sidewalks of a city, you see multitudes of people. They may look different in many ways. And yet you without a second thought know that you are among people. That means you are looking at their personhood as one common denominator and nothing else. You are looking at the essence of one class of beings. That is perception of classes.

Complicated Perception (Jnanalakshana = Cognition sign) involves association with previously acquired knowledge. You may call it Unified Multivariate Associative Perception (UMAP)--I coined the phrase to incorporate most of its features.  This perception involves Synesthesia. When one sees a rose at a distance, one says he sees a fragrant rose. Here the visual perception of the rose evokes past memory of its fragrance, perceived in the past by the faculty of smell and nose. The perception brought back the memory of fragrance through the Jnana (cognition) of the object from the past. This time around it is Re-cognition.  Other examples are:  "Ice looks cold, Sandalwood looks fragrant, The fire looks hot, The orange looks sweet, The grass looks soft." When you look at the ice cream cone, you see its color, you know it is chocolate, it is sweet, it has an aroma  and without you even realizing it your mouth waters.  The lustrous shell and the silver are two separate objects and real in substance and cognition. The shell and Silver are separated in space and yet when you see the white shell, you are reminded of silver. When you see Washington Monument, you think of President Washington and his other particulars.

syn·es·the·sia n.

a sensation produced in one modality when a stimulus is applied to another modality, as when the hearing of a certain sound induces the visualization of a certain color.

The practitioners of Kundalini Yoga, during Yogic Kundalini sessions, see Sanskrit letters in colors. That is Synesthesia;  the person is Synesthete.

Yogic Perception (yogaja) is experienced by accomplished Yogis. There is no direct sense-object contact and yet the Yogi experiences an object. The mind is the perceiver because it attained purity by Yogic practice. This mental perception consists of true tele-vision (perceiving objects far away in space out of direct sight),  happenings in the future and things infinitesimally small.

Since senses are subject to vitiation such as Bhrama (illusion, confusion, perplexity), Pramada (negligence, carelessness), Vipralipsa (deception), Karanapatava (misleading senses), one should take refuge in revealed knowledge as dependable evidence.  If Pratyaksha Pramana (Direct perception) run counter to the sacred texts, it should be abandoned.

Mirage is Bhrama, whereby senses are subject to illusion and perceive what is not there; Prakrti-born senses cannot evaluate and measure Isvara (God) and His acts and so advance false knowledge by Pramada and Vipralipsa; Our senses are deficient  (Karanapatava) to comprehend the transcendental.

The great teaching of the Vedanta by itself and without accompanying Sadhana (Spiritual accomplishment) can achieve nothing of real worth. Its study may produce a Pundit. But to the Sadhaka (the accomplished one) the disputations of Pundits, whether philosophical or scientific, is like “the cawing of the crows.” There is both reason and humor in the Hindu saying that a logician (without Sadhana) will be reborn a jackass. 

Any logician can clearly establish any subject matter using arguments, but someone more expert in argument can easily refute him. You use logic to establish one siddhanta today, but a more intelligent and qualified logician will be able to refute it tomorrow, so why should you rely on logic? -Saying by Babaji in Jaiva Dharma.

siddhanta  = Well-established conclusion, settled opinion or doctrine, received or admitted truth

The message is that the Sastras (sacred texts) are open for exegesis, though exegete (exegetist) of today is tomorrow's defeatist.

The Tantra claims to be practical pratyaksa Sastra in that it affords the direct proof of experience. Woodroffe, Page 79-80 Principles of Tantra.

The following is from Sivagnana Siddhiar.

Within the ambit of Peculiar and General quality fall all objects apprehended by Nirvikalpa and Savikalpa Perception (நிருவிகற்பக் காட்சி and  சவிகற்பக்காட்சி)

General Quality is remaining separate from the Nature of another genus and simultaneously abide in the nature of one's own genus. Objects subjected to Means of Perception subside within these two Natures.

Objects are apprehended by two modes.

General Quality (பொதுஇயல்பு). Synonyms: Indeterminate Perception. It is that quality which is removed from a different genus and simultaneously concurs with that of the same genus. (General Quality is remaining separate from the Nature of another genus and simultaneously abide in the nature of one's own genus. Objects subjected to Means of Perception subside within these two Natures.)  This parallels with நிருவிகற்பக் காட்சி. = Nirvikalpa Perception.   General perception of an object by the five senses. Here, there is no doubt or confusion as to the identity of an object. When you see a rope and a snake, you don't mistake one for the other. You know in uncertain terms one from the other. This is also called Sense Perception (Indriya katchi = இந்திரியக்காட்சி = Sense perception.

Peculiar Quality (தன்னியல்பு) is remaining with its own special Nature, separate from the Nature of one's own genus and that of another genus. General Quality is remaining separate from the Nature of another genus and simultaneously abide in the nature of one's own genus. Objects subjected to Means of Perception subside within these two Natures. Peculiar Quality is that quality which is removed from that of a different genus and from that of the same genus and which sports one's own special nature. This runs parallel with Savikarpa Perception. சவிகற்பக்காட்சி =  Knowledge of an object as to its genus, qualities, function etc.  This is more in-depth knowledge of an object.

Explanation of these terms and other perspectives

Perception moves from the sense organs to the mind in the apprehension of General and Peculiar qualities, from indeterminate to determinate, from preliminary to specific, from Nirvikalpam to Savikalpam. Higher need is moving the perception to the soul. This is Intellectual perception, which is apprehension by what is called Antakarna or Inner organ, consisting of Buddhi, Ego, Mind and Chitta. Going beyond General and Peculiar qualities or perception is Intellectual Perception (மானதக்காட்சி).  In the West, Mind and Egoism are well discussed, explored and understood; Buddhi and Chitta are poorly understood.

For successful meditation you need a fully functional "Inner Organ' made of Mind, Buddhi, Ego and Chitta. Find out what they mean. Mind is a mechanical meditator; Buddhi is a fickle meditator; Chitta is a serene meditator. Buddhi and Chitta have no equivalent terms in English. Put them all together you got a successful meditator with the soul being the top of the heap or the center.

The following meanings of the words are close approximations. The Inner Organ (Antahkarana = அந்தக்கரணம்) is made of four entities as follows.

Buddhi = புத்தி = Intellect. Reason, power of discernment or judgment

Ahamkaram = அகங்காரம் = Egoism

Manas = மனம் = Mind

Chitta = சித்தம் = Determinative Faculty



Constituent parts of Inner Organ (antakkaraṇam = अन्तःकरण ) December 22, 2014


Entity definition (Tamil Lexicon) commonly known as Sivaya Subramuniya Swamy Hawaii
மனம் Reasoning faculty. Lower mind Instinctive mind

Reason, power of discernment or judgment

Higher mind Intellectual mind
சித்தம் Determinative faculty Individual consciousness Consciousness
அகங்காரம் Self-love, egotism Ego Ego or I-maker

Sense organs project their image on Manas, the mind. This is called இந்திரியக்காட்சி (Indriya-kAtchi = Seeing or perception through sense organs). The first perception (the first look) is not complete and not determinate; it is  நிருவிகற்பக்காட்சி (Indeterminate perception). ArAgam (அராகம் = Rāga is desire) and Buddhi Tattva make it possible for Nivikalpa Indeterminate Perception or knowledge to become SavikalpakKatchi (சவிகற்பக்காட்சி = Determinate Perception or Knowledge). It means that the knowledge is complete and determinate. Indeterminate becomes Determinate perception; the latter becomes an experiential knowledge, when impacted with desire and Buddhi ( தன்வேதனைக்காட்சி (Tanvetanaik-Katchi). In this state, the sense knowledge is subjected to psyche's desire, and Buddhi (Intuitive intellect).  Experiential knowledge (தன்வேதனைக்காட்சி) is internal experience of love, hate, pain, pleasure... brought about by Rāga or Desire and experienced by soul's intellect after the sensory input goes through Indeterminate and determinate perceptions.

Indeterminate knowledge→Determinate Knowledge→Experiential Knowledge.

You see a form behind a diaphanous screen; you don't know whether it is a male, a female, or a statue. That is Indeterminate knowledge. The form moves and comes in view before you. You apprehend the form as a woman; that is determinate knowledge. The figure is a statuesque, living breathing young woman and induces positive feelings and love at first sight; her demeanor is bewitching; the juices start flowing in you ; the sensitized pheromonal receptors are heightened; the adrenaline rush is palpable and causes palpitation; you without your awareness develop a physical response to her; she kindles your desire; Buddhi gives a thorough look-see; you are melting in the heat of passion; you desire for union; that is Experiential perception or knowledge. This is the physical side of human response.

Sexual practice is the coming together of oppositional and yet complementary forces for mutual benefit, satisfaction, and progeny and constitutes a framework for Yogic union of the individual consciousness with the Universal Consciousness. This is the ascent from the phenomenal to the noumenal. It is the ascent from the biological bliss to spiritual Bliss (Ananda). It is transformation from momentary physical bliss to sustained spiritual bliss. The difference is the state between pleasure and Ecstasy, a huge chasm separating the two.

People have much less experience with spiritual side of human response. Consider the Yogi or a saint meditating on God. After many years of meditation, God comes into Yogi's consciousness; the Yogi sees his God; he experiences Him. You hear of ecstasy in seers and sages, when they meditate on God. That spiritual ecstasy is compared to sexual bliss in Tantric texts. Sexual bliss is difficult to express in words; so also is Spiritual bliss, but it is much more intense, when the Yogi experiences what is called Turiya and Turiyatita, the 4th and 5th state of  human consciousness (the other three are wakefulness, dream sleep and deep sleep). This is the ultimate human experience in this phenomenal world. One sage says that he felt the ecstasy in every pore of his body, when he experienced God. Each pore is a pilosebacious unit with a hair emerging from its depth. Just imagine the Yogi experiencing Ecstasy in every pore in his body. pilosebacious = pilo-sebacious = hair + fatty secretion of sebaceous gland. Pilosebacious unit expels sweat and sebum to cool and lubricate our skin.

Experiential knowledge = Self-perception of pleasure and pain brought about by arāka-tattuvam (அராக தத்துவம் = Desire).

Direct Perception = Pratyaksha Pramana (= காண்டல் அளவை = KAnadal Alavai) is the knowledge gained by direct perception of an object by the senses. The first impression is the general appearance or occurrence and is called Nirvikalpa Pratyyaksha (நிருவிகற்பக் காட்சி), Indeterminate perception. Vikalpam = difference. Nirvikalpam = undifferentiated or indeterminate. The next perception in sequence is Savikalpa Pratyyaksha (சவிகற்பக்காட்சி). Savikalpam is knowledge that comes with perception associated with appreciation of difference. One comes to know how an object is different from the rest. It is a definite identification of the object and its true nature. Savikalpa Partyyaksha is knowledge that is not tainted with doubt, confusion, and erroneous apprehension (திரிபு). Savikalpa Patyaksha is knowledge devoid of stain.  Apply all these parameters towards apprehension of God and the eventual experience of God and the resultant ecstasy. It is the soul or the self that experiences the ecstasy.

Soul is the king; Buddhi is the prime minister; Ahamkara, Manas, and Chitta are cabinet members. The sense organs are limited in the sense that each has a specific function. But God or Siva Sakti has no such limitation.  Based on the Soul as the centerpiece, these four entities surround it as its servants.

In the diagram below, you will notice that the Soul occupies the center; Mind, Ego, and Intellect serve Chitta or Determinative Faculty, which serves the Soul.

In the diagram above, you will notice that the Soul occupies the center; Mind, Ego, and Intellect serve Chitta or Determinative Faculty, which serves the central Soul.  Sense organs report to the Mind, which submits the mental impressions to Ego, which analyses them from selfish point of view of the experiencer and forwards ego-colored impressions to Buddhi (Intellect).

Manas = Mind. Buddhi = Intellect. Chitta = Citta = Determinative faculty.

Buddhi is the light and the terrestrial and the corporeal descendant of Cosmic Mahat; Without Buddhi's light, the sensory images and experiences captured by the mind cannot be seen or felt. Ahamkara or Ego makes the images and experiences one's own. The experience becomes integral with the constitution of the experiencer. It is like monogramming one's shirt so he knows it is his shirt. Once this is done, Buddhi sheds its light on personalized images and experiences. Manas is the book itself, a book of images, remaining in the dark and incapable of reading what is in the book; Ego says it is my monogrammed book; Buddhi says I can read and understand the book. Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16.    As you see, Mahat/Buddhi is the progenitor of Ego, which is the progenitor of the mind. The descendants are less facile but grosser than the predecessor. Buddhi is the Charioteer; mind is the reins; the senses are the horses.  Usually, Sattva Guna is dominant in Buddhi; Rajas in Ahamkara; Tamas in Mind, Indriyas (senses) and their objects. Sattva = virtue, goodness; Rajas = motion and passion; Tamas = darkness, lethargy.

When Buddhi is churning, you call the function Buddhi-Vritti. Same is true of Manas-Vritti and Chitta-Virrti. Manas-Vritti, Buddhi-Vritti and Chitta-Virrti are controlled by a three-way switch, a case of reciprocal inhibition; only one switch is operative at a time. When Manas is churning, Buddhi and Chitta stop churning. Manas is a gatherer of information; Buddhi is a sifter, a sorter, an analyzer, a collator, and a processor of knowledge. It is like gathering intell (intelligence) by Manas, the field agents, and the analyzer of 'intell' is the Buddhi. Buddhi is light, intelligence, reason, power of discernment or judgment. Its intrinsic memory is evanescent (has only short-term memory like RAM.). Antahkarana is the inner organ or the repository of Manas, Ego, Buddhi and Chitta. Chitta is a shuttle that moves knowledge back and forth from the front burner of consciousness or Buddhi to back burner and vice versa. When knowledge shuttles via the shuttle-express (Chitta) to the front of consciousness, you call it Smrti or remembrance; when knowledge is put in storage and not remembered, it is called Apohana (loss or forgetting); but it is available upon demand. Impressions; analytical interpretation; and storage and recall are the respective functions of Manas, Buddhi and Chitta, which work like gears in the car; when one gear is on, the other two gears are disabled. Ego or Ahamkaram is the 'I-doer', which looks at its own important self from the self of others and the world and is a mediator between the id and the world of objects and beings.

Vritti or vrtti in this context is churning of the mind, Buddhi and Chitta, meaning they are engaged in their respective activities. Yoga is to turn off this churning of the restless entities, so that he can abide in his self (svarupa) with ablation of mind, Ego and Buddhi and subside in Tranquil Chitta-Atma. Only Chitta communes with the effulgent Soul.

Mind, Buddhi, and Chitta are one entity with three different functions and so named individually based on its function at that moment in time; Chitta is hierarchically the most superior element of the three and has the privilege of communicating with the Self or the Soul which occupies the center of a human being (and the diagram). When Chitta communes with the Soul, Mind, Ego and Buddhi vanish (autolysis); peace and quiet prevail; communion with the Soul is effective.

Soul, the King presides over, directs, and benefits from Mind, Buddhi, Ego and Chitta. When they all go to battle for the king, they all die with Chitta merging with the Soul. What it means is mind the mechanical meditator, Buddhi the fickle meditator and Ego the I-maker have to die for the Chittam to meditate and find oneness with the soul. Manas-Nasa = destruction of mind; Buddhi-Nasa = destruction of Buddhi; Ahamkara-Nasa = destruction of Ahankara. When there is destruction of ego, mind, and intellect, there is tranquility, there is no egotistical 'I' factor, there is no propagation of  thought waves from the mind, and there is no intellection giving rise to extraneous concepts and notions. Under theses circumstances there is only one EGO, that of God (Universal Ego). An aspirant can approach God only when his ego is destroyed. Your ego is no match to God's EGO. You say, 'You Go' to your ego before you face God. Under these ideal conditions, Chittam can go to work and meditate on the Indivisible Oneness and merge with it.

It is indicated that Inner Organ is endowed with functional polymorphism, the constituent names based on their functions. When it emotes (Manasa-Vrtti) it is called Manas or mind; when it thinks (Buddhi-Vrrti) it Buddhi; When it is in memory mode (Chitta Vrrti), it is Chittam. Thus Manas-Buddhi-Ahamkara-Chitta is one entity with multiple functions. Each function in the active mode inhibits the other functions.

Let me give you an example: A father is a son, husband, uncle, father-in-law, grandfather, friend.... He is one and at the same time his functions are many, separate, specific and unalterable depending on his designation at that moment in time. He cannot mix the roles. Example: His function as a husband/lover inhibits his other functions at that moment in time: reciprocal inhibition.

Woodroffe in Serpent Power, page 56, 65, 66

Shortly, the subtle body may be described as the  Mental Body, as that which succeeds is called the gross  body of Matter. Mind is abstractedly considered by itself,  that is, as dissociated from Consciousness which is never  the case, an unconscious force which breaks up into particulars  the Experience-Whole which is Cit. It is called  the "working within" or "internal instrument" (Antah-Karaṇa), and is one only, but is given different names to  denote the diversity of its functions. 2 The Samkhya thus  speaks of Buddhi, Ahamkara, Manas, to which the Vedanta  adds Citta, being different aspects or attributes (Dharma)  of Mind as displayed in the psychical processes by which  the Jīva knows, feels and wills.

The subtle body is thus composed of what are called  the "17," viz., Buddhi (in which Ahaṁkāra is included),  Manas, the ten senses (Indriya), and the five Tanmatras. The Jīva lives in his subtle or mental body alone when  in the dreaming (Svapna) state. For the outside world of objects (Mahabhuta) is then shut out and the consciousness  wanders in the world of ideas. The subtle body or soul is imperishable until Liberation is attained, when the  Jīvātmā or seemingly conditioned consciousness ceases to be such and is the Supreme Consciousness or Parāmatma, Nirguṇa Śiva. The subtle body thus survives the  dissolution of the gross body of matter, from which it goes  forth (Utkramaṇa), and "reincarnates" l (to use an English  term) until Liberation (Mukti). The Liṅga Śarīra is not  all-pervading (Vibhu), for in that case it would be eternal  (Nitya) and could not act (Kriyā). But it moves and goes  (Gati). Since it is not Vibhu, it must be limited (Paricchinna) and of atomic dimension (Anuparimāṇa). It is  indirectly dependent on food. For though the material  body is the food-body (Annamaya    ), Mind is dependent on it  when associated with the gross body. Mind in the subtle  body bears the Saṁskāras which are the result of past  actions. This subtle body is the cause of the third or  gross body.

Soul's intellect, when at work, goes after the objects. It uses the five sensory organs like the eyes. Its perception is based on and limited by the organs. Indriya KAtchi (Sense Perception) perceives without the stain of doubt and erroneous apprehension the object's general quality without knowing its name and genus. This is known as sense-knowledge. The first knowledge engendered by and associated with the five sense-organs takes a foothold in Chitta (Determinative Faculty) and remains in memory; later Buddhi (Intuitive Intellect) assigns a name, genus and such attributes to the object and thus establishes a clear comprehension of the object. This is known as MAnatha KAtchi (Intellectual Perception), மானதக்காட்சி, Intellectual perception by the soul through the functioning of the intellect. 

External Sense Organs: They are the eyes, the nose, the tongue, the ears and the skin, which serve to collect disparate sensations from the outer world. They are outside of the Inner Organ.

Mind = मनस् = Manas = மனம். Mind is also called Lower mind. Mind is made of thoughts when it is active (Manas-Vritti). Mind captures the images and sensory impressions from the sense organs, which perceive the external world. There is a continuous assault of the external world on the mind during waking hours. That creates thought waves in the mind lake. In dream sleep, mind is active though there is no contact with the external world. These are thought bubbles in the form of audiovisual presentation rising from the subconscious mind. Mind suffers from  five afflictions. Five Klesas: avidya1 (ignorance), asmita2 (egoism), raga3 (desire), abhinivesa4 (tenacity of mundane existence) and dvesha5 (aversion). These entities arise in a cascade fashion starting from Ignorance giving rise to Egoism and so on.  Avidya is not knowing that we take the non-eternal as the Eternal,  Impure as pure, pain as pleasure, desire sprouting from egoism and aversion as real, and not identifying oneself with the Soul. Now you know why the mind has to die so that the soul has no impediments and thus can merge with the Universal Consciousness (God).

Buddhi: बुद्धि = புத்தி. Thinking Principle, Reason, power of discernment or judgment, rational faculty, decision maker, director of Manas or mind, one of the four species of antakarana. Antakarana = அந்தக்கரணம் = Inner seat of thought, feeling, and volition, consisting of four aspects: புத்தி, அகங்காரம், மனம்,  சித்தம், (Buddhi or Intellect, Egoism , Mind, Determinative Faculty. உட்கருவி = utkaruvu = Inner Organ = Antakarana = அந்தக்கரணம். Buddhi is also called Higher Mind. Buddhi has filters: Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas (Virtue and goodness-its color is white; Motion and passion - its color is red; Darkness and sluggishness - its color is black. Buddhi is the faculty that determines the course of action, when one is faced with a contingency: trivial, ordinary, extraordinary, or life-threatening. When Buddhi is churning, you call the function Buddhi-Vritti. Same is true of Manas-Vritti. Manas-Vritti, Buddhi-Vritti and Chitta-Virrti are controlled by a three-way switch, a case of reciprocal inhibition; only one switch is operative at a time. It is like the gears in the car; we use only one gear at a time. Ego hums in the background and goes silent with others when Chitta is active. When Manas is churning, Buddhi and Chitta stop churning. Manas is a gatherer of information; Buddhi is a sifter, a sorter, an analyzer, a collator, and a processor of knowledge. It is like gathering intell (intelligence) by Manas, the field agents, and the analyzer of 'intell' is the Buddhi.

Ego: अहंकार  = அகங்காரம் = Ahamkaram. It is the I-doer or I-maker. Whatever images or experiences that the mind gathers, Ego puts its ownership stamp or draws a watermark on each one of them, so they become personalized and integrated with psychic constitution of the person. It is all about I, Me, Mine, and Mineness. It is generally possessive and selfish. Ahamkara identifies itself with the body as if it is one's own self; it mistakes the body for the self or soul. Body awareness eclipses, sacrifices and destroys soul awareness. One can quell the ego or modify it. Ahamkara also has three filters: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. One can quell Rajas and Tamas as Yogis do and exhibit Sattvika Ahamkara. Manas sends its impressions through Ahamkara and its filters to Buddhi, which is the penultimate arbitrator. But Chitta supersedes Buddhi and the Soul reigns Supreme.

Chittam (= சித்தம் = चित्त ): Citta in Sanskrit. Chittam is a chronicler and repository of mental impressions and experiences. It is said to be a seat of consciousness, sub-consciousness and superconsciousness. Since there is no equivalent word in English, Chittam is variously called Consciousness, Soul, Memory Bank, Contemplative faculty, Inner man, Repository of Experiences, Storehouse of Vasanas, Samskaras and Gunas. One source tells when Sattva, Rajas and Tamas (Virtue, Motion and passion, and darkness) are in equilibrium, it is Chittam; when they are in disequilibrium it is Buddhi. Chittam is the corporeal equivalent (what is in our living body) of Cosmic Witness. Vasana means fragrance, that clings to the clothes; Vasanas are the impression of anything remaining unconsciously in the mind, the present consciousness of past perceptions, and knowledge derived from memory. It is the fragrance left from the past life that clings on to our psyche in this birth. Samskaras are impression on the mind of acts done in a former existence. At the present, we are made of Vasanas and Samskaras meaning that our present life and behavior are a continuum from the past life remaining true to our past-life behavior. Our body, mind, soul and psyche follow the script written by Vasanas and Samskaras. Consider your DNA inherited from your parents; likewise you inherit your Vasanas, Samskaras and Gunas (behavior) from your past life. In the dream sleep, Buddhi, Ego and Mind are in abeyance because there is no external world but Chittam is functional and draws images and experiences from its own memory bank; it is a subjective world; the senses do not perceive; the organs do not respond; Buddhi does not churn; that is dream. (Sleepwalking or somnambulism is a sign of CNS immaturity in children.)  If one experiences a dream that is not of this world, it is the memory from previous life ( Pūrva Janma Smaranam). Chittam is man in his essence. Chittam makes the Inner Man. It is said that one should keep one's Chittam squeaky clean. Chittam is the radiating light of the soul of man. Chittam is Sum of man. You are what Chittam is. When you see an apple, your Inner Organ (Chittam) has to morph itself to the shape, size, color, odor, taste... of an apple; then only you see an apple in its completeness. You see an apple; you (your Chittam) become an apple; you hear music, you become the music. All that happens in your Chittam. Chittam is the seat of deep contemplation (meditation). Whatever is contemplated in depth in Chittam, that it becomes; that a man becomes. Chittam becomes the repository of Sattva, Rajas and or Tamas in one mode or any of its combinations, one becoming more dominant than others. Chittam is a sage, a warrior, a killer.... If Chittam becomes the repository of malignant behavior such as murder, extreme greed etc, they leave a permanent imprint and never leave a person. Chittam is what makes a man a Buddha, a Jesus Christ, a Sankaracharya, a Lincoln, a Gandhi, a Hitler, a Madoff.... (Jan 18, 2009). Sattva (Virtue) is in the dominant mode in the first five people; Tamas or darkness is in the dominant mode in the last two persons. If you don't give in to the onslaught of distracting thoughts and keep Siva constantly in your Chittam, Sivam you become or Jesus you become in Christian tradition. Thence all your actions are His. Chittam is Sukshma Sarira or subtle body. 

Chittam is not listed as one of the Tattvas TATTVAS-36 along with Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16. It is said that Chittam is part of Prakrti Tattva13 .     Vedanta considers Anatahkarana as fourfold, while Sankhya and and Yoga Sastras consider it as threefold; Siddha Siddhanta, one of the Inner Religions in Saivism considers Antahkarana as  fivefold: Chaitanya (Higher Consciousness), Chitta, Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Manas.  There are deities who preside over these faculties: Vishnu-Achuta over Chitta; Brahman over Buddhi; Siva over Ahamkara; Moon over the Manas.

Tattvas: Siva1, Sakti2, Sadasiva 3, Isvara4, Sadvidya5, MayA6, Kala7, Niyati8, Kala9, Vidya10, Raga11, Purusa12 Prakrti Tattva13, Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16,  hearing--Ears17, touch--Skin18, vision and color--Eyes19 , tasting--Tongue or mouth20, smell--Nose21,  speech-Larynx22, grasp-Hands23, ambulation--Feet24, evacuation--Anus25, procreation-Genitals26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30 , odor31,  ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36.

Saiva Siddhantist says, soul is the ever-awake knowing entity in wakefulness, deep sleep and dream sleep. The sense organs receive their respective stimuli (eyes perceive color and form, ears receive sound.) and pass them on to Antahkarana, the inner organ which consists hierarchically of Chitta (consciousness), Buddhi (Intellect), Ahamkara (Ego), and Manas (the Mind) and Chitta supersedes Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Manas. Perception received by the inner organ reaches the soul, as the wave rolls to the shore.

Antahkarana is the expression of Saksin (Atman, Soul, Witness) and is compared to a ray which radiates from the Witness, God, Atman or Self. This emanation is called Vrttis or ripples. Perceptions are compared to the waves reaching the Self. Thus the waves travel to and from the Witness. Chitta (Chitta) is like the RAM memory, remembering and forgetting; The forgetting is called Apohana and recall is known as Smrti. Chitta obtains knowledge from Buddhi and keeps it in storage. Apohana or forgetting is to move the knowledge to the back burner from the front of consciousness. It is not really forgetting; it is in storage. Smrti or remembering or recollection is to move the knowledge from the back to the front. Thus Chitta is the shuttle moving memory from the forefront to the back and vice versa. In practical sense, Apohana is storage and Smrti is recollection.

More on Apohana and Smrti. Antahkarana is the inner organ or the repository of Manas, Buddhi and Chitta. Chitta is a shuttle and moves knowledge back and forth from the front burner of consciousness or Buddhi to back burner and vice versa. When knowledge shuttles via the shuttle-express (Chitta) to the front of consciousness, you call it Smrti or remembrance; when knowledge is put in storage and not remembered, it is called Apohana (loss or forgetting); but it is available upon demand. Impressions; analytical interpretation; and storage and recall are the respective functions of Manas, Buddhi and Chitta, which work like gears in the car; when one gear is on, the other two gears are disabled.

The Buddhi is less subtle than Chitta, makes decisions and instructs the Mind which works in collaboration with the five Janendriyas (sense organs = eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Mind serves as the blackboard whereon the sense organs register their impressions, which are converted as concepts by the mind and presented to Buddhi, which rejects most of them and keeps some as nuggets of knowledge. Buddhi-Chitta keeps moving the knowledge back and forth between the front and back of the consciousness as Smrti and Apohana with the help of Chitta. Remember that Chitta, Buddhi, Ego, Mind are one entity with different functions (Functional Polymorphism); thus the name is according to its function. Example. Father is a son, a husband, an uncle, a grand father, a father-in-law.... He is one person; his function is according to his title; he cannot mix his roles; when he plays one role, the other roles are switched off.

Antakarana (Inner Organ as depicted below) is operational in two modes: External knowledge Acquisition (Abhijna) and internal Self-Knowledge (Pratyabhijna) acquisition. In Abhijna knowledge acquisition, knowledge proceeds from the gross to the subtle, from the sense organs to Chitta via Mind, Ego, and Buddhi. Sense organs report to Mind which reports to Ahamkara, which reports to Buddhi, which reports to Chitta. As we proceed from Sense Organs to Witness, we are moving from a world of matter via the Mind, Ego,  Buddhi and Chitta to a world of Self, Pure Consciousness or Witness. Mind and others are matter, while Witness is Spirit. We are moving from matter to Spirit. In this centripetal movement, the perfected one realizes that he (the individual self) is one with the Witness or Self. Tat Tvam Asi = That Thou Art = That you are. That Knowledge is Pratyabhijna (Spontaneous Recognition). We need the Mind, Ego, Buddhi and Chitta to arrive at Saksin or Witness. These are aids or way stations. Each entity churns and propels knowledge from one to the next. This churning is called Vritti. Once all entities have performed their functions, they undergo autolysis, self-destruction, immolation, a sort of psychic apoptosis (programmed death). By the way, these four entities are functional and not anatomical entities. You cannot have matter enter the realm of Spirit. The matter has to die; Mind has to die; Ego has to die; Buddhi has to die. The flesh dies and Spirit rises. Chitta has the remembrance power (smrti). All Vrittis dissolve and matter is reabsorbed by Kundali as the Kundalini Sakti rises through the Chakras. This is the power needed for the Yogis to dissolve in the Witness and become one with It. As Sakti moves from one matter to the next to go to Spirit, each encounter with matter evokes a response, 'Neti Neti, Not this, Not this. Once each entity is studied and rejected, Sakti arrives at the Real Thing, Witness or Self. This is It.  In Pratyabhijna mode, it turns itself inward and obtains Self-Knowledge. Abhijna is outbound, while Pratyabhijna is inbound.

Abhijna is to know God exists by knowledge; Pratyabhijna is to know Him by direct experience and knowing, Tat Tvam Asi. I am that Siva.  It is realization of the ever-present Reality. It is finding Anuttara, the One not having a superior or the Ultimate Reality.

In Pratyabhijna mode, it turns itself inward and obtains Self-Knowledge. Abhijna is outbound, while Pratyabhijna is inbound. Abhijna is to know external objects; Pratyabhijna is to know oneself as the Self, Witness or the Universal Soul.

In Kashmir Saivism, Pratyabhijna means Spontaneous Recognition. You are in spiritual search; your Guru says what you are searching is you; you and the object of your search are one; you and Self are one; Individual self and the Universal Self are one; You and Siva are one. One's true self is nothing but Siva.

What is the purpose of all this discussion? It is all about meditation. It is becoming one with the object of your meditation.

The object of Yoga is to suppress the churning of the mind and its cohorts and let Chittam and the individual soul merge with the Universal Consciousness.

In successful Mantra meditation, Mind dissolves in Buddhi and Buddhi dissolves in Chitta. Chitta dissolves in the Self or Witness. This is essential for proper meditation. This sequential process has four parts to it: meditation by the mind, chanting of mantra by Buddhi, contemplation by Chitta, eventual dissolution in the Self. It goes from thought-initiation to application to contemplation to dissolution. Chitta keeps you in the 'groove' . You need Chitta to keep meditation, concentration and contemplation in sync. Mind is a mechanical meditator; Buddhi is a fickle meditator; Chitta is a serene meditator. Your aim is to graduate to and dissolve in Chitta meditation and the self. Mind meditation and Buddhi meditation are out-bound meaning the thoughts are out-bound in the world of happenings; you are in the world of Nama and Rupa, names and forms. Chitta meditation is inbound in the sense it is in step with the Atman, the Inner Soul, the Witness. At this juncture the Chitta goes into Smrti mode (remembrance) and engages in deep contemplation. What does it remember? What do you mean by re-cognition (Pratyabhijna)?  Chitta remembers its organic connection to the Universal soul, the Self.... From before, Chitta knew the Self, the Universal Soul and in meditation is re-cognizing the Soul.

For successful Mantra Meditation, an aspirant must have the following qualities.

Santi = Serenity. Mind must be brought under control and trained not to chase after sense-objects under the false belief that they provide happiness.

Dantah = Control of Sense-organs. One must strive to prevent the sense organs from exploring the world of sense objects and impinging on the mind with sensual experiences.

Param uparatah = Withdrawal  of mind. Mind is trained to forget the sense enjoyments of the past and desist from fancied sensual imageries.

Shanti Yuktah = forbearance. One should train oneself not to be disturbed and distracted by frustrations of daily living.

Now we are back to discussion as to how to acquire knowledge. The ultimate aim of knowledge is to prove existence of God. False knowledge is to move in the world of Faustian knowledge.

Among the animals, cow belongs to Genus Bos. Buffalo and horse though they belong to Mammalia belong to different Families and genuses or genera. This difference in appearance is apparent upon observation. The poet says that a genus appears like its kind different from the other genus.

Example: Our cow is black with short horns and lacks the hump (as in a bull). Though our cow has all the General Quality (பொதுஇயல்பு) of all the cows, it has its own peculiar markers or identifiers (அடையாளம்), which are called Peculiar quality (தன்னியல்பு = one's own special quality).

Cow Horse
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Genus: Bos
Species: Bos taurus (Binomial name for cow)
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Genus: Equus
Species: E. caballus (Equus caballus)

Proposition is threefold. Cause is also threefold. Inference is twofold: inference from one's own perception and Inference employed to enlighten others. Enlightenment of others is twofold: Accord and Discord (negation).

Proposition. Pakkam = பக்கம் in Tamil and Paksham in Sanskrit = proposition, argument is threefold.

Hetu (ஏது = Etu = Hetu in Sanskrit = Cause, Origin, Ultimate Cause, First Cause. Hetu is of  threefold nature

Concomitance, Concordance, Accord (between proposition and Conclusion): அன்னுவயம் aṉṉuvayam , n. < anvaya. (Sans) logical connection of cause and effect , or proposition and conclusion. 1. Succession, connection; சம்பந்தம். 2. (Log.) Invariable concomitance between an antecedent and a consequent; 3. (Log.) Invariable co-existence between sādhanasādhya. Anvaya in Sanskrit =  logical connection of cause and effect , or proposition and conclusion.

Negation: வெதிரேகம் = Negation, Discord, Variance.

Inference = Anumana Pramana2 : கருதல் அளவை= Karuthal Alavai is towfold: 1) தன் பொருட்டு 2) பிறர் பொருட்டு = 1) Inference from one's own perception and 2) Inference employed to enlighten others.

There are three propositions: Proposition, Simile, and Counter Instance. Proposition abides in Major Term (Log.). Analogy abides in Simile. The proposed object does not abide in Counter Instance. Proposition and Simile are in concordance in relation to object. Counter Instance is negation of the object.


Proposition and Simile are in concordance in relation to object. (Proposition,) Fire on the mountain and (Simile) Fire in the Kitchen are in concordance.

Counter Instance is negation of the object. There is no Fire in the lake.

Pakkam, Nigarpakkam, Nigarilpakkam = பக்கம், நிகர்பக்கம், நிகரில்பக்கம் = Proposition, Simile, and Counter Instance. 

துணிபொருள் = Major Term (log.)

Syllogism: Logic. an argument the conclusion of which is supported by two premises, of which one (major premise = Fire) contains the term (major term) that is the predicate of the conclusion, and the other (minor premise) contains the term (minor term) that is the subject of the conclusion; common to both premises is a term (middle term) that is excluded from the conclusion. A typical form is "All A is C; all B is A; therefore all B is C."

predicate : that which is affirmed or denied concerning the subject of a proposition.

 Nyaya's syllogism has five elements: (1) the proposition to be established; பக்கõ (Proposition: the hill is on fire); (2) Why?  the reason (because it smokes); (3) Give me an instance. the example (சபக்கம் = நிகர்பக்கம் = simile = whatever has smoke has fire, for example, a kitchen; (4) the application (so does the hill); and (5) the statement of the conclusion (the hill is on fire). --Dr. Radhakrishnan. I have added the equivalent Tamil terms.


Fire is the Major Term.

The Hill is the Minor Term.

The Smoke is the Middle term connecting the Major and Minor Terms.

Kitchen Fire is the Simile or Analogy.

Absence of Fire in the Lake is the Counter Instance.

That there is fire on the hill is the Conclusion.

1) Proposition: பக்கம்: Proposition to be proved or established; Pakkam (பக்கம்) = Paksham in Sanskrit = Argument, Thesis, Proposition. Example: the hill is on fire. அனுமானத்தின் உறுப்பினுள் மலை நெருப் புடைத்து என்றதுபோன்ற பிரதிஞ்ஞாவசனம்.

2) Simile = சபக்கம capakkam = நிகர்பக்கம் .  , n. < sa-pakka. (Log.)  other spelling:  Supaksham is supakkam (சபக்கம் ) in Tamil. An instance in which the major term is found concomitant with the middle term, as kitchen when fire is the major term நிகர் = Simile. பக்கம்  =  proposition. நிகர்பக்கம் = a Simile to a proposition (the hill is on fire) is the Kitchen நிகர்பக்கம் nikar-pakkam , n. < நிகர் +. (Log.) An instance in which the major term is found concomitant with the middle term.

3) Counter Instance = விபக்கம    = விபக்கம்    =  vipakkam Log.) Instance in which the major term is not found, as lake, where fire, the major term, is not found; Opposite view;  This is the OPPOSITE of Nigarpakkam or Simile or Sapakkam.  எதிரிடையான கொள்கை. அனுமானவுறுப்புள் துணிபொருளில்லா விடம். சபக்கத்துண்டாதலும் விபக்கத்தின்றியே விடுதலும் (மணி. 29, 123-4).Vipaksham  in Sanskrit is Vipakkam in Tamil. 

Proposition is Mountain is on fire; Simile is the Kitchen (that has fire); the Counter Instance is the Lake (that is not on fire). 

1. This mountain is on fire. மேற்கோள் = துணிபொருள் = Major Term = principle. (Pratijñā)

சாத்தியம் = SAdhya in Sanskrit = Major Term in English (Log.)

2. Presence of smoke. காரணம் = karanam = Kariyam = Cause or reason. (Hetu)
3. Where there is smoke, there is fire. சபக்கம்  =  Simile or Example. Kitchen. (Drishtantam)
4. There is smoke on the hill. பொருத்திப் பார்த்தல் =  Concordance = Reaffirmation. (Upanayam)
5. Fire is not found in the lake நிகர்பக்கம் = விபக்கம்    = Counter Instance.
6. Therefore there is fire on the hill முடிப்புரை = conclusion.  (Nigamanam)

Proposition stated. பிரதிஞ்ஞை= Pratijna in Sanskrit  = மேற்கோள் = துணிபொருள் = சாத்தியம் =SAdhya = Major Term. also known as Principle or doctrine conclusively established. Fire is the Proposition.


Reasoning (Hetu) is three-fold: 1) Own Nature, 2) Effect, 3) Non-Perception. Nature is to point out and identify an object as to what it is by its word. Effect or Result is to point out the cause of an object: upon seeing smoke, make a point that Fire is present. Non-Perception is realizing the non-existence of an object by knowing the non-existence of the example cited. ஏது = Hetu in Sanskrit = Reasoning; Statement of reason, the second member of an Indian syllogism; middle term.
Hetu or ஏது is of three kinds: இயல்பு (Own nature or Inherent Quality), கா¡¢யம் (Effect, Result. subject ), and அனுபலத்தி (non-perception).
1) Inherent Quality (இயல்பு = iyalpu) is apprehending an object by the connotive power of the word.
2) Effect (காரியம் = KAriyam). Upon seeing the rising smoke in a distant hill, pointing out the presence of the causal Fire, for the smoke to rise. KAriya Hetu is apprehension of Smoke as the effect (KAriyam) from the Causal Fire (காரணம் = Cause).
3) non-perception Inference= அனுபலத்தி = Anupalaththi = Anupalabdhi in Sanskrit:= non-perception, non-recognition) is apprehending the non-existence of an object based on the non-existence in the example cited. Inference of the absence of one thing from the absence of something else. Example: Knowing the non-existence of horned rabbit.
opposite of upalabdhi (உபலத்தி) as listed below.  
(anupalatti-y-ஷtu = Inference of the absence of one thing from the absence of something else.)
Brilliant Perception: உபலத்தி = விளங்குதல். obtainment, acquisition, gaining understanding, clear and brilliant perception. Example: It is not winter because it is not cold.
Apprehension of absence of cause on account of absence of effect and on account of absence of cause, the absence of effect comes under the purview of non-perception (Anupalaththi = Anupalabdhi).
In other words: Apprehension of lack of effect proceeding from lack of cause and lack of cause leading to lack of effect subside in non-perception.
Objective reasoning (காரிய ஏது) is that the object Smoke makes you realize that Fire is present. Non-Perception (Anupalabdhi = அனுபலத்தி) is having the sensation of Negation. Knowing absence of effect based on absence of Cause and absence of Cause based on the absence of effect constitutes Anupalabdhi (அனுபலத்தி). S.S. Mani gives this example: 'Now there is no Cold on account of no Snow.' The inverse is: 'Now there is no Snow on account of no Cold.' That is Anupalabdhi.
Smoke betrays fire. This is like the kitchen. As opposed to this, where there is no fire, there is no smoke. This is Annuvayam (அந்நுவயம் --அன்னுவயம் = Concomitance), Invariable existence between cause and effect. Vettirekam (வெதிரேகம்-negation) is like the co-existence of buds and blooms in the Lotus lake. These two have 5 parts.
Concomitance and Negation (அந்நுவயம் Vs வெதிரேகம்) are discussed.

1. This mountain is on  fire மேற்கோள் = துணிபொருள் = principle. (Pratijñā)
2. Because  there is smoke. காரணம் = Karanam = Cause. (Hetu)
3. Where there is no smoke, there is no fire. சபக்கம் = Simile or Example. Kitchen. (Drishtantam)
4. This mountain is not without smoke. ¦பொருத்திப் பார்த்தல் = Concomitance = Affirmation. (Upanayam)
5. Therefore there is fire on the mountain. முடிப்புரை = conclusion. (Nigamanam)

Brahman is without name or form. Brahman is  the Impersonal Supreme Being, the primal source and ultimate goal of all beings, with which Atman, when enlightened, knows itself to be identical. How is Brahman different from us? How are we different among ourselves?  Difference: dissimilarity; a distinguishing characteristic; the degree to which one person or thing differs from another; not itself or the same, but another.

The soul is Consciousness, Intelligence, and repository of knowledge. It is left to the individual self (Jivatma) to analyze and weigh the evidence, consider the pros and cons, reconcile to differences, make an informed judgment and arrive at an independent conclusion. That is Saiva Siddhanta which does not recommend accepting anything on blind faith.  Once a Sadhaka comes to the realization of Brahman knowledge, Tantra Sastra advocates the Sadhaka should give up the rituals and rites and Sabda Brahman for they serve no purpose to him, but actually are impediment. Puja and Yoga are redundant for the one who sees Brahman in all things. Puja = ritual worship.

Tantra condemns superficiality and ostentation. If smearing ash and mud leads to realization, every pig rolling and mired in mud has  attained liberation. Rituals without knowledge, sincerity, and Sadhana are meaningless. Knowing scriptures but not the essence (Truth) is like a ladle lying in sugary syrup, a donkey carrying fragrant sandal-wood, columns holding the roof, and the hand carrying the food to the mouth; none of them know the essence or value of what they carry or hold. The perfected Yogi, who realized Para Brahman or attained Brahman knowledge--Brahman Jnana through studies of scriptures, abandons them as the grain gatherer discards the husk.

Agamas are the backbone of Tantric practice and as a matter of fact, all Hindu rituals and as Woodroffe observes, Catholic rituals. Agama consists of four parts or Kandas: Jnanakanda, Yogakanda, Kriyakanda, and Karyakanda.  Jnana = knowledge; Yoga = contemplation and meditation; Kriya = temple-building, consecration of idols and related works; Karya = various ways of worship.

What is Sadhana? Sadhana comes from the word Sadh meaning exert. That endeavor brings a particular result or Siddhi. The aspirant or practitioner is Sadhaka. Once he achieves Siddhi, he becomes Siddha. The goal is Sadya.  A Sadhaka practices Sadhana to attain Siddhi, upon attaining which he becomes Siddha. The goal is realization of Brahman or Brahman Knowledge.

Tantra, as spoken by Lord Siva Himself, claims that man can enjoy the world of objects and yet attain liberation; between the two, liberation alone is enduring. This philosophy of enjoyment (Bhoga) and liberation (Mukti)  recognizes man's desire for both. "There is no Bhoga in Yoga and there is no Yoga in Bhoga." The Bhogi of the World can become the Yogi, if Tantratattva (Tantric principles) is followed. Bhoga is of five kinds: enjoyment arising from sound, sight, smell, touch and taste.  Our physical, mental and psychological constitution is made of our experiences with our body (Bhoga); love for spouse, children, family, and kith and kin; pleasures derived from art, music, studies, senses, and nature; pains derived from adverse events; and episodic love of god. All this is physical (except love of god) and keeps us anchored to the mutable world. To migrate to the immutable world of Satchitananada (Sat-chit-ananada = Being, Consciousness and Bliss), one has to leave this physical world of ephemeral nature to a world of Being, Consciousness and Bliss, where the medium of experience and expression is not body but spirit (Atma, soul). Satchitananada is immeasurably superior to the mundane life . This release from this world and entry into the world of Bliss is liberation; yet the Sadhaka is in this world but not of this world, until his death.  In Hindu philosophy, the body however beautiful, strong, and virile it may be, is still a bag of skin, bones, blood, flesh, phlegm, bile, air, feces, urine, and worms; in its parts it looks ugly. That is why the Yogi says, "No to the body and Yes to the spirit."  Going from No to Yes is not easy; Tantra accepts the body and spirit and teaches the Vira (Hero, the brave one) to migrate from one to the other. Tantric Gurus teach the pupils the technique of transformation.

This is a fundamental principle of the Tantrik method. The Kaula thus enjoys both Bhoga and Yoga, the worship being with enjoyment. Yoga is the union of Prana and Apana, of seed and ovum, of " Sun " and "Moon,'' of Nada and Bindu, of Jivatma and Paramatma, So also the Rudra-yāmala and the Maṅgala-rāja-stava say: "Where there is worldly enjoyment there is no Liberation; where there is Liberation, there is no worldly enjoyment. But in the case of excellent devotees of Srīsundarī both Liberation and Enjoyment are in the hollow of their hands."

Oct 6, 2012. The Worship of Sakti, The Great Liberation, by Woodroffe


Tantrics come in different flavors: Saktas, Saivas, Sauras, Ganapatiyas, and Vaishnavas; they are the worshippers of Devi, Siva, Sun, Ganapati (or Ganesa), and Vishnu. Adi-Sankara saw innumerable cults on the Hindu religious landscape. He brought them under six categories mentioned above. Sakta goes through initiation into Tantric worship. Siva and Sakti revealed Tantric knowledge to the people at the onset of Kaliyuga. Parvati, the Mother Goddess, asked Siva to reveal wisdom that would make Sadhaka perfect and attain Brahmavidya, the ultimate Truth. Tantras were revealed wisdom; worship of Mother Goddess was in practice long before the advent of Krishna. In the West, the worship of Mother Goddess waned with the advent of Christian era. And yet mother of Jesus Christ retains the vestige of Mother Goddess. She is not one of Holy Trinity. Jesus Christ is son of God. who is Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ? She must be the Goddess and yet she is not. That is the paradox. Siva and Sakti revealed Agamas and Nigamas, collectively known as Tantra. (What is revealed by Siva to Parvati is Agama; what is received by Siva from Parvati is Nigama. This interlocution is Tantra.) The world is a dungeon full of misery and darkness. They are known as Ūrmis, meaning waves, that is waves of existence: hunger, thirst, decay, death, grief, illusion. The spiritual beginner finds the world Kakabistha (crow's droppings), but once he attains Sadhana (perfection), the very same world appears as Brahman. Tantric says that Devi pervades this world. She is manifest Brahman, Mother Goddess, Anandamayi, Brahmamayi, Vishnumayi, Mahesvari; this universe is her playground. Tantra fuses matter and spirit in such ways that a sadhaka attains liberation, though enjoying the fruits of the world. Sankara's Jnana Yogam, other Hindu practices, and Buddhism's Mahayana greatly benefited from Tantra.  Saktas claim that their path is the least resistant and most successful for obtaining liberation. Sankara and Ramanuja taught (Jnana and) Bhakti for salvation.


Agamas and Nigamas
                    Saiva Siddhanta by Paranjoti.  Date of notes: July 26, 2015
The Saivāgamās 
The Saivagamas on which the Siddhāntin bases his system are the fol1owing 28: 
1. Kamika. 
2. Yogaja. 
3. Cintya. 
4. Karatla. 
5. Ajita. 
6. Dipta. 
7. Suklna. 
8. Sahasraka. 
9. Atnsuman. 
10. Suprabha. 
11. Vijaya. 20. Mukhayugbimba. 
12. Nisvasa. 21. Udgita. 
13. Svayambhuva. 22. Lalita. 
14. Agneyaka. 23. Siddha. 
15. Bhadra. 24. Santana. 
16. Raurava. 25. Narasi:tpha. 
17. Makuta. 26. Paramesvara. 
18. Vimala. 27. Kiratjata. 
19. Candrahasa. 28. Para. The first ten are regarded as root Agamas, and as such are taught by God, while the 
rest of them, though from the same divine source, are 'man-realized'. Concerning their authorship nothing is 
known beyond their being assigned a divine origin. Their content has to do with the principal tenets of Saiva 
Sid- dhanta. Two interpretations are given of the term 'Agama '. According to one interpretation, A. = pasa, 
ga = pasu and 
ma = patio Agama, in this case, deals with God, soul and matter, which consti- tute the whole of reality 
for the Siddhāntin. According to another interpretation, A=siva-jnana, ga = moksha and ma=casting aside of 
mala. This sums up the process of salvation in which through siva-jnana, mala is cast aside and moksa is 
gained. Whichever of these meanings may be accepted, it is evident that these writings pertain to this school 
of thought. Hence, it is said that judging from their content, they are definitely Dravidian writings. 
Every Agama consists of four parts or ka1as.6 The jnana kala is considered to lead to the knowledge of God, and 
the Yoga kala to the concentration of the soul on an object. Kriya kala gives information about all performances 
ranging from the Consec- ration of idols to laying the foundation stones for temples; the carya kala teaches the 
method of worship. The contents of the last two ka1as relate to details of ritual, etc. The jnana kala is of use 
for philosophy and the yoga ka1a is of value for the understanding of Indian psychology. It is claimed that though 
the Vedas are reverenced by the Hindus as eternal and the Upanishads are of value for discussion, the outlook and 
usages of the Hindus are derived from the Agamas. 		


Go to Kundalini Power for details on Kundalini and Chakras.

    The goal of Tantric Sadhana is realizing Monistic (Advita) Tattva and union with Brahman, which goes by several names: Kaivalya, Samadhi, Turiya, and Turiyatita. Tirumular says, "When the breath is controlled, eight siddhis are attained. When the Kundalini fire goes up the central Nadi through the realm of Sun to that of Moon, I get to imbibe the nectar." The seventh center is Sahasrara Chakra and Fire Mandala, the eighth is Solar Mandala, and the ninth is the Lunar Mandala. Once the Lunar Mandala is pierced by the Sadhaka, Tirumular says, "He is beyond the four corners of Muladhara center; he is beyond the bridge of twenty-four Tattvas. His gunas are beyond the twenty-five Tattvas; he is beyond the six Adharas that spread like a Banyan tree. Does anybody know him?"

Note: Here Sun, Moon and Fire (Solar, Lunar and Fire Mandala) do not refer to heavenly objects but to creative Trinity

(Mandala is generic geometric form, while Yantra is deity-specific.)

    Kundalini fire, if unregulated, is Kali; if regulated, it is Durga, the giver of boons. Unregulated and undirected Kundalini fire is like Kali trampling Siva on the burial ground.

 Mular says, "I sought the five Suddha Tattvas and reached the Circle of Moon. Leaving this I went on to the realm of great Void that is in the Circle of Supreme Pati (Siva) twelve fingerbreadths above the crown; from there I go beyond these circles."

    Mundane knowledge that comes from the five senses, the sixth, the seventh, the eighth, the ninth, and the tenth and from other ways destroys spiritual life in succession (resulting in Samsara, cycle of births and rebirths).  Life is a waste when one acquires worldly knowledge through ten senses. The knowledge gained by the ten senses is Apara Vidya (NOT supreme knowledge, Faustian knowledge); therefore, Apara Vidya is useless. On the contrary, Para Vidya is Brahman knowledge, which helps gain realization, and obtains liberation. Transcendental knowledge obtained by Yogis while in samadhi, is Para Vidya (Supreme Knowledge).

Sense:            Knowledge from

Sixth sense = discrimination.

Seventh sense = judgment.

Eighth sense = learning.

Ninth sense = experience.

Tenth sense = attachment.

Kundalini Sadhakas and Yogis ascend from Adhara Chakras to Niradhara Chakras. Adhara Chakras are body-dependant: Muladhara, Svadhistana, Manipura, Anahata, Visuddha and Ajna Chakras located in the base of the spine, genital area, navel, heart, throat and forehead. Niradhara Chakra has not physical support.

   Tirumular gives time lines piercing the various Chakras. Go to Kundalini Power for details. These are the time lines for piercing the nine Centers:  sixth center on the 20th day, seventh Center at Fire Mandala on the 25th day, eighth Center at Solar Mandala on the 26th day, ninth Center at Lunar Mandala on the 27th day. (It takes Prana 27 days to travel from Muladhara Chakra to the Lunar Mandala in Kundalini Yoga.)

    On the twenty-eighth day, you obtain vision of the three Mandalas, each separately; on the thirty-third day, you obtain one panoramic view of all Mandalas. Extend your vision and see the twenty-four Tattvas, the earth and other elements in that order. (This is like the astronaut's view of the earth; but the Yogi's prana and Consciousness travel greater distances.)

Material obtained from Woodroffe. Diagram is based on the written material.

Ajna Chakra is 6th Chakra. Above the 6th are minor chakras Manas and Soma (Moon). Manas (Mind) lotus of 6 petals is the seat of sensation of hearing, touch, sight, smell, taste, and sensation of dream and hallucination.

In the region of Soma Chakra is the the house without support (Niralambapuri) where Yogis witness radiant Isvara, the seven causal bodies, which are the intermediate aspects of Adya Sakti (lotus with 12 white petals). It is near the pericarp of Sahasrara chakra. Adya Sakti with 12 petals is the A-KA-Tha Triangle  (See detailed depiction of AKATHA triangle elsewhere in this article). A-Ka-Tha triangle surrounds Manipitha (jeweled Altar) on the isle of gems (Manidvipa) in the Ocean of Nectar. A-Ka-Tha Sakti is the centerpiece of the inverted triangle. The idea is that the Yogi has to climb all these levels to attain realization. Each level is a rung in the staircase leading to realization.

Siva Himself worships and encourages the votaries to worship this 12-petalled lotus within the pericarp of Sahasrara Chakra, the center of which is occupied by Sakti. These 12 petals have 12 letters inscribed on them. They are sa, ha, kha, phrem, ha, sa, ksa, ma, la, va, ra, yUm. It is known as Gurumantra.

    Once the Sadhaka pierces all centers and reaches the void, he gains the power of eight siddhis:

1.    Anima. (smallness):  Supernatural power of becoming as small as an atom, atomization

2.    Mahima. (largeness): The supernatural power of increasing size at will

3.    Gharima. The supernatural power of making one self heavy at will

4.    Laghima. (lightness): The supernatural power of levitation (Remember David Blaine)

5.    Prāptih. Supernatural power to obtain everything

6.    Praakaamya. Capacity to accomplish anything desired

7.    Isitva. Supremacy or superiority considered as a super natural power

8.    Vashistva. The supernatural power of subduing all to one's own will

                                ---Definitions as found in Tamil Lexicon, Madras University


Here is a direct observation made by General J.T.Harris of the ability of a Sadhu to cause the death of a scorpion just with the point of a finger as reported by Woodroffe in The Serpent Power, page 84-85.

As in Maranam and other of the ṣatkarma. To quote an example which I have read in an account of an author nowise "suspect" as an Occultist, Theosophist, etc. - General J. T. Harris noticed a scorpion close to the foot of a Sadhu. "Don't move," he said; "there is a scorpion by your foot." The Sadhu leaned over, and when he saw the  scorpion he pointed at it with his fingers, on which the animal immediately  and in the presence of the General shriveled up and died. "You seem to have some powers already," the General said; but the Sadhu  simply waived the matter aside as being of no importance ("China  Jim" : "Incidents in the Life of a Mutiny Veteran," by Major-General  J. T. Harris, p. 74. Heinemann).

Here is what Monier-Williams says about the authenticity of Laghima and Levitation by the Yogis

It must of course be borne in mind that fasting is practiced by Indian devotees, not as a penitential exercise, 
but as a means of accumulating religious merit. Moreover, severe self-mortification is always connected with the 
fancied attainment of extraordinary sanctity or superhuman powers. Amongst other objects aimed at is the acquirement 
of a kind of preternatural or ethereal lightness of body. By long fasting a man is believed to achieve what is 
called Laghimā, ‘lightness '; that is to say, his frame becomes so buoyant and sublimated by abstinence, that the 
force of gravitation loses its power of binding him to the earth, and he is able to sit or float in the air.
It may seem the very height of credulity to give credence to an emaciated Hindu claiming to triumph in this way 
over the laws of matter; yet cool-headed and skeptical Englishmen of unimpeachable sincerity have been invited to 
witness the achievements of these so-called Yogis, and have come away convinced of their genuineness and ready 
to testify to the absence of all fraud.  Brahmanism and Hinduism, page 427 (463 OF 644)

    Kamarutattva (consummation of all desires)


        [Some see a derogative insinuation that Yogi or Sadaka can have illicit relationship with any women he wants, by assuming a perfect semblance to a legitimate spouse. This is possible for a Yogi; he is no more a Yogi if he impersonates a husband with someone else's wife. As opposed to this, the uddhava Gita gives a plausible explanation in Dialogue 10, Verse 5: Enjoyment of the ultimate highest Bliss --KAmarutattva.]

Praptih /  Pràptih. attaining or reaching anything, for example, the moon with the tip of the finger.

Prakamya / Pràkàmya. Irresistible will, fiat, absolute authority. Capacity to accomplish by willpower anything desired.


You may wonder wherefrom these Sadhakas derive their power for such feats. He taps the Cosmic Energy for these feats. It is derived from the Primordial Spiritual Vibration, OM (AUM). This Cosmic energy whirls around and bathes the whole universe as ripples in a pond; the perfected Yogi plugs into this Power Grid for his supra-stellar acts. In one's limited knowledge one can't validate or invalidate this claim. Think of the days before Radio and Television, when people could not have imagined such advancement. The authentic realized souls of  the recent past (Ramakrishna Parmahamsa, Ramana Maharishi, SubramuniyaSwami) claimed to have experienced the divine vision (as you see on the tube in living color  the live walking and talking presidential aspirants of today --Feb/08. If you believe in what you saw on TV, the Yogis believe in what they saw in their cosmic vision.


According to The Uddhava Gita, Dialogue 10, Krishna reveals the following features with regard to Siddhis.  Once the awareness is fixed on Krishna and the Indriyas and Prana (senses and breath) are brought under control, the Siddhis come to the aspirant by themselves. Krishna lists eighteen Siddhis; eight Siddhis are conferred by Krishna and the rest cascades from Sattva Guna (Virtue). The first three Siddhis belong to the body.


This material is based on Swami Saraswati's translation of The Uddhava Gita.


 Eighteen siddhis  plus are: Anima1, Mahima2, and Laghima3 belonging to the body; Praptih4, Prakamya5, Ishita6, Vashita7, Kamah Avashayita8.

9. Prapti has a different meaning here: establishing contact with creative senses.

10. Prakamya is enjoying all that is within and beyond the reach of the eyes and ears, visible and invisible, found in the sacred texts. (literal meaning is irresistible will)

11. Ishita (spelled different) is having control over Maya and manipulating it according to one's wish. Ishita also means Supreme domination.

12. Vashita (spelled different) is renunciation of sensory pleasures. It also means subjugation by magic.

13. Kamah Avashayita is enjoying the highest bliss.   

13A.Kāmavasāyitā : Suppressing all desires.


The others are:

14. Anumi Mattvam, absence of thirst, hunger, disease, misery, old age and death;

15. Sravana Darsanam, to see and hear from distance;

16. Manah Javah, to move the body as fast as the mind wills it;

17. Kama Rupam, to assume a desired form;

18. Parakaya Pravesanam, to transmigrate into another's body;

19. Svachanda Mrtyu, to die according to one's own will;

20. Sahakridanu-darsanam, to play with gods;

21. Yatha Sankalpa Samsiddhi, to accomplish one's will and wish;

22. Ajnaprathihata Gati, to have others obey one's will;

23. Tri Kala Jnatvam, to know the past, present and future;

There are some more listed:

24. Advandvam, to be immune to cold and heat, joy and misery, pain and pleasure;

25. Para Chitta Abhijnata, to read others' thought and mind;

26. Agnyarkambuvishadinam, to counteract the injury caused by fire, sun, water, poison;

27. Pratsihtambho aparajaya, not to succumb to any one.


The last five Siddhis come directly from Yoga of the Sadhaka.  Krishna further elaborates on all these Siddhis. He says the following:

Anima comes from meditating on me as the subtle element pervading the universe. (The Pervader is Vishnu; the subtle element that is Vishnu is Ether, the stem substance of all creation.)

Mahima comes to the Yogi from meditating on me as Earth, Water, Fire, Wind, and Space.

Laghima comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as the Tejas (power) in the Maha Tattvas as listed above.

Prapti comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as the tattva that gives Ahamkara (ego).

Prakamya comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as the Supreme Atman, which is the Thread of consciousness that runs through all beings.

Ishita comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as Vishnu, the controller of Maya in all living creatures and beings.

Vashita comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as Narayana.

Kamah Avashayita comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as Brahman, the omnipresent and yet transcending  expansive being.

Anumi Mattvam comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as svetadvipa, the embodiment of virtue.

Sravana Darsanam comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as the transcendent sound which pulses through air and space, the sun that lights up the universe, the eye that sees and the light of both sun and the eye.

Manah Javah comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as the unifier of body, breath and mind.

 Kama Rupam comes to the Yogi who meditates on me as the one form that becomes many.

 Parakaya Pravesanam comes to the Yogi who meditates on himself as the force that transmigrates into another body through Prana as easily as the bee enters and exits a flower.

Svachanda Mrtyu comes to the Yogi who learned the art of occluding the anus with his heel, channeling the prana from the heart to the crown, known as Brahma randhara, and returning to any Chakra as he desires.

Sahakridanu-darsanam comes to the Yogi whose compass is aligned with my Sattvic nature.

Yatha Sankalpa Samsiddhi comes to the Yogi who entertains full faith in me knowing that my will always be carried out.

Ajnaprathihata Gati comes to the Yogi who attains merger with my self-contained oneness in which all things move.

Tri Kala Jnatvam comes to the Yogi whose devotion to me purified him and who knows the perfect art of meditation.

Advandvam comes to the Yogi whose mind attains tranquility through Yoga and devotion to me.

The Yogi who meditates on me and my glory remains undefeatable.

The Yogi who worships me and performs Dharana, attains all Siddhis.

To the Yogi who has subjugated his senses and trained his breath and mind and meditates on me, no Siddhi is difficult to achieve.

Siddhis are a hindrance to the Yogi who practices perfect Yoga, seeks union with me, and wants to overcome Maya (Verse 10.33, The Uddhava Gita.)

Whatever Siddhis attained by the Yogi because of auspicious time of birth, secret herbs, and mystical Mantras can be fructified only by devotion to me.

I am the cause, creator, and protector of all Siddhis; I am the master of Yoga, rites and rituals, and the Gurus.

I am the elements, I am the Supreme Being, residing inside and outside all; elements exist inside and outside all creatures; I alone am enveloped by Nothing.

                                                                      ----Based on Translation by Swami Saraswati


 Self-Enquiry, Who am I?, Stilling of thoughts, Self-Realization, Siddhis (the futility of Siddhis)

The practice of Self-enquiry is the direct method since it directly tackles the mind, but it does not exclude other practices, which may suit the particular aspirant owing to his samskaras or predispositions due to prarabdha or previous destiny. All sadhanas lead to the same goal. When we speak of Self-realization, it is to be remembered that the Self is not some wonder that will drop down from the heavens before our gaze. It is not anything outside us or anything perceptible to the mind or senses. It is the real Self or  I that every one of us is in fact. Therefore, Self-realization is only being what we are. This comes about on transcending the dualities (good and bad) and triads (knowledge-knower-known), when the unreal accretions of the mind disperse. Self-enquiry is not a catechism or a mental process of question and answer. The question Who am I?’ is not intended to provoke an answer such as ‘I am this’ or ‘I am that’ but is only a means to still the mind. When a thought arises one is not to pursue it but to ask oneself to whom it occurs. The answer is ‘to me’, and this provokes the further question, ‘Who am I?’. With this the first thought disappears. The mind is nothing but a bundle of  thoughts that incessantly arise. If the above process is repeated every time a thought arises all thoughts vanish and the mind dwells solely on the basic I-thought. With sufficient practice it gets rid of its thought content and becomes transformed into the real ‘I’ or true Self which shines continuously of its own accord. The aspirant’s effort terminates in complete stilling of the mind. What follows is automatic like the sun’s shining after the clouds have passed.

Self-Realization and the futility of Siddhis.

Since the real Self is the repository of all power, as of everything else, the aspirant, in his quest for the Self, may or may not acquire powers or siddhi. This is dependent on his prarabdha or self-made destiny. In a realized Man these occur unsought and manifest themselves naturally. For an aspirant to seek them or make use of them deliberately is harmful; it is likely to strengthen his ego and thereby hamper his spiritual progress. The right attitude for him is to remain indifferent whether they come or not and concentrate on Self-realization. There is no  contradiction between so-called ‘worldly’ life and spiritual practice. We can remain in society ,practising any trade or profession, and at the same time remember all along what we really are. We should not identify ourselves with our body senses or mind but remember that we are the all-pervading Spirit. There is no contradiction between so-called ‘worldly’ life and spiritual practice. We can remain in society, practising any trade or profession, and at the same time remember all along what we really are. We should not identify ourselves with our body senses or mind but remember that we are the all-pervading Spirit. The Mountain Path Vol 4, 1968.

    The Sadhakas have a choice of becoming gods, Lokapalas, and Dikpalas or come down to earth from time to time to uplift humanity. The Buddhists have a similar paradigm: the accomplished Bodhisattva upon reaching the Land of Pure can attain Nirvana (complete Liberation) or return to earth to serve the human beings living in a world of misery. Japan, Buddhism, Hinduism

Lokapalas: Guardian deities of the four directions and intermediate points: 1) Indra of East, 2) Agni of S.East, 3) Yama of South, 4) Surya of South-West, 5) Varuna of West, 6) Vayu of North-West, 7) Kubera of  North, 8) Soma or Chandra of North-East.  1) Indra = Chief of gods, 2) Agni = Fire-god, 3) Yama = god of death, Surya = Sun-god, Varuna = god of all-enveloping sky, waters of the firmament, sea and rivers, Vayu = Wind-god, Kubera = Treasurer of gods, Soma = Moon-god. Monier Williams Sanskrit Dictionary. Dikpalas = Guardians of directions; same as Lokapalas with following point substitutions and additions: 4) Nairrta ( A Raksasa or demon) of South-West, 8) Isana (one of the names of Rudra) of North-East, 9) Brahma for Up direction and 10) Naga of down direction.

Additional information on Siddhis from a different source. There may be some repetition. Prapti is the Siddhi most likely to elicit different interpretations.

Minor Siddhis (some are common to major and minor siddhis)

1.ability to apprehend Siddhas.

 2.absence of passion or Raga.

3.acquisition of desired objects.


5. clairaudience.

 6 clairvoyance.

 7.control of mind.

8.Death upon demand

9.destroy diseases and miseries and control desires.

10.divining a hidden treasure

11.jump like a frog.

12.Karmic dissolution by multiple births in multiple bodies in one lifetime. 

13.knowledge of his past life.

14.Knowledge of past, present and future.

15.knowledge of  stars and planets.


17.mastery of the elements and Prana.

18. metamorphosis.

19. migration and animation of a dead body and transplanting his soul, migration into another living body

20.move to any place of his liking.

21.omnipotence and omniscience.


23.sporting with the gods.

24. tolerance of heat and cold.

25. tolerance of hunger and thirst.

26.transcend dualities like pain and pleasure.


28.touch distant objects.

29.predict future. 

30.conversant with animal talk.

      Prapti is power to enter anywhere.  This includes Ability to touch the sun, the moon or the sky. The Siddha can predict the future. He understands the language of birds and beasts, and unknown kind. Prapti is defined as ability to apprehend knowledge and perceptions perceived by the individual soul in his senses, which are presided over by god or gods. Once a Yogi or Siddha enters the body of another, he can perceive and modulate the feelings and perceptions of the host's senses.

    Prâkâmya is the ability to enjoy anything that is heard, seen, touched, thought and more.

    Prâkâmya literally means irresistible will.

    Isitva is introduction into and  diffusion of Sakti of His Maya over every Jiva in the universe. 

Clairvoyance, Clairaudience, Divination, and Hyperacuity to pain, taste, and smell are supranormal faculties, which are an impediment to True Siddhi (Oneness with One) because they generate Ahankāra, the I-ness, and the Mine-ness and prevent total surrender to God. The eighth power indicates the consummation of yogi's desire for God-realization and subduction from Kāma or sexual desire. Go to the end of the chapter for more details.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (RKP) says the following on occult powers in his book Sayings of Ramakrishna.  Some are modified for brevity. Saying 374 page 112: Krishna once said to Arjuna, "If you desire to attain Me, know that it will never be possible so long as you possess even a single one of the eight psychic powers (Ashta Siddhis).)" For occult powers increase man's egotism and thus makes him forgetful of God.

Saying 375:  (modified) Once a man was proud of walking on water. Ramakrishna told him: It is not worth only a penny. You could pay the penny to hire a boat and keep your feet dry.

More on the pitfalls of using the powers of Siddhi:

Saying 377: A Siddha acquired Gutika-siddhis. Gutika = Amulet. By it he could go anywhere at will. He frequented a gentleman's house unseen, had an illicit amour with a young lady, lost all his powers, and became a fallen soul. (true story)

Saying 380: Begging for psychic powers from God is like begging for pumpkin from a king, while neglecting the priceless gift of true Knowledge and love of God.

Saying 382: A disciple of RKP acquired the power of distance vision (TrueTelevision) during his meditation. He did narrate actually as to what people were doing; this turned out to be true. RKP told him not to meditate for a few days because these powers are obstacles to the realization of God. (True story)

    Tantrics were the pioneers in herbal medicine, internal medicine, metallurgy, astrology, astronomy, chemistry, breath control, mind control, and posture. These pursuits spread to other countries all over the world. (Some people say it with a sly grin that Tantrics, well-trained in emission control, practice birth control from breath control.)

     Sakti contains Maya, which is the cause of the world. Sakti is repository of Maya in dissolution; Maya becomes fecund and florid in creation and evolution. Maya has differences with Sankhya's Prakrti. Sakti, the Mother Goddess and the Great Womb of the world, is Parabrahman (Supreme Brahman or Sat-Chit-Ananda, Being, Consciousness, and Bliss). Aditi is Sakti of Tantra. Katha Upanishad describes mother Goddess as follows: She is Aditi, the Boundless. She is born as Prana (breath or life) from the Absolute genderless Brahman, the nameless, and the formless. She is the Devatamayi (Mother of gods) and the soul of all beings. She stands in the inner recesses of the heart. --Verse 2.1.7 Mother Goddess is Prana; thus, taking Prana from Muladhara to Sahasrara Chakra is the goal of Sadhaka.

    Chit is the hypostasis of Being and Bliss and of Prakrti; thus Parabrahman is foursome: Sat-Chit-Ananda and Prakritic Maya. Tantrics compare Siva-Sakti to a gram with two cotyledons and an outer wall, which is Maya.  Tantrics say that Maya in Sakti is like hidden oil in sesame seed, butter in milk and fire in firewood; it is waiting for expression with appropriate stimulus. Siva and Sakti are non-dual, though apparently dual; Maya or Prakrti gives the false notion of duality to Siva-Sakti; Siva is inert and Sakti is dynamic; both are close and yet poles apart.

Gram: Pulse, the edible seeds of certain leguminous plants, as peas, beans, or lentils.

    For Saktas, Sakti is both male and female, while Brahman is neuter. Human consciousness is the dilute form of Sakti Consciousness with very many tattvas between the two. In order to reach the Pure Consciousness of Sakti, one has to retrace the steps from human consciousness through the intervening tattvas to attain SatChitAnanda. See Tattvas-36.htm for more information. TATTVAS-36

    Prakrti has a higher ontological status in Tantric treatises than in Samkhya philosophy. In the latter, Prakrti is mere matter, which lights up when Purusa casts its Light on it. Samkhya Prakrti is like a crystal in a cloudy, moonless, starless pitch-darkness. Its brilliance needs or depends on luminous source. Tantric Prakrti is Conscious Sakti because its hypostasis is Chit (Consciousness); it is supreme power, the sun of all suns, the First Cause, the Unmanifested manifest and the Progenitor of universe. It is the Causal Body (Karana Deha) of Cit Sakti. It is the God of all gods including Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesvara. It is Bindu, dot or Light; it is Cinghana (Cit + Ghana = Consciousness + compacted, thickened, dense, massive, weighty = Compact and thick [massive] Consciousness). Bindu sakti is of neither gender, but has all their qualities; It is male in Siva and female in Sakti; It is sun and moon. (Some Tantric texts indicate that Siva-Sakti is Nada-Bindu, Sound-Light, Bindu derived from Nada. Please refer to Bindu.htm for more details.) The manifested Sakti of Tantrics is Isvara of sects like Vaishnavas; in this case, Vishnu, Narayana, and Krishna fulfill the criteria.

Our body consists of many sheaths or layers: the food sheath1, the vital-air sheath2, the mental sheath3, the intellectual sheath4, and the bliss sheath5 (Annamya Kosa, Pranamaya Kosa, Manonmaya Kosa, Vijnanamaya Kosa, and Anandamaya Kosa from outside to inside.) Anandamaya Kosa also known as Cinmaya is made of Nada and Bindu. It is the sheath of Consciousness and Bliss.

Kosas and their origin

Entity Annamaya Kosa Pranamaya Kosa Manomaya Kosa Vijnanamaya Kosa Anandamaya Kosa
      Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16    
Sheaths Food Sheath Vital Air Sheath &


Mind Sheath Knowledge Sheath Bliss Sheath
Origin Earth, Water and Fire. Lower three Chakras Anahata and Visuddha Chakras Ajna Chakra Nada and Bindu Chakras Sahasrara Chakra
Saiva View Brahma shines in Food Sheath. Vishnu shines in Breath Sheath.

Rudra shines in the Mind Sheath.

Mahesa shines in the sheath of Consciousness. Sadasiva shines in the sheath of Bliss.
Saiva view is expressed by a real-life sage-poet by name Umapati Sivacharya (around 1300 C.E.) in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu.


Bliss sheath, known as Karana Sarira (causal body), carries a chronicle of all karmas. When the Karana Sarira sheds Karma, it merges with Paramesvara, the Primal Soul and a Mass of Bliss. If it carries a load of karma, it assumes an embodied form in a being, animal or human, depending upon its Karmic merit or demerit. As long as Karana Sarira carries the burden of Karma, it maintains duality with Paramesvara; upon shedding Karma, Karana Sarira becomes one with Paramesvara (Advaitam, non-dual). Paramesvara or Saguna Brahman goes by different names: Sakti, Krishna, Vishnu, Siva, Kali, Durga, Ganapati, Surya, and Mahalakshmi. Tantrics (Saktas) say that Avatars of Vishnu originated from Mahavidyas; Kali became Krishna; Chinnamasta became Narasimha. But the Avatars of Vishnu are male and differ very much in their association with other gods and men, appearance, and activity.

There are, for instance, some Vaishnavas who give a secondary status to Sri (Lakshmi) and primary status to Vishnu. Others question this disparity and claim that Sakti and Saktiman (female and male) are of equal status, because Saktiman without Sakti (power) is dead and a corpse: they are so blunt about what they believe as true. Sakti is life, Consciousness and intelligence. Saktiman and Sakti are complementary to each other, as in the case of Siva and Sakti, Krishna and Radha, Vishnu and Sri.

    Tantras say that Sakti (Kaalikaa/Kali) gave birth to Brahma, Vishnu, and Sadasiva for creation, maintenance and dissolution  (Genetics has revealed that Y chromosome is an attenuated degenerate copy of the original X chromosome (X-Degenerate); this information is no comfort to Adam. The belief that Eve came from Adam is in contradistinction to that of Tantrics who say that Sakti was and is the first female of the universe; the male and female gods and all beings (including plants) issued forth from the First Goddess.) She advised them to get married but there were no females; Kalika out of her own body produced Savitri for Brahma, Sri for Vishnu and Bhuvanesvari for Sadasiva. The consorts were the saktis of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; without them, they were mere inert bodies. Brahma queried Adyasakti (Kalika) as to what her gender is. She said she had no gender when she was Parabrahman; when she became Saguna Brahman, she was both Purusa and Sakti. Mind perceives and identifies Sakti as male or female, but Sakti is both. She is a double as person and image in the mirror, and as person and shadow. At the time of dissolution, she says, "I am neither male, nor female, nor neuter." They are two in One: Sakti and Siva, Nada and Bindu, Mother and Father, Devi and Deva. Nada and Bindu are the origin of the universe. Nada is not mere sound; it is undifferentiated Akasa, the stem substance from which universe of beings and matter originate. (Stem = progenitor) Read elsewhere on Akasa; POTPOURRI ONE. The Stem Substance, Ākāsa. It is Sabdabrahman, Brahman of sounds. It is the Word of God in Bible.  Go to >>>>Christianity and Hinduism>>>> It is Consciousness and Intelligence. Nada is resident in Devi or Kundalini as Para Vani. Go to Sabda or Sound>>>. Go to <<<Bindu>>>. It is the Pure Consciousness, which descends from its subtle nature to its gross appearance in the manifestation of beings and universe.  Sabdabrahman is Consciousness in all beings, resides in Muladhara Chakra as Kundalini Devi and pops like a sprout from a seed in Para Vani, two leaves in Pasyanti, buds in Madhyama, and blossoms in Vaikahari. This is the evolution of speech from primordial sound (Para Vani) at Muladhara Chakra to visual sound (Pasyanti) in Manipura Chakra , to Madhyama (mental sound) in Anahata Chakra to Vaikhari (articulated speech) in Visuddha Chakra. These sounds rise from the base of the spine in its primal state. When it reaches the Manipura Chakra at the level of the navel, the sound becomes a primitive language of all beings including birds, bees, animals and humans.

Body language is Visual Sound.

All body parts participate in this language and therefore this sound is called visual sound. The optics (visual language) of aggression is baring of teeth and popping of the eyes in a monkey; thrashing of feet by a bull; erection of ears, raising of the head and baring of teeth on one side in a dog, and arching of back, horripilation (erection of hair), and spitting from open mouth in a cat, accompanied by animal-specific growls of anger. This is visual sound, meaning that anger in the primitive brain of the animal transforms from image of threat to bodily expressions of anger. This visual sound becomes a mental sound which finds expression in larynx in Visuddha Chakra. In man, this articulated sound undergoes further modification into characters (Varna), phrases (Vakya), sentences (Vasaka), prose, poetry, images, and drawings. Animals are incapable of going beyond Visual sound, while we proceed to intelligible Vikari sound of the larynx.

Kundali goddess is the hypostasis of all modifications of sound, speech and expression; She wears the 50 Sanskrit letters as a rosary around her neck. In animals Sabdabrahman (Sound Brahman or Sound-God) exists, but its manifestation is curtailed to the extent it is expressed in each animal. Man has Sabda (sound) and Varna (letter or character); animals have Sabda and not Varna; Sabda without Varna distinguishes animal from man. In Tantra, letters are considered so important that it asserts that matter, beings and gods (Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra) originate from letters and mantras. For Tantrics, Matrka is Mother and Mother of all Letters; she is self-born and self-existent.

    Brahman of sounds or Sound Brahman is Kundalini Goddess in Muladhara Chakra residing as coiled serpent ready to spring and pierce the upper Chakras, taking the Sadhaka with her. She remains in a state of sleep. Kundalini Sound exists as Para Nada (Vāni, the Transcendental Sound). The Primal Sound’s seat is at the Muladhara plane of Kundalini. It is undifferentiated sound, though it is the source of root ideas or germ thoughts. It is not within the reach of ordinary consciousness. Nada Yogis claim that Para Nada is a high frequency sound, so high that it does not stir or produce vibrations; it is a still sound. When you consider the great discoveries of man, the source that the person taps is Para Nada, whose higher purpose is to reveal Brahma Vidya to the Sadakas.

    Sabdabrahman is the first cause (Adya + karana = being at the beginning, first + cause). Sabdabrahman undergoes transformation (parinama). It infuses itself with Tamas, Rajas, and Sattva Gunas, which assume female divine status and pair off with complementary strands as in DNA strands; It is like Obligatory Complementary Base Pairing: Raudri with Rudra, Vama with Brahma, and Jyesta with Vishnu. This process goes by the term Sadrisa Parinama (transformation resulting in two homologous pairs in each of three pairs). The first product is the female homologue followed by the male homologue in each pair--Raudri first and Rudra later. Sabdabrahman transforms into three pairs. This first creation is called Sabdasrsti (Sabda + srsti = Sound + Creation). The second creation is called Arthasrsti (Arthasrsti = Artha + Srsti = form or object + Creation). Asthasrsti is a process where Kulakundalini becomes many kalas, parts, or pairs. They are the seven male gods with female counterparts or homologues ruling over seven worlds. These seven pairs are under the guidance of Goddess Kulakundalini. 

Sound is created first and later come the objects to match and denote the sound. Every object or phenomenon in the universe has an intrinsic sound; if you have the ability to hear and identify the sound, that sound is the name of that entity. One should remember that the  intrinsic sound that the object makes is the real name of the object; it means that its name is the same in all languages. That intrinsic sound originates in the spinning atoms; if you can hear it, why do we have so many languages? Because man does not recognize that true sound with his imperfect ear, while God does hear the sound of that object and passes it on to Yogis, who pass it on to others. Every time the sound is heard and passed down, it gets distorted and that is why there are so many languages.  Read more below.

Example: Fire makes the intrinsic sound RAM; God, the Absolute hears the absolute sound in its perfect decibel and frequency because he created it. Ram is the absolute sound and the Denotation for Fire. Ram is the Primary Essential Causal Stress Sound for Fire. Ram is the name for Fire that Yogi hears from the Absolute. Agni is the Sanskrit name (Connotation) for Fire; Agni is the connotated name heard by the ear. The Europeans hear the word Agni through their relative ear, and their relative tongue and called it Ignis. From Ignis came the word Ignition. Now you can see how the Sanskrit word has been recycled and sent back to us in its corrupt form, sound, syllables and spelling.  Only God has absolute ear for the sound and absolute tongue for speech.

The Britisher heard the word Tiruvanantapuram (Tiru-Ananta-Puram) the name of a famous Temple Town in Kerala, dating back to 1000 B.C.. His relative ear, his relative tongue and his penchant to untwist his tongue made him say Trivandrum. He knows the word TRI (meaning three); he knows the word VAN ( for vehicle) and he knows the word DRUM (that you beat). He put them all together and used the corrupted word, TRIVANDRUM (Three + Van + Drum) for the sacred town. The original meaning of the word was Sacred-Endless-City. Tiru + Ananta + Puram = Sacred + Endless + City.  Thus the Sacred-Endless-City has come to be known as Three + Van + Drum.  Now you see how relative ear and relative tongue can alter the sacred sound and meaning of a word and create an ignominious name for a sacred city.  One can say it is the 'City of Lord Ananta.'  Ananta is a serpent; the endless coils represent endless time; Vishnu, who is beyond time, reclines on the bed of snake, Ananta. Vishnu is called PadmaNabhaSwamy (Lotus-navel-God  = one who has lotus sprouting from His navel). The navel lotus is His Baby, the universe and beings, on which sits Brahma the creator.

Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient city with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BC. It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BC. The city was the trading post of spices, sandalwood and ivory. However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was almost entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala. The early rulers of the city were the Ays. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the rulers of Venad.--Wikipedia.



Facts and factoids: Silly cows and billy goats. Here is something for the purring Puerile and the Prurient. The present-day Britishers have their own problem with ticklish town and village names, which do not lend to decorous speech and make people to indecorously say 'ROLMAO.' Take for instance an explorer man traveling the length and breadth of UK. He starts his journey from East Breast located in west of Scotland, winds his way to Wetwang in East Yorkshire where a 2300 year old woman rides a chariot; putters to Penistone, famous for rare Penistone white-face sheep, silly cows and billy goats; buttonholes a billy-twirling bobby  for directions to Butt Hole Road in South Yorkshire and receives an earful of tongue-lashing which gave him a butt-full of vicarious welts; spins to Spanker Lane down below; peddles down to North Piddle; totters east to Titty Ho; bids adieu to Ugley; scratches his way to Crotch Crescent; plunks down to Crapstone and settles down  in Pratts Bottom. He ate chicken breast in East Breast; had a swill with chariot-woman in a wet bar in Wetwang; bought a sheep-pendant in Penistone; saw people use Spic and Span in Spanker Town; did not see one puddle in rainy North Piddle; bought a kitten in Titty Ho, a town of angels and no hos; wore a mask to hide his pug nose in Ugley; ate croissant in Crotch Crescent and bought a gemstone in Crapstone for a rock-bottom price. In Crapstone, surgeons operate on our belly-aching explorer man and find a crapstone (fecolith = fecal stone = crapstone) in his appendix as the cause of obstructed appendicitis. End of Facts and Factoids. Inspiration: article in NYT

Padmanabha Swami Temple graces the city and was sung by Nammalvar, a Tamil Saint of Vaishnava sect. It is one among the 108 Divya Ksetrams (Sacred places for Vishnu). It is so famous that it is mentioned in Puranas, Mahabharata.... The main image in the temple is Anantapadmanabha, one of many names of Lord Vishnu. Anantapadmanabha = Ananta + Padma + Nabha Endless + Lotus + Navel.  Ananta is endless and refers to Endless Time, an attribute of Vishnu. The coils of snake appears endless and thus Sesa, the snake stands for endless time. Sesa is accordingly a theriomorphic form of Lord Vishnu, who takes YogaNidra (Meditation Sleep) on the snake bed between destruction and creation. Sesa also means Remainder, what remains after destruction of the world. Vishnu is taking meditative sleep in the regenerative Cosmic Ocean on the Remainder (Sesa) after destruction. When he wakes up, He will create the world. Padma is lotus that grows from the navel of Vishnu; Lord Brahma the creator is seated on the lotus.

Natural Sounds and Natural Names:

Inspiration for this article came from Natural Name by Woodroffe in Garland of letters, which portrays the Hindu view of Sabda and Artha (Sound and object). For better understanding, new terms introduced by me are as follows: Primary Essential Sound (Causal Stress Sound) and External Stress Sound (Secondary External Stress Sound).

There is movement in all that exists. All movements (and objects) emit sound whether you hear it or not. Remember atoms in objects spin and make sound but we cannot hear that sound.  If you can hear that sound and name it after the way it sounds that is Natural Name of that sound or the object that produced the sound. Cuckoo is named onomatopoeically so because it emits that which sounds like "cuckoo". In Tamil a Crow is named after its sound Ka. Since it usually makes two consecutive Ka-Kas, it is called KAKA (காகா). If you can hear the sound of the sap moving up the tree from its roots, you can give it a Natural Name. The Uncreated Brahman is Unmoving (Nispanda); the created world is moving and anything that moves makes sound. Sound is the basic phenomenon by which man apprehends the world. All else such as touch and feel, form and color, taste, and smell are all complex sounds. The skin, the eyes, the tongue and the nose are the peripheral organs that transmit the 'sound' to the respective cortex. Human ear and the brain cannot hear all sounds. Elephants in the wild communicate by sounds that humans cannot hear. Humans cannot smell what a dog smells. Smell is also a movement or sound. A dog can smell a narcotic 10 feet away from its source. Something moved from the narcotic to the nose for the dog to apprehend the narcotic. In like manner the Supreme Absolute Ear of Sakti can hear sounds in its purest state from all objects and that sound is the Natural Name for that object. Objects produce two kinds of sounds: Causal Stress Sound (Primary Essential Sound) and External Stress Sound. Let us take a tuning fork. There is a sound, though not audible to us, emanating from a non-vibrating tuning fork; that is the Causal Stress Sound we don't hear and yet is heard by the Supreme Absolute Ear of Sakti and accomplished Yogi and is produced by the motions of Subatomic Particles. When the tuning fork is subject to external stress (tapping), it vibrates and emits sound and that is the stress-induced sound heard by the Relative Ear. What the Yogi hears from the non-vibrating tuning fork is imperfect sound because only Brahman or Prajapati can hear the Natural Sound in its perfection with His Supreme Absolute Ear which is not gross or physical. Prajapati hears without ears, sees without eyes and walks without legs. The Prajapati utters the Causal Stress Sound  by His Supreme Tongue to his Sadhaka who hears it by his imperfect Relative ear in a distorted way. When the Yogi rises to the level of Prajapati, the Causal Stress Sound sounds true to its quality to him. The Yogi communicates the Causal Stress Sound to his disciples who hear the sound in varying degrees of imperfection. Mantra Sastra states that Bija Mantras (Root Mantras sounding the Sanskrit letters) represent the Natural Names. The breath consisting of Inspiration and Expiration emits the sound of Prana-Bija Mantra, Hamsa. The out-breath sound is Ham and the in-breath sound is Sa. Om is the sound that has come down from its pristine natural state to its present form, structure and sound through many MAnasaputras and a line of Gurus, who tried to reproduce the sound to the best of their ability. Woodroffe states that it is an open continuous sound uninterrupted by any consonant which clips it, vanishing as it were upward in the NAdabindu which is placed on the vowel.

Interpretation of the term, "Natural".

1) The Supreme Absolute Ear (of God) hears the Primary Essential Sound (Causal Stress Sound) of an object without any distortion and He utters them with His Absolute Tongue without any distortion. Causal stress Sound that is emitted by the object  is the name of an Object.

2) When Prajapati (God) utters them to Yogis, what they hear varies according to their Relative Ear (of Yogi) and what they utter varies according their Relative Tongue. What we hear and utter are not Natural Sounds because we hear with imperfect relative ears and brain and utter with imperfect tongues. The Mantras Om, Ham, Ram are all distorted sounds as heard and uttered by the imperfect us; the degree of distortion depends on the nature and sensitivity of the Relative Ear and Tongue.

3) Cuckoo and the crow are named onomatopoeically from the sound they make. This is the sound they make when subjected to stress--External Stress-induced Sound. When the firewood is burning, it emits many sounds, which the Relative Gross Ear hears. The Causal Stress Sound or the Primary Essential Sound fire emits is Bija Mantra Ram which only a Yogi hears. Various organs in the body make Causal Stress Sound Hamsa and so on. Primordial Sounds descend to our relative levels according to our Relative Ears and Relative Tongues. Some do not descend to us at all.

4) Objects are named by Denotation and Connotation.

       de·no·ta·tion:  SaktyArtha, AbhidAsakti. Intrinisic, direct. Literal power or sense of the word. Primary name

1. the explicit or direct meaning or set of meanings of a word or expression, as distinguished from the ideas or meanings associated with it or suggested by it; the association or set of associations that a word usually elicits for most speakers of a language, as distinguished from those elicited for any individual speaker because of personal experience. Cf. connotation.

Ram is the Denotation of Fire. Ram is the Primary Essential Causal Stress Sound for Fire. Ram is the name for Fire that Yogi hears from the Absolute. Ram should be the name for Fire in all languages.

con·no·ta·tion: LaksyArtha, laksanAsakti  Secondary meaning, with attributes or qualities. Secondary Name

the associated or secondary meaning of a word or expression in addition to its explicit or primary meaning: A possible connotation of "home" is "a place of warmth, comfort, and affection." Cf. Denotation

Ram is the Denotation of Fire. Ram is the Primary Essential Causal Stress Sound for Fire. Agni, Vahni, HutAsana are connotation and the Secondary External stress-induced Sound for Ram.

Ram is the Denotation of Fire. Ram is the Primary Essential Causal Stress Sound for Fire. Ram is the name for Fire that Yogi hears from the Absolute. Agni is the Sanskrit name (Connotation) for Fire; Agni is the connotated name heard by the ear. The Europeans hear the word Agni and their relative (imperfect) tongue called it Ignis. From Ignis came the word Ignition.

5) "Primary and Secondary names may be combined in such order (Krama) and metre or harmony (Chandah) that by vitalizing one another, these in combination may appear as an approximate name of thing or process.


Brahma  =  Bharati  =  VAma  =  Brahmi = Iccha (Will) Vishnu = Hari  =  Ksiti  =  Jyestha  =  Jnana (knowledge) Siva  =  AparnA  =  Raudri  =  Kriya (Action).  The male elements in these three groups are SAntA and the female elements are AmbikA.


Kundalini Devi (Sabdabrahman, Kulakundalini) is in a sleep mode in Muladhara Chakra in Urogenital Triangle, remains coiled around Svayambhu Linga and emits sounds though sleeping. She is life breath; she is inspiration and expiration. Ajapa (A + Japa = No + Chant) is the primal Mantra. This chantless Mantra pervades the breath going in and out, the subtle sound ‘sah’ going in and the subtle sound ‘ham’ going out.  {Sa = Siva, Vishnu, Lakshmi, or Gauri [Parvati or Sakti]; Ham = I am; so = Parvati.} As one chants this subtle-sound Mantra ‘Soham’, a derivative of ‘Sah-ham,’ ‘Hamsa’ comes into being by inversion. Soham, Hamsa and AUM (Pranava) are equipotent. Tirumular says that AUM, though a three-letter word, is a one-letter Mantra. Soham is the unintonated sound of normal breathing, meaning ‘I am He.’ Hamsa, meaning ‘Swan’ as in RamaKrishna Parma-Hamsa, stands for an ascetic --Hamsan. All of us including all air-breathing living beings recite this Mantra ‘Soham’ unknowingly for a lifetime. This chantless Mantra (Ajapa Japa) is Ajapa Gayatri. As you are breathing this chantless Soham in and out, you are identifying your individual self with the Great Self of the Supreme Being. Every breath (and the Mantra) that you take pervades the whole universe of your body. This life giving force or Mantra has the Great Self as the basis. Every time you chant a Mantra, it leads the individual soul to the Great Soul-- the Source, the Essence. All Mantras inclusive of Sakti, Vishnu and Siva Mantras and many but not all rituals are Tantric in origin; that is the reason why Tantra goes by the term Mantra Sastra.  Devi or Sakti says that any Sastra that is in opposition to Sruti, Smrti, and Oneness (Siva and Sakti in Saiva tradition, Vishnu and MahaLakshmi in Vaishnava tradition) such as Bhairava, Gautama, Kapala, Sakala and the like are creations by her Maya power for bewilderment of those devoid of Her Grace. This bewilderment has an analogy in a family. Let us take father as an example. Father is one; he is also many for the following reasons. He is the son for his father, brother for his brother and sister, cousin, husband, father-in-law, employer, employee, partner, colleague, and so on; his functions depend upon his relationship with each individual and is sometimes sacrosanct in relation to a particular person in this constellation.

    Forms emanate from Hamsa, root sound or Ajapa Mantra; from forms emanate universes. This two-phase respiration, expiration and inspiration, represents the duality of male and female genders and principles; the male is Pravrtti, and the female is Nivrtti. Pravrtti is expiration, forward movement, expulsion, centrifugal force and evolution; Nivrtti is inspiration, backward movement, centripetal movement and involution. Devi's Pranic power (Vital air) is akin to Akasa, which is the stem substance from which universe took its origin. Differentiation of this vital power results in the inversion of Soham into Hamsa, other sounds, forms, and dualities that come into being. A series of triplets are born: three gunas, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas; three Varnas or characters; three channels or Nadis and others. Three Nadis are Susumna, Pingala and Ida.

Later quaternaries are born and so on and so forth until all the fifty Varnas (alphabets) of Sanskrit became manifest. Only yogis can hear the songs of Devi sung at Muladhara Chakra. When the primal sound is subject to guna, it undergoes differentiation into Dhvani, an indistinct sound which on more influence from gunas, modifies further into Nada, Nibodhika, Ardhendu, Bindu, and Para Vani in Muladhara Chakra. All these sound modifications go from the most subtle to subtle quality and yet the sound in Para Vani is not yet an audible sound to the human ears. Nada, the primal sound, is the primordial origin of articulated sound (Vaikhari) separated by several degrees from Nada. Nibodhika = Ni+Bodhika = Giver of Knowledge = Nada is the Giver of knowledge. Ardhendu = Ardha + Indu = half + moon = half-moon. Bindu is dot or Light. Para Vani is transcendental undifferentiated sound and is the source of root ideas or germ thoughts. It is not within the reach of ordinary consciousness. Nada Yogis claim that Para Nada is a high frequency sound, so high that it does not stir or produce vibrations; it is a still sound. These subtle sounds make the body or states of Kundali Devi in Muladhara Chakra. All 50 Sanskrit letters exist in the body of Kundali in the progressively evolving states of Para Vani, Pasyanti, Madhyama, and Vaikhari; the last being the articulated sound.

    Dhvani (Dh + Vani) is latent sound waiting to be expressed in sound or letters. Dhvani of Kulakundalini undergoes Parinama (transformation) to become Veda in Isvara and sound (Sabda) in Jiva. Latency is characteristic of Dhvani sound, while Vedas and Sabda reveal patency and meaning. Tantrics believe that the fetus, with the awakened Dhavani of Kundalini and the fifty letters of Sanskrit alphabet (A to Ksa), reflects its past lives in its mind's eyes and ears inside the womb. When the infant slides along with the passage of amniotic fluid into the outer world by the force of Prasava Vayu (labor wind), it utters its first cry with the expulsion of internal Dhvani through its windpipe and larynx, and all the nine doors of its body (two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, mouth, genital opening, and evacuative aperture) open to the outer world. As he is shoved from the womb into the outer world through the birth canal , the fetus forgets all entertained memories of pain and pleasure of previous lives during its sojourn in the womb. The chain of  memory is fragmented and lost for ever during the birth process.  The pain suffered by the fetus (here read as Jiva) is proportional to his Prarabda karmic sins of previous life. (Considering the critical junctures in the life of man, birth is said to be one of the most important event because a lot of things can go wrong during birth. Tantrics attribute uneventful birth to good karma, while perinatal trauma or injury (pain) is considered as bad karma. Suffering from Karma, according to Tantrics, happens at appropriate times, places and circumstances and clears obstructions and impediments and leads the individual to liberation.) For the lucky ones, the perinatal pain from normal or traumatic birth may take the form of traumatic death in Tirthas (places of pilgrimage) leading to liberation. Remember the death of many pilgrims during melee in many religious gatherings. Woman suffers painful parturition not because the newborn child is responsible, but because she is resolving her own prarabda karma. Each person follows his or her own karmic path and when the paths of others  intersect, there is pain and suffering or pleasure. An infant does not suffer on account of parturient mother and the latter does not suffer on account of the former; they follow their own paths which intersected at parturition. Consider what Bible says about parturition and the Karma of being a woman in the lineage of Eve. Eve ate first the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Good and Evil and later tempted Adam into eating the forbidden fruit. God, upon seeing Eve and Adam eat the fruits addressed Eve first and said that woman would always suffer in childbirth. God said, 'I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children.' Why do other women have to suffer from parturition simply because Eve ate the forbidden fruit and gave it to Adam? The Karma of Eve afflicts all women; it is a kind of karma attached to female gender. Science tells us that all humanity came from one African Eve and one African Adam. It looks as if that Bible itself believes in Karma, though it does not use a cognate word. Man did not get out of this predicament scot-free. God said to him. 'In the sweat of thy face thou shalt eat bread, till thou return unto the ground.'. What Adam did afflicts all men, another example of Karma. It looks as if man got out of this mess with less suffering. In Hinduism, Karma afflicts and haunts only the doer. In Christianity it appears that Karma of Eve and Adam afflicts the whole human race. No wonder, we have to think of Karma of  human race, a nation, a state, a county, a community, a family....

Maya is the unseen sweet enchanter and close companion, which forces sentiments of nearness between mother and child and takes the mind off the long journey to liberation or perdition. I have heard famous professors of Religion from the West with a string of Ph.Ds after their names and a loyal following fall into dismay and disbelief at this Hindu concept, which they don't understand. It is like the newborn infant who doesn't understand rocketry, brain surgery, moon landing, workings of a computer, the origin of the universe.... This Pluripotential Newborn Infant knows only one thing: rooting reflex to latch on to the teat or nipple, besides making peepee and pooh-pooh.  It takes a Yogi to figure out all these Karmic highways, byways, sideways, service roads, entrances, exits, toll booths, intersections, roadblocks, detours.... One should not pooh-pooh something one does not understand and a Ph.D does not confer omniscience. Just state the matter and leave it at that. Indulge in exegesis of what you understand with limited human intelligence. Yogis have Higher Transcendental Intelligence and transcendental knowledge, wisdom and consciousness, far beyond human consciousness and understanding. What they say goes and what the professor says is Apara-vidya (mundane knowledge) useful to buy milk and bread. A Yogi by definition is one who 'may accomplish by the mind all that may be done by means of these physical organs without the use of the latter'-- Woodroffe page 59 The Serpent Power. Simply put, he can see with eyes closed, hear with ears shut, taste without the use of the tongue.... Professor Lombroso records the case of a woman who, being blind, read with the tip of her ear, tasted with her knees and smelt with her toes.--page 60 IBID. What does it mean? Yogi may use any part of his body for a purpose directly not connected with it.

    As the Jiva is buffeted and ravaged by waves and tsunamis of the sea of samsara (life on earth), Sadhaka sheds rivers of tears, lays bare the inner recess of his heart and cries for help at the feet of Devi; he has failed in Sadhana and the fiery heat of Samsara has scorched him. Once he becomes a perfected Sadhaka, Mantrasakti confers all enjoyments (Bhoga) which others receive from wife, children, and wealth. Once a Sadhaka obtains Mantrasakti, there is no need for sastras and rituals; he graduated from Sabdabrahman to Parabrahman. When Brahmamayi's grace descends into the heart of Sadhaka, the Tejas (Light) of Mantra illuminates his spiritual heart dispelling the darkness of delusion (Moha) and ignorance (Avidya). Sadhaka enters into a state of Self-realization which is Kaivalya, Samadhi, Turiya and or Nirvana.

    The stages of sound from the most subtle to articulated sound have concordance with the evolution of Primal Being from Avyakta through Brahman, Isvara, Hiranyagarbha, and Virat, the last being the manifest world.

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Para Vani manifests in Prana; Pasyanti manifests in the mind; and Yogi hears it in his inner ear; Madhyama manifests in Indriyas (organs -body language) and is the sound of the heart and not of the tongue; Vaikhari manifests in the throat as articulate speech. When the Yogi's mind, on ablation, becomes free of thoughts, he hears humming of bees, whooshing sound through the hollow of bamboo and so on followed by awakening of superconsciousness and receiving of Brahman knowledge.

    Fifty Sanskrit letters form the Aksaras (imperishable, letter, word, sound), the body of Mother Goddess, Kundalini. Sound has form as in voiceprint. Voiceprint = a graphic representation of a person's voice, showing the component frequencies as analyzed by a sound spectrograph.  In like manner, Sound has color (Varna = color, character): red, white, blue, yellow and more. The Yogis visualize the letters in colors. This is Synesthesia, which the modern neurologists are discovering now. These sounds (50) are Matrika, Mother of all sounds; they are also the Mother of the universe of matter and beings.  Let me explain the colors as follows. Cardiac Doppler Color Flow imaging shows the red blood flow (oxygenated blood) from the left heart and the blue blood (deoxygenated blood) from the right heart. When they mix in the heart or elsewhere one knows that there is a  cardiac defect, septal defect or fistula. As you know the colors on Doppler are computer-generated.

    Mantra is a magical formula based on a sound, a syllable, a word, a phrase or a verse, which, when chanted in silence, solo, or chorus, creates wholesome vibrations and energy.

    Mantra is the sound-body of a god or goddess; Yantra depicts the sound-body in a diagram. Mantra = (Man = is to think or meditate + Tra = is to protect.) Yantra = instrument, engine, apparatus, amulet with mystical diagram endowed with protective occult powers. An image of the Deity is Pratima (gross); Yantra, Suksma (subtle) and mantra, Para (Supreme). Yantra is a geometrical depiction of divinity in the form of a drawing, engraving, or painting on copper, silver, gold, birch, bone, crystal, hide, paper or Saligrama. Saligrama is a natural outcropping from earth with natural sacred signs. It could be Vishnu or Linga stone (before it is sanctified). Stalagmites and river stones are also included in Saligrama. Mantra is the soul of Yantra; worship in Yantra pleases the Goddess. Yantra restrains, regulates, modulates, subdues, and sublimates all miseries born of desire, anger, hate, greed, love and other entities.  Worship without Yantra brings curse from the Deity. While worshipping the Deities, the deity-specific Mantra and Yantra with all the attendant rituals and paraphernalia come into play by design, guaranteeing the proper respect and reverence to the deity. Invocation of one deity and worship of another brings the wrath of both offended deities. The Inner power (Antahsakti) comes into full force in worship with all its rituals. All this comes about under instructions from the Guru. Mantras come into use for Worship, Communication, Rewards, Powers, Avoidance and Expulsion, Cures, Detoxification, Manipulation, Control, Purification, inflicting injury, and other purposes.


Go to MAHAVIDYAS for details on Yantra



1. Worship involves the three primary Gods, Goddesses, other minor devatas (gods). Communication with Gods is for obtaining Siddhis, magical powers, worldly wealth, and liberation.

2.  Avoiding, warding of and expulsion of evil, devil, and ghosts, Exorcism.

3.  Material and other rewards.

4.  Power, yogic powers come under Yoga.

5.  Cure, Ability to cure diseases.

6.  Detoxification, ability to rid the body of poison in man and animals.

7.  Manipulation of actions and thoughts of other people.

8.  Control minor deities, men, animals, and ghosts.

9.  Purification, both internal and external.

10.  Magical powers, minor, and major as in eight magical powers of Yogis.

11.  Liberation from samsara.

    Inflicting punishment or injury by Mantra is evil and a double-edged sword, which could bring harm to the Mantra invoker.  It is like digging a grave for one's enemy and paradoxically getting interred in it.

Phetkarini and other Tantras are devoted to mantras that help Sadaka acquire special powers (Siddhas) listed below:

Santi (Peace), Vasa-kriya or -karana (subduing or subjugation), Marana (death), Ucchatana (ruining an adversary), Ksobana (causing agitation), Mohana (causing confusion), Dravana (Putting to fight) , Stambhana (Immobilization and paralysis), and Vidvesana (Stirring up hatred).

Phet-kaarini = howling one (here, goddess).

If you take a second look at the above list, this is what nations do in war (and peace).

In this article elsewhere, other siddhis are described: Anima, Mahima, Laghima, Prapti, Prakamya, Isitva, Vashistva, and Kamarutattva.

 The mind acquires special powers by birth, drug, Mantra, Tapam or Samadhi. Krishna is an example of birth conferring special powers. Drug is a well-known modifier of mind and mood as known in modern times among Drug Gurus; Tantra Sastras mention use of herbs for modifying the mind. Mantra, Tapam, and Samadhi are the non-pharmacological way of attaining Oneness with Brahman.  Mantra, among Tantrics, lays down new circuits in the brain, so they can rise above human consciousness, tap into Superconsciousness, develop special powers, become One with the Supreme in Samadhi and experience Sat Chit and Ananda (Being, Consciousness, and Bliss).

The power of Mantra is of two kinds: Vasaka Sakti and Vakya Sakti. Vasaka Sakti is to realize Saguna Brahman and Vakya Sakti is to realize Nirguna Brahman. Hell is home for him who thinks that Guru is a mere mortal, that Mantras are mere words, and images are mere stones.

Mantra confers True Knowledge of the universe and liberation from Samsara. The knowledge that we gain in arts and sciences is not real knowledge (Apara Vidya); true knowledge is Brahmavidya (Para Vidya) and Brahmanda: Knowledge of Brahman and universe. A Guru is necessary for initiation into Mantra, who knows its inner workings. Guru communicates and transfers his boundless energy to the pupil by sight, silence, thought, word and deed. The pupil becomes dvija, twice born in the sense that upon initiation he is born again in spirit. When the Guru initiates a sisya (pupil), energy passes from the Guru's body to that of Sisya and the Guru has to perform Tapas to recoup the lost energy.  A smile is an example of transfer of felicitous, benign and supportive energy from the mother (Guru) to the child (pupil), who immediately receives and reciprocates that energy.


  Here is an instance wherein a Guru transmits spiritual wisdom by gaze and proximity to his disciples as told by Paul Brunton (1935). The Guru is Ramana Maharishi.

THE HILL OF THE HOLY BEACON (Tiruvannamalai Hills = திருவண்ணாமலை) P163 A Search in Secret India   By Paul Brunton.

 In this beautiful, entranced silence, when the clock stands still and the sorrows and errors of the past seem like trivialities, my mind is being submerged in that of the Maharishee and wisdom is now at its perihelion. What is this man's gaze but a thaumaturgic wand, which evokes a hidden world of unexpected splendour before my profane eyes?

I have sometimes asked myself why these disciples have been staying around the sage for years, with few conversations, fewer comforts and no external activities to attract them. Now I begin to understand - not by thought but by lightning-like illumination that through all those years they have been receiving a deep and silent reward.


When does God manifest as Guru?

Note: "Prayers to God are only selfish in the beginning, yet they not only fulfill one’s desires but also purify the mind, so that devotion to God grows in intensity and the devotee desires nothing more than God. Then God shows His grace by manifesting as his Guru."]

SWAMI SRI RAMANANANDA SARASWATHI (Munagala S. Venkataramaiah) Commentary on Guru in English Translation of Tripura Rahasya.

    Christianity is of the view that our first birth is physical and our second birth is spiritual. In Tantric System, there is no race or class difference; all humanity is entitled to Guru Initiation; all are children of Mother Goddess, who does not favor one caste, race, or gender, and who rejects other variables to discriminate one over another. Tantric system takes man from matter to spirit by physical, mental, ritual and spiritual means.

When Mantra becomes part of the consciousness of the pupil, he becomes a siddha. He or she has the ability to awaken Kundalini Devi and pierce all chakras to reach Sahasrara Chakra, where union with Siva takes place. Human Guru is a surrogate of Divine Guru; Vasaka Sakti of Mantra as it relates to Vakya Sakti runs parallel to Human Guru as he relates to Divine Guru.  A sadhaka has to know the human Guru and Vasaka Sakti of Mantra before he comes to know Vakya Sakti and Divine Guru. Guru, Mantra, and Devata are same. The Aspirant meditates upon Devata in the heart lotus, Ajna Lotus or Sahasrara the thousand-petal lotus.

    A pupil or Sisya should have the following qualities:

1) Good upbringing, pure mind, strong body, and steadfast mind.

2) Pursue Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksa.

3) Proficient in Vedas, Sastras, and knowing their essence.

4) Pursue Kula Dharma, be good to and serve all living beings, and work for enduring objectives.

5) Serve the Guru by body, mind, thought, speech, deed, and money

6) Should rise above passions, laziness, anger, and useless mundane knowledge.

    Initiation of Sisya comes after he serves his Guru for one year and Guru decides that he is ready for initiation. Guru makes sure that the seed that he sows hits the fertile soil and not the rock (of a Sisya).

    A Guru must have certain qualifications:

He must be a householder with wife and children well versed in Tantric Sastras and in Mantra. Guru must belong to the same locale of Sisya.

He must not be father of Sisya, an Ascetic (Vanaprastha--Forest-dwelling recluse), or Sannyasi.

Tantra Sastra says that a recluse is incapable of giving meaningful directions and instructions to a Sisya, if the Guru has no idea of the mundane world of Samsara he and his Sisya live in.

A Guru should have mastery over Jnana leading to Moksa. A Sisya should abandon a Guru incapable of imparting Jnana.

The Sastras mention that the testing of both the Guru and Sisya are essential. Depending on the caste of the Sisya, he stays with the Guru in the latter's house for one to four years. The Guru puts him through the wringer in such ways that he comes to know of the pupil's body, mind, speech, devotion, character and compatibility.  One year is the minimum necessary for a Guru to evaluate his pupil of Brahmana lineage; two years for Ksatriya; three years for Vaisya; four years for Sudra. A greedy or timorous Guru invites the wrath and curse of Devata; initiation performed by him has no value. Mutual testing of Guru and Sisya as to their fitness by each other is a dynamic process. If it does not stand the test of the Sastras, both are reduced to the state of Pisaca (a dirty spirit).

That the Guru should be married and have children is mandatory in Tantric System as opposed to the prevailing stipulation in Catholic religion, though there are many ceremonies common to both. Woodroffe is of the opinion that ceremonial aspect of Tantric system spread from India to other parts of the world. Only a Guru, with a full-fledged family and Jnana roiling in the ocean of Samsara, is capable of navigating the rough seas and offering Real Jnana to Sisya. Others like Sannyasis, Vanaprasthyas, and recluses who are not family-centric play by different rules and therefore are not capable of offering Jnana to Sisya.

Guru:  In fact there is only one Guru, abiding in Kailasa.  Mantra comes from Siva through the mouth of earthly Guru; there is no difference between Guru, Mantra and Devata.

    One source tells that there are three kinds of Gurus: Pasu Guru, Vira Guru, and Divya Guru; three kinds of Mantras: Pasu Mantra, Vira Mantra and Divaya Mantra; three kinds of Bhavas (mental states): Pasu Bhava, Vira Bhava, and Divya Bhava. Divya Bhava is the best of all and awards Siddhis to the Siddha; Vira Bhava is mediocre; Pasu Bhava is the least worthy.  Vira Bhava Sadhakas perform rituals, pujas, charitable works, Yatras (pilgrimages) to Pithas (holy places),  control of senses and Kulachara. Vira Bhava by itself does not offer Mukti (salvation); one has to step up to Divya Bhava for eventual Mukti.  Divya Bhava consists of 1. meditation on the form, 2. thinking of Devata as pervading the whole world with Her Tejas (Light and energy), 3. considering that the world and Atma are Her body. A Pasubhava consists of thinking of Devata, chanting of Mantras, prayer and worship progressing to Vira and Divya Bhava.

Pasu: Those who live on the surface of life may not feel the distress, the laceration of spirit, and may not feel any urge to seek their true good. They are human animals (puruṣapaśu), and like animals they are born, they grow, they mate and leave offspring and pass away. But those who realize their dignity as men are acutely aware of the discord and seek a principle of harmony and peace. Dr. Radhakrishnan The Bhagavadgita page 50   November 2, 2013

Here is what Ramana Maharishi says about Guru

Question: All books say that the guidance of a Guru is necessary.

Answer: The Guru will say only what I am saying now. He will not give you anything you have not already. It is impossible for anyone to get what he has not got already. Even if he gets any such thing, it will go as it came. What comes will also go. What always is will alone remain. The Guru cannot give you anything new, which you have not already. Removal of the notion that we have not realised the Self is all that is required. We are always the Self. Only, we don’t realise it.

Bhagavan explained that the Self is the one reality that always exists and it is by its light all other things are seen. We forget it and concentrate on the appearances. The light in the hall burns, both when persons are present there and when they are absent, both when persons are enacting something as in a theatre and when nothing is being enacted. It is the light which enabled us to see the hall, the persons and the acting. We are so engrossed with the objects or appearances revealed by the light that we pay no attention to the light. In the waking state or dream state, in which things appear, and in the sleep state, in which we see nothing, there is always.  Day by day  page 18-19 by Ramana Maharishi



Here is an extract from a web site on the qualities of a guru.

Among all these the term Guru is of most respected one. It is all encompassing in the definition of the term and in the realm of the actions.(now a days even those who write to wall street is also called as Guru). Actually they are called as BHAGAVATH PADAS. This means that they are the Feet of the Supreme lord, or the lord him self. Because we cannot differentiate the lord from his feet. Now let's see how many types of Gurus are there. The classification is based on the actions of the Guru, and in no way categorize the Guru in any order, these only indicate the roles the Guru can take in general. Actually depending on the need and the sadhaka the Guru can be all these types or can confine to one set of category. 


1.PRERAKA GURU: He who starts the interest and impels the student to achieve the objectives. PRERAKA = SETTING IN MOTION

2. SUCHAKA GURU: He who indicates the path to be followed by the sadhaka and guides him in the crisis.

3. VACHAKA GURU: He who explains the process of the wisdom and the knowledge as indicated in the sashthraas.

4. DARSHAKA GURU: He who makes the sadhaka see the truth and the reality of the phenomenon.

5. SIKSHAKA GURU: Teacher who actually teaches the process the sadhana and teaches how to attain the sadhana.

6. BODHAKA GURU: He who illuminates the wisdom directly in the student.

The 6th is the final essence of the Guru. In all the first 5 stages the teacher leads the sadhaka to culminate in to the 6 stage of the sadhana where he needs a bodhaka guru.

The first 5 are the theory part of the wisdom and the last is the assimilation in the body or called as the Experience, Realization.

In fact all the first 5 types of gurus belong to the following 5 process in sadhana, 1. Instigation, 2.Inauguration, 3. Explanation, 4. Direction, 5. Teaching, and the final guru comes at the stage of Assimilation or Realization.

In between there may be many Gurus to guide different process of the sadhana but he is the final Guru who makes the Poorna Abhisheka of the student with the Brahman.

The different Gurus come in between these 6 stages of the sadhana and these Gurus are 12 in number. They along with their actions are as follows.

1. DHATHU VADHI GURU: Who makes sure that the observances of the sadhana are implemented by the student.

2. CHANDANA GURU: Who simply makes his presence a tool in desisting the student from doing Nishidha Karmas.

3. VICHARA GURU: He who guides the student in to the subtleties of the logic and the arguments to understand the process of sashthra.

4. ANUGRAHA GURU: Who simply showers the grace in case of the mistake in the sadhana and prescribes the prayaschitha.

5. PARASA GURU: Just by touching the disciple transmutes the disabled meridian points as energy centers for higher sadhana.

6. KACHAPA GURU: Just by his samkalpa he will redeem the samskaaraas of the student if he is fit.

7. CHANDRA GURU: The disciple will melt his ignorance and past karmas by the presence of the teacher.

8. DARPANA GURU: He who reflects the cosmic consciousness to the student as a mirror does with out prolonging or with out unnecessary arguments.

9. CHAYA NIDHI GURU: He whose shadow it self awakens the spiritual initiation in the sadhaka.

10. NADANIDHI GURU: He who can communicate the knowledge to the student with out talking (in the form of silent vibration) is called as Nadanidhi guru.

11. KRAUNCHA PAKSHI GURU: He whose mere name brings the illumination to the sadhaka.

12. SURYAKANTHA GURU: He who transmutes the sadhana of the student to the perfection by just seeing him is called as suryakantha Guru. After seeing different types of GURUS now lets understand who is meant by GURU. There are certain qualifications for the Guru which are clear in the Sashthras and there is no compromise on them.

Here is what Ramakrishna Paramahamsa says about Guru in his book Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna.


Conception of the Guru


687. Who is whose Guru (spiritual guide and teacher)?  

God alone is the guide and Guru of the universe.  

688. He who considers his Guru to be merely human, what good can he derive from his prayers and devotions? We should not consider our Guru to be a mere man. Before the disciple sees the Deity, he sees the Guru in the first vision of Divine illumination. And it is the Guru who afterwards shows the Deity, being himself mysteriously transformed into the form of the Deity. Then the disciple sees the Guru and the Deity as one and the same. Whatever boon the disciple asks, the deified Guru gives him all, yea, the Guru even takes him to the highest bliss of Nirvana (the state of extinction of individuality in God). Or, the disciple may choose to remain in a dualistic state of consciousness, maintaining the relation of the worshipper and the worshipped. Whatever he asks, his Guru vouchsafes him.  

689. The human Guru whispers the sacred formula (Mantra) in the ear; the Divine Guru breathes the spirit into the soul.  

690. The Guru is a mediator. He brings man and God together, even as a match-maker brings together the lover and the beloved.  

691. A Guru is like the mighty Ganges. Men throw all filth and refuse into the Ganges, but the holiness of that river is not diminished thereby. So is the Guru above all petty insult and censure.  

692. There are three classes of religious teachers as there are three classes of doctors. There is one class of doctors who, when they are called in, look at the patient, feel his pulse, prescribe the necessary medicines, and ask him to take them. If the patient declines to do so, they go away without troubling themselves further about the matter. This is the lowest class of doctors. In the same way, there are some religious teachers who do not care much whether the disciples attach any value to their teachings and act up to them or not. Doctors of the second type not only ask the patient to take their medicine but go further. They expostulate with him in case he shows any reluctance to take it. In the same way those religious teachers who leave no stone unturned to make other people walk in the ways of righteousness, devotion and truth by means of gentle persuasion, can be said to belong to the next higher class. The third and the highest kind of doctors would proceed to use force with the patient in case their expostulation failed. They would go to the length of putting their knee on the chest of the patient and forcing the medicine down his throat. Similarly, there are some religious teachers who would use force, if necessary, with their disciples with a view to making them walk in the path of the Lord. These belong to the highest class.

Necessity of having a Guru  

693. What is the necessity of calling a particular man our Guru instead of calling everyone who teaches us something by that designation? When going to a strange country, one must abide by the directions of the guide who knows the way. Taking the advice of many would lead to utter confusion. So in trying to reach God one must implicitly follow the advice of one single Guru who knows the way to God.  

694. At a game of chess the on-lookers can tell what the correct move is, better than the players themselves. Men of the world think that they are very clever, but they are attached to the things of the world-money, honours, sense-pleasures, etc. As they are actually engaged in the play, it is hard for them to hit upon the right move. Holy men who have given up the world are not attached to worldly objects. They are like the on-lookers at a game of chess. They see things in their true light and can judge better than the men of the world. Hence, in living the holy life, one must put faith only in the words of those who meditate upon God and who have realised Him. If you seek legal advice, will you not consult lawyers who are in the profession? Surely you will not take the advice of the man in the street.  

695. If you are in right earnest to learn the mysteries of God, He will send you the Sadguru, the right teacher. You need not trouble yourself about finding out a Guru.  

696. He who can himself approach God with sincerity, earnest prayer and deep longing, needs no Guru. But such deep yearning of the soul is very rare; hence the necessity of a Guru. The Guru is only one but Upagurus (subsidiary teachers) may be many. He is an Upaguru from whom anything whatsoever is learned. The Great Avadhuta (an ascetic of a high order mentioned in the Bhagavata) had twenty-four such Upagurus.  

Relation between Guru and Disciple 

697. The fabled pearl-oyster leaves its bed at the bottom of the sea and comes up to the surface to catch rain water when the star Svati is in the ascendant. It floats about on the surface of the sea with its shell wide open until it succeeds in catching a drop of the marvelous  Svati rain. Then it dives down to the sea-bed and there rests until it has succeeded in fashioning a beautiful pearl out of that raindrop. Similarly, there are some true and eager aspirants who travel from place to place in search of the Mantra, the saving word, from a godly and perfect preceptor (Sadguru) which can open for them the gate of eternal bliss; and if in his diligent search a man is fortunate enough to meet such a Guru and get from him the much-longed-for Mantra that has the power to break all fetters, he leaves society at once and retires into the deep recesses of his own heart and strives there till he has succeeded in gaining eternal peace.  

698. Do not fear if such a teacher (i.e., spiritually enlightened Guru) does not seem to be learned and well up in scriptures and other books. Do not fear because he is not book-learned. No, he will never be found wanting in the wisdom of life. He has a never-failing supply of Divine wisdom--of truths directly revealed and superior to all knowledge contained in books.  

699. A man was disputing about the character of his Guru when the Master said, "Why are you wasting your time in this futile discussion? Take the pearl and throw away the oyster-shell. Meditate on the Mantra given to you by the Guru and leave out of consideration the human frailties of the teacher."


700. Listen not to anyone censuring your Guru. The Guru is greater than your father and mother. Would you keep quiet when your father and mother are insulted in your very presence? Fight, if necessary, and maintain the honour of your Guru.  

701. The disciple should never criticise his Guru. He must implicitly obey whatever the Guru says. A certain couplet in Bengali says: "Though my Guru may visit the tavern, still my Guru is holy Rai Nityananda; and though my Guru may visit the unholy haunts of drunkards and sinners, still to me he is my own pure and faultless Guru."  

702. Where the devotion is genuine, even the most ordinary things make the devotee remember God and lose himself in Him. Have you not heard how Lord Chaitanya was merged in Samadhi at the thought, "This is the earth of which drums are made"? Once, while passing through a village, Sri Chaitanya came to know that the inhabitants of that village earned their living by making drums. At once he exclaimed, 'This is the earth of which drums are made," and immediately lost all external consciousness. For he thought that out of that earth drums were made which were used in congregational music and that the music again, was in praise of God who is the Soul of our souls and the Beauty of beauties. In this way a train of ideas flashed upon him, and he was at once engrossed in God. Likewise, when a man has true devotion to his Guru, he is certainly reminded of him by the sight of his relatives. Not only that. Even if he meets people from the Guru's village his thoughts are at once directed to the Guru himself. He prostrates before those people constantly, sprinkles the dust of their feet over his body, feeds them sumptuously and renders all other kinds of service to them. At this stage the disciple fails to see any defect in his Guru. Now only can he say, "Even if my Guru frequents taverns, he is the Lord, the Eternal Bliss, all the same." As a human being a Guru cannot be a repository of virtues alone and be free from any defect whatsoever. The disciple, on account of his devotion, no longer sees the Guru as man but as God Himself, just as one sees everything yellow, because of a jaundiced eye. His devotion then reveals to the devotee that God alone is everything; it is He that has become the master, the father and the mother, man and beast, the animate and the inanimate.  End of Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna

According to traditional accounts, before his death, Ramakrishna transferred his spiritual powers to Vivekananda and reassured Vivekananda of his avataric status. Ramakrishna asked Vivekananda to look after the welfare of the disciples, saying, "keep my boys together"and asked him to "teach them". Ramakrishna also asked other monastic disciples to look upon Vivekananda as their leader. Ramakrishna's condition gradually worsened and he expired in the early morning hours of August 16, 1886 at the Cossipore garden house. According to his disciples, this was mahasamadhi. After the death of their master, the monastic disciples lead by Vivekananda formed a fellowship at a half-ruined house at Baranagar near the river Ganga, with the financial assistance of the householder disciples. This became the first Math or monastery of the disciples who constituted the first Ramakrishna Order.  ----Wikipedia


Information obtained from Gayatri by Sadguru Sant Keshavadas



Dispeller of Avidya

Realized soul




United with God

No Ego

Not arrogant

Has no lust, rage, greed, infatuation, arrogance & jealousy.





Selfless action


Absence of dualities

Resistant to trials

Formidable against adversity

The guiding Light

The doorway to Brahman

Compassionate Father

Benevolent mother

Universal Consciousness

Path of Dharma

Knows scriptures

Respects tradition

In touch with the Infinite


Gives love to all alike

No passions



Helps redeem men

Lives to serve

Loves animal kingdom

Loves mineral kingdom

Loves plant kingdom

Sees one God in all--men and matter

No hate to anyone

Controlled in mind, speech, body and action



Happy, established in Truth

Treats opposites alike

Heat and cold are same to him

Redeems people from sin

Guides and protects

Perennial bliss; gives bliss to the seeker

Realized soul


Second to God in teaching

He and his teaching are one



Divya = divine; Veera = Heroic; Pasu = Mere man; literal meaning of Pasu is animal.  The word Diva came from Sanskrit Deva for divine being.

The paths of Dharma run parallel but in opposite directions like New York State Thruway: Pravrtti Marga (path) and Nivrtti Marga. Pravrtti is forward movement, evolution, a path of least resistance, a swim down stream, and a path of desire and duality. It is a centrifugal force taking an aspirant away from God or Pure Consciousness. Nivrtti is involution, retrograde movement, a path of resistance, a swim against the current, and a path of spirit. It is a centripetal force taking the aspirant from the physical world of dualities to the spiritual world of Pure Consciousness. In Pravrtti, we live in the physical; in Nivrtti, we live in the spiritual. Maya is the force that makes Pravrtti possible and Mahamaya is the force that makes Nivrtti possible.

Maya weaves and paints canvas with panoramic colors of the world of evolution proceeding from the Spirit. Bhakti to God is the road sign that tells the aspirant to make 'U' turn and get on the Nivrtti Marga (path). On Nivrtti Marga (like the turnpike or throughway), he stops for spiritual food and fuel, performs rites, ceremonies with spiritual disciplines, austerities and penances and obtains the necessary mental and spiritual equipment, nature or power. He started with a family and children in Pravrtti marga and now in Nivrtti Marga directs his vision towards Pure Consciousness. He leaves the base world of senses and enters the pristine world of spirit. It is like the lotus flower plant whose roots are in mud, stem in water and flower above the water. Pasu bhava is the bunch of roots in mud; Vira Bhava is the stem in water and Divya Bhava is the Lotus flower above the water. Divya bhava depends on Vira and Pasu Bhavas for blossoming.  The animal disposition is like the manure that is necessary for the plant to grow, bloom and bear fruits.

    Timorous Sadakas on the path of Nivrtti either have ties to the mundane world or have partial ties. This bondage is Pasa or fetter: Bhaya (fear), Daya (pity), Ghrina (contempt, disgust), Kula (family), Lajja (shame, embarrassment), Moha (delusion), Shīla (nature, conduct), and Varna (caste or race); this is only a short list; a larger list expands on this eight-braid bond; they are like strands within braided ropes. Pasu is a man of the world full of ignorance and darkness (Pravritti marga), not wont to the ways of Tattva Jnani or Yogi, who pursues Nivrrti marga. In Pravrtti Marga, you are like a stick (Jiva) jostling other sticks in the rise and fall of waves in the ocean of Samsara (life on earth). In Pravrtti Marga your attention is diffuse moving from one desire to another desire. In Nivrrti marga your attention is focused upon attaining the Goal, the Ultimate Truth (Ultima Thule).

    Internal purification is attained by service, worship, and knowledge (Karma, Upasana and Jnana), the last being the most purifying.  Service and worship for the welfare of others and Spiritual knowledge are the preliminary steps before attaining yogic state.    

    Sadhana (spiritual accomplishment, perfection) is fourfold: Sandhya, Upasana or worship, Satcakrabheda, and Mudra.  The central tenet of Sadhana is the confluence of the macrocosm and microcosm in the spiritual heart of the Sadhaka (spiritual aspirant). What is here is out there. Microcosm is the individual while macrocosm is the God with all his or her manifestations. Tantric tries to awaken and worship the all-pervading resident deity in him. To elaborate this concept further, Purusha and Sakti-prakriti (Siva and Sakti) are the cosmic magnification of man and woman. They appear as two aspects of one integrated principle. They are so integrated, they appear as Ardhanarisvara, the male and female in one body. These cosmic forces govern not only the macrocosm (the universe) but also the microcosm (the individual). That being so, what is in here is out there. We and the universe share one and the same material. The Universal Consciousness resides in your spiritual heart as individual consciousness. We share the Universal Consciousness and matter and thus, I am in you and you are in me; we are one.

Sandhyavandanam is worship at morning, noon and evening of Mother Goddess. The significance is that these are the auspicious times of the day, when the stars are still visible in the morning, when the meridian hour with the sun at the top rules the day, and when the sun in its orange glory dips into twilight. Gayatri, the sacred mantra of 24 syllables, is recited by Brahmanas in their daily Sandhyavandanam  worship. When Gayatri has not been sung for three generations in a Brahmana family, the family loses its privilege and caste status and ceases to be Brahmanas. They still retain the Brahmin status; it is one or several notches below the real entity. Vaidika (Sanctioned by Vedas) Gayatri is a seed mantra and the Vedas are ensconced in it. Vaidika Gayatri:  Om bhur-bhuvah-svah tatsavitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yo nah prachodayāt Om , earth, atmosphere, and heaven, we meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant sun; may he inspire our intelligence translation by Dr. Radhakrishnan.  Sandya (junctional [transitional time zones] prayers sunrise, noon and sunset) is performed three times a day. Now let us read the translation of Gayatri Mantra by Woodroffe: "Om, let us contemplate upon the wonderful spirit of the Divine Creator of the terrestrial, atmospheric, and celestial regions. May he direct our minds (towards the acquisition of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa)."

Upasana  is worship.

Satcakrabheda, is presence of six chakras or levels in the body represented by Lotus flower. This is Kundalini Yoga. Click>>Kundalini Power<<<<Click.

Mudra: Mudras are hand-and-finger gestures (and positions = devotional gesticulations according to Mark Twain) which are 108 in number, each one of them when performed delights an appropriate god. (An example in everyday finger signs: An upturned thumb or a high-five delights.) It welcomes a god by an offering. Mudra comes from mud meaning joy, delight, gladness, happiness and means that which gives happiness to god. These Mudra gestures make their appearance during worship and in dance, rituals and Yoga. Mudras are no different from sign language of the hearing impaired.

    Mudra is discussed in detail elsewhere in this article.

    For Self Realization Patanjali Yoga Sastra advocates the following.

1: Abhiasa: practice, practice, practice; Vairagya: desirelessness, detachment.

2: Upasana and cultivation of friendliness, love under all conditions: Worship of Saguna Brahman or manifest Brahman, also known as Isvara: Siva-Isvara, Krishna, Vishnu, Ganesa, Durga

3: Pranayama: Breath control is a way to control the mind and concentrate it on an object. It helps control the passions and develop will power.

4: Concentration of the mind on a specific object (of sense). People always find it difficult to concentrate their mind on one object, which is ideally God; it does not project in the mind easily. People first focus their mind on a pleasing sense/sensual object and once concentration comes as a second nature, one can transfer that focus to God. This is a mental trick for developing concentration. This takes you from the sensual world to divine world. For example, you may focus on your thumb first before you are ready to focus on God.

5: Jyotismati: development of Inner Light

6: Association with the spiritually enlightened and avoidance of the spiritually blighted.

7: Svapna-nidra-jnanalabanam va: Drawing knowledge from dream and deep sleep.

8: Meditation: on dulcet object (pleasing to the mind).

    The last one is interesting from a psychological point of view. First, one has to concentrate and meditate on an object, which one likes in everyday sensual world. Once this is behind, the mind can concentrate on another object, namely God.

    Dyana is meditation and is of two kinds: Sthula (gross) and Suksma (subtle) or Sarupa (with form or image) and Arupa (without form or image). Sthula Dyana is meditation on the image of the deity, while Suksma Dyana is meditation on formless consciousness of Nirguna Brahman. Meditation on a formless object is difficult and so the aspirant engages in Sthula meditation, before he can go on to Suksma meditation. 

    Aspirants recite Mantras in many ways: Vocal (Vacika), Lipping (Upangsa--inaudible lip and tongue movements), Mental (Manasaka--mental recitation without lip movement and audible sound). Mental recitation is the best of the lot. Chanting Mantra is salubrious for physical, mental and spiritual health. Association of Mantra and target Devata is the next step; concentration, faith, and devotion transform aspirant's consciousness and lays down new neuronal pathways and networks; aspirant's consciousness is a fragment of Devata's pure consciousness. Mantra, aspirant's consciousness, and Devata become one because Mantra is the body of Devata; this goes by the name of Mantra Caitanya, Mantra Consciousness or awakening of Mantra. The aspirant has become Mantra Siddha (Mantra perfectionist-performer).

    God generally comes in two flavors: Isvara (God with attributes and body parts) and Brahman (God who is pure Consciousness). Worshipping God as Consciousness, which is invisible, impalpable, ungraspable, and transcendent is a difficult proposition; mind cannot hold on to what one cannot touch, taste, see, smell and hear. Joseph Campbell explains what transcendent is. In Occidental theology, the word transcendent is used to mean outside of the world. In the East, it means outside of thought.

When the same entity comes with form and name, it is easy to relate to it. The formless consciousness is Brahman and the clinical entity is Isvara. Worshipping Isvara is one of the essential tenets of Tantric philosophy. Isvara comes in two flavors: male and female. Tantrics have a predisposition to worship female Goddess rather than a male Deity. Their stance comes from commonsense. Mother nurtures a fetus in the womb for the duration of pregnancy; mother nurses the infant and attends to its needs; mother's heart and mind are more yielding and indulgent than father's; earthly mother is a fragment of Mother Goddess. Between the fecund father and nurturing mother, the Tantric chooses the latter. This whole process is Pravrtti (evolution). Pravrtti is descent of the soul from Pure Consciousness and pristine body-less state to an embodied form--becoming a human being or any other being. The unfolding of the universe from Siva and Sakti is Pravrtti.

    Sakti (power, wife) always stood by Siva on his left side in this process of Pravrtti. She chooses to bump (demote) the fecund father, rejects amorous advances from Divine Father, takes his place and stands him on her left side (role reversal); this process is the beginning of Nivrtti (cessation, retrograde involution). She is in possession of three qualities: Iccha, Jnana and Kriya (Will, Knowledge, and Action). She exercises her Will because she has the necessary Knowledge, which gave her the name Mahavidya (Great Knower). She destroys all the devilish qualities of her sons, holds them by her right hand, and takes them back on Nivrtti Marga (path). The fecundating Father who feels responsible for Pravrtti falls prostrate at her feet to save the world, which Sakti produced --this universe and beings with marginal and meager help from fecundating Father; the Goddess tramples him under her feet and takes her sons and daughters back on the journey of Nivrtti. Nivrtti is taking the soul back to its fountainhead. We are fallen beings. When we resolve and erase all impurities, Maya, Kanma, and Anava Malas, we go back to Godhead.

Upacana or worship

    Coming back to Isvara and Brahman, Upacana is worshipping Brahman through Isvara (worshipping Vakya Sakti through Vacaka Sakti). Ishtamantra is the Deity-specific Mantra, which brings the aspirant to Ishtadevata (god or goddess of his liking). Vakya Sakti is Brahman without attributes; he is the goal of Upasana; ordinary mortals except perfected Yogis cannot realize him.  Tantrics worship Vacaka Sakti, the clinical Brahman, Sabdabrahman, Saguna Isvara, Saguna Brahman, or god with form and name.   

Vacya = Vakya; Vacaka = Vasaka. Vakya is meaning; Vasaka is words, phrases and mutterings of Mantra.

Every Mantra has two Saktis (powers): Vakya Sakti and Vasaka Sakti; the former is the seed and latter is the flesh of the fruit. The former is life of Mantra and the latter is the sustainer of life; the Vakya Sakti is subject and transcendent, and Vasaka Sakti is object and immanent. One cannot get to the seed without going through the fruit; one cannot understand the meaning and true nature of Vakya sakti without worshipping Vasaka Sakti (they are like Brahman and Isvara). Vakya sakti is without attributes (Brahman), Vasaka Sakti is with attributes (Isvara); Vakya sakti is seed and Vasaka Sakti is the tree; seed and Vakya Sakti are latent and dormant, and tree and Vasaka Sakti are awake and florid. Vakya Sakti is white light and Vasaka Sakti is spectral or rainbow colors, yellow, blue, red and more of Kundalini Devi. Paramatma is Vakya Sakti, while the son of Devaki (Krishna) is Vasaka Sakti. Vakya is meaning; Vasaka is words, phrases and mutterings of Mantra. God, who is the subject of Mantra, is Vakya Sakti and Pratipaadya (to be explained, meaning); Devata and god, who is Mantra itself (god's sound body = Mantra), is Vasaka Sakti in his manifest form. Vakya Sakti is like clouds and Vasaka Sakti is like rainwater. (one cannot quench his thirst with the cloud; rainwater serves the purpose well; Nirguna Brahman is the cloud and Saguna Brahman is water.) Vakya Sakti is unlimited; Vasaka Sakti is delimited. Vakya sakti is all-pervasive and unmanifest, while Vasaka Sakti is manifest.  Siddhi of Sadhakas awakens the Vasaka Sakti of Mantra; with the help of Devi, they step into the monistic world of Brahman knowledge. (White light, spectral or rainbow colors, seed and tree, cloud and rainwater are input from author.) Vasaka Sakti is the road to Vakya Sakti; the former is the means and the latter is the goal. Yogis are capable of meditating on Brahman without going through the preliminary step of worshipping and meditating on Isvara (Vasaka Sakti). In this instance, the yogi is the seeker of Cashew Nut, which is outside the fruit; somehow the Yogi coaxes and brings the nut from inside the fruit; it takes a Yogi to meditate on attributeless Brahman--author's opinion.

    Manifest God or Goddess, Sabda Brahman or Sound Brahman is the object of worship. Sabda Brahman is immanent and pervades the universe and beings; Virat Purusa is the one with manifest body (Virat sarira) and comes down to earth as Avatara (incarnation). Five gross elements, ten senses (five of motor organs and five sensory organs), five vital airs, Manas (mind as an organ), Buddhi (intellect), Ahankara (ego), and Chitta (thinking) make the body of Sabda Brahman. Worship of Sabda Brahman is at the level of human consciousness and worship beyond that is Turiya, where the Sadhaka and formless Brahman become one. That is Vakya Sakti.

    Kundalini Yoga >>>Kundalini Power<<< explains how a sadhaka enjoys bliss by taking Kundalini Sakti to merge with Siva Sakti in Sahasrara Chakra,  and descends to his base, namely Anahata Chakra, the heart center. In the Anahata Chakra, he offers his prayers to Ishtadevata of the center. Mother Goddess Kali wears a rosary of severed heads of men strung together by the thread of Kundali. The heads represent 50 Sanskrit letters. Ishtadvata becomes visible to the Sadhaka who recites Mantra, and dips into meditation. He presents flowers, ornaments, scents and incense, clothes and edibles to the Divine mother. After many practices on this line, he comes to know and discriminate between what is permanent and what is impermanent (Nitya-anitya-Vicara). He is at ease with Vairagya (dispassion and desirelessness). He attains ecstasy with the help of mental image of his Ishtadevata. After a while, he needs no external props to attain Samadhi; he gives them up by a gesture of dissolution (Samhara Mudra).

    The cardinal features of Upasana are as follows:

1) Bhutasuddhi: Cleansing Bhutas or gross elements of the subtle body.

2) Nyasa: By the power of Sound and Mantra, he invokes the spirit to descend on his body.

3) Pranayama: Breath Control.

4) Dhyana: meditation.

5) Chantless mental worship.

6) Japa or chanting of Mantra.

A note from another source:

Vēdiyan is one who is proficient in Vedas. In the worship of God (Siva), Agamas dispense prescriptive rituals and practices, known as Angas (limbs or parts). Water, flowers, light, and incense  are some of the items for worship. These items used in worship represent the Mahabhutas: Flowers represent Akasa (Sky, Space or Ether);  Incense Air; Naivedyam Water and victuals served on a plate to the deity; Gandha (sandalwood paste) Earth (Prithvi) ; Deepam (light) Fire. Worship of a deity apart from these articles need the sincere application of the senses, (Jnanendriyas: Ear, Eye, Nose, Tongue and Skin and their functions, hearing of the Mantras; seeing of the deity, the light and the rest; smelling the incense; tasting the prasadam-foods; feeling the fire in the Deepam and the sound of the Mantras).

Ears, Eyes, Nose, Tongue and skin ; sabda, rupa, Gantha, rasa and sparsa = sound, form, smell, taste and feeling .

    Naivedyam consists of four types of foods: those that you can lick, suck, drink, or chew.

Sri Krishna says the kind of foods he likes.

Bhagavad Gita 15.14:  Becoming the (digestive) fire in the bodies of all living creatures, and moving with (ease and) equal balance in upward and downward breaths, I digest foods of four kinds.  

Vaisvānara is Agni or fire and represents the fire of digestion. Visva+nara means universal+man, belonging or common to man. According to Kurma Purana, Book two chapter 6.16-17, the fire-god, Vaisvānara (remember: the fire in the belly) digests the food eaten by day and night on the orders of Isvara, the clinical manifestation of Brahman. Vaisvānara is the god who cooks the food by virtue of the fact he is the fire-god and carries the oblations to the forefathers. Remember that Ignition came from Sanskrit Agni/Ignis.

Becoming the digestive fire in the bodies of all living creatures, and moving with ease in inspiration and expiration, I digest all four varieties of foods. The food is classified according to the modes of ingestion: licking food, sucking food, drinking food, and chewing food. Please remember that for simplicity the phrases are similar to the expression "walking stick." Here it a functional classification: Honey is a “licking” food, hand-softened mango fruit with intact skin is a “sucking” food, milk is a “drinking” food, and vegetable is a “chewing” food.

Both Vaisnavites and Saivites claim that their Isvara (Narayana or Siva) is the Vaisvanara, the fire-god. Here in this verse, Krishna (Narayana) claims to be Vaisvanara.

    Panchasuddhi forms part of the worship as prescribed in Agamas.  Chariya and Kriya are the soft deeds of the votaries of Siva. They should be free of  Pancha-ma-Pātakam (five heinous sins of killing, lying, stealing, drinking and abusing one's Guru). The votary should engage in Pancha Suddhi (five-part purification) in worship: Bhuta suddhi, Anma suddhi, Dravya suddhi, Mantra suddhi, and Linga suddhi in Saivism. Tantrics also have five-part purification: Atma suddhi, Stana Suddhi, Mantra suddhi, Dravya Suddhi, and Deva Suddhi.

Bhuta Suddhi: Daily ceremonial by which the soul is purified from daily sins, part of Anma-Suddhi.

Anma Suddhi: Soul's realizing Divine grace as its mainstay.

Dravya Suddhi: Purification of defiled objects.

Mantra Suddhi: Ceremonial purification by sprinkling water consecrated by mantra.

Linga Suddhi: Realizing the immanence of God in the non-sentient universe, as well as in the sentient.

The following are special to Tantrics.

Stana Suddhi: Purification of the place of worship (Tantra).

Deva Suddhi: Purification of a deity which consists in placing its image on a seat, bathing it, adorning it with garments, ornaments, and offering incense, light.


   The first is purification of body, mind and thought and making them receptive for the descent of spirit. When they are pure, Paramatman manifests himself and there is subject and object fusion. Upasana's main object is to remove Rajas and Tamas (motion, passion, and darkness) and replace it with pure Sattva (virtue, goodness). Siva condemns in Agasamhita offering of flesh, blood, and wine to him; it is Asadagama (Asad + Agama = False Agama). In modern India, Asadagama is NOT generally accepted practice. He (she) bathes, performs acamana (sips water), begs the deity to purify his mind of impure thoughts and chants Mantras to drive out any inimical spirits. acamana = Sipping, while uttering certain mantras, a little water three times from the palm of the right hand--(Tamil Lexicon.) The worshipper sprinkles water to purify the place of worship. All previously collected and cleaned Puja items are properly laid out in the puja place. Water and mantras always come in handy to purify the accouterment of puja (worship) like flower, vessels, lamp, incense. He draws a Yantra on the floor representing the sound (auditory vibrations) body of a deity in diagram. Go to MANTRA for details on Mantra, Yantra...

    Tantric Ego, consisting of sensory apparatus of man, vital airs, and mind, is part of Suksma body (subtle body). Vedic Ahamkara is Ego, but Tantric Ego is a more complex entity. The soul takes its journey through several million bodies; so does the Ego until the Ego is fit to become the subtle body of a human. Ego is indestructible from creation and final dissolution (Pralaya) of the universe. Ego in its passage through several bodies gathers impressions, and conditions the Atman, resident in each individual being; pain and pleasure, like and dislike, misery and happiness are all attributable to Ego. This Ego from the time of creation, having arrived at the human body, has an opportunity to dissolve the subtle body and unite the individual self with the Great Self, Paramatman. For that to happen, Ego has to have had a growing-up process along the Sattvic line. Ego has two choices to make: path of Avidya (Ignorance) and path of Vidya; both are of feminine nature; the former is charming and sensual and has a spousal denotation to the aspirant, while the latter is knowledge and wisdom and has a Motherly denotation.  Avidya keeps the soul roiled in Samsara (birth and rebirth) and Vidya seeks to obtain liberation for the soul. Vidya is knowledge of Brahman, necessary for liberation. The path of Vidya has four steps: Varnasrama Dharma, external worship, internal worship and Yoga.

Look at the diagram below for the constituents of the physical body and subtle body. After death, Manonmaya and Vijnanamaya Kosas are the residues from the Subtle Body. When manonmaya kosa drops off, Vijnanamaya Kosa takes one to higher worlds or is inherited upon rebirth.

Entity Physical body Subtle Body Death Rebirth or Liberation
Pranamaya Kosa Yes Yes No No
Manonmaya Kosa Yes Yes Yes No
Vijnanamaya Kosa Yes Yes Yes Yes (transmigrating entity)
Anatahkarana Yes No No No
5 Sensory organs Yes No No No
5 Motor organs Yes No No No
Anandamaya Kosa No No No Yes in liberation


Pranamaya Kosa Breath, Life-Energy Sheath.
Manonmaya Kosa Mind Sheath. Variously called: Subconscious mind, thought, desire and emotion. Book: Dancing with Siva.
Vijnanamaya Kosa Knowledge Sheath. Sheath of cognition.
Antakharana Inner organ: Manas16, Ahamkara15 and Buddhi14 (The Tattvas)
5 Sensory perceptions (organs of) hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell
5 Motor actions (organs of) speech, grasp, ambulation, excretion, reproduction
Anandamaya Kosa The Pure soul, ready for merger with the Supreme

Physical body is made of subtle body (breath, mind, knowledge), Antakharana (Buddhi, Manas and Ego), five sensory organs and five motor organs.

You may find divergent interpretations of the following terms in other texts.

The Jiva (embodied self) contains the subtle body as seen below. The subtle body is made of Tattvas: 14. Buddhi, 15. Ahamkara 16. Manas, 17. hearing 18. touch, 19. vision and color, 20.tasting, 21. smell, 22. speech, 23. grasp, 24. ambulation, 25. evacuation, 26. procreation, 27. sound, 28. palpation, 29. form, 30. taste, 31. odor. TATTVAS-36. The subtle body/soul (the invisible double of the human body) is imperishable.  Subtle body does not have the Anandamaya Kosa (The Bliss Body) in its true sense. The soul of subtle body (or soul) is covered with Malas or impurities; when it becomes pure, the soul is called Anandamaya Kosa, which is the necessary entity for liberation and merger with the Supreme.

Subtle body abides in Antarloka, inner or subtle world, a kind of Limbo where souls live between death and rebirth waiting for Karma to decide the environment, heredity, ancestry and body, the soul will inherit in its next birth.

Upon death, the breath (Pranamaya Kosa) leaves the subtle body and the remaining entities are Mind and Knowledge.  The mind16 in the subtle body is the chronicler and repository of Samskaras (impressions of past life). Before birth or liberation, Manonmaya Kosa drops off and Vijnanamaya Kosa is incorporated upon rebirth in the new body or in the liberated. The liberated with vijnanamaya Kosa and Anandamaya Kosa merges with the Supreme.

Subtle body = Sukshma Sarira = Transmigrating Entity = Linga Sarira = Karana Sarira = Causal Body = Ethereal body = Etheric Double = Astral body.  Definitions of these terms are open for different interpretations.


Varnasrama Dharma, external worship, internal worship and Yoga

    Varnasrama Dharma is following the tenets of one's natal caste. Among its teachings are Chariya, Kriya, Yoga, and Jnana. Chariya is worshipping of God-in-form in the temple. Chariya's recommendations are external worship (exoteric) suitable to the ordinary devotees, and not confined to a select group. Kriya is worshipping of Siva with rites and ceremonies (esoteric rituals and practices) recommended in Agamas. Yoga is mental worship of Siva in His subtle forms. Jnana is realization of God as a transcendent formless entity.  Generally Chariya involves certain external acts : home worship, temple worship, pilgrimage, incense, sacraments, bell, waving of lights, ritual gestures (Mudras), idols, Novenas, Sandhya Worship--morning, noon, and evening (Angelus) , meditation (Dhyana), Kavachas (miters and Scapulars), rosary, Virata (religious vow). If this reminds you of Catholic Church, you are right. Virgin Mary is the Mother of Avatara, Jesus Christ; the Saktas believe in Mother Goddess; to a sakta, she is Saham: "She I am." Hamsa = "I am She."

Exoteric worship has three objects for the external worship of Siva: Stamba, Bimba, and Kumba. Stambha is Axis Mundi or Siva Linga in this instance; Bimba is reflection  of Lord Siva in an image; Kumba is decorated water pot representing a deity; Kumba contains all gross elements (Bhutas) in it: earth, water, fire, air, and ether. Temple is the place for Bimba worship, performed by the priest with all the attendant rituals. Kumba worship is performed in temples during consecration and each deity in the temple is invoked to abide temporarily in deity-specific Kumpa-k-kutam (decorated water pot) by chanting of deity-specific Mantras; this is a special event and not a daily occurrence. The water is used for ceremonial ablution of the deity and chanting of  Mantras helps move the spirit of the deity back to its image in the temple from the pot. 

    Devi exists in beings and matter and thus the latter are worthy of worship since they are all her manifestation. Worship of Devi has many stages built like a ladder starting from external worship and ceremonies; image worship; mind worship; meditation, absorption and identification; and knowledge of the self  resulting in Kaivalya. The important rungs in this ladder of worship are Pujabhāva, Dhyana Bhāva and Brahma Bhāva.

    Paramatman is resident in every one of us. Paramatman = Supreme Atman, the Great Soul, Divine Essence. Each individual also has an individual self, the lesser self or atman. What is here is out there. Our body has seven centers or Chakras (Kundalini Power), each one presided by a resident deity; our body is a microcosm of the macrocosm out there. This universe of immeasurable space is one Grand Universe or Egg (Mahabrahmanda) with countless Great universes (Brhat Brahmanda) arising from the seven planes of Grand Universe.  The individual star, planet and being (man / woman) have in each one of them seven planes with seven presiding deities. The Grand, the Great, the Star, and the being have a common architectural plan. Brhat Brahmanda has an axis (like Axis Mundi), a Mount Meru, or a vertebral column. It has seven worlds along the axis on the top and seven Nether worlds on the bottom.

1. Bhurloka: Muladhara Chakra of man is the equivalent of Bhurloka (Earth) since Brahma, the creator, resides here with his consort Savitri; it goes by the name Brahma Padma (Brahma's Lotus). It is the first world above the seven nether worlds. Svayambhuva Linga with coiled Kulakundalini is the sine qua non of this chakra. The spiritual Sun took up his residence here. Its bodily location is around anus.

2. Bhuvarloka: Svadhisthana Chakra represents Water Mandala. As the Kundalini rises, she ascends five gross elements such as Earth and Water in the Chakras, she goes from gross to subtle states. The presiding deity is Varuna; the presiding God is Vishnu who lives with his consort in Vaikuntha, part of causal Bhuvarloka. The petals are of vermillion color. On the right side of Vaikuntha is Goloka, where two-handed flute-playing Vishnu lives. Vishnu's Sakti is Radhika in Goloka.  Its bodily location is around genitalia.

3. Svarloka: Manipura Chakra. Rudra and Bhadrakali live here. its location is around the navel area.

4. Maharloka: Anahata Chakra. Isvara and Bhuvanesvari live here. The bodily location is heart area.

5. Janaloka: Visuddha Chakra. Androgynous Ardhanarisvara is the presiding deity here.

6. Tapaloka: Ajna Chakra. The bodily location is glabella between the eyebrows.

7. Satyaloka: Saharara Chakra is located on the crown and is the primal cause of all the previous causes.

Table of Chakras and Lokas.









Causal Regions Causal Bhurloka Causal Bhuvarloka Causal Svarloka Causal Maharloka Causal Janaloka Chandraloka





Black Antelope

White Elephant



Smell, feet, Gandha Tattva

Taste, hands, sense of taste, Rasa Tattva.

Vision, anus, sense of sight, Rupa Tattva.

Touch, Phallus, sense of touch, Sparsa Tattva.

Hearing, Speech, sense of hearing, Sabda Tattva



Earth, Bhu Mandala

Water, Jala Mandala

Fire, Vahni Mandala

Air, Vayu Mandala

Ether, Nabho Mandala


Presiding element








Para Vani, Transcendental Sound


Pasyanti. Visual Sound

Madhyama, mental Sound

Vaikhari, Articulate speech


 Spiritual entity

 Spiritual Sun





 Spiritual Moon









8 spears



























Color of petal











2 Triangles




Brahma (with Savitri)

Vishnu (with Radhika)



Sadasiva (with Gauri)









resides in







Bija Sound















Ida & Pingala







Svayambhu Linga with Kulakundalini

Para Linga





 Divine Couples

 Brahma with Savitri

 Vishnu with Radhika

Rudra with Bhadrakali

 Isvara with Bhuvanesvari


 Parasiva with Siddha Kali






















Granthi (Knot)

Brahma Granthi



Vishnu Granthi


Rudra Granthi








 The seventh Loka is Satya Loka. Causal Bhurloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Chandraloka, and Satyaloka make the Brht Brahmanda.

    As gods reside in each of the seven Lokas placed within Meru (Axis Mundi, Stambha), the Earth has a hollow Meru of a stone mountain as the support of the Earth and in the hollow at different levels, resident gods reside. At microcosmic level, seven gods reside in the seven Chakras of vertebral column which is the Axis Mundi or Meru of human body. Axis Mundi or Meru, seven levels and seven gods are common for macrocosmic Lokas and microcosmic human body. Go to Kundalini Power for more information on Chakras and Kundalini Yoga.

According to Tantra, the highest Sadhaka is Avadhuta. Avadhuta Dattatreya explains who an Avadhuta is. Avadhuta = One who has shaken off from himself worldly feeling and obligation, a philosopher (Brahma-vid, knower of Brahman.) Dattatreya explains it as follows:

Avadhuta spells out his position in relation to the world.

I am Immortal (Akshara) I am The Greatest (Varenya I am Devoid of worldly ties (Dhuta-Samsara-Bandhana)
That Art Thou (That are You) = I am God himself I have risen above Varnas and asramas (caste and stages of life) My joy is my head
Delight (Moda) is my right wing Great Delight (Pramoda) is my left wing. I am Bliss
I move freely with or without clothes. I have no family, no children and no relatives. I practice no rituals.
No bondage and no aspiration. Desires pour into me, but I remain in peace and detached I neither seek nor reject liberation.
I have neither death nor birth. I am in a state of contentment. Let the pundits teach Sastras; I have no such qualification.
I neither shave, nor sleep, nor beg, nor bathe. I take air bath. I eat what is given to me by any one except the fallen, unsolicited. No one can impose any duties on me. I am beyond study and teaching of Sastras; I am beyond any doubt about Reality. Let the ones in doubt study Vedas.
I am self and not body. I am blessed I do not utter Mantras.
When I sleep, I sleep under the sky or in any available place. My conduct is incomprehensible to others. I am taken for a lunatic.
I will not answer any questions about my particulars. I do not look at woman, not even their pictures. I neither accept gifts, nor induce others to give gifts.
I gave up my family and the world. I do not stay in one place more than five nights, because I do not want to develop affection for people, which will lead me to hell. A mendicant, that I am, walks with his eyes on the ground with the notion that beings from a worm to man are equal. I appear dumb, deaf, blind and dull.
Only fools take delight in a body which is an agglomerate of skin, bones, muscles, tendons, blood, and organs. As the suns shines on everyone, I do not differentiate between the good and the bad and the learned and the unlearned. (Learned = learned in sastras) I meditate according the Maxim of Wasp and Worm.

Maxim of Wasp and Worm: A lowly worm is in constant fear of the wasp and thus meditates on the wasp, not knowing when the dreaded fate of sting will strike it. The worm is so much possessed of the image of the wasp, that its consciousness is reposed only in the thought and form of wasp. Similarly, an Avadhuta is constantly meditating on Brahman, not knowing when the blessed event of knowing and transforming himself to Brahman would take place. He thus becomes Brahman himself by dwelling in his mind on Brahman. You become what you think.

Svetasvatara Upanishad describes Brahman as follows:

    Sakti and Supreme are one entity; they are inseparable. Sakti is the cause of the world. Sakti, hidden in its svarguna (intrinsic qualities), is the cause of creation, maintenance and destruction of the world. Unmanifest Brahman is Pure Cit (Consciousness); manifest Brahman is Cit with Maya or prakrti and therefore goes by the name of Isvara. (Verse 1.3)

    Sadhaka who knows the Supreme as non-dual is freed from Maya and bondage. He is Kaula, the true knower of essence of Brahman.    

New eponyms from Brahman: A parallel is drawn with X and Y chromosomes.

09/29/03: Macrobrahman, Mayabrahman, and Avidyabrahman or microbrahman:

Transcendent Brahman without attributes is Pure Consciousness and therefore is Macrobrahman. Isvara is Mayabrahman or Macrobrahman with Maya. Human beings with a load of Avidya (ignorance) are microbrahmans or avidyabrahmans.   These eponyms are coined by me for easy identification of three levels of Brahman. Macrobrahman is Parabrahman or Supreme Brahman. Aparabrahman (Sabdabrahman) is Siva and Sakti ensconced in a sheath of Maya. Aparabrahman state is Parang-Bindu (complementary halves of a seed, two halves or cotyledons wrapped in a tight skin or sheath). Polarization of Siva and Sakti takes place within the sheath; this is like the polarization of the X and the Y chromosome in Meiosis with the resultant X and Y gametes. This polarization of Siva and Sakti is Parasaktimaya; Sakti (Unmuki) turns toward Siva for a longing glance from Siva, so that Unmuki can give birth to universe and beings. When the Maya sheath explodes with the sound of  Ham and Sa ( Hamsa Mantra), Sakti undergoes reduction division: Bindu, Bija and Nada. Bindu and Nada are the progenitors of universe. Bija is the mystic syllable of  Mantra

    Brahman goes from unmanifest phase through wakefulness, dream state, deep sleep, and Turiya and Advaita.

1) Wakefulness or Vaisvanara. Vaisva +nara = Visva +Nara = Whole, universal, entire, all + Men) = relating to all men. Vaisvanara is the other name for Fire God. He is the enjoyer of the objective world. He has seven limbs and nineteen mouths and eater of desires. The five elements, heaven and sun make Brahman's seven limbs. Vaisvanara is Brahman's 1st quarter in the A in four quarters of AUM-Silence.

Head Eyes Air Fire Akasa/Ether Water Earth
Heaven Sun Breath Mouth Trunk Back of his body Foot

His nineteen mouths are: five motor organs, five sensory organs, five Pranas, Manas, Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Chitta.  Go to commentary on Verse 12 of  BG Chapter 2 Samkhya Theory for details. Because of the above portals through which he enjoys this outer world, he is called eater.

    If an aspirant meditates on Brahman in one-part Visva state meaning that God is only a Knower of phenomenal world, he returns to earth as human being and enjoys the objective world.

2) Dream State (Taijasa) is similar to wakefulness except he is the enjoyer of subjective world in the land of dreams and possibilities and it is beyond the grasp of the senses (Taijasa).

    If an aspirant meditates on Brahman in Taijasa state (2nd quarter of the four quarter of AUM-Silence), he reaches the subjective world of Soma Loka (Sphere of Moon) after his death. After his sojourn there, he comes back to earth to live among human beings.

3) Deep Sleep State. Prajna is pure knowledge with no desire or dream. Objects, senses, and mind lose their contours in the pitch darkness of bliss.

    If an aspirant meditates on Brahman as a whole (all three parts or AUM), upon his death he goes to the sphere of the Sun from where he goes to Satya Loka, where he becomes one with the Absolute. He becomes  homogenized with all other souls (with no distinction) which joined the Absolute.

4) Turiya, the fourth state is devoid of dualities; it is one mass of bliss.

    If an aspirant meditates on Brahman in his four parts as AUM-Silence, he becomes non-dual with Brahman.


Go to commentary on BG012.1 for more details. Turiya is Spiritual Transcendental consciousness



    Guru and God are necessary for the attainment of supersensual transcendent knowledge of Brahma Vidya and liberation.

    Two paths

    There are two paths: Pravrrti and Nivrrti. Pravrrti is common path and Nivrrti is a hard path. Pravrrti is centrifugal movement of the soul with desires, dualities and bondage. Nivrrti is the method of choice for outright renouncer or hermit. It is a centripetal movement towards God right from the beginning. Tantra declares that it will shape men and women leading animal life of deglutition and defecation, procreation and slumber, fright, fight or flight, change them into productive people, and lead them in the path towards God. Pravrrti is life in the phenomenal world in pursuit of desires. Nivrrti is life, liberty and pursuit of Bliss; in other worlds it is a life of devotion to God, liberation from the bondage (Pasa) and eventual bliss. Tantra recognizes that man is a sensual animal; it tries to put a prescribed order in his lifestyle, convert him from sensual to a supersensual to supernal being and it leads him to Reality.  In this process the aspirant gives up his passion and darkness (Rajas and Tamas) and becomes pure and Sattvic. He strives on the path of Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga and or Bhakti Yoga. For the Pasu (the individual soul) to attain liberation, he should get rid of impurities or Malas.    

Malas: Mala in ordinary sense is feces. Malas as a technical term means impurities of the soul. Its origin is Divine Will and it is of three kinds (Mum-malam: Anava Mala, Kanma Mala, and Maya mala.

Anava Mala: Here the soul feels like an orphan, as if it is not connected to the Great Soul, Pure Consciousness or God. It is due to ignorance and matter enveloping the soul, preventing vision of the Great Soul. It is full of ego. It is a case of I, Me, My, and Mine, a quadrilateral corral for Pasus. Life in Muladhara and Svadhisthana Chakras and below is one of Anava Mala. Grace of God erases Anava malaYoga and Jnana Margas remove Anava mala.

Kanma mala: In Kanma (Karma) Mala, the past is catching up with the present; the past may be recent or one or many births in the past.  Kanma mala brings the soul and body together in a being. It is the karma from the past or the karma made new. karma is thought, word and deed that bring punyam or papam, meritorious or painful consequences. The Karmas of past lives cling like Vasanas (fragrance to the subtle body) and has the tendency to confer Samskaras, tendentious behavior, which might reinforce punyam or papam; thus, the actions tend to feed upon themselves and produce more of the same. The proper thing to do is cancel out papam and punyam and get Karma to a zero-sum status, conducive to liberation. "Cancel out" is not as simple as doing a good act for every bad act. Every act or karma bears fruits (sweet or sour), which have to be eaten; that eating of fruits is called Iru-Vinai-Oppu. There is no escape clause attached to this rule.

Iru-Vinai-y-Oppu = இருவினையொப்பு = State of the soul in which  it takes an attitude of perfect equanimity towards meritorious and sinful deeds; equable resolution of good and bad Karma; simply put, eat the good and bad fruits of your actions and thus bring it to zero-sum status, so that the bag of Karma is empty of fruits.

Spiritual practices and love of God erase Kanma mala. Kriya Marga (Agamic rites and ceremonies) remove Karma mala.

Maya Mala: It is the material cause of the universe; Asuddha Tattvas make up our body and give us the soul-body experience and limited spiritual knowledge in this world; spiritual practices, love of God, Chariya, worship of God-in-form in a temple remove Maya Mala.

As man eliminates Karma Mala and Maya Mala, Anava Mala seems to expand to take their place, and fill the vacuum and becomes stronger; the I-factor is a dominant impurity, which is erased by Grace of God. All these malas lead man down their paths - Margas, Anava, Kanma and Maya. These margas should be supplanted by Charya, Kriya, Yoga, Jnana Margas, Prapatti, Saranagatti and attainment of higher Chakras, Ajna and Sahasrara.

Charya, Kriya, Yoga and Jnana Margas are fourfold paths for salvation. Charya is worship of God-in-form in temple. Kriya is performance of Agamic rites and ceremonies. Yoga Marga is mental worship of God or Goddess. Jnana Marga is path of Wisdom. Prapatti and Saranagatti are resignation and self-surrender to God.

Concentration of mind on God is a difficult proposition for the object has to have a shape or form in the mind's eye. That is where idols come in for worshipping Ishtadevata (desired god). Idol or Avatar is Prati (likeness or substitute) for attributeless Brahman or Isvara. Prati can also be an object that a person can easily bring to his mind to concentrate on; the object can be anything. Later I will tell a story to paint this point. Once concentration on an object is attained, the object is supplanted with Isvara or Nirguna Brahman. Jnana Yogi can concentrate on formless Brahman (Nirguna Brahman) and attain siddhi (perfection). Bhakti Yogis simply surrender to God.

Prati or Substitute: Once there was a teenage prince, whose father wanted the Royal Guru to teach his son concentration and meditation. The prince went away to the hermitage. The prince met all qualifications for induction as a pupil. The prince kept asking for his horse. Guru advised him to focus his mind on a devata or god. The prince said that he could not take his mind off his horse. The Guru then fetched the horse from the royal stable and told the prince to concentrate his mind on the horse, which the young prince took very easily. His mind, his thought, his horse and his body all became one entity when he meditated. He saw horse everywhere. He told the Guru that he cannot see anything other than his horse in sleep, wakefulness, and meditation. Guru told the young prince that he arrived and that he should substitute horse with god, which he was able to accomplish.

The Saktas worship Mother Goddess and she reveals herself in the universal divine form, when the Sadaka's worship is intense.  Sri Krishna says what a true Sadaka is.

13.7:  Humility, nonostentation (Adambhitvam), nonviolence, patience, straightforwardness, service to Ācārya, purity, steadfastness, self-restraint, (continued)

13.8:  aversion towards sense objects, absence of egoism, having insight into the suffering related to birth, death, old age, disease, sorrow (continued) 

13.9:  detachment; absence of attachment to son, wife, home; constant equilibrium on attainment of the desirable and the undesirable; (continued)

13.10:  unswerving devotion to Me having no other refuge, resorting to solitary places, discomfort in the midst of people.  

3.11:  Constancy in the attainment of the knowledge of the Supreme Self, and insight into the knowledge of the Truth are (declared) the knowledge, and that which is otherwise is non-knowledge.  

13.12:  I will explain to you that by knowing which one gains the nectar (of the eternal). That beginningless Supreme Brahman is (said to be) neither Sat nor Asat.


Sri Krishna comments on offerings in Bhagavad Gita.

9.26: Whoever offers me a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or water with devotion, I accept that which is offered with devotion, piety and purity. 

13.22: The Mahā-Īsvara, The Great Ruler in the body is (said to be) the witness, the approver, the supporter, the enjoyer, the Supreme Self (Paramātmā) in the body, and the Supreme Purusa.

            9.27:  Whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever offerings you make, whatever you give away, and whatever austerities you perform, O son of Kunti, do that offering unto Me. 

    Offerings embrace, soothe and serve the five senses: flowers to see, bells to hear, accouterment to touch, incense to smell, and food to taste.

     Prescription, practice, and enjoyment.

     To a practicing Kaulika, sex and eating are divine acts.

    Vira is a hero of Raja guna, motion and devotional passion. He feels that Devata and he are one (non-dual state) and therefore when he eats, it is the Devata who eats. Every act of the Vira is a spiritual act, including, eating, and sexual intercourse. Every act of his is an offering to the Devata. This is the basis of secret worship. Vira becomes one with the Mother Goddess, dissolves in her, and swims in the ocean of Bliss of Devi.

(Digambaras [sky-clothed Jain monks-naked] ignore the Vedas and Saiva Agamas, which promote Samsara (family life, sex and raising children). Jain monks suppress normal hormone-mediated sexual passions and urges and go about convinced in their mind that body and sex do not exist for them; they do indulge in good eating and sleeping.)

    The Mother Goddess gives terrestrial life to the soul by wrapping it in a body. The playground or the field of activity is earth. Karma is the immediate cause of birth on this earth; if there is no karmic load on the soul, there will be no birth.  Karma is like a bank account with overdraft feature; the difference is zero balance is highest wealth and virtue. Positive balance is money in the bank, synonymous with meritorious acts; negative balance is borrowed money synonymous with unmeritorious acts. Zero balance is perfect balance, leading you to liberation from birth and death. If one dies with a positive balance, he will be born in an ideal family with all its attendant advantages. If one dies with negative balance, he will be born as an animal if the negative balance is huge. If it is less of a negative balance, that will determine his heredity, ancestry and environment.

       Mother goddess knows that Pasu (individual soul, equal to an animal in its embodied state) has to eat and procreate. Karma's essential purpose is to bring the soul into the body that eats and procreates. Karma is self-made and internatal, taking a soul from one birth to another birth. Internatal = two or more births, as in inter-national, two or more nations. Karma is a millstone around one's neck; one has to unload it to feel free and liberated; liberation is a zero-sum game; karma has to come to a NULL State. Brahmamayi, the Mother Goddess, made lower Tattvas including earth as the platform wherein Jiva must face and resolve karma, and procreate and perpetuate the species. Without Karma, Universe and beings would not exist. Knowing misery and effort accompanying eating and procreation as basic instincts, Mother Goddess incorporated hunger and passion in jiva who otherwise would not venture into these pursuits. To reinforce the instincts, Mother Goddess, created Rasa, (relish, taste, desire, fondness, love). Thus, beings and universe are the field of activity for Mother Goddess, and Jiva, being the reflection or fragment of Siva and Sakti, enjoy the field of activity in its own microcosm. Tantrics believe that all human activity, including eating and procreation, are divine acts (It is a common practice to say prayers before such acts) and that the divine man has fallen from the lofty heights of Divya (Divine man) to Pasu (animal man), who removed the divinity from such acts. There are three kinds of men: Divya, Vira, and Pasu,  the divine man, the hero, and the animal man. 

Fall from divinity is a sign of Ajnana or ignorance; the Vira sets his activities on a higher footing according to divine cosmic law and thus has put in place a set of rules, practices, and goals. While Jiva is susceptible to the pains and pleasures of Karma, the Mother Goddess is immune from them; this is one of the distinguishing characteristic between jiva and Devi; this is Maya.

Here is a list of things enjoyed or practiced by Bhogis and Yogis.
Taster's Choice:
Wine is made from grapes, raisins, honey, sugarcane, fruits, molasses (Gaudi), rice (paisti), Madhuka flower, sap of Palmyra tree and Date tree... Sanctified wine is fit for consumption by all, irrespective caste.

Madhvi, Wine made from grapes is also called Madhvi, Tarkalamkara says that wine made from molassesis Gaudi. What is made from half cooked rice, paddy and the like is called Paisti, This is made in French (colony) Candernagore. Wine made from grapes, raisins, honey, different kinds of flower particularly the Madhuka flower is called Madhvi. Wine can also be made from Tulasi and Bael leaves, the bark of the Bael tree, betel nuts, coriander seed, nutmeg, myrabolam, bhang, ginger, bamboo, bananas, bark of the Ber fruit tree and Acacia tree and other substances. The Bhutias make an excellent wine from some kind of leaf. In fact in everything there is Sat, Cit, Ananda of the Saccidananda Brahma. If the part which is the basis of Ananda in Molasses and the like be separated then it becomes known as wine. It is on this account that it is helpful in Sadhana of the Brahman who is Saccidananda and it is on this account that the knower of Brahman looks upon it as sacred and worships it. --Woodroffe

Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years, with the earliest known production occurring around 6000 BC in Georgia.[2][3][4] It first appeared in the Balkans about 4500 BC and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent, Bacchus, represented wine. The drink is also used in Christian Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush.--Wikipedia

The first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.[24]--Wikipedia

Read the note below.

Rig Veda: makes a mention of Wine.

It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, roughly between 1700–1100 BC[5] (the early Vedic period).

Bhoga and Yoga, Epicures to Yogis: Tastes and styles

Rasika and Rasa: Taster and Taste

Literature Yoga Sastra Learning pleasures Bhakti Yoga Sensual objects Tastes Wine from
Siringara, Sexual love Yama Chandas, Meter Thinking Flowers Madhura, Sweet Molasses
Vira, Heroism Niyama Vyakarana, Grammar Stuti (Praise) Scents Amla, Sour Honey
Compassion Asana Siksa, Science of articulation and pronunciation Meditation Beloved woman Lavana, Salt Sugar-cane
Hasya, Mirth & Laughter Pranayama Kalpa, Competence Remembering Bed Katuka, Pungent Fruits
Adbhuta, Wonder Pratyahara Jyotisha, Astronomy and Astrology Refuge at holy feet Dress Tikta, Bitter Corn
Bhayankara, Terror Dharana Nirukta, Explanation, Etymological interpretation of a word Worship and hymns Ornaments Kashaya, Astringent  
Hate Dhyana Rg Veda Dasya, Servitude      
Santa, Tranquillity Samadhi Sama Veda Fellowship      
Raudra, Anger   Yajur Veda self-dedication      
Bibhatsa, Disgust   Atharva Veda Santi, Tranquillity


Karuna, Pity   Mimamnsa, Deep reflection of Sacred Texts Sakhya, Companion      
Vatsalya, Parental fondness   Nyaya, Logic and Philosophy Vatsalya, Parental fondness      
Peace   Dharma Sastra Ethical and religious texts Madhurya, Amicability, Sweetness      
    Purana, Ancient history        
    Ayurveda, Medical Science        
    Dhanur Veda, Science of Archery        
    Gandharva Veda, Science of Music        
    Arthasastra, Economics        

For Vira, prescribed sex, wine, and meat are revealers of wisdom (Brahman knowledge), Atman, and Bliss.

    For a Vira, who enjoys all these Rasas, there are five kinds of work: daily service to Goddess, Japa (prayer), Purification, external and internal worship, Purascarana, preparatory or introductory rite. Pur = preceding.  Purascarana means repeating the name of the deity while performing Homa (fire offering). Daily service includes Sandyavandhanam (worship) at morning, noon, and evening. This also includes Japa, Tarpana (Libations of water to gods, Rsis and manes), Homa.  and feeding of Brahmanas. In Homa and Tarpana, the word Svaha is uttered, while in Nyasa rites Namah is used.


Svāhā (Sanskrit) = Su + ah = good, excellent , virtuous + to speak) = Hail = So be it, May blessing descend on you. Salutation.

Nama = Bowing salutation, obeisance, reverence.

All these practices are done in the name of Devi. Vira proceeds from matter to spirit and gives up worldly enjoyments to the extent of merely sustaining life.

The Five M's, known as Pancha Makaaras (Pancha Makaras)

The Five M's are the five words beginning with Sanskrit letter "Ma."  These notorious five caused a lot of controversy: Madya1 (wine), Mamsa2 (meat), Matsya3 (Fish), Mudra4 (grains) and Mithuna5 (sexual union). These five are also known as Pancha Tattvas: five principles.  Madya, Madhu, or Mead is wine, cognate with Welsh Medhu and Lithuanian Medus. For the modern man, these five acts within the confines of marriage are normal. Actually, these acts are actively encouraged for one reason or another: mental health, cardiac health (meat not recommended). On superficial examination, it appears that these five acts are sins of the flesh for the spiritually enlightened individuals in certain sections of India.  But in the west, this is the norm. Most of the epicures are guilty of these five acts, if you call the acts guilt. In the ordinary sense, there is no law against these five acts and they are not prosecutable offenses. So what is the problem? Man is drawn to these five in a natural way. In Buddhist icons and sacred texts, depiction of Mithuna or sexual union carries an illustrative import: Enlightenment or Nirvana cannot be attained by wisdom or compassion (right action) alone, but by the union of both. This union of male compassion and female wisdom produces Nirvana. Saktas believe that proper performance of Mithuna leads an aspirant from the physical to the spiritual awareness. During the worship of Yantra, two flowers are used to portray Mithuna. AparAjta flower resembling the female genitalia and Karavi (Caraway seed) portraying Linga (phallus).

The Caravay flower is immersed in red sandal paste and put on top of Aparajita flower which accomplishes symbolism of Mithuna (Mithuna Tattva).

In this context love is twofold: extramarital Parakīya and conjugal Svakīya (परकीय = belonging to another;  स्वकीय = one's own [wife]). There were believers in one or the other. Parakīya love is exemplified by the divine union of Krishna and Radha. Beyond the Tantric practices, there is another spiritual meaning in this apparently illicit union. Krishna is the Universal Consciousness and Purusa (the Man); the individual soul (any man or woman is strī for Krishna) is pining for union with the universal Consciousness. The Divya Tantric is far advanced (compared to Pasu and Vira) in spiritual attainment so much so he enjoys ecstasy in his association with the Inner Woman (Kundalini) and inner wine (Yogic knowledge).

    Drinking wine was prevalent in Satya, Treta, and Dvapara Yugas, but from abuse, its use fell into disuse by laws and convention. Wine's function, it is said, brings latent thoughts to the surface and into the open. One who is immature in Kaula knowledge is a sinner and should not engage in religious practices. Practice without perfection in Kaula knowledge is drunkenness, rape, and slaughter (of animal), as it applies to wine, marital sex, and prescriptive eating of meat.

    If drinking wine leads to spiritual attainment, all drunkards would attain moksa. If meat-eating leads to sojourn in heaven, all carnivores are righteous claimants to heaven. If sexual intercourse with women is the ticket to liberation, all animals have a right to liberation. Tantrics are of the view that sacrificial killing of approved animals to please forefathers and gods is permitted. There are three kinds of animal flesh: that of the waters, of the earth and of the sky.  All sanctified meats irrespective of who killed and brought are pleasing to the deity.  The kind of offered meat (of the waters, earth and sky) is left to the wish of the Sadhaka.   It is the command and wish of Sambhu-Siva that only male animals are killed and offered in sacrament.  Boal (Catfish, WAllgo Attu--Great White Sheetfish), Ruhi (Carp--Labeo Rohita) are the preferred kind of fish offered to Goddess.  Boneless fish and bony fish are middling and inferior.

    Killing and eating for nourishment and enjoyment is proscribed. True devotee's offer of meat and wine to Devi is Ananda (Bliss); they are dear to Devi; they are true Kaulikas. Bhairava inculcates in those who drink wine the knowledge of Kula principles. Wine lights up Atma enveloped in dark Maya. Drinking wine with the utterance of proper mantra and offering it to Guru guarantee a Kaulika not to drink his mother's milk again--no rebirth.  KAranAmrta (Causal Nectar) is the name given to the wine because it is the cause of material bliss. Drinking wine reminds him of the Cause of all causes, Brahma as KArana. A Kaulika enjoyer, who is a Vira, is Bhairava himself, while the meat he offers is Siva, and Wine is Sakti. You may notice some commonality between Tantrics, Catholics and Jews with regard to wine and meat (body of Christ), and the catholic rituals are imports from Tantrics. Tamid: The Jews made a twice daily offering of lamb, flour, oil, wine, and aromatic incense of pleasing odor to the Lord of fire. Tamid was suspended with the breaking of the Tablets by Moses, when he saw the Israelites were worshipping the Golden calf.

 Note: There is no way a man can wean away from wine and woman suddenly. "Wine and (the other) woman" kill a person, because they are a poison. Kaula worship and practice are the cure.--Krishnaraj


On this verse Tarkalamkara says what Siva says is plainly this: By the poison which kills all animals, by that same poison the physician destroys disease. The root of Homeopathy is to cure illness by that which causes illness. Amongst us also there is the tradition that poison is destroyed by poison. What then is that which makes man sin and die before his time, the object of contempt of all: The first amongst these causes are wine and woman; meat, fish, Mudra (fried rice, gram and other such things taken along with drinks) are accessories. These five Tattvas are the primary cause of the terrific incurable disease which is Samsara, Man under the influence of wine and the like becomes devoid of manliness and worthless. The stupefying power of wine and woman is so great as to attract even the pious and wise and hurl them into the abyss of darkness and ignorance. Here Siva prescribes the poison which eradicates poison. We know as other Sadhakas do that this Homeopathic system of Siva is infallible and yields speedy results. He who thirsts for wine or lusts after woman can be cured by this treatment within a very short time. But the physician, that is the Guru, must be experienced and skilful. A slight error in the administration of the poison may lead to fatal result. On this account Siva has said that the path of Kulacara is more difficult than it is to walk on the edge of a sword or to embrace the neck of a tiger. Here we give a popular or exoteric explanation of the Tattvas. But if the esoteric meaning of them be also known then it will be seen that in the matter of Sādhana  they are absolutely necessary. No one who is not a Tattva-jñāni can master their esoteric meaning. On this account Siva has prohibited the disclosure of the Sādhana  to ordinary people. We have ourselves seen people who claim to be Kaulas but as a fact they are no better than drunkards and libertines. O Reader, blame not Kulacara on seeing these erring men. A libertine and drunkard can never be a Kaula. The Kaula method is unique. He cannot be a libertine and drunkard. On seeing a woman he sees his mother and Istadevata in her and in either mind or body makes obeisance to her. The saints Gauranga, Nityananda and Advaita are brilliant  examples of the true Kaula. In the Mahabharata and Viṣṇumpurāṇa it has been said that desire cannot be quenched by the enjoyment of objects of that desire. On the contrary desire flames up like fire when ghee is  thrown upon it. This is very true. No one says that the drinking of poison will not kill. But the physician administers poison in such a wonderful way that it does not kill the patient but on the contrary the poison in the body is destroyed. The way in which the Guru administers the poison of wine and thus destroys the poison of Saṁsāra cannot be disclosed before the unworthy (Anādhikārī) and so this is prohibited by Siva.  page 87 Mantras and Purification, The Great Liberation  by Woodroffe.



Exodus 29:38-46: 38"This is what you are to offer on the altar regularly each day: two lambs a year old. 39Offer one in the morning and the other at twilight. 40With the first lamb offer a tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with a quarter of a hin of oil from pressed olives, and a quarter of a hin of wine as a drink offering. 41Sacrifice the other lamb at twilight with the same grain offering and its drink offering as in the morning—a pleasing aroma, an offering made to the LORD by fire.  (ephah = a bushel; hin =  1 1/2 gallon = 5.7 liters.

  Vira and Divya Sādhakas

The Hatha-Yogi who rouses Kuṇḍalini gains various occult powers (Siddhi) and enjoyment thereby. At every centre to which he leads Kuṇḍalini he experiences a special form of bliss (Ananda) and gains special powers (Siddhi). If he has Vairagya or distaste for these he carries Her to the Śiva of his cerebral centre, and enjoys the Supreme Bliss, which in its nature is that of Liberation, and which, when established in permanence, is Liberation itself on the loosening of the spirit and body. She who "shines like a chain of lights" -a lightning-flash-in the centre of his body is the "Inner Woman" to whom reference was made when it was said, "What need have I of any outer woman? I have an Inner Woman within myself." The Vira (" heroic") 1 Sadhaka, knowing himself as the embodiment of Śiva (Sivoham), unites with woman as the embodiment of Śakti '" on the physical plane.2 The Divya (" divine") Sādhaka or Yogi unites within himself his own principles, female and male which are the" Heart of the Lord" (Hṛdayaṁ parameśituh) 3 or Śakti , and Her Lord Consciousness or Siva. It is their

1 See my " Śakti  and Śākta ".  

2 The statement in the Tantras that this union is liberation (Mukti) is mere Stuti-that is, praise in the Indian fashion of the subject in hand, which goes beyond the actual fact. The European reader who takes such statements au pied de la lettre and ridicules them makes himself (to the knowing) ridiculous. What actually happens in such case is a fugitive bliss (or Vīra), which, like all bliss, emanates from the Great Bliss, but is a pale reflection of it which nowise, in itself, secures immunity from future rebirth. It is the bliss of this lower Sādhana, as the union of Kundalini-Śakti  with Śiva is that of the higher. ṇḍ

3 As the Parāprāveśika beautifully calls Her. Yogiṇīhrdaya-Tantra says, "She is the heart, for from Her all things issue."


union which is the mystic coition (Maithuna) of the Tantras.1 There are two forms of Union (Sāmarasya) 2-namely, the first, which is the gross (Sthūla), or the union of the physical embodiments of the Supreme Consciousness; and the second, which is the subtle (Sūkṣma), or the union of the quiescent and active principles in Consciousness itself. It is the Latter which is Liberation.

Lastly, what in a philosophical sense is the nature of the process here described? Shortly stated, energy (Śakti ) polarizes itself into two forms--namely, static or potential and dynamic as Prāṇa, the working forces of the body. Behind all activity there is a static background. The static centre in the human body is the central Serpent Power in the Muladhara (root support). It is the power which is the static support (Ādhāra) of the whole body, and all its moving Prāṇik forces. This centre (Kendra) of power is a gross form of Cit or Consciousness--that is, in itself (Svarūpa) it is Consciousness and by appearance it is a power which, as the highest form of force, is a manifestation of it. Just as there is a distinction (though identity at base) between the supreme quiescent Consciousness and its active power (Śakti ), so when Consciousness manifests as energy (Śakti ) it possesses the twin aspects of potential and kinetic energy, In Advaita-Vedanta there can be no partition, in fact, of Reality. To the perfect eye of its Siddha the process of becoming is an ascription (Adhyāsa) to the ultimate Real.3 To the eye of the Sadhaka---that is, the aspirant for Siddhi (perfected accomplishment)--to the spirit which is still toiling through the lower planes and variously identifying itself with them, becoming is tending to appear, and appearance is real.

 1 This, as the Yoginī-Tantra says, is the coition (Maithuna) of those who are Yati (who have controlled their passions).  

2 This term indicates the enjoyment which arises from the union of male and female, which may be either of bodies or of their inner principles.  

3 To the eye of Siddhi, to the spirit who is Udāsīna (simple witness unmindful of the external world), becoming is Adhyāsa and nothing real (in the Indian sense of that term, as used by Śaṁkara), Creation (Sṛṣti) is Vivarta, or apparent and not real evolution (Pariṇāma). Adhyāsa is attributing to something that which it does not really possess.

Woodroffe, The serpent power, page 295-6-7


Offering of grain:  Devi prefers small grain rice. Barley and wheat fried in butter are the next best. Devi should be offered Suddhi (pan or salt--think of eating ginger pickle after sushi) after meat, fish, grain are offered in order to neutralize the taste of the main course and destroy aftertaste. It is the modern equivalent of mouth and breath freshener (mint), left at the table in restaurants at the exit door.  Suddhi is an important element in the offering because without it propitiation of the deity and Siddhi are not possible. Not offering Suddhi is like eating poison and results in death soon after. 

 Here is an explanation of Suddhi from Woodroffe.

Meat, fish, and parched foods fruits and roots, or anything else offered to the Devata along with wine, are called Suddhi. O Devi! the offering of wine without Suddhi, as also Puja and Tarpana (without Suddhi), become fruitless, and the Devata is not propitiated. The drinking of wine without Suddhi is like the swallowing of poison.

The meat, fish, grain, etc., are called Suddhi. Suddhi is also commonly used for anything which is eaten to take away the taste after drinking wine, such as salt or pan-leaf. Milk and water cannot be used as Suddhi. --Woodroffe page 140 The Great Liberation.


Pan or Tāmbūla (Tambula) is a delightful postprandial chew or mouth freshener made of betel-leaf, a daub of lime and catechu spread on the leaf, and a generous pinch each of areca nut, cardamom and cinnamon sprinkled on the daub; the whole thing is deftly packaged inside the betel-leaf and fastened with a clove. It is ready for chewing, and stimulates salivation and flow of gastric juices. The ingredients leave the tongue and spit fiery red; one can swallow the juice; some prefer against city ordinance to spit the juice on the sidewalk creating red Rorschach inkblots (read spit-blots).  You can go to Jackson Heights, Queens, New York or Oak tree Road in Islin, NJ to witness these Rorschach  fiery red blots made fresh on the sidewalks by the chewing public. It is the leading cause of submucous fibrosis and oral cancer.  If you wonder what those black ovals and circles about the size of dimes, nickels and quarters are on famous sidewalks in  New York, it is the blackened chewing gum. 


Rorschach test

a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual by the use of a standard series of 10 inkblot designs to which the subject responds by telling what image or emotion each design evokes.

If you are a fan of Clint Eastwood, you probably remember the western classic movie The Outlaw Josey Wales, where Clint Eastwood portraying a farmer spits his succulent tobacco juice on obnoxious salesman, dying bad dudes, pesky critters, surly dogs, and stinging scorpions with an attitude of supreme arrogance, insolence, contempt,  fearlessness, annoyance... His famous saying in the picture is, "Are you going to pull those pistols or whistle Dixie?" If you want to see Clint Eastwood spitting Tobacco Juice click the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0euplRrCJ60

The union of Siva and Sakti from such offering is liberation. Bliss is Brahman; it is present in the body, waiting to be expressed by wine; thus, Yogis imbibe it. Vira, the embodiment of Tantric virtue, untouched by polar opposites like pain and pleasure, possessed of Kula and Vaidik knowledge, imbibes wine which gives him Bliss and liberation.  Mother Kali is the goddess of the Tantrics and Saktas.

    Drinking of Soma is prescribed for Brahmanas, as wine is prescribed to Viras. Permitted user of wine, meat, fish, and sex should have thorough knowledge of Kula Sastra, before he uses them. The Sakti of Vira is alive and well, while that of Pasu is at sleep.

The fifth principle or Tattva is Mithuna (union or coition).  One's own wife (Svīyā) or Sakti is the fifth Tattva, completely free from any defect. One's own wife, the wife of another (Parakiyā), or any women (Sādhāraṇī (One who is common) can serve as the Sakti.  When it comes to intercourse, the religious ordinance is only his own wife serves the purpose of Mithuna.

Sandhya Worship

    Mantras are chanted at Sandhya (morning, noon, and evening) invoking the deities, Brahmani, Vaisnavi and Mahesvari, the controlling deities of Rajas, Sattva, and Tamas and the creator, maintainer, and destroyer. Sadaka meditates on them in the solar orb at Sandhyas. These time slots correspond to creation by Brahmani in the morning, maintenance by Vaishnavi at noon and destruction by Mahesvari in the evening. During sleep, it is a case of dissolution or Pralaya for Jiva, because in deep sleep nothing exists for Jiva or embodied soul.  Morning Sandhya worship celebrates creation by Brahmani. The Jivas, mobiles and immobiles start drinking and soaking up the sun until sundown at the west end of the Solar Orb. Between morning and evening Sandhyas, beings, plants, trees, shrubs and bushes have imbibed sun's rays to a point of satiation. Noon Sandhya celebrates that life-sustaining Sakti, Vaishnavi, the maintainer. Evening Sandhya celebrates dissolution by Mahesvari because beings dissolve into the night of deep sleep and get much needed rest, dissolution, and bliss.

    Brahmamayi, the Creator, is Mantrasakti, power of Mantra. Devata of Mantrasakti has two aspects: Vasaka Sakti and Vakya Sakti. Vasaka Sakti is like the fruit and Vakya Sakti is like the seed; one cannot get the seed unless one goes through the fruit. Vasaka Sakti is Sabdabrahman and Vakya Sakti is Parabrahman. Vasaka Sakti of a Mantra is the sound stage before the Sadhaka can reach the silent stage of Vakya Sakti of Parabrahman. One has to recite Mantras, before Sadaka advances to the stage of Muni, the silent one.  AUM is Vasaka Sakti of Sound or Sabda-Brahman and the silence that follows AUM is the Vakya Sakti of Para Brahman. Brahmamayi has many other names: Kulakundalin and Sarasvati are two of them.  She wears a rosary of fifty beads made of seeds and inscribed with Sanskrit letters from A to Ksa . These fifty letters form the basis for 90 million Mantras (9 crores), as 26 letters of the English alphabet form the basis for its entire literature. A seed grows from sprout to root, trunk, primary, secondary and tertiary branches, twig, leaf, flower, and fruit. In similar manner Seed Mantra (Bija Mantra) has trunk, branches, twigs, leaves, flowers and fruits.

    OM is the Supreme Mantra like the Supreme Brahman. Various Deities with gunas are various aspects of One Nirguna Brahman. Bija or seed Mantras are the various aspects of the Supreme Mantra, OM. OM is the Supreme Sound.

    As all leaves are attached to a stalk, so are all words attached to OM (Brahman).--Upanishads. A sentence is a sound in itself on which other sounds called words are strung.  --Robert Frost, Selected Letters.

    Bija Mantras are seed letters (of Sanskrit language) which are the visual forms of Primeval Sound. If pen (written word) is mightier than a sword, Primal Sound is mightier than visual sound (Pasyanti) and written word. Go to <<<Sabda is sound>>>. Bija mantra is a single-character Mantra; there are exceptions like Hreem, a compound. Primeval Sounds apparently have no meaning, so is the case with Bija mantra sounds; they possess mystic meaning. Since Sound (Nada) is the source of the universe, the Maha-Bhutas (gross elements) have Bijas.


The Great Elements, Bija Mantras, Chakras and Specific Deities.

Ether Air Fire Water Earth
Visuddha Anahata Manipura Svadhisthana Muladhara


    Every Deity, who is guna version of Nirguna Brahman, has its specific Bija (Seed) syllable. Bija Mantras are not for general use because they have such a force packed in them (as a seed packs a tree in it) that only perfected Yogis engage in Japa on Bija Mantras with attendant rituals.


Chakras and Bija Mantras

Muladhara chakra Svadhisthana Manipura  Anahata  Visuddha  Ajna 


    Bija Mantras:     

OM is the progenitor sound of all Bija Mantras. Nada and Bindu are two saktis (power). Naada (Nada) is sound and Bindu is dot, or point. Nada and Bindu are the progenitors of Tattvas, the building blocks of the universe. Nada is Sakti and Bindu is Siva (Siva-Sakti); Nada is action and Bindu is static; Nada is white and Bindu is red. Nada (Chandrabindu/ Nadabindu) over the Omkara is the couch, on which Paramasiva in his Bindu form is reclining. Chandrabindu is Nada and Bindu, Sakti and Siva in one unit.


The crescent moon with the dot is Chandrabindu (Nadabindu) or the couch of Tripurasundari in union with Paramasiva. The icon presents five components: A, U, M, Nada (the Crescent), and Bindu (the dot). Just imagine the crescent moon being the couch! Nada is Sound, Bindu is the derivative of Nada and the source of the universe. Nada is called Visvamata or Mother of the Universe; Bindu is Duhkha Hara, Pain Killer or remover of pain. All Bija Mantras have three, four or five components: one, two or three syllables, Nada and Bindu. Nada is generally Mother Goddess and Bindu is Siva, remover of pain.

Bija Mantra has no meaning; it is neither a language, nor a word, nor a character; it is Dhvani (unlettered vocalized sound); it is Deva.  Though they lack meaning, certain attributes are appended to them.

HAUM: HA is Siva, Au is Sadasiva, and M is harbinger of silence that follows intonation of Bija Mantra. HAUM is for Siva Worship.

DUM: Da is Durga, U is protection.

KREEM: This Mantra is meant for worship of Kalika (Kali). Ka is Kali, Ra is Brahman, and EE is Mayamaya.

HREEM: This mantra is for worship of Bhuvanesvari, Mother Goddess. HA is Siva, RA is Prakrti, and EE is Mahamaya.

SHREEM: This Mantra is for worship of Mahalakshmi. SHA is Mahalakshmi, RA is wealth, and EE is Mahamaya.

AIM: This Mantra is for worship of Sarasvati. AI is Sarasvati.

KLEEM: This is for the worship of bringer of love (Kamabija -Love Mantra). KA is Kamadeva and Krishna, LA is Indra, the Lord of heavens and senses, and EE is satisfaction.

HOOM or Hūm: This is for worship of Siva-Bhairava. HA is Siva, and U is Bhairava. This threefold Seed Mantra is preservative and protective.

GAM: This is for Ganesa worship. GA is Ganesa.

GLAUM: This is for worship of Ganesa also. GA is Ganesa, LA is Pervader, and AU is effulgence.

KSHRAUM: This is for the worship of Man-Lion, Narasimha (Nara = Man + Simha = Lion), an avatar of Vishnu. KSHA is Narasimha, RA is Brahma, AU is his upturned teeth.


AIM: The evolution of Bija Mantra AIM. The Mantras of Rig Veda and Sama Veda start with A; Yajur Veda starts with I; this combination gives rise to the sound AI to which Bindu is added resulting in Bija Mantra AIM, which is Sarasvati's Bija Mantra. Sarasvati is part of Tripurasundari as Lakshmi and Kali.


    As you see, Mother Goddess, Siva, Ganesa, Vishnu, Brahma, Mahalakshmi, and Sarasvati are worshipped with the use of Bija Mantras. They represent creation, maintenance, destruction, wealth, arts and sciences, removal of obstacles and conferment of Grace.

    One should not utter Bija Mantras in meditation without the guidance of a Guru. Deity-specific Mantras uttered in meditation over a long period of time (in months and years) is Purascharana. One should follow dietary and other prescriptive injunctions. Anusthana is performance of meditation and other practices to obtain an object or attain a goal, spiritual being the highest goal. This is  demanding on the body and mind. Deity-specific Japa Anusthana is performed with the object of reaching a goal or removing an obstacle. This is prayer to a deity other than the personal deity, such as doing Japa to Sarasvati to compose music and Ganesa to remove obstacles. The nature of the object should be spiritual rather than material.

    Woodroffe mentions the Seed Mantras grow into Sandhya, Gayatri, Nyasa,  Puja, and Upacara Mantras; they are all its stems, trunk, branches, and twigs. Hymns of praise and homage are its leaves and flowers -- page161 Principles of Tantra, Book Two.

    Mother Goddess in her universal form contains innumerable universes in motion in her body. Each universe has its own Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva with its own Kalpas and Yugas. She is the repository of all sastras, Agamas, and Nigamas. Agamas form the Soul of the Mother; Vedas are the jivatmas; the philosophies (Dharasanas) form the senses; the Puranas are her body; the Smrtis are her limbs; All other sacred texts make her hair. What is Jivatma to Parmatma ( individual to God) is Veda to Tantra. She is the aggregate of all Chakras. She is the source of sound, words, speech and comprehension. Varnas (Characters) are written on the petals of the lotus of Chakras, forming the basis for Chandas, Vyakarna, Siksa, Kalpa, Jyotisha, and Nirukta, collectively called Vedangas, the Veda limbs.

Vedanga = Veda + anga = Veda Limb.

Chandas, Meter
Vyakarana, Grammar
Siksa, Science of articulation and pronunciation
Kalpa, Competence
Jyotisha, Astronomy and Astrology
Nirukta, Explanation, Etymological interpretation of a word

    She is the origin of all knowledge. A Sadhaka's body is a microcosm of the body of Mother Goddess. Worshipping of Gurus by Sadaka is like worshipping the Mother herself.

    Guru initiates an aspirant into Mantra Tattva. Mantra is the root and sound-body of Devata. Mantra = (Man = is to think or meditate + Tra = is to protect.)  Yantra = instrument, engine, apparatus, amulet with mystical diagram endowed with protective occult powers.  Mantras are not devised by sages or gods and were revealed by gods, who were not the formulators of Mantras. Guru, Mantra and Devata form a sacred triangle, which is important to an aspirant. Tantra Sastras are of the view that the Supreme Guru comes as man in earthly Guru to whom an aspirant owes respect because the earthly Guru is the surrogate of Supreme Guru.

    Devotee's consciousness awakens Sakti (divine power) in the image or idol which comes to life; this is Prana Prathistha (dwelling of life in an idol or image.) Idol is an instrument (Yantra) or an engine, which needs power (devotee's Consciousness) to work; in like manner, Guru is an engine; what electric power is to an engine is devotee's consciousness to a Guru. This says that Mother Goddess exists in all things and it takes a devotee to awaken the spirit in the object. Once an aspirant (Sadhaka) achieves Siddhi (perfection), he becomes one with the Guru and Goddess. This is Advaitam, oneness. Siva-Sakti assumes the form and body of Guru and protects Sisya (devotee).  Sadasiva protects Sadhus (saints or seers) by assuming the form of egoless Samsaric (householder), who is Siva himself without three eyes, Vishnu without four hands and Brahma without four heads. Guru takes the Sadhaka from the life of a pasu to the life of Siddha who merges with Parabrahman. By initiation into Kulatantra,  Isvara in the form Guru takes Pasu (animal, individual soul) hounded by Maya to liberation. Mantra, Isvara (Devata) and Guru are of one Padartha (substance). Devotion to Isvara without devotion to Guru guarantees rebirth as swine. Guru is no other than Isvara because He (Isvara) lives in Kaliasa, he lives in Cintamani graham, the trees in his house are Kalpa trees, the creepers are Kalpa creepers, the male servants are Bhairavas, female servants are Bharaivis and the water in his house is Ganga Cinta+Mani = Wish Gem; Graham = house (something remotely connected to Billy Graham!); Kailasa = Siva's snow-clad Himalayan abode; Kalpa tree = Wish Tree; Bhairava = Manifestation of Siva; Bhairavi = Durga = Personified aggregate of Tejas (splendor) of all Gods, particularly of Siva, Vishnu, and Brahma = Warrior GoddessBhairavam = Terribleness. In this context, Bhairavis and Bhairavas are inducted Tantric sect members, and Viras (heroes) are on their way of becoming Divyas (divine men). Guru is the virtual earthly representative of Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. Guru is the object of meditation in the Sahasrara and Anahata Chakras. 

Cintamani is a gem that yields all desired objects. The house is in the Isle of Gems and is the origin of all Mantras, that confer all desired objects. Devi lives in the house and sits on a lotus seat on the jeweled altar.

Bhairavas: manifestations of Siva; eight such Bhairavas, AsitAgma, Canda, KapAli, Krodha, BhIsana, Unmatta, Ruru, SamhAri (One with black body, the Fierce One, the Wearer of skulls, the Angry One, The Terrific One, the Mad One, Ruru,  and the Destroyer.  Some texts place Bhayamkara (Inducer of fear) for Unmatta.

Billy Graham carries a Sanskrit last name; He doesn't even know it.

Graham = Gṛha = house or home. Graha is Sanskrit and Graham is Tamil with M terminator.

pronounce as follows.  GRAdation hum as in humming a tune. As you see and pronounce, Sanskrit Graham is not graham flour but yes,  Martha Graham, Thomas Graham and Billy Graham are named after the Sanskrit word Graha meaning house. English Dictionary:  It also means a male given name, "Gray Home."  In a surprising manner, there is a concordant meaning between Sanskrit Graha (house) and English Graham meaning "gray home."  I postulate English Graham is derived from Sanskrit Graham because Sanskrit Graham built the HOUSE before the English built their GRAY HOME.

Gṛha: (Sanskrit) has several meanings. One among them is house

graha  (Monier Williams dictionary
• (Grha) a house R. vii, 40, 30 (cf. a-, khara-, -druma and -pati)


Gra·ham  n.

1.   Martha, 1894–1991, U.S. dancer and choreographer.

2.   Thomas, 1805–69, Scottish chemist.

3.   William Franklin (“Billy”), born 1918, U.S. evangelist.

4.   a male given name: from an Old English word meaning “gray home.”

( Read it as a Sanskrit word meaning  house-the author of this article).

    There are two kinds of Gurus: Diksa and Siksa Guru, the Initiator and the Teacher. The initiator-Guru gives instructions in Mantra to a pupil; the teaching Guru helps the pupil with Dhyana, Dharana, Japa, Stava, Kavaca, Purascarana, Mahapurascarana and Samadhi. Dhyana = Meditation; Dhāraṇā = Concentration; Japa = Prayer; Stava = Panegyric, Eulogy; Kavaca = protective Mantra; Purascarana =  preparatory or introductory rite; Mahapurascarana = Great Purascarana = Greater perfection by Yoga, recitation of Mantra, ecstasy; Samadhi = Intense contemplation and identification with God. 

Dhāraṇā: If the Prāṇa is retained for a particular time it is called Pratyāhāra, if for a longer time it is called Dhāraṇā, and so on until Samādhi is attained, which is equivalent to its retention for the longest period.--Woodroffe, page 215 Serpent Power.


Dhyana: Dhyana is twofold: Sthula (gross) and Suksma (subtle). Sthula for is for meditating on Manifest or Saguna Brahman; Suksma for Nirguna and NirAkAra Brahman.    Nirguna = no attributes; NirAkAra = formless.  SuksmaDhyana is of two kinds: Bindudhyana and Sunyadhyana.  Bindu has no dimension any ways: no breadth, no length, no depth, no height. Bindu associated with MAyA (MAyAukta) is the origin of Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesvara and other deities.  Meditation on Bindu is Bindu Dhyana. Meditation on the undifferentiated entity (Aparicchinna), attributless, changeless, immutable, incomprehensible Sat Chit Ananda is Sunya DhyAna.  This is beyond mind and speech. When Yogis develop superconsciousness, they experience Bindu and Sunya Dhyana.

Purascarna:  Japa is the most important element for a Kaula to obtain Artha (wealth), Dharma (Righteousness), Kama (desire), and Moksa (liberation). Sandhya Japa at transitional time zones (morning, noon and evening), Tarpana (libation), Homa (burnt offering), and feeding of Brahmanas is called Purasharana / Purascarana. Japa is done only with the Mantra obtained from a Guru. Other Mantras obtained from other sources are undesirable. The seat for Mantra Japa should be made of cotton, wool, or skin of lion, tiger or deer. House, cow shed, temple, banks of a river, foot of trunk of a Bilva tree, garden, sea coast are suitable places. Padma Asana, Pranayama, inhalation, retention and exhalation and Dhyana are recommended.  A rosary with proper knowledge of its usage is advised. Silent japa with complete enunciation of words is (regarded as) the best. Mantra should begin and end in Pranava (Om). Knowing the meaning of Mantra is essential because not knowing does not guarantee fruits. Other Gurus say that Mantra is like medication; knowledge is not necessary for Mantra to work. Siva and Sakti is the object of worship. External movements such as yawning, spitting, groping own body parts, wearing headwear, nakedness, unruly hair, crowded place should be avoided.

    Bilva is Bel tree (Aegle marmelos), sacred to Siva and Saktas; Amulets are made from it and unripe fruits are used in herbal medicine. Bilva is never used as firewood for fear of evoking Siva's displeasure and wrath.

    In Kaulaka tradition, there are six kinds of Gurus: Preraka, the impeller who instills interest in initiation into Kaula tradition; Sucaka, the indicator, who points to Sadhana as the means to liberation; Vacaka, the speaker, who explains the tenets of Kaula dharma; Darsaka, the demonstrator, who by his example shows the performance of rites and rituals; Siksaka, the instructor, who gives instructions in Sadhana; and Bodhaka, Spiritual teacher who enlightens the pupil on spiritual knowledge. The Bhodaka plays the central role because his teachings form the nucleus to the contributions made by other teachers; thus spiritual knowledge facilitated by ancillary methods of impelling, indicating, showing, and instructing attains fruition. One has to pick and choose a Guru; one may end up like a bee that goes from flower to flower accumulating honey; this search for a good guru actually helps a sadhaka achieve wider knowledge. If the Guru-Sisya relationship is agreeable to both the Guru and the Sadhaka, they should act in each other's interest: the Guru takes care of the spiritual needs of the Sadhaka and the Sadhaka treats the Guru like god on earth.    

    Initiation: Initiation is essential for liberation and cannot come without a Guru who comes in the lineage of Guru Parampara (lineage). After proper evaluation over a period of more than one year, the Guru offers a Mantra to the pupil. It is also the period and privilege of the disciple to test the Guru on matters of Japa, Stotra, Dhyana, Homa, and Puja. Once he finds the capacity of the Guru to communicate the knowledge to him, he accepts him as a Guru. Guru transmits Sakti and knowledge to the disciple. The disciples are of three kinds: Adiyoga, Madhyayoga, and Antayoga. Adiyoga has devotion and interest in the beginning but they wane quickly. The Madhyayoga has no knowledge in the beginning but his devotion in the middle carries him through. The Antiyoga has no devotion at the beginning, acquires devotion in the middle and matures at the end. He is the best Jnanin among the three disciples.

    Upadesa, spiritual instruction, is of three kinds: Karma, Dharma, and Jnana. The path of karma is the longest route of slow pace. It is like the ant which takes a long journey up the tree to reach the fruit. The path of Dharma is many hops and jumps of a monkey from one branch to the next to reach the fruit. The path of Jnana is a straight flight to the fruit as a bird would do.    

Sparsa Diksa, Digdrsti, Manasi Drsti: Initiation by touch, sight and mind.

    Diksa, Initiation and teaching, is of three kinds: Sparsa, by touch; Draksanjana or Digdrsti, by sight; and Manasa, by thought.  Sparsa initiation is compared to the loving tender nourishing and caring of the chicks in the warmth of the wings by the mother bird. The preceptor Guru draws to his mind the god or goddess, meditates on Sivapura in the hand, chants the Mula Mantra (root mantra) and touches the body of the disciple. The act of visual initiation and instruction is compared to the nourishing of the fry (baby fish) by sight by the ever vigilant mother fish. The Guru draws the image of Kamashi in his mind with eyes closed, opens his eyes with delight and looks at the disciple. The act of thought initiation and teaching is compared to the nourishing of the baby tortoises by the mother by thinking about them.  Grace comes to the disciple proportional to the presence of Sakti in him. Where there is no sakti (in him), there is no liberation.  Initiation by Diksa Samskara (sacred rites) is the preliminary step before the actual event. The authentic Guru is Brahma himself without four heads, Vishnu himself without four hands and Siva himself without the third eye.

    Guru is Brahma, Vishnu and Siva all rolled into one. Guru is Gu and Ru; Gu is darkness and Ru is remover.  Guru dispels darkness, sin, and ignorance. Once Guru purifies himself both externally and internally and assumes the body of the deity he worships and propitiates, the body of the Guru is the same as the goddess; his disciple receives a bit of the effulgence from the grace of the Guru. Initiation by mind (manasi Diksa is the best of all Diksas.  I will give you an idea of external purification of the body that the disciple should undergo at the beginning. He awakens in the morning; clears his mind of all impure thoughts; scrapes the coated tongue, cleans the mouth and face, and takes a bath. He performs Sandhya worship and remains secluded, immersed in the thought of the physical form of the Guru. The Guru does the same physical purification and enters into the presence of the disciple. He chants Devi Sukta (hymns) and performs Vidyanyasa (Vidya + Nyasa -- appropriate finger positions for a Mantra) and Matrika (diagrams of the characters or alphabets). Purusa sukta and propitiation of Tripurambika by 16 upacaras (worship, homage) follows.

    Rites of worship are prescribed by the Saiva Agamas: Nitya, mandatory; Naimittika, situational, periodic, or occasional; Kamya, desire-fulfilling. These are strict set of rules to follow and any infraction makes him a Brahma Raksasa (demon). Guru supervises and enforces these rules. Upacara has sixteen components, known as sodasopacAra.

1.      āvāhana,  Avahana: invocation of the deity; holding the thumbs against the root of the ring fingers (Mudra)

2.      Āsana, Asana: the manner of sitting  forming part of the eightfold observances of ascetics. Offering a seat to the deity.

3.      Pādya, padya: Offering water to wash the feet.

4.      Arghya: Worthy of a hospitable reception; water given to a guest; objects of worship.

5.      ācamana: Rinsing the mouth with water: water for that purpose. ceremonial sipping of water.

6.      Snāna, Snana:  Religious lustration of idol with water.

7.      Vastra: Raiment; offering garment for the idol

8.      Bhūsā: Ornament and decoration of idol.

9.      Gandha: Fragrance or Sandalwood paste applied to the idol.

10.   Puspa: Offering flowers to the idol.

11.   dHūPA, Dhupa: Incense or making smoke from aromatic gum or resin.

12.   Dīpa, Dipa: Lamp; waving lamp

13.   Aksata: Offering unhusked barley-corns

14.   Naivedya: Offering victuals to a deity.

15.   Tāmbūla, Tambula: Betel leaves and nut.

16.   Pradaksinā, Pradaksina: Turning the right side towards the idol; circumambulation  from left to right, as a mark of respect.

    One can offer worship to a deity (Murti), a Guru, Sri paduka, a consecrated object or Satguru. All worshippers should offer prayers to Ganesa, the god of obstacles and beginnings before the Ishata devata is worshipped.

    Other acts in the worship also include Sankalpa (uttering of the intent), Ghanta (ringing the bell to drum out demons and invite gods), avahana  (inviting the deity), archana (chanting sacred names), pranama (obeisance), ārati, (waving lights), prarthana (making personal pleas), visarjana (bidding farewell to and dismissing formally the deity) and Samhāra Mudrā (expressive gesture of dissolution). Worship entails pleading for yourself and for others. Pleading for yourself and your family is Atmartha Puja; worshipful pleading  for others is Parartha PujaArati is waving of the light with the right hand in an elliptical fashion in front of the image of the deity, the top of the circle reaching the eyes or the nose and the bottom of the circle reaching the feet. The waving numbers from a few to ten accompanied by ringing of the bell with the left hand.

Take the letter Ka. It is a combination of a generic consonant and a vowel: k +a = Ka. A vowel is interminable and so a terminator M (Chandrabindu) is added; thus Ka becomes Kam. The M sound vibrates intranasally. Here is the anatomy of Aum with M terminator.



Chanting of the thousand-syllabled Mantra (Sahasraksari Vidya) accompanies worship of the deity and offering of fistful of flowers (Puspanjali); worship concludes with the Kadi Mantra Ka, Em, I, la, Hrim; Ka-Sa-Ka-Ha-La-Hrim; Sa-Ka-La-Hrim, (Aim, Klim, Sauh, Klim, Aim, Srim). The 1000-syllabled Mantra consists of power-epithets, Siddhis, Nityas and Kadi Mantra of Lalita. The Guru offers flowers to the disciple who offers them to the deity. Of all the Vidya mantras, Kadi Mantra (starting with K) and Hadi Mantra starting with H are the most efficacious.

    The chief deity in the Kadi tradition is Sri-Lalita-Maha-Tripura-Sundari (TPS) or Raja-Rajeswari, whose Mantra is Kamaraja Vidya.  TPS goes by several names: Lopamudra, Mahendri, Nandini, Lakshanavati, Kameshvari, Dakshina.

    Each epithet carries one or more meanings. She is Kameshvari because she exudes beauty, grace, and has exquisite body parts from top to toes (which are described in some details).  Here Kama means Creative Will. All this explains why it is called Kamaraja Mantra. She is the source of one of the Purushartas, Kama. Others are Dharma, Artha and Moksa.

    TPS is invoked in three Kutas or peaks (Vaghbava, Kamaraja, and Sakti.

Vaghbahava is Jnana (Spiritual knowledge- goddess Sarasvati) Sakti that confers liberation to the embodied soul; Kamaraja is the Kriya Sakti (Action--Durga); Sakti is Iccha Sakti (Will--Lakshmi).

Vak, Kama and Sakti Kutas form the body of the Mother from the crown to the neck, neck to the hips, and hips to the toes respectively.

Body parts of Mother Goddess and the corresponding Kutas
Vak Kuta From the crown to the neck
KAma Kuta From the neck to the hips
Sakti Kuta From the hips to the toes

    Kamaraja Vidya (mantra). Kamaraja is personified as Devi (Tripurasundari--TPS), adored by  Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra of three Gunas; She is the desire of Siva; She abides in three Bindus; She manifests the universe. She (Yantra) has three circles and three angles meaning that her feminine nature is represented as an inverted triangle. Her Mantra is the three-syllable KLIM (Ka + La with m terminator). He who hears Bija with  Ka and La attains salvation. the letter "I" refers to Kamakala in Turiya state. She is Triads Galore: Her Bindus point to Iccha, Jnana anbd Kriya ( Will or desire, Knowledge, and Action). She is Moon, Fire and Sun. She creates Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra; She is the three-city beauty; She is Tripura because she dwells in three Nadis, Susumna, Pingala and Ida; She is the repository of three Saktis; three colors (white, red and mixed); three gunas (Sattva, Rajas, Tamas); "three feet"-- white Samvit, Supreme Consciousness without any stain; red ParAhamta, Supreme individuality, the Vrtti the first manifestation from Samvit; and a mixed entity of the previous two meaning 'I' associated with white, red and mixed colors. The term 'I' (Aham) points to Goddess as Indu (white), Supreme Individuality as red Agni and Ravi as Mixed.  These are the Carana TrItaya (feet three = three feet). Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra are born from the letter A U M.  Three syllables of Her Mantra KLIM are the three divisions of Panchadasi: Vagbhava, Kamaraja, and Sakti Kutas. Ka is the Bija of KAmini, the aspect of Tripurasundari in Muladhara Chakra. The three lines (Triangle) in Muladhara are the Sthula aspect of the Susksma Sakti, Kamakala in Sahasrara Chakra. Man has this threefold Sakti in him in a limited fashion; thus he should worship Her. This worship will liberate him from the ocean of Samsara.

Three Bindus are Her body; Moon, Fire and Sun.  Below is a diagram of  (TPS) KAmakalA's body parts and meditation. Her face is meditated upon as Brahma; the breasts as the two Devatas (Hari and Hara), and the genitals as Cit-kala. Imagine that Her body from genitals to the toes is born from KAma. She is adorned with jewels and dress and adored by the three Devatas. Meditation upon the goddess with Samarasya (equal feeling, one with) frees one from Samsara (cycle birth and rebirth in the world of misery). MahaTripuraSundari inseparable from Kamesvara is the aggregate of Bindus and KAmakalA. The single Bindu at the top is Her Face the Sun and also Brahma; the pair of Bindus below are her two breasts (Moon and Fire, also Hari and Hara) and also Prakasa and Vimarsa. The three folds are marks of beauty. The inverted Triangle is Her Yoni (womb). Nada that emerges from Her is the origin of all letters, words, phrases, and objects (the World of letters and objects). A Letter or Word is Brahman and the Object it denotes is Brahman. She is repository of three Bindus. TriPuraSundari =  (Tri = Three Bindus, Sun, Moon and Fire) + (City) + (Beauty). It also means Three-City-Beauty.  Hari and Hara: He who destroys (harati) all grief and sin. Hari is Vishnu and Hara is Rudra

Meditate in Citkala, and Bindus of TPS. The Sadhaka should think that his own body is like that of Kamakala. The sixteen years old TPS emanates light equal to millions of suns shining on every part of the universe. The upper Bindu gives rise to Her head, neck and throat and indicates Brahma with Rajas Guna. The two lower Bindus give rise to Her body consisting of Her body, two breasts (referring to Hari and Hara--Sattvic Vishnu and Tamasic Rudra), the three abdominal beauty folds. KAma gives rise to Her genitals, hips, thighs, legs and feet. Mediate on all parts of Her body. They who worship her in her body with equal feeling (SAmarasya) are cured of the poison of transmigratory ocean of Samsara.

Kadi Mantra (Kamaraja Mantra)

It is Kadi Mantra or Vidya because the first letter is K or Ka; Hadi Mantra starts with Ha or H. The fifteen syllables refer to the 15 digits of the moon. The 16th syllable is Goddess Herself.

The names of the tithis (digits) are 1. Prathama (new moon), 2. Dvitiya, 3. Tritiya, 4. Chaturthi, 5. Panchami, 6. Shashthi, 7. Saptami, 8. Ashtami, 9. Navami, 10. Dashami, 11. Ekadashi, 12. Dvadashi, 13. Trayodashi, 14. Chaturdashi, and lastly either 15. Purnima (full moon) or 15. Amavasya (new moon). The sixteen-petal lotus represents the 16 tithis  or digits of the moon on the bright and the dark side.  AmAvAsyA = (amA = together + Vas = to dwell)  = The night of the new moon when the sun and the moon dwell together.

The 16 Tithis are under the rule of 16 Nitya Devis or Sodasa Nityas (So + dasa = 6 plus 10): 1.Maha Tripura Sundari, 2.Kamesvari (Parvati) 3.Bhagamalini (Sarasvati), 4.Nityaklinna, 5.Bherunda, 6.Vanhivasini, 7.Maha Vajresvari (maha Lakshmi), 8.Shivadooti (Roudri), 9.Twarita, 10.Kulasundari, 11.Nitya, 12.Neelapataka, 13.Vijaya, 14.Sarvamangala, 15.Jwalamalini and 16.Chidroopa (Chitra). Maha Tripura Sundari is Maha Sakti, the ruler of all and therefore is not visible to the eye.  Purnima Moon contains all Nityas conferring the splendor and brightness to the Moon (See the central circle in the diagram--Full Moon). As the moon wanes, one Nitya leaves the moon for the sun and so on until all Nityas have left for the sun and the moon disappears completely on Amavasya, the new Moon day.  Amāvāsya = the day when the sun and the moon dwell together. The Nityas one by one return to the Moon and make it wax again and shine brighter and brighter. Krishna Paksa = dark side of the moon; waning moon; dark side does not mean the geographical dark side of the moon that is not seen by the human eye. The first one to leave the moon is Kamesvari and the last one Chitra; the first one to arrive at the moon is Chitra and the last one Kamesvari.  Nitya  = the Eternal One.

As the moon wanes (Krishna paksa) worship, 15 digits of the moon from Kamesvari to the central Chitra (See the diagram); as the moon waxes (Sukla paksa) worship the 15 digits from Chitra to Kamesvari.







The devotees diverge in their worship of Sri Yantra; the Kadi line devotees worship Sri Yantra centripetally (from outside to the center); the Hadi devotees centrifugally.  Centripetal worship means that the Yogi goes from the outside to inside; he leaves his body metaphorically at the gates and his spirit moves to Bindu; He leaves the material world and goes to the spiritual world in the very center of the Yantra, the Bindu; this is involution of the soul. Hadi devotees do the exact opposite, celebrating the evolution of the world and beings from the very epicenter, the Bindu.  Look at the Yantra in three dimensional form.


1st Peak (Kuta) = ka, e, i, and la-- append Hrim = Ka, Em, I, la, Hrim.

2nd Peak = ha, sa, ka, ha, and la; append Hrim = ha, sa, ka, ha, la, Hrim.

3rd Peak = sa, ka, and la ; append Hrim = sa, ka, la Hrim.

Hrim (MAyA Bija) is the terminal Syllable used in relation to Devi, Female Deity.

Vagbhava Kuta is abundance of subtle intellect and Jnana Sakti that confers salvation; KAmaraja Kuta means abundance of valor, women, wealth and fame and indicates Iccha Sakti (Desire, Will). Sakti Kuta (Sa, Ka, La) indicates action. The i of Hrim is radiance, the cause of creation and preservation; thus Hri of Hrim means Mother who shines in the heart.

Devi sports three forms: Sambhavi, white, Sattvic and maintenance, Sri-Vidya, red, Rajasic and creative, and SyAmA, black, Tamasic and destructive.

What are the attributes of the letters?

K for Krodhisa along with a for Srikantha, E for triangle, I for Lashmi, L for MAmsa, and a for Anuttara are the constituents of Vagbhava Kuta.

H for Siva, S for Hamsa, K for Brahman, H for Viyat, L for Sakra with their respective appended Aksara a constitute the KAmaraja Kuta.

S for Hamsa, K for Brahman, L for Sakta with their respective appended Aksara a constitute Sakti Kuta.

Hrllekha (Hrim) is appended at the end of each Kuta.

The form of Hrllekha is formed of 12 letters: H for Vyoman, r for Agni, i for VAmalocanA, m for Bindu, Ardhachandra, Rodhini, Nada, Nadanta, Sakti, Vyapika, Samana and Unmani.

The First Peak or Vagbhava Kuta has 18 letter, Second KAmaraja Kuta 22 letter, and the Sakti 18 letters; in all the total number of letters of all Kutas are 58.

From Varivasya Rahasya (V-R) Translation by P.S.S. Sastri (repetition of the above)

Krodhisa Ka (K along with Srikantha a), Konatraya--triangle (E), Lakshmi (I), MAmsa (La) L along with Anuttara (a) Hrim constitute the First Vaghbahava Kuta. Verse 9

Siva (Ha), Hamsa (Sa), Brahman (Ka), Viyat (Ha), Sakra (La) Hrim: these constitute Kamaraja Kuta. Verse 10


Hamsa (Sa), Brahman (Ka), Sakra (La) Hrim: these constitute Sakti Kuta. Verse 11

Hrllekha = HRIM = Signifies Brahman

The form of Hrllekha is composed of the twelve letters: Vyoman (H), Agni (r), VAmalocana (i), Bindu (m), Ardhacandra, Rodhini, NAda, NAdAnta, Sakti, VyApikA, SamanA, and Unmani. The aggregate (samasti) of the nine beginning with Bindu is known as NAda.--Verses 12-13.

Kamakala (I) and Trikona / Triangle (E) are intonated in 2 Matras (1 Matra = 2/5th of a second = snapping of a finger, batting of eyelids). Hrllekha = 3 Matras.  other letters = 1 1/2 Matra.  Bindu = 1/2 Matra. the following letters has half the time period of the preceding one.  Nada = 1 Matra minus 1 Lava. 1st Kuta = 11 Matras; 2nd Kuta =11 1/2 Matras; 3rd Kuta = 8 1/2 Matras minus 1 Lava.  There are 31 Matras minus three Lavas in all three Kutas.

Ka is Brahman, E is Vishnu, A is Siva, Ida is praise; Hrim is Brahman in neuter gender.  Brahman is worthy of praise by Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra as depicted in the First Kuta. Ka is face; Ha Sa Ka means smiling face.  Ha Sa mean Bliss.  Ka is the sun; Ha is moon; that which has Ka and Ha is La(s) , meaning eyes which are Ka Ha La.  The threesome are also indicative of Supreme Consciousness.  HaSa-tva (the state of being Ha, Sa) and KaHaLa-tva are the reason Brahman's Bliss and Supreme Consciousness are praised by Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra in the second group. Brahman with all KalAs is SaKaLa. Ka, E, A are Brahman Vishnu and Rudra with their portfolio of creation, preservation and destruction. I is Isvara and Da is Sadasiva. The combination of I and Da resulting in Idam is Tirodhana Sakti, the veiling power and later Bliss or Anugraha by Isvara and Sadasiva.  Ha Sa are Bliss;  Ka is Truth; Ha is infinity; La is knowledge.

Sa Ka La in the third group refers to Jiva as the latter is subject to Jagrat, Svapna, and Susupti (wakefullness, dream sleep, and deep sleep). Hrim is Brahman.  As SaKaLa and Hrim (Sakti Bija) are in proximity in the third Kuta and imply that all are Brahman in the pure state, this third Kuta is called Mahavakyartha (Identity of Jiva and Brahman as the Great Saying).  Praise to the Guru: Venerable Guru is seated on the A Ka Tha Triangle and Ha La Ksa corners bestow on me knowledge and bliss identical with Atman. Worshipping at the Guru's feet Vaisvaryarahasya of the World-Mother is adored by the Heros who vanquished Idam (the phenomenal world) on the field of Aham (ego). 

The first Kuta signifies three divine couples: Brahma and Bharati, Vishnu and Lakshmi, and Rudra and Parvati. All of them are identical with Kamakala. The second Ha of second Kuta and the Sa of the third Kuta are connected; Sakti is the resident Devata of these Aksaras.  Ka and Ha are Siva and La and Sa are Sakti. E and I are Sakti. Hrllekha, Hrim is Para Brahman, the sign of concordance between Siva and Sakti. Every Kuta stresses this concordance and is called Samarasyartha of the Vidya. Kakara is illuminator; Ekara is Buddhi of the Goddess. I is pervasion. La Hari indicates her Buddhi's dominance.  Makara is the cause of such dominance. Ha is valor, the giver of pain and vanquisher of the enemy.  Sa is wealth Ka is woman, the object of desire. i is fame.  These three above paragraphs are extracts from Varivasya Rahasya translation by PSS.Sastri.

You use passwords to open web sites, access information and benefit from such access. In like manner, these syllables are the passwords which open access to the goddess, supplicate her and help you receive benefits. Like passwords the syllables are apparently meaningless; people in the know, know they are full of meaning and potency. Hindus believe that these are revealed wisdom.  By using these syllables, you are worshipping the Mother Goddess and the deities she created and enjoy the universe of sounds, letters, and the rest.

The following information is obtained from the Garland of Letters and the Serpent Power by Woodroffe. The chart is put together by me. Here is a chart that depicts Siva, Prakasa, Aham and knowledge on Siva's side and Sakti, Vimarsa, Action, and Idam on the Sakti's side.

This is the celebration of Kamakala in the form of sound and letters, of which She (Sakti) is made of.  There is no universe, no life, no beings, no sound, no speech without Kamakala. She is beyond the three Saktis, the Sun, the Moon and the Fire. She is the causal seed of all, with whom Siva unseparately is, according to Woodroffe. Sakti and Siva need each other for creation. First there was One without a second or Brahman, which had the inclination to create (Sristi-Mukha). The power of Brahman to produce and exist as the world is called Vimarasa Sakti, which is a producer and the product.  This Vimarsa Sakti is none other than Sakti Herself. Brahman sees Itself in the mirror, which is the Vimarsa Sakti. The created world is called IDAM (This), which is the reflection and  the object of our experience. The Svarupa (own form) of Siva is Aham (I). Now we have two entities, Aham and Idam. Idam is the reflection of Aham.

The seed mantra of  Lalita Mahatripurasundari (TPS) is HRIM.  This is Sri Vidya mantra and also known as Kadi Mantra.  In the context of Kadi Mantra, HRIM  means the following. R is the waking state of the phenomenal world; I is the cosmic sound, responsible for creation of the universe and represents the dream sleep state; M is the deep sleep state; thus, the Mantra stands for the three states of consciousness.  Waking state is akin to the phenomenal world; dream sleep is akin to creation, when in our mind we create disparate images; Deep sleep state is when we are oblivious of the phenomenal world and merge with our god and remain in a temporary state of bliss. Elsewhere in this article, you will see these states correspond with AUM.


The First Line is Vaghbhavakuta (Speech-nature-peak).  The Second Line is Kamarajakuta (Desire-King-Peak). The Third Line is Saktikuta (Power- Peak).   Speech, Desire, and Power are the three parts of this Mantra; in other words they are Jnana, Iccha, and Kriya (Knowledge, Will or Desire and Action). The Sadhaka who chants this Mantra receives the power of speech and spiritual wisdom, the Tejas or splendor of Indra, the king of gods, and the blissful magnetic power of attracting all creation in all three worlds.  These fifteen letters are the thread of light that holds the seven Kundalini Chakras in the Meru (Axis Mundi) of the spine. Theses letters exist in a subtle form in the substance of the spinal cord.  The different faces of the Deity with different moods confer liberation to the devotees.  The Amnayas, as described below, are ticket to liberation. If one knows four Amnayas, he is Siva Himself.

1) Vagbhavakuta:  Ka, Em, I, la, Hrim = 5 syllables =  VAmA Sakti, Brahma, Ichcha Sakti and Eastern face ( the face in the front.)

(Creative power)  Iccha, Rajas, Vama, Brahma, Pasyanti Sabda.  Facing East is regarded as Purva Amnaya ( Purva = eastern, former; amnaya = tradition); its principal Truth is Srsti (creation).  Amnaya = tradition, doctrine. The Pasu Sadhaka worships this face.

2)  Kamarajakuta: Ka-Sa-Ka-Ha-La-Hrim = 6 syllables =  Jyestha Sakti, Vishnu, Jnana Sakti and Southern face.  (Maintenance power)   jnana, Sattva, Jyestha, Vishnu, Madhyama Sabda or sound.  Southern face is Dakshina amnaya, whose intrinsic Truth is maintenance (Sthiti).  Pasu Sadhaka worships this face.

3) Saktikuta: Sa-Ka-La-Hrim = 4 syllables =  Raudri Sakti, Rudra, Kriya Sakti and western face. (destructive power) Kriya, Tamas, Raudri, Rudra, Vaikhari Sabda.   Western face is Pascima Amanya, whose central Truth is destruction (Samhara). The Pasu and Vira Sadhakas worship the western face.  

Devi has three faces in the same orientation as Siva's. Siva has six faces from which all gods and goddesses emerged. North face is Uttara Amnaya whose essential Truth is Grace and Compassion, worshipped by Vira and Divya Sadakhas. Facing upward is the best and the highest, the Urdhva Amnaya whose Central Truth is Brahman in its plenitude and who is worshipped only by Divya Sadhakas.  The sixth face, Ishana amnaya, is pointing down and speaks rites, rituals, yogic practices....

The fourth part is hidden, a secret syllable and Sambhunatha, an aggregate of three saktis of knowledge, Will and Action (Jnana, Itcha, and Kriya), and the Northern Face.

The 16th syllable  (secretive kamakala) is a secret,  given to the qualified pupil by a bona-fide Guru; it is none other than Bindu or Goddess Herself.  The fifteen syllable Mantra is called Panca-dasAkshari Mantra. Lakshmidhara says that it is actually a 16-syllable Mantra (SodasAkshari mantra), the the 16th syllable is given by the Guru. That 16th Secret Syllable is Srim, commonly known as KamalA-Bija, the Mantra of Mahalakshmi.

16-syllable Mantra.

1st Peak (Kuta) = ka, e, i, and la-- append Hrim = Ka, Em, I, la, Hrim.  (T

2nd Peak = ha, sa, ka, ha, and la; append Hrim = ha, sa, ka, ha, la, Hrim.

3rd Peak = sa, ka, and la ; append Hrim = sa, ka, la Hrim.  Srim


The MahabhOgarasikahs (the Epicures) add one Seed (Bija) syllable at the beginning of each series;  The three are KAmaraja Klim, Bhuvanesvari Hrim, and Sri Srim.  Thus the 15-syllable mantra becomes 18-syllable Mantra (AshtadasAshari Mantra). Remember that in 18-syllable Mantra the terminal Srim is transposed from its terminal position to the beginning of the third series as depicted below.

18-syllable Mantra of the Epicures.  Pundits say that the Epicure is a figurative term and actually means a spiritual attainment.  Maha-bhOga-rasikahs = Great enjoyment connoisseurs.

1st Peak (Kuta) = Klim, ka, e, i, and la-- append Hrim = Ka, Em, I, la, Hrim.  Vak-Kuta resembles Diluvian fire  and leaps from Muladhara to Anahata Chakra.

2nd Peak = Hrim, ha, sa, ka, ha, and la; append Hrim = ha, sa, ka, ha, la, Hrim. kama-Kuta of the brilliance of 10 million suns leaps from Anahata to Ajna Chakra.

3rd Peak = Srim, sa, ka, and la ; append Hrim = sa, ka, la Hrim. Sakti-Kuta of brilliance of 10 million touches Ajna Chakra.

The letters of the three Kutas are like beads in a rosary. V20-21 (V-R) . These three strings or groups singly and in aggregate form four Bijas of the form of creation, preservation, destruction and the nameless One (anAkhya--combination).

In the Great tradition of Sri-Vidya, it should be instructed by a qualified Guru to become efficacious. Book reading does not confer any benefits but gives you an idea and an impetus.

    Lalita Sahasranama says TPS is KLINKARI represented by Bija Mantra KLIM, also known as Kamaraja Bija.

 (Source (Woodroffe and others)

The following saktis are called Bindu Bhava, a state also known as Isvara Tattva (TATTVAS-36) which has the full potency to act; so does it happen.  As the potencies unfold, they come into full function: Bindu Sivatmaka (Siva), Bija Saktiatmaka (Sakti), and Nada. Nada is the exciter (Ksobhaka) and also the excited (Ksobhya) resulting in creation.  Goddess creates three Devis and three Devas who possess the Saktis- Will, Desire, and Action in addition to creation of Fire, Moon and Sun. This is known as SabdaSrsti, the creation of sound, the Primary Creation. The second creation is Arthasrsti (Object creation).  Arthasrsti entails creation of Devas from Sambhu; these Devas are the presiding deities of the Tattvas, the building blocks of the universe. Raudri comes  from Bindu; Jayestha from Nada; VAmA from BijA.  Rudra comes from Raudri; Vishnu comes Jayestha; Brahma comes from VAmA.  As you may notice, the male god comes from female deity; they become couples. This is the opposite of Christian belief that Eve came from Adam. VAma vomits the universe; Jayestha maintains what is created; Raudri dissolves.

In a variation of the theme, Sakti comes in nine flavors as depicted in the diagram


The latter three are of the nature of Knowledge, Will, Action and also of Fire, Moon, and Sun (Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra).  The Saktis are also in the form of Nirodhika, Arddhendu and Bindu. Bindu (Nada) containing Tamas is Nirodhika (Nirodhini); Nada with Sattva is Ardhenddhu (Ardhachandra); Bindu has in it Bija: Will, Knowledge and Rajas.

Nada with Tamas Guna: Tamas is an obstructionist (Nirodhika) to action and so Nada stops or limits its operations in the universe; Nirodhini-Nirodika resides in Sadasiva Tattva (the giver of Grace) where knowledge and action are in balance. Tamas applies the breaks on Nada and slows it down just enough to manifest Grace in Sadasiva.

Nada with Sattva Guna: Ardenddhu or Ardhachandra (Half-Moon). Here Nada is slightly functional in the sense it creates the "speakables," which covers all the Mantras and words spoken, yet to be spoken, not known to have been spoken... Ardhachandra is Isvara Tattva, dominant in action with knowledge in the background.

Bindu: Parasakti Herself is called Bindu when She is in the nature of inseparate illumination in regard to the whole range of speakable. She resides in Isvara Tattva.

Sakti is One Entity with many titles, many offices, many portfolios, many functions and many performances. She is the consummate Jill of all trades. it is like one's mother being daughter, sister, aunt, wife, grandmother, office worker, food shopper, soccer mom.... The Saktis in descending hierarchical order are UnmanA, SamanA, VyApikA or VyApini, Anjani, MahAnAda, NAda, Nirodhini, Ardhachandra, Bindu, Ma-kAra, U-kAra, A-kAra.  Sakti is Kula and Siva is Akula (not Sakti).

Unmana: Sakti as Excited Mind is the literal meaning. Supreme Siva is beyond the beyond and beyond which there is nothing. She or He is immutable and unchangeable illumination. (The sun will die one day but Supreme Siva lives for ever; He is eternal.) He moves forth by His Will. Such Sakti, inseparable from Him is Unmana, who abides in Siva Tattva.

SamanA is the Sakti which conjures up all the "thinkables (and Mantras)." She is the Creator of Thinkables.  If  Sakti hasn't thought the thought, that thinkable does not exist.  She abides in Sakti Tattva.

VyApini is the Sakti (to disperse) which withdraws all the thinkable into Herself. She abides in Sakti Tattva.

Anjani is the Creator of thinkables; She is SamanA.  She abides in Sakti Tattva.

MahAnAda is the Great Sound when Sabdabrahman emerges with great strength from Its Siva Form; the very first sound produced  sounds like a bell. The Sakti abides in Sadasiva Tattva.

NAda is the Sakti who fills the whole universe with the First Sound, NAdAnta. She abides in Sadasiva Tattva wherein there is equality of Aham and Idam ( Siva's I and His creations This) and from where they originate.

Nirodhini is NAda having ceased to act in its universal scope and abides in Sadasiva Tattva. This is the resting phase of Nada as opposed to its creative phase. In my opinion, a runaway Nada is like a cancerous overgrowth with no usefulness. Optimal growth is the aim.

Ardhachandra is NAda with slight function resulting in the creation of "Speakable" , (Sound and Mantras) and abides in Isvara Tattva.  Speakables are all the spoken words, spoken, not yet spoken, yet to be spoken.... She is the creator of the Speakable and abides in Isvara Tattva. This is the residual function of Nada before it takes rest.

Bindu is Parasakti as the self-effulgent powerhouse (inseparate illumination) of the whole range of Speakable.

Ma-kAra, Rudra Devata, is Bindu causing manifestation of diversity and abides in Maya Tattva.  (The M of AUM)

U-kAra Sakti creates objects as separate existences and abides in Prakrti Tattva. (The U of AUM)

A-kAra Sakti brings creation of Tattvas to an end because all objectivity is completely revealed.  (The A of AUM)

The last three Saktis are AUM (Om).

Tattvas are created (Tattvasrsti) from which mind and matter evolve in a cascade fashion.  Will, Knowledge and Action are the three Saktis or powers of the goddess in the said order. Humans gets these saktis in a dilute form; but exercising these saktis are in a different order: Knowledge, Will and Action.  God or Goddess (Isvara) can WILL first because they have Knowledge; Humans  (Jiva) must have Knowledge before they can WILL.

The letter a and the letter Ha are Siva and Sakti without form and the Supreme Brahman.  Brahman in its desire to create the universe looked at its other half Sakti (Ardhanarisvara ARDHANARISVARA) and took the form of Bindu (Sperm) into which Sakti enters as Rakthabindu (ovum).  We are used to the notion that the Bindu penetrates ovum. These two Bindus are Visarga. The fourth vowel I is Aham and Kamakala is the cause of creation,  words and objects. The Idam objects created the feeling of I and This.

The order in the creation of the universe is as follows: VAma from Bija; Jayestha from NAda; Raudri came from Bindu. From VAma, Jyestha, and Raudri came Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra.  Nirodhika, Arddhendu and Bindu are different states of Sakti. Iccha, Jnana and Kriya and their cohorts are as follows. 1) Iccha, VAmA and Pasyanti. 2) Jnana, JyesthA and Madhyama. 3) Kriya, Raudri and Vaikhari. All these Saktis are deified. 1) Iccha-Sakti is in the form of AmkusakAra (goad), the bent line (Vakrarekha) and displays the Bija (seed) form of the universe. She is VAma and of the form of Pasyanti Sabda. Pasyanti is She who sees. VAma is She who vomits the universe. 2) JyesthA in the form of a straight line (RjurekhA) attains the state of MAtrkA (Mother) and is Madhyama Vak. 3) Raudri is Kriya (Action) in the form of a triangle or three-dimensional pyramid (Srngataka) and the manifested Vaikhari-sabda (articulated speech).  The synopsis and linearity are as follows 1) Iccha, Rajas, Vama, Brahma, pasyanti-Sabda; 2) Jnana, Sattva, Jyestha, Vishnu, Madhyama-Sabda; 3) Kriya, Tamas, Raudri, Rudra, Vaikhari-Sabda.

1. Iccha Sakti, VAmA, and Pasyanti go together. The universe is in the seed form in Bindu BINDU. Iccha Sakti is desire to create the universe from its seed form represented by the goad (AmkusakAra --the bent line [Vakrarekha]).  She is Pasyanti Sabda (Sabda or Sound) or visual sound or "she who sees."  She is VAmA because she vomits the universe from her stomach.  Brahma is the surrogate creator. This creative act is Rajas or motion, passion.... Correlate this with the First Peak and also the VAma line of the A-ka-Tha triangle that goes from VAhini Bindu to the Northeast Isana corner, Chandrabindu. VAma came from Bija. See diagram.

2. Jnana, Jayestha, and Madhyama: Desire to create the universe should be backed up by knowledge and ability. That is Jnana or knowledge. Jayestha in the form of straight line (Rjurekha) is Mental sound before it becomes articulated sound. Vishnu is the surrogate maintainer. This act is Sattva, virtue, goodness.... Correlate this with second peak and also the Jayestha line.

3. Kriya, Raudri and Vaikhari go together. Raudri is action (Kriya) represented by a triangular pyramidal three-dimensional form.  Her manifestation is Articulated sound or Vaikhari speech emanating from the throat.  As you see, the sound evolves from Subtle to visual to mental to audible sound. Rudra is the surrogate destroyer of the universe; so goes the cycle of generation, maintenance, and destruction on and on. This Raudri act is Tamas, darkness, death.... Correlate this with the third peak and Raudri line.

The Saktis VAma, Jyestha, and Raudri originate from the three Bindus. 

The triplets or three Bindus

Siva, Sakti, and Sivasakti Prakasa, Vimarsa, and Prakasa-Vimarsa White, red, and Mixed Bindu, Nada and Bija Supreme, Subtle and Gross Three Devis: Vama, Jyestha and Raudri Three Devas: Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra Three Saktis: Will Knowledge and Action

Hadi Mantra (Lopamudra Mantra)

Ha/Sa/Ka/La/Hrim = 5 syllables
Ha/Sa/Ka/Ha/La/Hrim = 6 syllables
S/Ka/La/Hrim = 4 syllables
15 syllables

These two are known as KaHadi Mantra. The devotees diverge in their worship of Sri Yantra; the Kadi line devotees worship Sri Yantra centripetally (from outside to the center); the Hadi devotees centrifugally.

Why is here so much of talk about Sound or Sabda?  Sound in its most subtle form is the repository of creative ideas; it is for you to find them. Some like Einstein tap it (Para Nada). The subtle sound does not stir or cause vibrations (High frequency); it becomes a visual sound, a mental sound, and an articulated sound.  Thought is sound in your mind. Without sound, there is no mind; thus mind is made of and created by sounds.  When you think, I want to eat a banana, you are actually articulating the sound (of the sentence) in your mind; that is mental sound.  Devi's creation, maintenance, and destruction are all sound. Mantra is sound that moulds the mind in sattvic ways, gives mental tranquility by being a non-pharmacologic sedative, explores the inner and outer cosmos, appeals to the deity, and elicits salubrious response. After a while, Mantras are chanted in your mind without you being aware of it; it is like the rhythmical beating of the heart; some say it goes on during your sleep. It detaches the mind from the physical world and transports you to the transcendent Turiya state.

                                                                           The Great  Bindu Triads






Progeny of the previous column

Spouse of the previous



Gunas or


Sound, its


Seat of the Sound

Bija Sonabindu










Nada Misrabindu










Bindu Sitabindu










 Sonabindu = Red Bindu; Misrabindu = Mixed Bindu; Sitabindu = White Bindu 

Explanation of Sona Bindu, Misra Bindu, and Sita Bindu.

The Bindu in the most central Triangle of Sri Yantra is the sine qua non of the union of Siva and Sakti or Kāmaeshvari; thus, this triangle is known as Kāma Kala, the seat of Supracosmic desire to create. Kamakala =  Essence of sexual desire; creative fervor.  Bindu is described as Sarva Ananda Maya Chakra, meaning Chakra replete with Bliss. Kamakala has three components or three subtype Bindus: Red Bindu (Sonabindu), White Bindu (Sitabindu) and Mixed Bindu (Misrabindu). Red Bindu = Menstrual fluid; here it refers to the ovum. White Bindu = semen. Mixed Bindu (Misra Bindu) = union of Siva and Sakti. Lalita (Goddess) has two aspects: Varahi and Kurkulla. Varahi, the father form of the Goddess, provides the semen and the four Dhatus (elements) known as four fires to the offspring. Kurukulla, the mother form of the Goddess, supplies the ovum and five Dhatus (five saktis) to the offspring. Consciousness enters the child through orgasm. The four fires and five Saktis occupy the center of the Chakra. The four up triangles of Varahi having 12 angles represent the 12 sun kalas and 12 sidereal constellations. The five down triangles of Kurukulla having 15 angles represent 15 Moon Kalas (digits) in a fortnight or 15 lunar days. Since man is the microcosm of the Macrocosm and Shri Yantra represents both, the newborn is Sri Yantra or a seedling. Yantra's eight petal lotus and 16 petal lotus amounting to 24 petals show the flowering of the plant.  

Sabdabrahman (Sound Brahman) is Clinical Brahman or God or Goddess, meaning that He or She is not the impalpable, invisible entity but the palpable, visible entity which is the entire breathing pulsating universe. Everything you see, hear, feel, taste, and touch, the forces of nature, the universe beyond this earth are all goddess.  Kamakala is that Sabdabrahman with three saktis: creation, maintenance and destruction. It is the abode of power (Sakti--AbalAlayam = AbalA + Alayam = Sakti+ abode).  This Sakti is represented by an inverted triangle, the sides being Will, Action and Knowledge.  These three entities cannot be put in any other form except a triangle. They are distinct in its parts and yet parts of the whole. The triangle has three corners occupied by three Bindus: VAhini Bindu, fire; Chandra Bindu, Moon; Surya Bindu (Sun). These lines are also called Sakti Vama (creation), Sakti Jyesthi (maintenance) and Sakti Raudri (destruction).  The Saktis "sprout from three Bindus." The associated deities are Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra with their respective spouses; gunas, Rajas, Sattva and Tamas; and related portfolios. The lines of the triangle are formed by 48 letters of Sanskrit alphabet starting with Vowels A. The 16 Vowels form one line; the 2nd line is that of 16 consonants starting with Ka; the 3rd line is that of 16 Consonants starting with Tha; thus, the triangle is called A-Ka-Tha Triangle. These lines are also called Vama line, Jyestha line, and Raudri line. The line of Fire is Rajasic Vama line; the line of Moon is  Sattvic Jyesta line; the line of Sun is Tamasic Raudri line. This inverted triangle has A at its apex, Ka at the right corner and Tha at the left corner.  The remaining alphabets, ha, la, ksha are in the inside corners of the triangle. Sabdabrahman is represented by this triagular kamakala (AbalAlaya = Abode of Sakti).

 Here Fire is the origin of life, and is therefore associated with Brahma. Moon is associated with Visnu, And the Sun spoken of here stands for the twelve suns (Aditya) which rise to burn the world at dissolution (Pralaya). Woodroffe.

See the diagram below.

These Pīṭas -- Kāma-rūpa, Pūrṇa-śaila, Jālandhara, Uḍḍiyana-- are the correspondences in the outer world (Bāhyataḥ) of the four Sāktik manifestations of the general Vimarśa Śakti called Ambikā, Vāmā, Jyeṣṭā, Raudrī (the last three is listed above.). The first denotes the " seeing " of the Divine Mother of Her own forthcoming (Sphuraṇa) when She is Parā Vāk. Vāmā is the state when she is outward turned (Unmukhī) Śakti being then in its seed or Bīja state. She is then Icchā Śakti and Paśyantī in which she is in the form of a goad (Aṅkuśa). Jyeṣṭā is Jñāna- Śakti, Madhyamā-Vāk, in the form of a straight line (Rjurekhā). Raudrī is Kriya- Śakti and Vaikharī-Vāk in the form of Śṛṅgāṭa (Pyramidal and triangular) and as Saṁhāra Śakti is in the form of Bindu in the return movement (Pralaya). These Pītās are the Kanda, Pada, Rūpa and Rūpātītā respectively. The first is the root of the Suṣumnā-Nāḍī or Mūlādhāra.  Pada is Haṁsa in Anāhata-cakra the seat of Jīva. Rūpa is Bindu in Ājñā Cakra, Rūpātīta is Niṣkala in the Brahmarandhra. The outer subtle manifestations are here the inner Cakras of the bod)'. The gross Cakras are the holy places, named in the Text, great seats of Sākta worship. page 142 The Great Liberation, Woodroffe.


The letters make Her substance or body and thus She is called MAtrikamAyi; Her body is made of letters and sounds.  Let me give you an example. Computer uses 0 and 1 to represent any letter and anything for that mater. The whole universe can be shown by using various combinations of 0 and 1. Take Lingam; it is a combination of 0 and 1; 1 is sitting snugly in the zero. Zero is Sakti; 1 is Siva. Saivites say the first I (Aham, Ego) is Siva because He is the first one to say Aham (I).  Later Idam (this--it includes anything and everything) came into existence. Sakti by his side (0) kept quiet in the beginning. Later she looked towards Siva (Unmuki) for a longing glance from Him. That is the beginning of the creation of Idam (this--the Universe of beings and matter).  Thus the universe is just sound and letters; sound came first and letters came later.

 Chandra Mandala (Moon) encircles the triangle.  Hamsah is Purusa and Prakrti: Ha and Sa, the Bindus.  Why all this? They form a Mandala. The letters (the universe) are the body of the goddess and fit for circumambulation and worship. Without the body of sound and letters Universe and beings don't exist.

Kamakala by virtue of these qualities is the eternal One, the three Bindus,  three Saktis and three forms.  KAmakala (Kamesvari, TPS) with three eyes (and Bindus), sun, moon and fire sits in the Chakra on the lap of Kamesvara with the crescent moon on His head.  These three lines, Mahesvari Samhita says, are Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra. 

The story behind Lopamudra

Lopamudra is named after a girl who was made out of the most beautiful parts of animals: the eyes of a deer, the gait of a lion. Lopa = loss (sustained by the animals.) Mudra = seal, stamp, finger position.

Agastya Muni put together the quintessence of all living beings and created the most beautiful girl and called her Lopamudra, whom he gave to King of Vidarbha as daughter, though the latter did penance for a son.  The king, pleased with getting a daughter, raised her with many maids to attend to her needs. Lopamudra grew up as a very beautiful girl. Agastya came to the King and asked for the hand of Lopamudra in marriage to him. At first the king was hesitant to marry his daughter to Agastya Muni, who wore barks and matted hair. Afraid that Agastya may curse him he was suffering inside. Lopamudra broke the dilemma by coming to the King and asking him to give her in marriage to the Agastya Muni. This was a child marriage, which was not consummated. When she attained puberty, Lopamudra stood by the Muni and desired for a child. Knowing his habits and habitat, she demanded that she would accept union with him only if he wore flower garland and ornaments and he should give her divine ornaments. Penurious Agastiya sustained a shock hearing Lopamudra’s demands. He went to three kings, Srutarva, Bradhnasva, and Trasadasyu asking for money; all of them showed their empty treasury but accompanied Agastya in search of money. The three kings and Agastya went to a noble Asura king of Ilavala, who gave him all the riches he needed and more.

Worship in its entirety is available to anyone irrespective of gender, caste or class, no discrimination as espoused by the Brahmanical religion.  One should observe Nyasas and Vinyasas starting with A and ending with ksa. Nyasa = To place. Vinyasas = putting down. By the power of Sound and Mantra, he invokes the spirit to descend on his body. Touching the body parts with the tips of the fingers and palm of the right hand in a geographic progression from his arms down to his feet. Nyasa consisting of touch and chanting of Mantra infuses the body with divinity and Mantras. The devotee or the officiating priest becomes the deity or Siva for the duration of the worship (until He is dismissed--Visarga). After Bhutasuddhi (purification of five physical elements of the body), Jiva nyasa is done to suffuse the body with the life of the goddess. The aspirant places the hand over the Anahata Heart center and says SoHam (I am He / She) thus identifying himself with the Goddess. Bija mantras follow; then comes Matrika Nyasa. As a being comes from the mother, from the fifty sounds and letters (matrika), the world evolves. That is Sabda Brahman creating the world.

    The body of the Goddess consists of fifty matrika. The aspirant places his hand on various parts of the body that correspond to the various Sanskrit alphabets and at the same time chants the appropriate Matrika for that part of the body.

  Woodroffe describes the procedure as follows in Mahanirvana Tantra.

The bodies of the Devata are composed of the fifty matrika. The sadhaka, therefore, first sets mentally ( antar-matrika-nyasa) in their several places in the six chakra, and then externally by physical action ( Vahy-amatrika-nyasa) the letters of the alphabet which form the different parts of the body of the Devata, which is thus built up in the sadhaka himself. He places his hand on different parts of his body, uttering distinctly at the same time the appropriate matrika for that part.

The mental disposition in the chakra is as follows: In the Ajna Lotus, Hang, Kshang (each letter in this and the succeeding cases is said, followed by the mantra namah); in the Vishuddha Lotus Ang, Ang, and the rest of the vowels; in the Anahata Lotus kang, khang to thang; in the Manipura Lotus, dang dhang, etc., to Phang; in the Svadisthana Lotus bang , bhang to lang; and, lastly, in the Muladhara Lotus, vang, shang, shang, sang. The external disposition then follows. The vowels in their order with anusvara and visarga are placed on the forehead, face, right and left eye, right and left ear, right and left nostril, right and left cheek, upper and lower lip, upper and lower teeth, head, and hollow of the mouth. The consonants kang to vang are placed on base of right arm and the elbow, wrist, base and tips of fingers, left arm, right and left leg, right and left side, back, navel, belly, heart, right and left shoulder, space between the shoulders (kakuda), and then from the heart to the right palm shang is placed; and from the heart to the left palm the (second) shang; from the heart to the right foot, sang; from the heart to the left foot, hang; and, lastly, from the heart to the belly, and from the heart to the mouth, kshang. In each case ong is said at the beginning and namah at the end. According to the Tantra-sara, matrika-nyasa is also classified into four kinds, performed with different aims viz.: kevala where the matrika is pronounced without vindu; vindu-sangyuta with vindu; sangsarga with visarga ; and sobhya with visarga and vindu.

Rishi-nyasa (by Wooroffe)

then follows for the attainment of the chatur-varga. The assignment of the mantra is to the head, mouth, heart, anus, the two feet, and all the body generally. The mantra commonly employed are: "In the head, salutation to the Rishi (Revealer) Brahma; in the mouth, salutation to the mantra Gayatri, in the heart, salutation to the Devi Mother Sarasvati; in the hidden part, salutation to the vija, the consonants; salutation to the shakti, the vowels in the feet, salutation to visargah, the kilaka in the whole body." Another form in which the vija employed is that of the Aiya: it is referred to but not given in Chap. V., verse 123, and is: "In the head, salutation to Brahma and the Brahmarshis, in the mouth, salutation to Gayatri and the other forms of verse; in the heart, salutation to the primordial Devata Kali, in the hidden part, salutation to the vija, kring; in the two feet, salutation to the shakti, Hring; in all the body, salutation to the Kalika Shring."

Then follows anga-nyasa and kara-nyasa. These are both forms of shad-anga-nyasa. When shad-anga-nyasa is performed on the body, it is called hridayadi-shad-anga-nyasa; and when done with the five fingers and palms of the hands only, angushthadi-shad-anga-nyasa. The former kind is done as follows: The short vowel a, the consonants of the ka-varga group, and the long vowel a , are recited with "hridayaya namah" (namah salutation to the heart). The short vowel i, the consonants of the cha-varga group, and the long vowel i, are said with "shirasi svaha" (svaha to the head). The hard ta-varga consonants set between the two vowels u are recited with "shikhayai vashat" (vashat to the crown lock); similarly the soft ta-varga between the vowels e and ai are said with "kavachaya hung." The short vowel o, the pavarga, and the long vowel o are recited with netra-trayaya vaushat (vaushat to the three eyes). Lastly, between vindu and visargah the consonants ya to ksha with "kara-tala-prishthabhyang astraya phat" (phat to the front and back of the palm).

The mantras of shadanga-nyasa on the body are used for Kara-nyasa, in which they are assigned to the thumbs, the "threatening" or index fingers, the middle fingers, the fourth, little fingers, and the front and back of the palm.

These actions on the body, fingers, and palms also stimulate the nerve centres and nerves therein.

In pitha-nyasa the pitha are established in place of the matrika. The pitha, in their ordinary sense, are Kama-rupa and the other places, a list of which is given in the Yogini-hridaya.

For the attainment of that state in which the sadhaka feels that the bhava (nature, disposition) of the Devata has come upon him nyasa is a great auxiliary. It is, as it were, the wearing of jewels on different parts of the body. The vija of the Devata are the jewels which the sudkaka places on the different parts of his body. By nyasa he places his Abhishta-devata in such parts, and by vyapaka-nyasa he spreads Its presence throughout himself. He becomes permeated by it losing himself in the divine Self.

Nyasa (by Woodroffe)

is also of use in effecting the proper distribution of the shaktis of the human frame in their proper positions so as to avoid the production of discord and distraction in worship. Nyasa as well as Asana are necessary for the production of the desired state of mind and of chitta-shuddhi (its purification). "Das denken ist der mass der Dinge." Transformation of thought is Transformation of being. This is the essential principle and rational basis of all this and similar Tantrik sadhana.

    Nyasa are of two types: Karanyāsa and Anganyāsa. Karanyāsa is touching with the fingers and palm in various places and meditating on planets and celestials. Anganyāsa is perceiving God or Goddess in different parts of the body. It helps in meditating on different Chakras located in different parts of the body. Each part of the body presided by a deity protects that part of the body. After Anganyasa, the whole body is suffused with divine energy which radiates and purifies wherever he goes. In Karanyasa the grace and blessings flow out of the hands and fingers of the Guru.

    The palm and the fingers are a book by themselves. Different disciplines see their own cartogram in the lines, whorls, loops, and arches. The five fingers represent ether, air, fire, water, and earth (Mahabhutas or great elements). Thumb is Brahma; Index finger, Ego; middle finger, Sattva Guna; the ring finger, Rajasic Guna; the fifth finger, Tamasic Guna.

    Venus occupies the base of the thumb; Jupiter, the base of index finger; Saturn, the base of the middle finger; Apollo, the base of the ring finger; and Mercury , the base of the fifth finger.  The space between the base of the thumb (Thenar eminence) to the wrist is Venus Mount. The opposite hypothenar eminence is the Mount of the Moon. Between the two eminences is the cup of the palm, the region of Rahu; Ketu is between the Mount of Moon and the Mount of Venus. There are two regions of Mars: one between Mercury and Apollo and the other between Venus and Jupiter.

Some examples of Karanyasa, invocation of deities and religious finger gestures done with right and left fingers  at the same time and palms.

These are based on Gayati Mantra.

tat savitur varenyam THAT Light (sun) adore

bhargo devasya dhīmahi = Splendor divine meditate

dhiyo yo nah prachodayāt = Intelligence who our inspires

Here is the Gayatri Nyasa as done during Sandhyavandana.

Invocation of deities in fingers and palms.

Submitting to the power of Vishnu, bring the thumb over the index fingers forming circles. The thumbs overlaps the index fingers in this procedure forming two circles, as the chanter invokes Lord Vishnu in the index fingers.

varenyam. visnvātmane tarjanībhyām namah.

Tarjana = threatening finger (index finger).

Varenyam. Salutations to the Supreme Soul Vishnu, whom I adore and invoke in the two index fingers.

Overlapping the thumbs over the middle fingers forming a circle, the chanter invokes Rudra-Siva in the middle fingers.

Following the same procedure, the Sandhyavandana chanter invokes Transcendental principle in his ring fingers and Lord of wisdom in the fifth fingers.

The chanter brings the right palm over the left palm and later the back of the right palm over the back of the left palm and invokes the all-pervading God on both sides of his palms.

(By invoking the deities in the fingers and palms, the chanter surrenders himself to the deities, who are the protectors of the fingers and their functions.)

Now we come to Anga Nyasa, invocation of deities in body parts.

Anga Nyasa (taction of body parts) is application of ritual taction over the heart, forehead, crown, shoulder with the right or appropriate hand.

Touch the Anahata (heart) Center and chant,

    Om. tat savitur. Brahmatmane hrdayaaya namah.

    Om that Savituh. Brahmah in my heart, salutations.

(I meditate on that Light of lights and creator Brahma in my heart. Salutations.)

In like manner, the chanter meditates, touches and asks for protection of  the forehead from Lord Vishnu, the crown from Rudra, the shoulders from Tattvas, and the eyes from the Light of lights. He invokes God for the third eye of wisdom and touches between the two brows. He places his opposed palms above the head, and expels evil vibrations by saying 'phat' and simultaneously clapping four times. phat = onomatopoeic mystical syllable; begone, crack, get lost.

Once purification takes place, the priest or sakta  sanctifies his body by affixing mantras on various parts of the body. By means of digital pressure, he infuses the body parts with divine energy by chanting mantra (OM) in a geographic progression from his arms, elbows, wrists, stomach, thighs, ankles, mouth to his feet. The priest or the Sakta now has a divine body pervaded by gods and Mantras; that is called Devatavigraha.  The priest becomes the god (Siva) or goddess for the time being. Siva, in case of Saiva priest, affirms the notion that the purified, sanctified and mantra-infused priest is Siva himself, though he may not have russet matted hair, the crescent moon, the third eye in the forehead, or the divine spouse on his left side. This Nyasa dissolves the sinful body and the divine body takes its place.

Devata vigraha = Divine body

Another version of Nyasa. The deity is a body of letters, because sound emanates from the body of the deity. If there is no deity there is no sound, no alphabets, and no speech. Once all the alphabets are affixed to the various parts of the body around Chakras (Matrika Nyasa) both mentally and physically, they migrate to nerve plexuses of the Chakras starting from Muladhara Chakra to Ajna Chakra which has the last two Ha-Ksa (think of Y and Z) letters marked on its two petals. Let me give you an example to understand this. There are two parts to fixing the Sanskrit alphabets: Mental and physical. You bring the alphabet A in your mind and affix it mentally to a Chakra body location (antar-matrika-nyasa). Each body part has its own specific alphabet. Every alphabet is a powerhouse of Saktis. Then you perform the physical counterpart (Vahy-amatrika-nyasa) with your finger tips . Once this is done you become the body of letters; the divinity has descended on you; there is diffusion and pervasion (Vyapaka Nyasa) of the spirit of the deity throughout the body; the nerve plexuses are ready to be fired up.  The heart Chakra (Anahata) has nine seats for nine gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Isvara, Sadasiva, Pusan, Tulika, Prakasaka, and Vidyasana.  Hum, Hum, Hum sound awakens the Kundalini at the Muladhara Chakra. The procedure is very complex and needs a learned Guru for guidance. Sri Chakra Nyasa is more complex.

Matrika Nyasa = alphabet placing. Antar = within, inside.

    There is another classification of Diksa (initiation): ritual, letter, Kala, touch, speech, sight and thought.

    Diksa has yet another classification: 1) Samaya Diksa, when the Guru allows the disciple to help him with the religious ceremony. (Sama = religion.) 2) Putrika Diksa, when, in the likeness of father to a son, the Guru orders the disciple to conduct the ritual. 3) Sadhika Diksa, when the Guru initiates him in Sadhana. 4) Vedhaka Diksa: (Vedhaka = tansmutation, change) when the Guru effects some imperceptible  changes in Sadhaka. 5) Purna Acharya Diksa, when the Guru invests in the disciple the full powers of a Guru. 6) Nirvana, when the disciple is mature and perfect to attain absorption (laya) into the Self through Sadhana.

    Diksa is performed with a jar, sacred fire place, and a vessel for the purification of the body.

    Varnamayi Diksa involves placement of Sanskrit letters on the body of the disciple and the Guru. Remember that Sanskrit letters form the Bija Mantra and that Kali wears a garland of Sanskrit letters represented by the skulls around her neck. Varna = Sanskrit letters. This sort of initiation shatters all bonds.

    KalA Diksa is based on the tattvas involved in Pravrtti and Nivrtti, evolution and involution of the soul. Nivrtti KalA is between the feet and the knees, Pratistha KalA from the knees to navel, Vidya KalA from the navel to the neck, Santi KalA from the neck to the forehead, and Santyatita from the forehead to the top of the head. This progress from the feet to the head depicts the withdrawal or involution of the soul to a higher consciousness; the Sadhaka is born at the end of the journey amongst Yogins and Viras; all pasas (bonds) are destroyed.

    Touching the disciple by the Guru is Sparsa or tactile initiation; Initiation with a Mantra is Vac Diksa or verbal initiation; Initiation by gaze is drg Diksa or sight initiation; initiation by combination of touch, sight and speech is Sambhavi Diksa. (Brahmanda Purana Chapter 43.)

    Diksa erases the caste differences: Sudra is no more a Sudra; the Brahmana is no more a Brahmana. Diksa also erases the past and to think of the past of a person after Diksa is sin itself; it is like thinking of Linga as a stone. As Linga made of earth, crystal, stalagmite, iron, jewel, stone, sand, wood and ice become sanctified; so also all the classes of people get purified after Diksa. He who has been initiated can dispense with tapas, injunctions, vratas, pilgrimages and rituals involving the body. He who prays without initiation is like a seed sown on a rock. Sastra states that seniority of a person in Kaula hierarchy goes according to when a particular person is initiated. If a Sudra is initiated first and a Brahmana is initiated later, the Sudra is senior to the Brahmana. Washing the feet of the Guru washes away all the sins. Sudras are not allowed to study Vedas. Woman should get permission from her father, husband or son depending upon her status.

    Guru Tantra states that Guru is the central figure in all activities of Sadhakas. Any tantric activity without the guidance of Guru is sin. Others are of the opinion that practice of Tantra due to mitigating circumstances like unavailability of Guru for initiation and teaching  does not constitute sin. Guru by convention and sastras is a Brahmana for initiation. A Brahmana Guru can initiate all castes; in his absence, Ksatriya and Vaisya can serve as initiating Gurus for their own or lower castes; a Sudra can never initiate any caste, because initiation, with a Mantra by a Sudra, of other caste member or even another Sudra will take the initiator and the initiated to depths of the Nether worlds.

    Kamadhenu Tantra is very strong in its condemnation of Sudra initiators; they are characterized as follows: Their sinning tongue should not utter Mantras, because their tasting tongue is contaminated with feces, urine and blood. His face is urine, feces and blood; his food is excrement; his water is urine; he is a Chandala (lowest of the low). The mere sight of his face makes the sacred River Ganga abandon its own waters and take a flight out of abhorrence. All  Tirthas (places of pilgrimages) scoot from their seats out of repulsion. A Mantra-Mongering Sudra (seller of Mantras) is an atrocious sight which makes Ganga go to Brahmaloka, the highest place, unreachable to a Mantra-Mongering Sudra. (Sudra's tongue is contaminated because he is presumed to eat meat, blood, and bone of an animal for the satiation of his hunger. Prescribed eating of Mamsa and Matsya (meat and fish) are not proscribed. Mantramongers (Venders) are ubiquitous among  higher castes too. They are not vilified here, but should elicit same condemnation and repercussions.) Segregation; anti-miscegenation laws; slavery; separate toilets; white flight; gender discrimination; life style discrimination; denial of franchise, equality or opportunity based on color, gender, national origin; separate schools, colleges and facilities; petty and grand humiliation by thought, word and deed; glass ceiling; opaque ceiling; violation of treaties; genocide; displacement; invasion; occupation; exploitation are variations and mutations of desire to stay  at the vertex of the pyramid (and at the top of the food chain all the time). Discrimination of Sudra by the twice-born is not any different. The Vertex-born of ancient India perfected these discriminatory practices even before the world had any idea of it. According to the tenets of karma and reincarnation, the high-born will become low-born for their putrid practice; the rolls are reversed; the playing field is leveled over many reincarnations, until the final release is obtained.

    Sakti of Brahman becomes Gurusakti in a Guru and imparts its power to a stone, wood, or clay idol. Kaula Guru is in the forefront among Sakta, Saiva, Vaishnava, Saura and Ganapatya Gurus, because Kaula Guru is good and competent for Mantras of all sects, while the sectarian gurus are good in their own sectarian Mantras. Sectarian Guru should initiate an aspirant in his own sect only, but a Kaula Guru is competent to determine what is most suitable to an aspirant and initiate him in that particular Mantra, which belongs to any one of the sects.

Finding a Guru.

    Being a father, maternal grandfather, brother, younger-age person, and person from enemy camp are a disqualification to initiate an aspirant in Mantra. Recluse, forest-dwelling hermit, father, and Sannyasi are not qualified to dispense Mantra. Blood relatives or relatives by marriage are mutually excluded from initiation. A husband has Tantric permission to initiate his wife as his Sakti (power); Siva and Sakti are on the same level of relationship. Viras and Kaulas only are given this privilege; pasus are excluded. A Siddha (perfected aspirant or Sadhaka) can dispense with restrictions and initiate his wife as sakti. A Siddha who is efficacious in the use of  Mantra (Siddhamantra) can bypass the rules of dispensation in Mantra, when the recipient is a son or brother. Efficacy in the use of Mantras apply to those who are perfect in Siddhi (Siddhividya), as the Mantras relate to ten Mahavidyas: Kali1, Tara2, Sodasi3,  Bhuvanesvari4, Chinnamasta5, Bhairavi6, Dhumavati7, Bagala8, Matangi9, Kamalatmika10  

Maya consists of three gunas; Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Avidyam (ignorance) is Maya with dominance of Rajas and Tamas, while dominance of Sattva in Maya is Vidya (wisdom), present in Yogis and gods (Brahman included in this category), and Turiya sakti is Mahavidya, pure Bliss. Mahavidya = Great wisdom = Exalted Science = Pure Bliss. Plural = Mahavidyas = personification of the ten female Saktis of Siva. What is Mantra for a male god is Vidya for goddess. Vidya stands for  goddess and female version of Mantra.

Mahavidyas Vidyas Siddhavidyas
Kali and Tara Sodasi, Bhuvanesvari, Bhairavi, Chinamasta, Dumavati, Bagala, Matangi, and Kamala

In Syama Rahasya, all 10 are included in Mahavidyas.

Sri Vidya: is the Mantra of Bhuvanesvari, Mahamaya or Tripurasundari. It is also known as Panchadasi (Pancha + dasi = five plus ten = fifteen), because it has fifteen letters. It is called Sodasi (6+10) in its developed form, when it acquires another letter.  This potent Mantra is prescribed and dispensed to a Sadhaka only by a qualified Guru who has obtained perfection or Siddhi of this Mantra. Self purification with other Mantras is the first preparatory stage (Puras-carana): Ganesa Mantra is an example of Purascarana; After several purascaranas, the Sadhaka arrives at Panchadasi and Sodasi. A thorough knowledge of Sanskrit, proper pronunciation and dispensation from a Guru are essential elements for Sri Vidya Mantra Japa. Correct pronunciation without Sraddha (faith, confidence, love, affection) has no redemptive value. Others can take up Mantras of Ishta Devatas.    


Ten Goddesses: Shodasi, Mahalakshmi, Matangi, Bagalamukhi, Chinnamasata, Bhuvanesvari, Kali, Tara, Bhairavi, and Dhumavati.

The ten Mahavidyas have each a function. 

1. Kali is the first Mahavidya, black as night. She is Time because everyone disappears into the blackness of Time, where they repose in the tender loving hands of Kali in peace, tranquility, and bliss. Man's phenomenal life comes to an end and god's eternal life come to a pause. Kali, having killed a demon, continues on her unmitigated rampage with the Tejas she received from all the gods. In order to diffuse this unspent and redundant energy, Siva appears as an infant on the battleground and Kali stumbles on him. She takes pity, picks the infant and with motherly love and compassion, nurses infant Siva. In some narratives, Siva appears on the battleground as himself;  finding her husband at her feet, Kali takes pity and her unspent redundant energy dissipates. Kali is not only the Mother of Siva himself , but as occasion demands, her husband also.  Kali is the Mother of the universe, the protectress of her children and the destroyer of evil. The elements in this legend of Kali portray certain qualities in a person and the accompanying passions. Man is divine and demonic at the same time, two sides of one person. There are gods and men who are divine; there are demons and men who are demonic.  Kali goes by many names: Durga, Sati, Parvati, Uma, Bhavani.  She is the Supreme Truth, realizing which is the Supreme state. (In the movie "Loc Kargil" the soldiers were invoking Kali and Durga while they were attacking the rock-fortified positions of the enemy soldiers.)

2. Tara is of dark-blue in color. Tara, as her name implies, is a savior and a star. She and Kali are depicted as standing on supine Sava Siva. (Sava = dead). Tara is also depicted as a compassionate mother to Siva. On the urging of gods and Vishnu, Siva drinks up the spreading destructive poison generated during the churning of the milk ocean for ambrosia. He drinks it up and falls ill. Tara finds him unconscious, revives him and nurses him back to health with her breast milk which counteracts the poison. Tara carries a pair of scissors in her hands, which means that she can sever all attachments. Siva without Sakti is dead (sava). Siva and Sakti are one integral unit.

3. Sodasi (Shodasi) is a maiden of sixteen (years of age) and represents totality, youth, vigor, and perfection. She goes by another name, Tripurasundari. Tri+Pura+Sundari = Three + City + Beauty. Three cities = the three realms of heaven, earth, and air. She is Tripura because her body is made of three Saktis: Brahma, Vaisnavi, and Raudri. The three cities are a metaphor for man with three qualities: Sattva, Raja and Tamas (virtue, motion and passion, lethargy). She is the transcendent beauty of three cities or three gunas or the three cities of the demons.

Lord Siva was seated in yogic meditation. Kama came along to disturb his meditation, but was destroyed by Siva. Siva, the destroyer, was in meditation for sometime, which resulted in the increase in the population of earth and a heavy burden on Mother Earth.  The gods sent Kama (god of love, cupid, Amos, Eros) to shoot flowery Harshana (one of the five erotic arrows) on Siva and disturb his penance at the precise moment he woke up to receive his Divine Consort Parvati.  He (Kama) also by his magical power created an ambience of spring in the air, earth, and trees, conducive to love. Siva woke up from meditation, took one look at Parvati, and could not stop enjoying and articulating his appreciation of beautiful features of Parvati, who, in the privacy of Siva’s presence, lay bare gracefully, with sidelong glances. Siva felt like two persons, one imbibing the beauty of Parvati and another Yogi of all yogis bent on control of the senses. He felt that if seeing is great pleasure, embracing must offer even greater pleasure. Suddenly it dawned on him that he was stung by Kama ’s arrows and bitten by love. How could that happen to a Yogi of yogis, who has complete control over senses?  Paramayogi Siva addressed Parvati in a loving manner and wondered aloud to her, how he became a victim to Kama and how that downfall is harmful to his excellent reputation as the Lord of Vairagya (desirelessness). He advised Parvati, in a spirit of detachment, not to sit by his side on the couch, and looked around for he felt uncomfortable in being aroused. He felt that the Vairagin and Yogi (in him) was associating with a wife of someone else; such was the depth of his Vairagya.  Kama continued to shoot arrows at Siva with no effects. Siva's anger was coming to surface. A fire rising from the third eye of Siva incinerated Kama into ashes. That incident happened in Korukkai. One of Siva's devotees gathered the ashes of Kama and shaped it in the form of man. The devotee begs Siva to teach him a mantra and confer half the power of Kama to the ash-made man. Since the Ash-man was dead Kama and the result of Siva's fury, the Ash-man became a demon, who with his newfound strength and power defeated the gods who sought the help of Tripurasundari, who defeated the demon and restored the gods to their former status. (Bhasman or Sacred Ash is euphemious for the semen virile of Siva. Incineration brings all substances to their pristine primal state.)

In Tantra literature, there are five Sivas: Sadasiva, Isa, Rudra, Vishnu, and Brahma; all of them are described as "Five Great corpses" because they are all inert without Sakti. Siva is Sava (corpse, Sava Rupa); hence, Sakti Devi is portrayed as standing on Sava-Siva. The Five Great Corpses (pancha-maha-preta) become inanimate objects upon which Devi (Sodasi) sits, reclines, presides, and merges as Consciousness. Siva is the couch; Sadasiva is the mattress; Isa is the pillow; Isa, Rudra, Hari (Vishnu), and Brahma are the four legs of the couch. Tripurasundari/Sodasi reclines majestically on the couch. Sundari is united with Higher Siva, Paramasiva in Pranava, AUM. The Nada (Chandrabindu/ Nadabindu) over the Omkara is the couch, on which Paramasiva in his Bindu form is reclining. Chandrabindu is Nada and Bindu, Sakti and Siva in one unit. The erotic and sometimes morbid symbolism is illustrative of Sakti's (Sodasi) power. Shodasi = Sho + Dasi = 6 + 10 = 16. Sodasi is sweet, soft, and sixteen all the time. She is Lalita, sweet, soft and charming. Sixteen is the age and youth of prime and from there on it is downhill in every sense. Even in a physiological and immunological sense, sixteen is the turning point for the worse. It takes sixteen days for the new moon to become a full moon; from there on it is down hill. Sundari is sweet sixteen all the time, the prime of everything imaginable.

Kali was once addressed as KALI (black) by Siva; Kali was upset, retired to Mount Sumeru, and became an ascetic vowing to change her black complexion to white. Narada, the talebearing Muni, went to Kali and told her that Siva was considering to marry another woman and that she should immediately go to Siva.Is this not a benign mischief on the part of Narada Muni?  Kali by that time lost the pigment in her skin and became light-skinned, but did not know about it. When she went to Siva, she saw a wheat-complexioned woman in the mirror of the heart of Siva. She was upset, angry and jealous; Siva noticing her disposition asked her to look more closely. Kali found her own light-skinned image and realized her misperception. Siva calling her Tripurasundari said that she would remain sixteen for ever; that is how she became known by that epithet, Sodasi.

Bhuvanesvari is Mistress of the world. Bhu = world. Isvara = Lord; Isvari = Mistress. She is Rajarajesvari (Queen of queens) as the ruler of the universe. She is the embodied form of the totality of transcendent knowledge (Para Vidya--Supreme knowledge), part of  which makes the Vedas. Tantrics say that Bhuvanesvari becomes a manifest goddess after creation and thus controls the phenomenal world in all its aspects. She is a beautiful goddess in every respect so much so Siva acquired a third eye to imbibe her beauty. Bhuvanesvari is the centerpiece of phenomenal world; she causes creation, maintenance and destruction; all activities and oscillations of the world, including love and hate, happiness and misery, joy and suffering and other myriad emotions are her play activity. Bhuvanesvari is the nourisher of the universe; appropriately, she is endowed with generous engorged breasts which are in a perpetual state of spontaneous letdown.

Chinnamasta is Cut Head. Chinna + Masta = Cut + Head. She is Tantric form of Durga with a severed head, fifth in line of Mahavidyas. The western students regard Chinnamasta as an adopted goddess from Buddhist faith and Tantrics inducted her in (the gallery) Hall of Mahavidyas, though they were afraid to alter her Buddhist Mantra for fear of reaping the wrath of Chinnamasta. Buddhists call Chinnamasta, Chinna-Munda. Munda = head. Chinnamasta and Dhumavati along with other bevy of goddesses are regarded by the west as sinister goddesses bent on Abhicaara; thus, they are worshipped in Abhicaara rites for the express purpose of harming the enemies. Abhicaara = employment of  spells  for malevolent purposes. (In the movie "Loc Kargil" the soldiers were invoking Kali, Krishna and Durga while they were attacking the rock-fortified positions of the enemy soldiers. They failed to invoke Chinnamasta; no Abhicaara rites were performed.) Some experts call Chinnamasta by other epithets: Vidya and Tara.

Chinnamasta is portrayed against the background of mountains, rivers, verdure, flowers, thunderclouds, and  lightning. All look pleasant and appealing except the thunder and lightening and the central figure who holds her own severed head dripping blood on her left hand; three streams of blood are spouting out of the severed neck, the right and the left stream going into the mouths of two females and the central stream going into the mouth of the severed head; scimitar is held by the right hand. Indophobes and Indophiles had a field day spouting diagnostic opinions ranging from psychosis, personality disorder, displaced anger, dissociation, destructive impulse behavior, Self-mutilation (nobody mentioned Lesch-Nyhan syndrome) to suicide. Everyone including some big names "oralized and analized" the perturbing points in the portrait; none had the qualification of the insider.  The one thing that they lacked was the wisdom evinced by the Tantrics who were in the thick of it. After studying the sanguine opinions of pseudo-pundits of all hues and nations on this subject of sanguine nature, I came to the conclusion that the Tantrics in the know had the best explanation.

The lady with the severed head is Chinnamasta; she holds a scimitar on the right hand and her own severed head on the left hand; the severed head and body are living units. Three streams emanate from the severed neck, two streams go into mouths of the two ladies on either side and one stream falls into the mouth of the severed head. She is sitting (standing) on a pair of lovers engaged in Viparita Mithuna (reverse coition), involving supine Manmatha and prone Rati, who were stretched out on a open blossom of lotus flower floating in a body of water (the older version of waterbed). In the background are the mountains...What do all these disparate elements of a portrait mean?

Manmatha and Rati are the archetypical lovers, living a life of indulgence in Muladhara and Svadhisthana planes, which is not condemned by Tantrics. They have dominant oral, anal and genital traits--deglutition, excretion, recreation and reproduction. Chinnamasta walks on them on this private moment and stands on them, which is rather discomforting to the lovers. The flesh is put on notice; the flash of lightning severs the head and the spirit has to rise. The head has all the sensory and motor organs needed for a successful sexual encounter such as the brain, the motivator and the ultimate enjoyer; nose, the purveyor of delicate aromas; mouth and tongue for creative osculation and tactile pleasures;  ears for subtle sounds of music; and eyes, the imbiber of visual delights. The head of senses has to come off for the spirit to rise. Chinnamasta is object lesson for the amorous couple. The three streams are the Nadis: the lateral ones are the Ida and Pingala (left and right) Nadis; the central one is the Susumna Nadi. Head is cortex and brain, the seat of desires. Susumna Nadi rises through the brain which receives nourishment from central stream of blood. Spirit (Kundalini goddess) rises to the top of the head via the roof of the mouth; severed head represents severed mind-Amanaska, a state of paucity of mental function, conducive to higher states of consciousness, whose destination is Atattva or Parasiva (absolute Reality). Chinnamasta is in a state of Amanaska devoid of all human foibles and distractions, but not dead; the nourishing Susumna Nadi in the form of blood is keeping the head alive. This is called Kapaala moksa--liberation by the skull. The confluence of Bindu and Nada (Light and Sound / Lightning and thunder, Siva and Sakti, Seed and ovum / Sveta Bindu and Sona Bindu) creates a cascade of Tattvas which result in matter and life; what Chinnamasta does on the cosmic scale, the recumbent couple do it on a smaller microcosmic scale. The amorous couple are on the physical plane, while Chinnamasta is on the spiritual plane; Prana has risen from the genital triangle to Ajna Chakra and beyond through Susumna Nadi. In the amorous couple, the flesh is rising and the spirit is sinking.

    Sveta = white = semen. Sona = red = menstrual blood = ovum. In Tantric (Hindu) thought, menstrual blood is equated to ovum. Labial mounds form the alter; the vaginal pit is the abode of fire which is kept alive by the pouring of clarified butter which is the Sveta Bindu; the fire is generated by friction of two sticks which are the phallus and the vaginal vault. The White and the Red come to a confluence; the fire is Bhoga or sexual pleasure. This confluence on the cosmic scale gives rise to Tattvas, the building blocks of the universe. In this context, carnal pleasure is the "lite" version of Bliss; spiritual ascent as opposed to the rise of flesh is eternal and not evanescent and momentary; it leads to liberation (Moksa). Experiencing sexual bliss gives an inkling of the immensity of spiritual Bliss. The sexual energy is transmuted from the physical to the spiritual. Once the Sadaka has attained perfection, the sticks become quiescent; the fire dies; there is merger of individual soul with the Great Soul. This perfection takes the practitioner from the state of Sadhaka to Siddha, from the external to the internal, from the libidinal to the liminal, from lust and libido to universal love, from the physical to the metaphysical, from the phenomenal to the transcendental, and from woman to goddess.

    Further elaboration of  bliss. Tantra says that purification of soul begins by accepting the existence of these desires. Once they are accepted and practiced within the social norms, one by one they must be transmuted or sublimated and eventually eliminated from one's life, if one wants union with the Supreme. Nada (thrill) enjoyed by sexual union is the earthly counterpart of beatitude or Bliss. One needs to supplant the earthly pleasure with spiritual Bliss. By sublimating and conserving sexual energy, it is said that the vital fluid rises to Sahasrara, becomes Soma, the nectar of immortality and spreads through the lymphatic system eventually finding its way to the brain where it becomes Ojas and Tejas (Vigor and splendor), which are essential for obtaining Superconsciousness.  This ascent of conserved energy is called Urdhvaretas. The message is orgasm is for the flesh, beatitude is for the spirit; between the two, beatitude is superior and eternal. Physical union is a weak emulation of union of Siva and Sakti. Siva as an ithyphallic Yogi conserves his energy and thus able to achieve his normal superconscious state. The erect phallus (Urdhva-linga) in the ithyphallic Yogi reaches to the level of the navel, indicating the upward ascent and conservation of the seeds, while ordinary mortals expend their seeds from the  erect but pendent phallus. One is ascent and the other is descent. Ascent is transcendent and liberating and descent is mundane and binding. It is said that the seed ascends up the vertebral column (Kundalini Chakras) through Brahma Randhra (anterior fontanel) and becomes the horned crescent moon of Siva and a pile of matted hair as on Siva's head. This is transmutation of seeds into moon and matted hair.

 Chapter IV. 3.23  Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad  Page  263. Dr. Radhakrishnan. October 10, 2013

We get on earth to the Kingdom of heaven. In sex intercourse when it is rightly conceived, we have an act of pure delight which is not mere physical satisfaction but a psycho-spiritual communion. The rich deep fulfillment of love between a man and a woman is a condition of earthly beatitude so simple, so natural and so real, that it is the happiest of all earthly conditions and many mystics employ this as the symbol of divine communion. The mystic union of the finite and the divine is compared in this passage to the self- oblivion of earthly lovers where each is the other. It is a fuller identity than the mere sympathetic understanding of two individuals.

In Vaisnava literature the soul pining for union with God is said to be the bride and the divine love which sanctifies, purifies and elevates the soul to itself is said to be the bridegroom.

St Bernard speaks of the highest contemplation as spiritual marriage which impels the soul to go forth to bear spiritual offspring to the Lord Richard of St Victor, St Bernard's contemporary, dwells upon four phases of spiritual marriage --espousals, marriage, wedlocks, child-bearing. John Ruysbroeck's chief work is called The Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage. St John of the Cross says 'The end I have in view is the divine embracing, the union of the soul with the divine substance. In this loving obscure knowledge God unites Himself with the soul eminently and divinely' Ascent of Carmel II 24.

God, for some Sufis, is the Eternal Feminine. The Muslim poet Wali of Delhi composed love poems in which the lover is God and the loved one sought is the human soul invited to unite with God.


In this context, Ithyphallic phallus is erect and upturned towards the navel as in the case of Siva indicating Urdhvaretas. In usual situation, the erect phallus is turgid, pendent and emitting.  Urdhvaretas = Urdhva = rising or tending upwards.  Retas = flow of semen. Ascending stream means that it was not expended but conserved, reabsorbed and transmuted into vigor and splendor and thus does not mean emission. In the image of Ithyphallic Siva, you notice Siva with upturned phallus is in meditation, not a posture suitable for consortium with His Consort.

The Western authors always wonder how "a permanently ithyphallic" Siva can be a "perpetually chaste" husband to His Consort, a case of unity of opposites. To these Western authors seeing is believing and the symbolism escapes their grasp. Symbolism of Ithyphallicism is transcendence, while Chastity is mundane and phenomenal. The Mundane transmutes into the Transcendent in an accomplished Tantric. It is like the flock in Christian tradition obtaining Grace (Spiritual Transcendence); that is when the flock follows the path of Jesus Christ. If you follow JC, you become JC yourself. You go from the phenomenal to the Noumenal (the Real or Ontic).  To follow Siva in Tantric practice, it is going from flesh to spirit; it is going from animal man to man-man to divine man (Pasu, Vira and Divya). The main aim in Tantra is to transform animal man (flock) to hero to Divine man. Up-turned Ithyphallicism in this context uses the phallic symbolism for control of sexual urges, going from man to Divine.

New International Version (©1984)

Matthew 4:19
"Come, follow me," Jesus said, "and I will make you fishers of men."

Clarke's Commentary on the Bible
Follow me - Come after me, δευτε οπισω μου. Receive my doctrines, imitate me in my conduct - in every respect be my disciples. We may observe that most of the calls of God to man are expressed in a few solemn words, which alarm, the conscience, and deeply impress the heart.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa says in his book Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna Saying 244, page 82-83 the following. The soul that has tasted the sweetness of Divine bliss finds no happiness in the vulgar pleasures of the world.

The trodden lovers living and conjugating in the pelvis (Muladhara and Svadhisthana planes) can control their senses to reach Brahmarandhra with the grace of Chinnamasta who lives in Ajna Chakra.


The transformation of the Spirit, Pure Consciousness, or Paramatma (Supreme Atma or Soul) through a  cascade of Tattvas from Spirit through knowledge to lesser consciousness to matter is depicted as an evolutionary process and the Tattvas measure the distance between matter and individual soul on one side and Pure Consciousness on the other end. In this instance, the human consciousness ascends to Parasiva or Atattva: an instance of involution. Chinnamasta facilitates that ascent from the prurient world to a world of Pure transcendental Consciousness and Bliss.

Bhairavi is the sixth Mahavidya and the icon of death, whose power is irresistible and unavoidable, and which is a continuous process in the phenomenal world. Bhairavi is in charge of Nitya Laya (Pralaya or dissolution), which means decay and death of individual entities on a daily basis. There are other types of Layas: Naimittika, Prakritika and Atyantika. Sanksrit Laya and Greek-English Lysis carry the same meaning: loosening, dissolution. The whole universe comes to an end in Naimittika (periodic) Kalpal (eonian) dissolution, when all life and matter are incinerated; it corresponds to sleep-wake cycle of Brahma; sleep is dissolution and awakening is life.  Prakritika Laya  is the involution of matter (as opposed to evolution) into primordial substance from which it came. Saiva Siddhantists believe that matter and life originated from Bindu, Nada, Siva and Sakti which originated from Param.  Atyantika Laya is the emancipation and liberation (Moksa) of the individual soul. On account of her power over the life of individual, Bhairavi means Terror.  Bhairavi is the destructive force, red-colored with her breasts smeared with blood.

Dhumavati is smoke-colored. Dhuuma = smoke; Vati = cover. The story goes that Parvati, the consort of Siva, was very hungry and asked for food from Siva to which Siva did not pay any attention. Repeated requests for norishment went unheeded and therefore, Parvati swallowed Siva satisfying her hunger, exhaling smoke and at the same time widowing herself. Siva persuaded Dhumavati to regurgitate him from her stomach which she did. Since she exhaled smoke, Siva called her Dhumavati. She looks widowed, tall, withered, old, ugly, and angry with  funny ears, a long sickle-nose, pendulous dry longitudinal breasts, bad hair, fearsome eyes, absent teeth, trembling hands, forlorn glance. She is always hungry and thirsty. She is wrapped in dirty white clothes. Engulfing Siva is assertion of her independence, even at the expense of widowhood. She rides a chariot with the flag decorated by a crow, a scavenger and portent of death. She eats Tamasic foods such as meat and imbibes alcohol.

Bagala has a crane head, is of yellow complexion and a purveyor of illusion; she holds a club by one hand and the other hand yanks down on a Demon's tongue.  Demon Madan obtained Varam (boon) of Vakya Siddhi, by which all he said came true; he abused his power causing harm to gods, who sought  the help of Bagala Mukhi (Crane Face). Bagalamukhi pulled his tongue and muted him;  before killing him, she obliged him by acquiescing to let him be on her side during worship. By her tongue traction, she exercises her control over speech.


Cojugate embrace versus conjugal embrace

The pleasures of sweet vengeance

Siva and Parvati as Chandalas

    Matangi (Maatamgi) is one of the ten Mahavidyas who are various manifestations of goddess Parvati or Kali. Matangaka was the name of the chief of Chandalas. Chandalas are one of the lowest among the castes, according to lore. In a game of impersonation, "fool me, fool me not," Siva impersonated a traveling jewelry salesman, sold some ornaments to Parvati while she was visiting with her father, and suggested that she could pay him by sexual favors. Parvati without missing a beat said, "Yes, but not now." She had the intuitive divine vision that the traveling salesman was her husband in disguise. Siva went on his way and sat down on the banks of Manas Lake for meditation and worship. Parvati assumed the appearance of a nubile outcaste (Chandala) girl with a shapely body accentuated by a red dress, and  beautiful and beguiling eyes, and danced in front of Lord Siva jiggling her moon-like breasts. Siva's ravenous eyes imbibed Parvati's beauty in motion and gently asked her who she was. Parvati in the sweetness of youthful voice replied with the utmost bashfulness, "Swami, I am a Chandala girl. I came to do penance."  Siva is the Yogi of Yogins. Who else is more fit to teach penance? Siva gently took her lotus hand and pressed it tenderly against his lotus petal-soft lips. Then he proceeded to make love to the captive but willing Parvati, whose identity was unknown to Siva. While they were in the conjugate embrace in Siva's mind and conjugal embrace in Parvati's mind, Parvati morphed Siva into a Chandala (in embrace with a Chandalini). Siva in a flash realized that Matangi (Chandala girl) was no other than his dear wife.

    Parvati reaped her sweet vengeance, laid open utter lowness of her action and sexual submission, and begged Siva to accept her in his heart as "Ucchista Chandalini." Ucchista = rejected (once used commodity), remnants of food in the mouth after eating, that are spit out of the mouth; food sticking in the mouth and hands after eating, therefore impure; remainder of sacrificial food; left over crumbs. Siva accepted to honor her supplication. She is thus called Matangi (a woman from a degraded mountain tribe or hunter-gatherers, who became Sudras from neglecting all prescribed rites, mlecchas.)

    Matangi's association with impure, filthy, leftover food takes us to another myth that she actually likes to receive Ucchista from the unkempt and the unwashed; goddess admires them for not rinsing the mouth and the hands after eating, when they offer leftover food to the goddess against the established rules of worship. Eye-rolling black Matangi is inebriated and slouches around in aimless circles.

Siva and Parvati by demoting themselves to be the lowest of the low impart a lesson to us that they are in the hearts and minds of the high and the low. 

Kamala is lotus flower. She is the most auspicious welcome goddess among the Mahavidyas, of whom she is the tenth, the last but not the least. She looks very much like Lakshmi; she is Lakshmi with a difference: there is no Vishnu beside her. She is of golden complexion with four hands seated on a lotus flower and washed with ablutionary holy water poured from pitchers by elephants. She is the icon of wealth, fertility, and prosperity

1) Kali is Night of dissolution.
2) Tara is the compassionate Goddess and Savior.
3) Shodashi is the beautiful Goddess who is sixteen years of age all the time.
4) Bhuvaneshvari is the Creator of the World.
5) Chinnamasta is the Goddess who severs her own Head.
6) Bhairavi is the Goddess of catabolism, aging, death and decay.
7) Dhumawati is the Goddess who is ugly, eats Siva and becomes a widow.
8) Bagalamukhi is the Goddess who pulls the tongue of evil prophesier.
9) Matangi is the Goddess who loves slovenly worship (and a glutton for leftover food).
10) Kamala is the Goddess of wealth, fertility, power and prosperity.

    Siddhanatra is defined as a Mantra that is recited and worshipped over three generations in a family: great-grandfather, grandfather, and father. Matysa Sutra says as against other Sutras that a father can initiate a son in a Mantra according to Saiva and Sakta practices and rites. (It appears that Mantra initiation of relatives, aspirants, and others differ from Sastra to Sastra and from Sutra to Sutra. There is no one rule about it. Swami Sivananda takes a practical approach: If there is no Guru to initiate an aspirant, OM is the best Mantra.) One genderless gem of a practice among Kaulas is that woman is qualified to become Guru. She should be a practitioner of Kulacara or born in a family of Kaulas or good family. Some of the physiognomy and behavioral attributes should be met: fair moon-like face, auspicious demeanor, lotus eyes, precious gems, intelligence, tranquil mind, Kula Acara (practices), control over the senses, chastity, piety, respect and service to elders, knowledge of Mantras and their meaning, Japa (recitation of Mantra), devotion and worship of Istadevata, and married state. A mother (though a widow) can initiate her son into Mantra. Siddha Mantras can be dispensed by widows. Siddhamantras bring auspiciousness, wealth, and power to the Sisyas (disciples) in this or next life.

    A Mantra obtained in a dream does not mandate Vicara (enquiry of the Guru or Mantra); it is accepted for use as such without any doubt, question or compunction. Family (member) of Guru giving Mantra for Pasvacara worship of Devi deserves recognition for ten generations; recognition of his family for 25 generations for giving Mantra for Viracara worship, 50 generations for giving Mantra for any of one of the Mahavidya worship, and 100 generations for giving Mantra for Brahmayoga is accorded. Pasus, Viras, Mahavidyas, and Brahmayogis are hierarchical in their awareness and devotion of divinity in Devi. Gurukula is the Guru family and Kulaguru is the family Guru. Abandoning a family Guru is sin and puts a person in hell for the duration of the life of sun , moon, and stars. Though the descendant of family Guru is younger, of tender age (with competence in the discipline of Mantra Sadhana) does not exclude him from conferring Mantra. Let me give a real-life example of a chief minister of Paandinaadu in ancient Tamil Naadu fell at the feet of a child-saint, and introduced the queen to Sambandar, the child-saint.  Chief minister: Kulachchiraiyar. Queen: Mangaiyarkarasiyar.

Incompetent Guru

Tirumanthiram Verse 139:

    Illumination (of the soul) is to see the Holy Form of Guru, to chant Guru’s Holy name, to hear Guru’s holy words, to reflect on the form of Guru. 

A message from Tirumantiram:

When yogi's own enlightened soul and his inner Guru engage in conversation in the language of silence it is called Sunya Sambashanam. For lesser souls with malas (impurities), an external Guru is needed; that is the case with Pralayakalars and Sakalars, while Vijnanakalars serve as their own spiritual counselors.                     

    A Sisya or pupil should leave a Guru who is devoid of Brahma bliss and ethical standards of his profession.

A list of disqualifications of  Guru:

Himsa (injury) sinning bad reputation devious mind cruelty (Krura) selling gold
thieving plagued with troubles and worries bad character adulterous foul language deformed
sensuous deceiver adharma talkative greedy miserly
liar hyperactive lacks reverence devoid of acaras many blemishes money-minded
Consumption (TB) Skin disease diseased nails diseased teeth deafness cataract
bald! lame! deformed! extra body parts conjunctivitis halitosis!
large testicles! hunchback! leper impotence! breaks Kaula practices loudmouth
pure ritualist physician! arrogance vanity addiction wicked
bad company unbeliever timid ignorance of Mantras epicurean astrologer
usurps property from pupil wastes Sisya's money harms out of greed      

A list of some qualifications of Guru:

Knowledge of  Vira Knowledge of Divya Knowledge of Kaula Knowledge of Sattva Knowledge of Rajas Knowledge of  tamas
Knowledge of Mantra Knowledge of Guru Knowledge of Devata Meaning of Mantra Awakening of Mantra Yoni Mudra
Calm Self-control Pure mind Siddha (perfection) reveals to Sisya  previously unknown knowledge reveals spiritual Truths

    There are three classes of Gurus: Prabhu = Lord; Vibhu = The Greatest, The Supreme Lord, Omnipresent;  Svayambhu = self-created, self-existent.  All have equal weight with God.

    Bogus Yogis are available here and there on the field, or by the river, meaning they are ubiquitous (hatemathe = Hatta = market, fair + Mathe =field). In modern parlance, they are dime a dozen. Atheists, Epicures, the unclean, the unwashed, and low-life scoundrels take the name of Yogis so much so that Uravasi, Menaka, and Rambha hide their beauty by taking on the forms of animals. In this Kaliyuga, the misfits, the nonconformists, the disconnected, and the unanchored wander around professing Yoga Marga and Arya Dharma.

Notes from Brahmanda Purana Chapter 43.

The physical body is a temple and Mahesvara is the individual soul.

Individual soul is rice grain with husk; Mahesvara is plain rice without husk.

The bird and the sky are one; the fish and the ocean are one; the noble soul and the universe are one.

One should bow to everyone from Brahma to a blade of grass, regarding everyone and everything as the Guru himself. All idols are worthy of a bow.

One should not criticize other people's belief, faith and religion.

One should not go to a king, a deity or a preceptor empty-handed; one should offer fruits, flowers or raiment, according to one's means.

A Guru is Siva under human skin; he roams around the earth wanting to bless a good disciple. 

Supreme deliberation is that of reality; deliberation on Japa is ordinary; deliberation of scriptures is base; deliberation of worldly affairs is the meanest of the mean.

Pairs of complements and opposites, such as Sun and Prabha (luminosity); Lakshmi and Narayana; Vani and Brahma; Girija and Siva;  Adhara and Adheya (the support and the supported); Bhoga and Moksa; word and meaning; Positive and negative; pain and pleasure; love and hate are Supreme Brahman.

Kamakshi worship with or without mantras brings salvation to women, Vaisyas or Sudras; Kamakshi worship with Mantras brings salvation to ksatriyas and Brahmanas. What then is the difference? asks the Purana.

The importance of Bhava

Bhava = turning into, becoming (Monier Williams Dictionary)

Becoming the deity is an important step in reaping the rewards of worship. It is like an actor, who has to become the character he portrays; otherwise his act is not commensurate with his part.

    A Tantric worshipper should become the deity, the object of his worship, before he could gain the fruits of his worship. Woodroffe in his book Principles of Tantra defines Bhava as follows: idea, thought, feeling, sentiment, nature, state. The word's use in the context  indicates its meaning in its various shades.

     One becomes the other person in totality when he loses himself in the Bhava of the person he wants to be. The Sakti of the emulated passes into the emulator as light and flame pass from one candle to the next (my interpolation).  Bhava is the quality of the mind; it is like the taste of molasses; one cannot put them in words; it can be realized only by the tongue and the mind. Maha Bhava (Great Bhava) reveals itself in many forms: devotion, love, affection. When Bhava matures and deepens all its qualities coalesce and become one great Bhava. It is this Bhava that is Isvara, Prakrti, Bliss, Atma.  When Atma in its pure Bhava (state) is divested of all impurities, traits, attitudes, and dualities of a Sadhaka, it becomes a realized entity. When all Bhavas (auspicious traits) accumulate in a Sadhaka, Bhagavan Paramesvara begins to manifest Himself in him; eventually the Sadhaka and Paramesvara become one SatChitAnanda (Being, Consciousness, Bliss.) This is called the fifth state, Turiyatita, where there is no demarcation between Isvara and the Sadhaka.

    As the cow yields its essence the milk, after having eaten foods ranging from many types of grass to hay to husk; in like manner, all Bhavas become converted into one essence (Maha Bhava), Consciousness and Bliss (the essence of Isvara).

    There are three kinds of Bhava: Pasu bhava, Vira Bhava, and Divya Bhava. They are discussed elsewhere in this presentation.  Pasus have Psubhava: he does not worship Yantra, does not chant the Mantras, expresses doubts about the usefulness of sacrifices and Tantra, shows no faith in a Guru, entertains the pernicious idea that the idol is mere stone, plays one Devata against another not knowing or recognizing their unity in Parabrahman, worships without Mamsa and Matsya (flesh and fish) on auspicious days, observes external purity by constant ablutions without internal purity,  makes idle malicious gossip, does not worship in the morning, noon and evening, does not follow the injunctions with regards to sexual intercourse, and follows Vaidic rather than Tantric path and Vedāchara, Vaishnavācāra or Saivāchāra. 

Vira bhava manifests preponderance of Rajas and less of Sattva.  Divya Bhava is the advanced form of Vira Bhava where there is preponderance of Sattva and less of Rajas.  Divya Bhava follows Vira Bhava, when the Rajas (motion and passion) attenuates and Sattva (virtue and goodness) asserts itself.  Rajas here is Uddhata (agitation and excitement).  Vira has several stages of development depending on Uddhata.

Divya Bhava manifests dominance of Sattva which is marked by external and internal purity, wearing of clean clothes, tripundara (three horizontal ash stripes), red sandals, and Rudraksha beads,  and performing muttering prayers and homage to the deities (Japa and Archana). His faith in Deity, Guru, Sastras, Mantras, Yantras, and Vedas is strong.  He worships his ancestors (Pitrs) with appropriate rituals. He eats food only from his Guru. He treats his friend and foe alike.  Truth is his motto and stays away from non-believers. He offers three worships daily and meditates on his guru and Prameshvari, though he regards all Devatas confluence into one Parabrahman.  He regards women as Guru and worships at their feet. He offers nightly worship to Devi (the Goddess), chews pan, pays homage to women (Kulastri = family lady) adept in Tantra and Mantra whether she has been introduced by a messenger, a woman with serial husbands, or a prostitute (Dūtī, Pūmśchāli, or Veśyā).  He regards that the whole universe is pervaded by Sri Sakti (Female power), Siva abides in all men and the universe (Brahmanda = Brahma's golden egg) is pervaded by Siva-Sakti.  He is so immersed in Sattva and Divva Bhava, he becomes himself of the nature of Deity.  He regards all as the manifestation of the Supreme Sakti.

Separate but equal in Kali Yuga

One's temperament runs parallel with his or her worship, performance and goal (SAdhana). Pasu is not allowed to follow Vira and Divya forms of worship, though a Pasu by doing Kriya (collecting flowers, leaves, water for worship), and not associating with Sudras and woman can attain Siddhi much earlier than a Vira or a Divya.  In the Kali age there is a dearth of Viras and Divyas.  Pasubhava only may be the path of salvation.

Tantrics are Code Talkers.

The language of the Tantrics is taught, talked, told...only to the initiated Tantrics. They speak in codes with everyday words, which make no sense, carry a perverse meaning or are characterized as pornographic. They are like the Choctaw Code Talkers in world war I and II.  Here is what Wikipedia says about Code Talkers.

Code talkers was a term used to describe people who talk using a coded language. It is frequently used to describe Native Americans who served in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted these messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formal or informally developed codes built upon their native languages. Their service was very valuable because it enhanced the communications security of vital front line operations during World War II.

The name code talkers is strongly associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the Marines to serve in their standard communications units in the Pacific Theater. Code talking, however, was pioneered by Choctaw Indians serving in the U.S. Army during World War I. These soldiers are referred to as Choctaw Code Talkers.

Comanches of the 4th Signal Company compiled a vocabulary of over 100 code terms using words or phrases in their own language. Using a substitution method similar to the Navajo, the Comanche code word for tank was "turtle", bomber was "pregnant airplane", machine gun was "sewing machine" and Adolf Hitler became "crazy white man."[6]  --Wikipedia

 Likewise, the Tantrics are Code Talkers. What they say don't make any sense and some reeks of pornography.

Ajit Mookerjee and Madhu Khanna give a few examples.

In tantric rituals, particularly in the twilight (sandhya) rituals performed at the conjunction of day and night or at midnight, a secret language known as Sahdhya-bhasha or Sahdha-bhasha is used by which a state of consciousness is expressed in ambiguous terms with erotic meanings. The symbolic contents of these terms are not intelligible to non-initiates, thus, for example: 'inserting his organ into the mother's womb', 'pressing his sister's breasts', 'placing his foot upon the guru's head', 'he will be reborn no more'. In sandha terminology, the 'organ' is the contemplating mind; the 'mother's womb' is the Muladhara chakra, or base
centre; the 'sister's breasts' are the heart centre (Anahata chakra), and the 'guru's head' is the brain centre (Sahasrara). These code terms, if translated, mean, to quote Agehananda, 'He practises mental penetration through the successive centres, and when he reaches the uppermost centre, he will not be [re-] born. According to some scholars, Sandhya-bhasha means 'twilight' or 'secret' language, though others call it Sandha-bhasha, or 'intentional' language, in which many passages of tantric texts are composed.
Whatever its meaning, it has an equivocal significance, partly to conceal the real meaning of the terminology from non-initiates but also, as Eliade says, 'Chiefly to project the yogin into the "paradoxical situation" indispensable to his training.'8 The process of destroying and reinventing terminology, and even a guru's abusive language, recall present-day 'agression rituals' practised in group psychotherapy as a form of linguistic catharsis, using offensive language as a means to avert psychotic behaviour and to live constructively with the collective psyche.
In tantrism, however, abusive language has a double meaning, 'concrete' and 'symbolic', mainly to transubstantiate that experience into awareness.  --The Tantric Way.




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