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Bhagavadgita Pages, Chapters 1 to 18

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V.Krishnaraj

 

Pati, Pasu, and Pasa

Extract from Thirumanthiram

Pati (Sorupam) is its own self (Pati in situ) and uncreated. It has no beginning, middle, or end; is beyond creation, maintenance, destruction, obscuration (or grace) (five functions); is Sat-Cit-Ananda (Being, Consciousness, and bliss); is void (sunya) in Parabindu, which is Nirguna Siva without any attributes; does not possess a gross or subtle form; and is pure, all-pervasive, and transcendent. He is Sivam and Parasivam; he is beyond thought, word and comprehension. When Sivam showers Grace, he becomes comprehensible and manifests five functions. Pati in his Tatattam state is manifest controller (Siva Isvara) of the five functions as mentioned earlier. Tatattam as opposed Sorupam, causes Pancha Kiruttiyam, five functions. In Tattatam form, Pati forms a trilateral relationship with Pasu and Pasa. 

in situ = In position, not extending beyond its focus or level of origin.

Tattatam = Tadastha in Sanskrit = The aspect of God which causes pancha-kiruttiyam, opposite to Sorupam.

In his Tattatam state, he has three forms: Arupam, Rupa-Arupam and Rupam. Arupam is formlessness or an invisible state which is amply manifested in Chidambaram by Akasa (Ether); he is the Void; Void is his form; that forms the core of Chidambara Rahasyam (secret), the abode of Akasa Lingam in Lord Nataraja Temple. Nataraja, Somaskanthar, Chandrasekarar and other visible forms portray his Rupa (form) state. Leaping fire takes forms of infinite variety, changing moment by moment: that is form-formless state. Siva Linga also belongs to the Rupa-Arupa state.

Based on Arupam, Iccha, Jnana and Kriya (Formlessness, Desire or Will, Knowledge, and Action), Siva goes by three names: Sattar (Ilaya Sivan, Arupa Sivan), Yutti-Yuttar, and Piraviruttar.

Sattar and Ilaya Sivan are the other names for Arupa Sivan meaning that he is formless; his pure power is in potent unmanifest form; he has no intentions, plans, or inclinations to create cosmos; his power is undifferentiated without any palpable entity; He is Nishkala (without parts or attributes); He is Niskriya (no activity); and His body is pure Consciousness.

Yutti-Yuttar: The name means that he is a logician or sophist. He is the embodiment of  skills and knowledge to create cosmos. He is NOT just Nishkala anymore, he is Nishkala-Sakala (Siva without and with parts and attributes). He is Nishkala because he has masses of unmanifest energy without parts, he is Sakala because he has parts and Pasus (individual souls in bondage waddling in malas - impurities). Nishkala-Sakala is a transitional state between His Unmanifest (Avyakta) to his manifest state of many forms (Sakala). His energy or Consciousness shows differentiation in five Suddha Tattvas: Siva Tattva, Sakti Tattva, Sadasiva Tattva, Isvara Tattva, and Suddha Vidya Tattva.

    Siva Tattva: He is Para Sakti, Nishkala-Sakala Siva, Sat-Cit-Ananda, and Cosmic Dancer after Mahapralaya (dissolution of the universe). He originates Para Nada and Nada, from which Bindu originates; Bindu is the progenitor of Prakritic Asuddha Tattvas. Of the five tattvas mentioned here Siva Tattva is Pure Consciousness; the other succeeding four take their birth from Siva Tattva in a father-son linear fashion with step-down dilution of Consciousness.

    Sakti Tattva: He is Paramesvara, the Supreme Soul, Nataraja (personal God), and Androgynous Ardhanaresvara. He is a Cosmic Dancer after Pralaya (dissolution). He is endowed with Kriya Sakti, Action Energy. He is the Light of lights (Bindu).    

    Sadasiva Tattva: His energy has the revealing power (Anugraha) and Grace in conferring of liberation.  He is Sadasiva, he is ever auspicious. He has Jnana and Kriya Sakti. He has five faces. For details go to SADASIVA.htm.

    Isvara Tattva: He obscures and conceals Grace. In him knowledge translates into action. He is Para Bindu. Go to Bindu.htm.  Obscuration of grace is misunderstood by westerners unfamiliar with its concept. Grace comes to the soul when all the impurities are removed. Let me give you an example. A professor of mathematics has a 4 year old son. He lets him struggles with simple additions and subtractions. His son is not ready for higher mathematics. That will come in due course of time, when he is grown and mature. In like manner, Siva does not confer grace on a soul covered with impurities (Malam). Once they are removed by a process of Malaparipakam and Iruvinaiyoppu, descent of grace and merger (Sattinipatham and Oddukkam) take place.

Mum-malam = ;  malaparipakam = ;  Iruvinaiyoppu = Ţɦ¡; SakthinipAtham = .

The soul's progress to Grace: Iruvinaiyoppu1, Malaparipākam2, and Sattinipātam3

 Bipolar equable resolution1, Purging of Malas2, and Surging with Grace3.

Others mention Oddukkam4 (involution) into Siva.

Malaparipākam is maturing of the soul indicating that the soul is no more burdened with the three Malas, Anava, maya and Karma Malas. Malaparipākam = Mala + paripākam = impurity + cooking; maturity, perfection, ripeness; fit condition.

 Karma in perfect resolution consists of good and bad Karma coming individually to zero sum status.  Iruvinaiyoppu is the state of the soul coming to perfect equanimity towards meritorious and sinful deeds; the end result is a zero sum status. In Iruvinaiyoppu, there is no reciprocal cancellation; both good karma and bad karma must come to zero individually.  Iruvinaiyoppu  = Iru + Vinai +Oppu = two +  good and bad deeds + likeness, resemblance, similarity, equality. Vinai = Nalvinai and Tivinai = good deed and evil deed.

The Grace of God descends on the soul, once it goes through Malaparipakam after Iruvinaiyoppu; that is called Saktinipātam (Sanskrit) or Sattinipātam (Tamil).

Saktinipātam  /  Sattinipātam = Satti + Nipātam = Grace + Descent

Once Sattinipatam happens to the soul, it is free and becomes eternal like God. The Grace-infused soul is separate from the Lord or Siva, but enjoys Siva's Bliss.

Tirodhana Sakti (Veiling, concealing, obscuring) of Mahesvara is the antithesis of anugraha  (Grace) conferred by Sadasiva. Mahesvara and Sadasiva are one and the same; transformation of the soul from impure state to pure state by Iruvinaiyoppu and Malaparipakam induces transformation of Tirodhana Sakti to Anugraha Sakti. Think of sound traveling as light energy.

    The descent of Grace on to the soul proceeding from Parasakti (Sadasiva) takes place at a slow pace (Manda) to start with, picks up slow speed (Mandatara) followed by intense (Tīvira) and hyperintense (Tīviratara) penetration or pervasion.  Descent and pervasion are proportional to the graduated weakening of Anavamala; it appears as if Anavamala is weakened by maturity of Malas (like the ripe fruit falling off) and the graduated penetration of the soul by Grace (Saktinipātam). According to Unmai Vilakkam, the soul, Anava Mala, and Pati still hold together in Mukti or liberation. How is that possible? Anava Mala has morphed from an obstructionist to a facilitator (transformation). Once Grace has pervaded the soul, Anava Mala becomes the purveyor of Bliss in Suddha state; remember, once Anava Mala was a purveyor of nescience in Kevala and Sakala state. Tirodhana Sakti, which is the veiling power of the Lord, has morphed into Arul Sakti. Arul = Grace.

The four events (Iruvinaiyoppu, Malaprapakam, Saktinipatam, and Oddukkam) caused the soul to step into Suddha Avastha. The soul, thus optimized and purified, and penetrated by Grace is at the doorstep of liberation; it also has transformed from the dual state of Sat-Asat to Sat state; Asat dropped out with the fall of Malas; now it is one with Siva. Here oneness with Siva does not mean integral part of Siva.

Saiva Siddhantists have a different outlook on the soul, its body, its impurities (Mum-malam), the ripening and falling of impurities (Malaparipakam), good and bad Karmas coming to Null status (Iruvinai oppu), descent of grace into the soul (Saktinipatam), and merger (oddukkam). Primer in Saiva Siddhanta,   SivamThe soul according to Saiva Siddhanta

    Suddha Vidya Tattva: He is pure Knowledge and his portfolio includes creation (Brahma), maintenance (Vishnu), and destruction (Rudra-Siva). Pure knowledge is by no means Pure Consciousness.

Piraviruttar: Pira-viruttan means he who exercises Pra-Vritti. Pra-vritti = moving forward, advance, manifestation, activity, function, prosecution of. Piraviruttan is Tamil spelling. Piraviruttar is honorific way of addressing God. This belongs to Suddha Vidya Tattva. The Consciousness compared to Siva Tattva is less, but activity (creation, maintenance, destruction) has enhanced. He is Sakalan here for he has many parts, attributes, and action saktis (powers); he is Mahesvara whose subsidiary manifestations are Brahma, the creator; Vishnu, the maintainer; and Siva-Rudra, the destroyer.

Pati has nine archetypical forms: Siva, Sakti, Nada, Bindu, Sadasiva, Mahesvara, Rudra-Siva, Vishnu and Brahma, who range from Nishkala, to Nishkala-Sakala and to Sakala. Sakti and Siva, Nada and Bindu form the Quadplex or Tetralogy, essential in the manifestation of universe and beings.  Quadplex as Tetralogy (four entities) of Saiva Siddhanta appears to cover all essential elements.

Nadanta Dance forms the basis for Saiva Siddhanta philosophy where tetralogy consisting of Siva, Sakti, Nada, and Bindu plays exclusive roll in the unfolding of the universe; this is evolution. Involution is the inverse order where the Tattvas (building blocks) involute backwards into Nada and Nadanta, the latter being the Void, Sunya or black hole, where only Siva and Sakti exist, having become the repository of all Tattvas in their subtle state. Sunya or Void sucks in all Tattvas, which go in a spiraling funnel into the black hole, which is a bottomless pit, and where the Tattvas loose their substance and become subtle.

Sadasiva as Yutti-Yuttar confers Grace and liberation eventually ending in Para mukti (Supreme liberation, likeness to Siva) to Vijnanakalars who are in advanced stage of ripeness (Sakti-nipatam).  These blessed souls are Anusadasivars, Vittiyesurans, and Rudras who enjoy Divine Bliss in Sadakiya Tattuvam, where knowledge and action are in balance. Anusadasivar = Souls enjoying Divine Bliss in Sadakkiya  (Sadasiva) Tattuvam.  Vittiyesurans = learned scholar, one who possesses Vidhi, knowledge. Sakti-nipatam: settling of Divine Grace in the soul when it is ripe.

 

Three Categories of Jivas, Verses from Tirumantiram, 0492-0500

●Life came about from Sakti-Siva Play. Jiva was in a pure Kevala state enveloped in Turiya from which Jiva separated and united between the two Mayas. The Lord entered Citta (mind) and made it all Sivamayam (Siva in essence). Comment: Kevala in this context means the individual soul or Jiva was in a pristine Mukti (liberation) state enjoying Turiya, the fourth dimension beyond normal consciousness. End of comment.

●There are ten categories of souls (Pasus): Vijnanakalars with four subdivisions, Pralayakalars with three, and Sakalars with three. 

Vijnanakalars are of four subgroups: those in Anava state, those who are self-realized, those who reached the status of Eight Vidyesvaras, and those who belong to the 70 million Manthra Nayakas. The latter are realized beings free from ego or Anava. The Jiva in this class resides below Suddhavidya Tattva but above MAya.

●The Pralayakalars are of three subgroups: those who attained Mukti, those who still have bondage of Anava and Karma malas, and those who belong to 108 Rudras. The Sakalars still have all three malas. This class lives in MAya.

●There are three subgroups of Sakalars: those who attained siddhis, those who attained Mukti, and those who have attained neither. The latter wallow in three malas, with no will to conquer them.

● They who rid themselves of five malas become Siva; free from blemish, they are siddhas; they attained Jivan Mukti; they cut asunder pasu pasam, Jivas bondage; they ended the cycle of births and rebirths. They realized the Tattvas.

Vijnanakalars are of three types. There are those who still abide in Anava mala. They are in all nine classes of jivas in various stages of development. Comment: Sakti-Nipatam is the conferment of Grace to a soul when it is ripe. Ripening process is development of the soul from imperfection to the stage of Paramukti (supreme liberation).

 ●Vijnanakalars get physical bodies by dint of karma. By doing holy acts they enter the womb of the celestials and gain Jnana form. By constant practice, they receive eternal wisdom and become Siva Himself.

●The Vijnanakalars remove all Anava mala and lose the memory of Jiva. They become Bindu and Nada, having attained oneness with Siva Tattva. The Sakalars carry a load of three impurities: Anava, Maya and Kanma. Comment: Losing memory of Jiva is a good thing. Loss of memory means the Jiva or the individual soul has removed the faulty notion that it (Jiva) is finite, when it attains liberation or mukti; Jiva's fountainhead is Siva and therefore it cannot be finite. But earthbound souls (fools) are so wrapped up in malas or impurities and body sheaths, they think they are finite as their body. End of comment.

Comment: Malas: Mala in ordinary sense is feces. Malas as a technical term means impurities of the soul. Its origin is Divine Will and it is of three kinds (Mum-malam: Anava Mala, Kanma Mala, and Maya mala.

Anava Mala: Anavam comes from the word ANU, meaning atom, smallness, finitude. This impurity is congenital, intrinsic, and innate to every soul; there is no embodied soul without it, Brahma and Vishnu included. As the individual soul splits off from the Great Soul (chip of the Old Block), it immediately feels like an orphan separate from the Great Soul, God. The orphan soul feels its smallness, limitation, imperfection, ignorance, and darkness and seeks knowledge through the senses of the body, forgetting its connection to and origin from the all-knowing Great Soul. This smallness and orphan status make the soul feel apart from its Father, thereby acquiring the feeling of  I, Mine, Me, My, pride, individual identity, will, limited knowledge and action (Iccha, Jnana and Kriya), which lead to other malas and accumulation of Karma.  It is darkness (irul), causes confusion (Marul) and ignorance (Avidya), and remains antithetical to Grace (Arul). Here the soul feels like an orphan, as if it is not connected to the Great Soul, Pure Consciousness or God. It is due to ignorance and matter enveloping the soul, preventing vision of the Great Soul. It is full of ego. It is a case of I, Me, My, and Mine, a quadrilateral corral for Pasus. Anava Mala is compared to verdigris covering copper or husk covering rice (Anava Mala covering soul). Siva is One but has the urge to be many; this split into many souls (without diminution of the Great Soul) have consequences and Anava Mala is that consequence. (There are some who believe that the anava-laden soul cannot be traced back to Siva, because Siva being pure cannot have produced an impure soul. The Mala is beginningless.  Siva is the only I in this universe; the souls that came off from Siva (Siva Sakti) mistakenly took that identity from Him; each one of them calls himself or herself, I.  The I of Siva has the power of creation, preservation, destruction and many more functions, which the human i does not have. Besides, the person refers the I to his body and not to the soul; that is the second problem. If the person still insists on referring to himself as the I, then he should acknowledge its origin from Siva and thus should have the knowledge that his or her soul is the I and the body is my.

I = metaphysical, the EGO; the nominative singular pronoun, used by a speaker in referring to himself or herself.

The belief is that the soul and other Tattvas took their origin from Siva Sakti rather than from Siva Himself. 

Life in Muladhara and Svadhisthana Chakras and below is one of Anava Mala. Grace of God erases Anava malaYoga and Jnana Margas remove Anava mala.  Siddhiar explains Anava mala as follows: It is a single entity, but has many powers and functions. It has no beginning and clouds knowledge and action which the individual souls are intrinsically capable of; it projects an illusion of autonomy; like verdigris on a copper vessel, it is a stain on the soul. Sivajnana Bodham succinctly puts it: Innate Anavamala precludes knowledge to the soul. This is a case of a soul that is  intelligence and consciousness, distinct from inner organ and senses, and is held prisoner by Anva Mala, which (soul) seeks the help of sense organs to know things; the derived knowledge is false.  Since the soul gathers useless knowledge through the sense organs, which are products of Maya, it has gained no knowledge (spiritual knowledge).

How could a soul which takes origin from Siva be stained with Anava Mala? Siva is pure and so its derivative also must be pure. The following explanation is offered to clear this apparent anomaly. The covering of the soul with Anava Mala does not exclude the innate presence of Siva's  Consciousness or intelligence in a soul.  Anava Mala, which has no power over Siva,  does not prevent the residence of Siva in the soul. Though an umbrella casts a shadow, the umbrella and the shadow do not affect the sun. The umbrella does not hide the sun but hides the person who holds it; thus, Anava Mala like an umbrella hides the soul from Siva and Siva himself is not hidden.  By Siva, Siva Sakti is meant.

Anavamala is innate to the soul; it projects, I, Me, Mine, and Mineness which generate desire, passion and possessiveness, which are qualities that lead the soul away from Siva. Tirodhanasakti obscures the Truth from Anma (individual soul) prone to Anavamala, which drives the embodied soul to seek pleasures of the world; Siva provides the opportunity for gratification. It is like the mother putting the baby to the breast, when it cries. Anavamala makes the body-soul hunger for worldly experience as a baby hungers for mothers milk. Siva lets the soul mature in this world of kaleidoscopic experiences.  Thus, Anavamala is a centrifugal force taking the soul away from its source, Siva Sakti.  Siva in his munificence offers Grace (Arul, Anugraha) to the soul by removing Anavamala which obscures vision of God and comes between the individual soul and Siva, and (arul) takes the soul on its centripetal journey to Siva Sakti.

Kanma mala: In Kanma (Karma) Mala, the past is catching up with the present; the past may be recent or one or many births in the past.  Kanma mala brings the soul and body together in a being. It is the karma from the past or the karma made new. karma is thought, word and deed that bring punyam or papam, meritorious or painful consequences. The Karmas of past lives cling like Vasanas (fragrance to the subtle body) and has the tendency to confer Samskaras, tendentious behavior, which might reinforce punyam or papam; thus, the actions tend to feed upon themselves like a closed loop and produce more of the same. The proper thing to do is to consume the fruits of bad and good karma and get Karma to a zero-sum status, conducive to liberation. Good and bad karma cannot cancel each other; they have to be enjoyed and suffered. Spiritual practices and love of God can erase Kanma mala. Kriya Marga (Agamic rites and ceremonies) remove Karma mala.

Maya Mala: It is the material cause of the universe; Asuddha Tattvas make up our body and give us the soul-body experience and limited spiritual knowledge in this world; spiritual practices, love of God, Chariya, worship of God-in-form in a temple remove Maya Mala.

As man eliminates Karma Mala and Maya Mala, Anava Mala seems to expand to take their place, and fill the vacuum and becomes stronger; the I-factor is a dominant impurity, which is erased by Grace of God. All these malas lead man down their paths - Margas, Anava, Kanma and Maya. These margas should be supplanted by Charya, Kriya, Yoga, Jnana Margas, Prapatti, Saranagatti and attainment of higher Chakras, Ajna and Sahasrara.

Vijnanakalar - a person with one mala-- Only Anava mala
Pralayakalar - a person with two malas--Anava and Maya malas
Sakalar - a person with three malas--Karma, Maya, and Anava malas

Siddhantists says that Vijnanakalar souls are gods with Anava Mala; Pralayakalar souls are godlings; Sakalar souls are humans (?plants), demons and gods, Brahma and Vishnu. Why Brahma and Vishnu? Because they accumulate malas (impurities) by their creative and protective functions. All three classes of souls have in common Anava mala which is erased by the Grace of Siva.

    Vijananakalars recieve jnana from Siva himself in the first person; Siva appears as divine god in the second person to the Pralayakalars afflicted with Anava and Maya Mala; Siva appears  to Sakalars with three Malas in human Guru form (Satguru). The first two appearances are direct and the third is indirect.

    Some dispute this idea of Siva coming in a human form which is an unthinkable descent for Siva of pure consciousness. Siva is like a shimmering shadow on water in the soul.  Fish live in water, so there must be air in it. Shimmering shadow of Siva in the soul and the air in water exist in invisible form. Sivacaitanya (Siva Consciousness or Intelligence) exists in invisible form in Atmacaitanya (soul's consciousness). Under this premise, where is the need for Siva to appear as Satguru?

    Some draw upon a parable of Mongoose and snake to illustrate the need for a Guru. Guru is embodiment of knowledge. Anava mala is the poisonous snake in the soul. Anava Mala should be expelled and jnana shoud be infused into the soul. For that a Guru is necessary. Here is the allegory of Mongoose and snake. The snake must be bitten and eliminated; Mongoose (Guru with knowledge) helps kill and remove the poisonous snake of ignorance of soul. Ignorance of the soul is that the soul has forgotten its oneness with Siva, identifying with the world through its senses.

    Siva is the sun; Guru is a mass of sun beam; the soul is the crystal or lens; it has the combustible but hidden firewood of knowledge of release in it. Guru's beamed energy is necessary for the soul to manifest its fire of knowledge in it.

    Soul is a crystal; colors brought in its proximity color the crystal which loses its clear luster. The colors are the Malas, impurities or the senses which are in close association with the soul.

Please go to The soul according to Saiva Siddhanta for more details on Malas and remedies.