Bhagavadgita Pages, Chapters 1 to 18

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Mother Teresa, the woman and the saint of the universe

A comparative analysis of the book Come Be My Light in the Hinduism context

Eighteen-year-old Gonxha Agnes Bojaxhiu is the future Mother Teresa. Her missionary life began on September 26, 1928.  On January 6, 1929 Sister Teresa arrives in Calcutta.

These are notes from reading the book on Mother Teresa, Come Be My Light.

Page 7 Line 3: Will you do this for Me?

Mother Teresa receives her mission from God.

Page 12 para 2, line 1-2: Mother Teresa’s heroic living of her mission…

Hero refers here to the spiritual development of Mother Teresa, as the same meaning is found in Hinduism. Hero is Vira in Sanskrit. Spiritual development are of three stages: Pasu, Vira and Divya. Pasu is spiritually naive; Vira is spiritual initiate;  Divya is god-like and spiritually enlightened.

Page 14 Para2: I was only twelve years of age …wanted to be a missionary…I have done the right thing…It was the will of God and … His choice.

It always happens that a devout religious family produces a child who gets the call from God.

Page 14 Para 3 From Childhood the Heart of Jesus has been my first love.

Love always lives in the heart, the Anahata Chakra of Kundalini Yoga. (Kundalini Power)  Kashmir Saivism talks about Pratyabhijna Hrdaya (the heart of Recognition).  Spanda power of Siva pulsates, radiates, and vibrates throughout the universe.  Spanda, expansion and contraction of Siva Sakti,  radiates,  permeates and infuses the whole universe with His power.

Page 15,  Para 3, line 2: Pray for you missionary, that Jesus may help her to save as many immortal souls as possible from the darkness of disbelief.

It is a common belief in Hinduism that we are fallen and thus became the embodied souls. We were spirit before the fall. To be human is the highest in the ladder of evolution of spirit, though we are many rungs down from spiritual perfection.  We in the human form are groping in spiritual darkness.  Disbelief (forgetfulness) in Hinduism context means that man has forgotten the putative and filial connection to the Lord, which is commonly known as Anava Malam (Primer in Saiva Siddhanta) which prevents Siva’s Grace shining on the soul, which receives spiritual enlightenment upon the eradication of the impurity.

The souls are all immortal because each one is a chip (amsa) of the Universal Soul commonly known as God.  In Christian terms disbelief means not believing in Jesus Christ.  Hindus have no problem in this instance, because we believe that Jesus Christ is a Great Seer or Rishi.  Belief in Parabrahman is belief whether His name is Parabrahman, Lord, Jesus Christ, Allah, Tetragrammaton/Yahweh or any other name.  In Reality, Parabrahman has no name or form; He is beyond thought. If you can characterize Him, He is no longer God or Parabrahman.  How could man with limited intellect fathom God? 

Page 16,  4th piece of the poem: Christ’s happy little one, His new bride-to-be.

Vaishnava saints  claim they are all brides of Lord Krishna.

Page 18, Line 7: Having completed her formation, she made her first profession of vows on May 25, 1931, promising to live a life of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and to devote herself with particular care to the instruction of youth… my final vows on 24th May 1937… three months of tertianship…often as my companion “darkness”…I simply offer myself to Jesus…I am happy…I am suffering…I am Jesus’ spoiled bride…suffer joyfully…our work is our prayer…India is as scorching as is hell-its souls are beautiful and precious because the Blood of Christ has bedewed them.

Page 21, Para 6: Darkness …signify profound interior suffering, lack of sensible consolation, spiritual dryness, an apparent absence of God from her life and at the same time a painful longing from Him.

Page 22, para 2: Interior darkness is nothing new in the tradition of Catholic mysticism…common phenomenon…dark night…painful purifications one undergoes before reaching union with God…night of senses… the night of the spirit…in the first night one is freed from attachment to sensory satisfactions and drawn into the prayer of contemplation…while God communicates His light and love, the soul, imperfect as it is, is incapable of receiving them, experience them as darkness, pain, dryness, and emptiness…led by God into the Night of the Spirit, to be purged from the deepest roots of one’s imperfections…by means of spiritual purification, the disciple is led to total detachment from all created things and to a lofty degree of union with Christ, becoming a fit instrument in His hands and serving Him purely and disinterestedly…Sister Teresa purified in the crucible of these mystical sufferings.

Page 23, Para 3: On May 24, 1937 final profession...now called Mother Teresa.

In the Hinduism (Saiva Siddhanta) shedding of darkness is explained by the term Malaparipakam (ÁÄÀ¡¢À¡¸õ), which is maturation (attenuation, elimination) of impurities of the individual soul (monad). Once shed, the individual soul is pure ready to merge with the Lord. Spiritual darkness engulfs the soul as impurities engulf the diamond. Simply offering myself to Jesus has a parallel in Hinduism: AtmaNivedanam (¬òÁ¿¢§Å¾Éõ--Self-dedication).

That the soul is a slave (Christian obedience and devotion) to Siva is illustrated by an analogy. Pulluruvi (Mistletoe) is a parasitic plant with roots that embed into the host tree to draw sap (nutrition and water). Mistletoe needs a living tree for its sustenance. Sap helps the living tree (the Universal Soul) sprout, bloom, and bear fruits (creation of embodied souls and the material universe). Though the Mistletoe eats the same sap, it never produces flowers and fruits of the host tree. In like manner, though the individual soul is rooted and embedded in and stands along with Siva, it never blooms and bear fruits like Siva who is a ocean of Bliss and Grace and the Supreme Purveyor of Panchakritya.  Soul has parasitic existence on Siva (parasitic symbiosis) and thus is his dependant slave.

    Soul is like grapevine capable of producing grapes. (Grapes are Mukti that the soul yields after growth and maturation.) The grapevine of soul is shrouded and choked by Moham (delusion), another vine (Impurity of the soul) with delusion, known as Anava Malam. Choking Moham vine bears its bitter fruits, while the grapevine did not bear any grapes. When the choking Moham vine is destroyed root and all, the soul of a grapevine will bear fruit of Mukti (liberation).  The choking Moham vine blocked the sunlight shining on the grapevine, thus causing barrenness. The sunlight is Sivajnana (knowledge of Siva). The bitter fruit yielded by Moham vine is Arutti (Avidity), which is antithetical to Mukti. Soul, shattering its bondage and standing tall with Siva, bears the Mukti fruit.

    The colorless crystal of a soul changes its color moment to moment, when a parade of colors pass by the crystal; sometimes a full rainbow of colors glisten in the crystal. These colors are not its true nature but distractions that enslave the soul to the world of matter and passion, which are the arching and overwhelming colors of worldly life. Restoring the crystal to its colorless state is the aim of life.

Siva comes in the form of a Guru, ensures treatment of  the sick soul with remedies such as Malaparipakam (ÁÄÀ¡¢À¡¸õ), Iruvinaiyoppu (þÕÅ¢¨É¦Â¡ôÒ), and Saktinipatam (ºò¾¢¿¢À¡¾õ), and confers Grace and Wisdom (Arul- «Õû). Guru removes all doubts and delusions, ensures no more birth in this world of misery, shows the path to the feet of Siva, helps in cutting of Samsara root and all, and facilitates you becoming irrevocably His dear slave at his feet for all times. To be a slave of Siva is a life of Bliss Extraordinaire, which is ineffable joy. To be a slave to the Master of the universe is to stay close to him all the time. A note about Guru. A Sadhaka does not have to look for a Guru. He will come to you (sent by Siva) when you are ripe for release.

    The true devotees of Siva (Sivajnani) feel their subservience to SivaSakti and Nandi and their Cintam (mind, intellect) and action are centered around SivaSakti, though the most unattainable Mukti comes to them and they immerse in the sea of Bliss of Siva.

painful purifications one undergoes before reaching union with God: Read the Parallels with Hinduism

The soul is laden with Anava Mala (impuritiy), the I-factor in Kevala state before birth and Sakala state during life. It must be removed before the soul can become one with Siva, because Siva is pure and stainless. To remove this impurity one needs detergent, which comes in the form of Maya Mala. The question is why Siva Sakti uses Maya Mala to shed some light on the soul and also partially remove Anava Mala. Why does Siva Sakti use one Mala (Maya) to remove another Mala (Anava)? The argument goes as follows: Washerman uses soap or detergent (compared to Maya Mala) to remove a more ingrained dirt (compared to Anava Mala) from the clothes. Thus by partial cleansing, Maya prepares the soul ingrained with Anava Mala for greater purification by Siva Sakti. (Remember the washer man beats the clothes on a flat slab of stone to remove the dirt along with the detergent.) In modern parlance, the soul in Sakala state attends the school of hard knocks in this phenomenal world; hard knocks of daily living mature and "ripen" the Malas, which when completely ripened, fall off and the soul goes to the next state, Suddha Avastha (pure state). The soul goes through spiritual evolution of this kind over many human births and this progress is proportional to the attenuation of Anava Mala (¬½ÅÁÄõ), which, when expunged with the Grace of God, results in liberation.

night of senses: 
Christianity abhors the night of senses as opposed to the sun and light of spirituality. There are parallels in Hinduism 
endorsing this notion.

 When Kundalini Goddess is at sleep in Muladhara, man is awake to the world (Jagrat or wakefulness) of senses; that is lower consciousness, the consciousness of animals. When She is awake (Higher Consciousness) Pasu (man in bondage) is asleep to world consciousness of senses and rises to higher consciousness of Spirit. The sensual man moves in Muladhara and Svadisthana chakras. (In animals, kundalini goddess stays for ever in Muladhara and Svadisthana chakras because their consciousness and sentience are not at par with human levels; they are guided by instinct and  subconsciousness;  (manifestation of) Sabda Brahman (Sound Brahman) is unmanifest or so miniscule that Jnana, Iccha, and Kriya, speech, mantras, asanas cannot be carried out by animals--my opinion.)

    Jung says,  As long as you live you are in Muladhara naturally. It is quite self-evident that you cannot live in meditation, or in trance condition. You have to go about in this world; you have to be conscious and let the gods sleep.  He adds that once you reach a plane, and return back to Muladhara, it is only an apparent return for the Sadhaka has left something of himself in the unconscious (Superconscious state). Once the Sadahaka reaches the Ajna center, the consciousness is all-inclusive in the sense you know  You are That  (Tat Tvam Asi), and more--every tree, every stone, every breath of air, every rat's tail-- all that is yourself; there is nothing that is not yourself. one experiences all Chakras simultaneously. Ajna is the highest state of consciousness, and it would not be highest if it did not include all the former experiences.  Kali Kundalini at the Ajna station between the eyebrows goes by the name of Bindu. Psychology of Kundalini Yoga, Page 59.

    As Sadhaka ascends under his own effort with Kundali goddess to a higher plane, the material world is withdrawn into the body of the goddess; the Sadaka ascends from world-consciousness of Kundali at Muladhara to Universal Consciousness and SatChitAnanda or Pure Bliss in Samadhi. Kundali is thus the resident delegate of Siva Sakti in Jivatma (embodied soul). It is She who accompanies the jiva to Siva for absorption and liberation (Mukti).

    As long as Prana (energy) exists and moves, there is Vritti (continuation of mental function); Tattva Jnana does not dawn on the aspirant and the clinging Vasana from previous births compels rebirth. When energy flows outwards (Pravrtti), it is material energy; when it flows inwards (Nivrrti) it is Spiritual Energy.

 Page 24 Para 2: former Gonda now the spouse of Jesus...sister Bernard is making her vows on 23rd January 1938.  Jesus  has sure chosen her for something special...

Nuns after taking vows become the bride of Jesus. There are thousands and thousands of brides of Jesus in this world. In like manner, all humanity, all males and females, are the brides of Lord Krishna. We are all Jivatmas (individual souls or monads); we sprang from Paramatman (the Supreme Soul); we all desire to merge with the Supreme Soul, Krishna; thus we are all the brides of Lord Krishna. When Lord Krishna dances with Gopis (maidens), it is portrayal of the Lord Krishna dancing with all souls of the world.

Page 26  her struggle to conquer pride...please Jesus...she is very humble...her commitment to be only all for Jesus...drink the chalice to the last drop...Very very very much in love with Almighty God...

Page 27: visit the poor in the slums... your smile brought sun into this house...a beacon for them through love and compassion. Page 29: Give God something very beautiful and without reserve: (This is) drink(ing) the chalice to the last drop...her unconditional surrender to His will... I for God and God for me...therefore to possess God we must allow Him to possess our soul. page 30: lover freely wishes to bind him or herself irrevocably to be beloved...fully united with her Beloved...conformity to God's Will...(Mother Teresa's vow is) besa, a word of honor...absolute fidelity to one's given word...oath or vow cannot be broken...the vow took on an added gravity...faithful to her word given to God, even at the price of he life...her religious superiors took the place of Christ...submitting to their commands was submitting to Christ Himself....page 32: The thought of even a momentary separation from Him by a single offense was unbearable...inner silence and recollection...constantly attuned to His voice.

Her apostolate starts in the Calcutta slums. Doing God's bid is the sole work of Mother Teresa. In Hindu tradition, God has Iccha, Jnana and Kriya (Will or Desire, Knowledge and Action). If He wills anything, He has the required Knowledge and the ability to perform Action. We are also endowed with the same qualities in infinitesimal amounts. We move knowingly or unknowingly according to his Will. Common Hindu saying is that from a blade of grass to Brahma, the creator, nothing moves without His Will. God is the owner and possessor of our souls according to Hinduism.

Love (காதல்) is defined the best  in Tamil: Thannai maRandha nilaiyil uruvaagum unarvu = தன்னை மறந்த நிலையில் உருவாகும் உணர்வு = A spontaneous feeling of (overpowering earnest longing) attachment to God (a being, an object or an idea) that shapes up while you are in a state of forgetting yourself  and contemplating on the beauty and perfection of  God (the object, being or an idea). True love is a surge in feeling of becoming one with a being, an object or an idea. This is the kind of love the Alvars had for Krishna. Banal love as opposed to Love of God is always tenuous, feeble and frail and always looks for displacement to a higher affinity. That is the kind of love Mother Teresa had for Jesus Christ.

a momentary separation from Him by a single offense was unbearable:

Alvars, the Vaishnava saints had enjoyed ecstatic love of Krishna during their meditation. When they were not in ecstasy of love with Krishna, they were miserable.

P34 Para 2: of little fidelities to Rule, which will build you the life of holiness-- make you Christ-like.

Saivites have expanded this concept of Likeness to Siva, which does not come easy. There are a few essential steps before that Likeness comes to a devotee.

Page 39, para 1: During the journey by train on Tuesday , September 10, 1946, she had a decisive mystical encounter with Christ. Page 40. I heard the call...give up all...follow Him into the slums--to serve Him in the poorest of the poor....It was His Will and that I had to follow Him...Inspiration day. Strong grace of Divine Light and Love...serving Him in the poorest of the poor.  this day...Inspiration Day...the real beginning of the Missionaries of Charity...10 September 1946...the call within a call. Page 41 His thirst (on the cross) for love for sacrifice.  Jesus is God... God (Jesus) made (in the form of ) man.  Sisters: four vows of Absolute Poverty, Chastity, Obedience, and Charity...quench the thirsting God.

This is a significant event in the life of Mother Teresa and the poor of Calcutta. Another important thing is that almost all of the poor were Indians, mostly Hindus and the call came from Jesus Christ that she serve Him in the poor, who belong to a different religion. Here you can see that God does not discriminate a person based on religion, race, education or any other parameter. That Mother Teresa should serve the Indian poor is her destiny and His command.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa had vision of Jesus Christ: Here is what happened.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (RKP) had Bible read to him by one of his devotees. Life of Jesus Christ and the picture of Madonna captured his interest and occupied his mind for full three days. On the fourth day, RKP saw a serene person walking towards him with an intent gaze. The thought from his inner being dawned on RKP that it was Jesus Christ himself. In his divine vision, Jesus Christ, Son of Man embraced and merged with RKP, who slipped into deep Samadhi.  "The Master lost outward consciousness in Samadhi, realizing his union with Brahman with attributes. Thus he was convinced that Jesus Christ was an Incarnation of the Lord."  It is the highest Hindu stance that all gods are One and go by by different names, colors, religions.... To be mesmerized and stuck on the superiority of a particular religion and feel only its glory is like hanging on the tail of an elephant and not knowing the rest of the elephant.

Page 42, Para 3: Jesus wants me to tell you again...how much is the love He has for each one of you... He longs for you. He misses you, when you don't come close. He thirsts for you. He loves you always, even when you don't feel worthy...

Mother Teresa is in conversation with her God. This is exactly what Alwars felt for and said about Vishnu in His various forms. In Hinduism the prevailing stance is that God needs and loves you as much you need and love HIM, Why so? We are the fragments (amsa) of the Universal Soul and thus are His children; now you know the rest. Hinduism has a special technical term for this: Vatsalya, parent-child and child-parent relationship with God. His children are born in many countries, continents, colors, creeds.... That being so, it is pettiness to entertain spiritual superiority and an urge to proselytize. The proselytes and apostates are not any closer to God because of conversion. We should celebrate all colors of rainbow and try not gloat over the perceived inadequacies of another religion. Even the unworthy ones of a different religion bask in the love of God. The zebra, the horse, the zorse, the donkey, zonkey, and the mule are genetically extremely close as the humans are among themselves. One day we race like a horse; one day we are wild like a zebra; another day we drudge along like a draft animal; a race horse past its flighty and fleet glory can become a draft animal; each one of us is capable or incapable of any trait; still God loves us in our worthy or unworthy state.  This is the general view of Hinduism also.

page 43 Para 2: Our particular mission is to labor at the salvation and sanctification of the poorest of the poor...wherever they may be. Para 3 Jesus chose to identify Himself with the poor and with all those who suffer...mystical connection between the suffering of Christ and the suffering of the poor. Through her humble service she endeavored "to bring souls to God and God to souls."

Physical poverty in the absence of spirituality needs salvation and sanctification; where there is no food for hunger, there may not be hunger for spirit. Poverty is not necessarily an impediment to spirituality. In Hinduism, there are many examples of self-imposed poverty and penury; thus in special circumstances, poverty is not necessarily in need of salvation and sanctification. These pure souls in physical poverty but spiritual plethora are known as Avadhutas (Avadhuta). They forsake wealth, weal and woe of the phenomenal world for studied and self-imposed penury, where there is no attachment (Vairagya). Poverty is not necessarily suffering; wealth is not necessarily fulfilling. Go to India or anywhere in the world to see the happy poor and the wretched rich.  "to bring souls to God and God to souls." --this is basically also a Hindu concept; here is one of many instances of concordance between Hinduism and Christianity and other religions. Remember we are all the chips of the OLD BLOCK and all chips come together in a mosaic who is God; if we the chips are not there, God may not be recognized.

Mother Teresa hears the VOICE.

Page 44, Para 1:  interior locutions...Mother Teresa was actually hearing Jesus' voice and intimately conversing with Him.  Para 2: He (Jesus) addressed her My Own Spouse or My Own Little One. My Jesus or My Own Jesus, replied Mother Teresa, longing to return love for love.  Yet the VOICE kept pleading, "come, come, carry Me into the holes of the poor. Come be My Light. (Page 53: (Jesus says to Mother Teresa) Will thou refuse? Page 45, line 1: correspondence with archbishop of Calcutta, quoting the VOICE she had been hearing . Para 2: this call was indeed God's will and not some delusion.  the Jesuit archbishop of Calcutta Ferdinand Perier, test and discern this call. Page 46, line 4: decide to test the authenticity of the inspirations...God's hand in this extraordinary happening. Page 4749- Read Mother Teresa's letter to His Grace, Archbishop Perier. (Jesus tells Mother Teresa) You will dress in simple Indian clothes...I (Jesus) want to use you for My glory. (Jesus addresses Mother Teresa) my little spouse. Page 50, para 3, line 8: The two years in perfect solitude  should make them think of the interior while they will be in midst of the exterior. Page 53: last para: Mother Teresa remained resolute in her conviction that God was calling her to this new life. "burn myself completely for Him and souls"


Here is Hinduism as it relates to altered consciousness, Visions and conversations with God.

Altered consciousness,  and visions

Altered consciousness

People with altered consciousness from meditation. They withdraw from the world of activities, and prefer silence and solitude. They are highly focused. As they withdraw themselves from the world around , they are drawn nearer and nearer to the subconscious, & unconscious mind and possibly the Id. There are no pathological ideation, no fears, and no aggressive impulses. There is no confrontation between himself and the world. It is simply an internalization, meditation, and concentration with no chaos, no agitation, no confusion, but with tranquility, clarity of thought, speech, and normality of acts, and equanimity. There is no depression, mania, agitation , irrationality and the like. In religious terms it is called realization, kailvalya, samadhi or  Turiya. All these terms and experiences are explained elsewhere. . There is peace. There is stillness. There is silence. There is Bliss. There is oneness with Brahman. 

These realized souls are capable of and do experience visions. Some psychologists call this integrated, expanded altered consciousness by an imperfect term "Essential Schizophrenia", as opposed to the pathological state "Paranoid Schizophrenia". These realized souls are in peace with the world around them. Their visions are most often limited to their own religious background- Christians talking to Jesus Christ and Hindus, for example, talking to Kali. When they return to their waking consciousness, they behave like everybody else. Their altered consciousness – kaivalya, Samadhi and Turiya – are not drug-induced or pathological. These yogis bring  these altered states upon themselves intentionally and undergo complete remission upon resurfacing. These visions and conversations may come spontaneously.  These Hindu yogis receive wisdom  or visions or hear voices during their altered conscious states. Ramana MahaRishi, who never had formal religious instructions or  teaching of Vedas and Upanishads , received all that wisdom during  his altered consciousness and bliss during Turiya state. It is said that instinct matures into reason and reason matures into Superconsciousness in the yogi. It is also known as Samadhi. It is said that some acquired imperfect superconsciousness, experienced hallucinations without a full preparation for the state of an yogi and received revealed wisdom with superstitions.

Ramakrishna Pramahamsa was a devotee of Kali.  He used to address Her as Mother. Think of VATSALYA, the parent-child relationship or vice versa.  He was appointed the priest of the Dakshineswar temple. He meditated long and hard to get vision of Mother Goddess Kali. After a while he was so absorbed in meditation, chanting, and exhibited unusual behavior in the presence of  MahaKali, he  was not following the prescribed puja procedures and decorum of an officiating priest. He persisted in behaviors such as feeding the Goddess, talking to Her and touching her chin,  feet, and begging her to give him vision of Her.   Kali gave him visions of Her feet, and sweet smiling face.  Once he put his palm under her nose to make sure that the Mother was actually breathing. Breathing She did.  He received many visions like this, of Her. This was in the 1850s.  

page 50, para3, line 8: The two years in perfect solitude  should make them think of the interior while they will be in midst of the exterior.

This has common features with Hinduism. This is mental solitude in a physical world and a physical body. This is Turiya state, the fourth state of mind that differs from wakefulness, dream sleep and deep sleep. TURIYA CONSCIOUSNESS

Page 53: last para: Mother Teresa remained resolute in her conviction that God was calling her to this new life. "burn myself completely for Him and souls"

Mother Teresa is absolutely sure about her call from God. Burning herself is euphemism and corresponds to the technical term Nirvana, extinction.

Here is an extract from Wikipedia about Nirvana:

Nirvāṇa ( Sanskrit: निर्वाण; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan (涅槃?); Korean: 열반, yeolban; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-'das-pa; Mongolian nasalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means "to cease blowing" (as when a candle flame ceases to flicker) and/or extinguishing (that is, of the passions).

It is a state that is free from any mind-contaminants (kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving; a state of perfect peace unobstructed by psychological conditioning (sankhara). All forms of craving are extinguished such that one is no longer subject to human suffering (dukkha) or further states of rebirths in the samsara. The Buddha in the Dhammapada says of Nirvāṇa that it is "the highest happiness". This is not the sense-based happiness of everyday life, nor the concept of happiness as interpreted by Western culture, but rather an enduring, transcendental happiness integral to the calmness attained through enlightenment or bodhi. The knowledge accompanying nirvana is expressed through the word bodhi.

The Buddha describes the abiding in Nirvāna as "deathlessness" (Pali: amata or amaravati) or "the unconditioned" and as the highest spiritual attainment, the natural result that accrues to one who lives a life of virtuous conduct and practise in accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path. Such a life dissolves the causes for future becoming (Skt, karma; Pali, kamma) that otherwise keep beings forever wandering through the impermanent and suffering-generating realms of desire, form, and formlessness, termed samsara.