The Three Modes Applied to Religious Phenomena
Three Kinds of Faith
Translation and Comment by Dr. Radhakrishnan
Sanskrit Text, transliteration and word translation by
ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥१७- १॥
uvāca = Arjuna said: ye1
= those who; utsṛjya3
= give up; śāstra-vidhim2 =
Scriptural injunctions; [and yet] anvitāḥ6
= are endowed; śraddhayā5
= with faith; [and] yajante4
= worship; tu9
= but; kā10
= what; [is] niṣṭhā8
= the status; teṣām7
= of them; kṛṣṇa11
= O Krishna; [Is it] sattvam12
= virtue; raja14
= passion; āho13
= or; tamaḥ15
= darkness. 17.1
(17.1) Those who, neglecting the ordinances of scriptures, offer sacrifices filled with faith-what is their position, O Kṛṣṇa? Is it one of goodness or of passion or of dullness? These do not wilfully defy the rules of scripture but are ignorant of them.
■ S. argues that the nature of one's faith does not depend upon conformity to scriptural injunctions but on his character and the worship he adopts.
■ R. adopts a less liberal view and thinks that those who violate the Śāstras out of ignorance or wilful neglect, whether with faith or without faith, are to be condemned.
त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥१७- २॥
śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: sā5 = that; śraddhā3 = faith; dehinām4 = of the embodied; bhavati2 = becomes; trividhā1 = threefold; svabhāvajā6 = born of their own nature; sāttvikī7 = born of goodness; rājasī8 = born of passion; ca9 = and; eva10 = indeed; tāmasī11 = born of darkness; ca12 = and; iti13 = thus; śṛṇu15 = hear; tām14 = that [from Me]. 17.2
The Blessed Lord said:
(17.2) The faith of the embodied is of three kinds, born of their nature, good, passionate and dull. Hear now about it.
सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत ।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥१७- ३॥
śraddhā bhavati bhārata
śraddhā3 = Faith; sarvasya2 = of all beings; bhavati4 = becomes [is]; sattva-anurūpā1 = according
to their own nature; bhārata5 = O Scion of
Bharata clan; ayam8 = this; puruṣaḥ9 = person; [is] śraddhā6 mayaḥ7 = faith incarnate; yaḥ10 = that person; yat11 = whichever/whatever; [his] śraddhaḥ12 = faith [is]; saḥ13 eva14 = that indeed; saḥ15 = he [is]. 17.3
(17.3) The faith of every individual, O Bharata (Arjuna), is in accordance with his nature. Man is of the nature of his faith: what his faith is, that, verily, he is.
■ The author here takes up for consideration a number of questions which probably aroused interest at the time, about faith, diet, sacrifice, asceticism, almsgiving, renunciation and relinquishment.
■ sattva: svabhāva, nature.
■ śraddhā or faith, is not acceptance of a belief. It is striving after self-realization by concentrating the powers of the mind on a given ideal.
■ Faith is the pressure of the Spirit on humanity, the force that urges humanity towards what is better, not only in the order of knowledge but in the whole order of spiritual life. Faith, as the inward sense of truth, points to the object over which fuller light is shed later.
■ After all, the ultimate and incontrovertible evidence of any religious faith is the evidence of the believer's heart.
■ A popular verse makes out that the aims which religion offers prove effective according to one's faith in them.1 Bhagavata says that the fruit of worship follows the faith of the doer.2 We are what we are on account of our past and we can create our future. Cp. Plato: "Such as are the trend of our desires and the nature of our souls, just such each of us becomes.3 Cp. Goethe: "Earnestness alone makes life eternity."
1 mantre, tīrthe, dvije, deve, ddivajñe, bheṣaje, gurau
yādṛṣī bhāvanā yasya siddhir bhavati tādṛśī.
2 sraddhānūrupaṁ phalahetukatvāt. VIII, I7.
3 Laws, 904-C.
यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः ।
प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥१७- ४॥
sāttvikāḥ2 = Virtuous people; yajante1 = worship; devān3 = the gods; rājasāḥ5 = the passionate; yakṣa-rakṣāṁsi4 = Yaksas and Raksasas; ca8 = and; anye9 = others; tāmasāḥ11 = the ignorant; janāḥ12 = people; yajante10 = worship; pretān6 = ghosts; [&] bhūta-gaṇāñ7 = spirits.17.4
(17.4) Good men worship the gods, the passionate worship the demigods and the demons and the others (who are) the dull, worship the spirits and ghosts.
■ Men of darkness are they who make a cult of the departed and of spirits.
अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः ।
दम्भाहंकारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः ॥१७- ५॥
aśāstravihitaṁ ghoraṁ tapyante
ye tapo janāḥ
ye4 janāḥ6 = Those
persons who; tapyante3 = perform; ghoram2 = terrible; tapaḥ5 = austerities; aśāstra-vihitam1 = not
ordained in scriptures; dambha7A-ahañkāra7B-saṁyuktāḥ7C = engaged in7C hypocrisy7A and ego7B; kāma-rāga-bala-anvitāḥ8 = possessing8D lust8A, desire8B, strength8C... 17.5 continued
(17.5) Those men, vain and conceited and impelled by the force of lust and passion, who perform violent austerities, which are not ordained by the scriptures.
कर्षयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः ।
मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान् ॥१७- ६॥
acetasaḥ4 = mindlessly; karṣayantaḥ1 = torturing; bhūta-grāmam3 = aggregate of elements; śarīrastham2 = in the body; ca6 = and; eva7 = indeed; mām5 = Me; ntaḥ-śarīra-stham8 = who dwells inside the body [as a Witness]; viddhi10 = know; tān9 = them; āsura-niścayān11 = as of the nature of demons. 17.6
(17.6) Being foolish oppress the group of elements in their body and Me also dwelling in the body. Know these to be demoniac in their resolves.
■ The methods of self-torture undertaken by some for purposes of display such as wearing hair-shirts, or piercing the body with sharp spikes, are here condemned. Bodily weakness sometimes produces hallucinations which are mistaken for spiritual visions. Self-discipline is not to be confused with bodily torture. Cp. with this, Gautama the Buddha's admonition: "The habitual practice of asceticism or self-mortification, which is painful, unworthy, and unprofitable, ought not to be followed.1The true discipline of the body by the practice of cleanliness, etc., is given in verse I4.
1 Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta.
आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः ।
दानं तेषां भेदमिमं
शृणु ॥१७- ७॥
tu2 api3 sarvasya4 trividhaḥ5
āhāraḥ1 = Food; priyaḥ7 = dear; tu2 = indeed; sarvasya4 = to all; api3 = also; bhavati6 = is [becomes]; trividhaḥ5 = threefold; tathā10 = so also; yajñaḥ8 = sacrifice; tapaḥ9 = austerity; dānam11 = charity; śṛṇu15 = hear; imam14 = these; bhedam13 = differences; teṣām12 = among them. 17.7
(17.7) Even the food which is dear to all is of three kinds. So are the sacrifices, austerities and gifts. Hear thou the distinction of these.
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥१७- ८॥
āhārāḥ7 = Foods; vivardhanāḥ2 = that
promote; āyuḥ-sattva-bala-ārogya-sukha-prīti2 = life,
existence, strength, health, happiness, [and] pleasure;
[are] rasyāḥ4 = juicy; snigdhāḥ5 = smooth; sthirāḥ6 = firm; hṛdyāḥ7 = hearty; sāttvika-priyāḥ9 = dear to Sattvic persons. 17.8
(17.8) The foods which promote life, vitality, strength, health, joy and cheerfulness, which are sweet, soft, nourishing and agreeable are dear to the "good."
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥१७- ९॥
kaṭu-amla-lavaṇa-atyuṣṇa-tīkṣṇa-rūkṣa-vidāhinaḥ1 = Bitter, sour, salty, very hot, pungent, dry, fiery; āhārāḥ2 = foods; iṣṭāḥ4 = dear; rājasasya3 = to Rajasic
people; pradāḥ6 = give; duḥkha-śoka-āmaya5 = pain, sorrow, disease. 17.9
(17.9) The foods that are bitter, sour, saltish, very hot, pungent, harsh and burning, producing pain, grief and disease are liked by the ' 'passionate. "
यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत् ।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥१७- १०॥
yātayāmaṁ gatarasaṁ pūti paryuṣitaṁ ca yat
bhojanam11 = Foods; yat6 = which; [are] yāta-yāmam1 = improperly
cooked; gata-rasam2 = wanting in flavor; pūti3 = putrid; paryuṣitam4 = stale; ca5 = and; ucchiṣṭam7 = left-over; ca9 = and; api8 = also; amedhyam10 = unfit for sacrifice;
[are] tāmasa priyam12 = dear to the Tamasic person. 17.10
(17.10) That which is spoiled, tasteless, putrid, stale, refuse and unclean is the food dear to the "dull."
■ As the body is built up of the food taken, the quality of food is important.1
1 Chāndogya Up., VIl, 26, 2, āhāra śuddhau sattvasuddhiḥ where sattva means antaḥkaraṇa.
The kind of diet we take has its influence on our power of selfcontrol.
Cp. visvāmitra-parāṣara-prabhṛtayaḥ vātāmbuparṇāśanāḥ
tepi strīmukhapankajaṁ sulalitaṁ dṛṣṭvaiva mohaṁ gatāḥ
śālyānnaṁ dadhidugdhagoghṛtayutaṁ ye bhuñjate mānavāḥ
teṣām indriyanigraho yadi bhavet, vindhyas taret sāgaram.
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।
यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥१७- ११॥
aphalāṅkṣibhir yajño vidhidṛṣṭo
yajñaḥ2 = Sacrifice; yaḥ4 = which; ijyate5 = was
performed; vidhi-dṛṣṭaḥ3 = according
to injunctions; [by] aphala-āṅkṣibhiḥ1 = those who
have no desire for fruits of their labor; manaḥ samādhāya8 = with fixed mind; [knowing it is] yaṣṭavyam eva6 = expected performance
of duty; saḥ9 = that; iti7 = thus; [is] sāttvikaḥ10 = sattvika mode. 17.11
(17.11) That sacrifice which is offered, according to the scriptural law, by those who expect no reward and believe firmly that it is their duty to offer the sacrifice, is "good."
■ The yajña of the Gītā is not the same as the ceremonial sacrifice of the Veda. It is sacrificial action in general by which man dedicates his wealth and deeds to the service of the One Life in all. People with such a sacrificial spirit will accept even death gladly, though unjustly meted out to them, so that the world may grow through their sacrifice. Sāvitrī tells Yama that good people maintain the world through their suffering and sacrifice. santo bhūmiṁ tapasā dhārayanti.
■ aphalāṅkṣibhiḥ: those who expect no reward. They do the right but are indifferent to the consequences. A Socrates or a Gandhi is concerned only whether he is doing right or wrong, acting the part of a good man or of a bad, and not whether he has a chance of living or dying.
अभिसंधाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।
इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥१७- १२॥
abhisaṁdhāya tu phalaṁ dambhārtham api caiva yat
abhisandhāya1 tu2 phalam3
dambhārtham4 api5 ca6
tu2 = But; yat8 = that which;
ijyate9 = is performed; eva7 = indeed; dambhārtham4 = for the sake of ostentation; ca6 = or; abhisandhāya1 = holding in
view; phalam3 api5 = also5 the result/fruit3; bharataśreṣṭha10 = O best of Bharatas; viddhi13 = know; tam11 = that; yajñam12 = sacrifice; rājasam14 = is Rajas. 17.12
(17.12) But that which is offered in expectation of reward or for the sake of display, know, O best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), that sacrifice to be "passionate."
विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥१७- १३॥
yajñam6 = Sacrifice; vidhi-hīnam1 = opposed to
injunctions; asṛṣṭa-annam2 = with
undistributed food [prasadam]; mantra-hīnam3 = with no
mantras chanted; adakṣiṇam4 = with no remuneration
to priests;[ and] śraddhā-virahitam5 = deprived
of faith; paricakṣate8 = is said to be; tāmasam7 = Tamas. 17.13
(17.13) The sacrifice which is not in conformity with the law, in which no food is distributed, no hymns are chanted and no fees are paid, which is empty of faith, they declare to be "dull."
■ The distribution of food and the payment of fee are symbolic of help to others without which all work is self-regarding.
Three Kinds of Penance
देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् ।
ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥१७- १४॥
devadvijaguruprājñapūjanaṁ śaucam ārjavam
deva1A-dvija1B-guru1C-prājña1D-pūjanam1E = Worship1E of gods1A , the twice-borns1B, the Guru1C, and the wise1D; śaucam-ārjavam-brahmacaryam2 = purity, honesty, celibacy; ca4 = and; ahiṁsā2 = non-injury; [these] ucyate7 = are said to be; tapa6 = penance; śārīram5 = of the body.17.14
(17.14) The worship of the gods, of the twice-born, of teachers and of the wise, purity, uprightness, continence and nonviolence, this is said to be the penance of the body.
अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् ।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥१७- १५॥
priya-hitam4 ca5 yat6
vākyam2 = Speech; yat6 = which is; anudvegakaram1 = not causing apprehension; satyam3 =
truthful; priya-hitam4 = agreeable
and beneficial; ca5 = and; [promotes] svādhyāya-abhyasanam7 = Vedic
study practice; ca8 = also; eva9 = indeed; ucyate12 = is said to be; tapa11 = austerity; vāk-mayam10 = of speech. 17.15
(17.15) The utterance (of words) which gives no offence, which is truthful, pleasant and beneficial and the regular recitation
of the Veda--this is said to be the penance of speech.
■ Cp, ·'Of what is disagreeable and beneficial the speaker and the hearer are hard to find.1
1 apriyasya ca pathyasya vaktāśrota hi durlabhaḥ. M.B. śāntiparva 63J 17.
If you your lips would keep from slips
Five things observe with care;
Of what you speak, to whom you speak,
And bow, and when, and where.
(See Thirlby Hall, by W. E. Norris, Vol. I, p. 35.)
मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥१७- १६॥
manaḥprasādaḥ saumyatvaṁ maunam
manaḥ-prasādaḥ1 = Serenity of mind; saumyatvam2 = gentleness; maunam3 = silence; ātma-vinigrahaḥ4 =
self-restraint; bhāva-saṁśuddhiḥ5 = purity of nature: iti6 = thus; etat7 = these; ucyate10 = are said to be; tapaḥ8 = austerity; mānasam9 = of the mind. 17.16
(17.16) Serenity of mind, gentleness, silence, self-control, the purity of mind―this is called the penance of mind.
श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥१७- १७॥
taptaṁ tapas tat trividhaṁ
parayā2 taptam3 tapaḥ4
tat5 = This; trividham6 = threefold; tapaḥ4 = austerity; taptam3 = practiced; parayā2
śraddhayā1 = with supreme faith; naraiḥ7 = by men; aphala-ākāṅkṣibhiḥ8 =
who do not long for results: yuktaiḥ9 = Yogis; paricakṣate11 = speak of it; sāttvikam10 = as endowed with the quality of
(17.I7) This threefold penance practiced with utmost faith by men of balanced mind without the expectation of reward, they call ''good."
सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥१७- १८॥
satkāramānapūjārthaṁ tapo dambhena caiva yat
dambhena3 ca eva4
tapaḥ2 = Austerity; satkāra1A-māna1B-pūja1C-artham1D = for the express
purpose of or in consideration of1D reverence1A, honor1B, worship1C; ca eva4 =
and also; yat5 = which; kriyate6 = is performed; dambhena3 = with hypocrisy; tat7 = that; iha8 = in this world; proktam9 = is considered; rājasam10 = born of Rajas; calam11 = unsteady; [and] adhruvam12 = impermanent. 17.18
(17.18) That penance which is performed in order to gain respect, honor and reverence and for the sake of show is said to be ''passionate"; it is unstable and not lasting.
मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः ।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१७- १९॥
mūḍhagrāheṇātmano yat pīḍayā
yat3 = That; tapaḥ6 = austerity; kriyate5 = performed; mūḍha-grāheṇa1 = with a
foolish effort or plan; pīḍayā4 = causing pain; ātmanaḥ2 = to one own self [body]; vā9 = or utsādanārtham8 = for the purpose of
destruction; parasya7 = of others;
= that; udāhṛtam12 = is said to be; tāmasam11 = of the nature of Tamas. 17.19
(17.19) That penance which is performed with a foolish obstinacy by means of self-torture or for causing injury to
others is said to be I , dull. "
■ Now the three kinds of gifts follow.
Three Kinds of Gifts
दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥१७- २०॥
dātavyam iti yad dānaṁ dīyatenupakāriṇe
dātavyam1 = Charity or gift as a duty: yat4 = which; dānam5 = gift; dīyate6 = given; iti2 = thus; anupakāriṇe7= to one who does not reciprocate; deśe8A kāle8B ca8C pātre8D = at a proper place8A and8C time8 to a deserving person8D; ca tat dānam9 = and that gift; sāttvikam smṛtam10 = is regarded10B as of the nature of Sattva or virtue10A. 17.20
■ It will lead to complete self-giving, ātmasamarpaṇa. Gifts to the poor not only help the poor but help the givers. He who gives receives.
यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥१७- २१॥
yat tu prattyupakārārthaṁ
phalam uddiśya vā punaḥ
uddiśya5 vā6 punaḥ7
tu2 = But; tat dānam11 = that gift; yat1 = which; dīyate8 = is made; pratti-upakāra-artham3 = with the expectation of
return in kind; vā6 = or; punaḥ7 = again; uddiśya5 = with desire for; phalam4 = fruit, result or return favor; ca9 = and; parikliṣṭam10 =
unwillingly/reluctantly; rājasam smṛtam12 = is regarded as of the nature of Rajas or passion. 17.21
(17.21) But that gift which is made with the hope of a return or with the expectation of future gain or when it hurts to give, is held to be "passionate."
अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१७- २२॥
tat9 = That; dānam3 = charity; yat2 = which; dīyate6 = is given; a1-deśa1A-kāle1B = at wrong1 place1A and time1B; apātrebhyaḥ4 = to unworthy persons; asat-kṛtam7 = without formal
actions; ca5 = and; avajñātam8 = with contempt; tāmasam udāhṛtam10 = is regarded as of the nature of Tamas or darkness. 17.22
The Mystical Utterance: Aum Tat Sat
ॐतत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥१७- २३॥
oṁ tat sad iti nirdeśo
tat sat1 iti2
oṁ tat sat1 = Om Tat Sat; smṛtaḥ6 = is regarded; iti2 = thus; trividhaḥ5 = a threefold; nirdeśaḥ3 = appellation; brahmaṇaḥ4 = of Brahman; ca10 = and; brāhmaṇāḥ7 = the Brahmanas; vedāḥ9 = Vedas; ca12 = and; yajñāḥ11 = sacrifice; vihitāḥ13 = are ordained; tena8 = by that [appellation]; purā14 = formerly or in ancient times.17.23
Om Tat Sat =
(17.23) "Aum Tat Sat"―this is considered to be the threefold symbol of Brahman. By this were ordained of old the Brahmins, the Vedas and the sacrifices
■ See III, 10
'' Aum" expresses the absolute supremacy, "tat" the universality and "sat" the reality of Brahman. The Taittirīya Up. says "sacca
tyaccūbhavat." (II.6) It became sat (which is existent) and tat (that which is beyond). It is the cosmic universe as well as that which
is beyond it. It stands for the three states of consciousness, waking (jāgrat), dream (svapna) and sleep (suṣupti) leading up to the transcendental state (turīya), See Māṇḍūkya Up. See also B.G., VII, 8 and VIII. I3.
तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥१७- २४॥
ity udāhṛtya yajñadānatapaḥkriyāḥ
tasmāt1 = Therefore; yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ5 = acts (kriyah) of sacrifice, charity, and austerity; vidhāna-uktāḥ7 = according
to scriptural injunctions; brahma-vādinām9 =
of the expounders of Brahman; satatam8 = always; pravartante6 = are initiated; udāhṛtya4 = after incantation of; om2 = om; iti3 = thus. 17.24
(17.24) Therefore with the utterance of "aum' the acts of sacrifice, gift and penance enjoined in the scriptures are always undertaken by the expounders of Brahman.
तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।
दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥१७- २५॥
tad ity anabhisaṁdhāya phalaṁ yajñatapaḥkriyāḥ
[After chanting] tat1 = THAT [TAT = Brahman]; iti2 =
thus; yajña-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ5 = sacrifice,
austerity, and action; ca7 = and; vividhāḥ8 = various; dāna-kriyāḥ6 = charitable acts; kriyante9 = are performed; mokṣa-kāṅkṣibhiḥ10 = by persons wanting liberation; anabhisandhāya3 = without aspiration for; phalam4 = fruitive results. 17.25
(17.25) And with the utterance of the word "tat" the acts of sacrifice and penance and the various acts of giving are per
formed by the seekers of salvation, without aiming at the reward.
सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥१७- २६॥
ca sad ity etat prayujyate
sat4 iti5 etat6
etat6 = This; [word] sat4 = SAT; iti5 = thus; prayujyate7 = is uttered;
[in connection with] sad-bhāve1 = coming
into existence [like birth]; ca3 = and; sādhu-bhāve2 = becoming a
virtuous person; sat-śabdaḥ11= the sound SAT; yujyate13 = is used; tathā10 = also; [for] praśaste8 = an auspicious; karmaṇi9 = act; pārtha12 = O Partha.
(17.26) The word "sat" is employed in the sense of reality and goodness; and so also, O Partha (Arjuna) , the word "sat" is used for praiseworthy action.
यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।
कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥१७- २७॥
yajñe tapasi dāne
ca sthitiḥ sad iti cocyate
dāne3 ca4 sthitiḥ5
sat6 iti7 ca8
sthitiḥ5 = Steadfastness; yajñe1 = in sacrifice; tapasi2 = in austerity; ca4 = and; dāne3 = in charity; iti7 = thus; ucyate9 = is called; sat6 = SAT; ca8 = and; ca11 = moreover; karma10 = the act; arthīyam14 = meant; eva12 = indeed; [by] tat13 = That; eva17 = indeed; abhidhīyate18 = is called; iti16 = thus; sat15 = SAT.17.27
अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् ।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥१७- २८॥
dattaṁ tapas taptaṁ
kṛtaṁ ca yat
hutam2 dattam3 tapaḥ4
[Whatever is] hutam2 = offered in sacrifice; dattam3 = given in charity; [whatever] tapaḥ4 = austerity; taptam5 = is performed; [and] kṛtam6 = done; aśraddhayā1 = without faith; ca7 = and; yat8= which [whatever]; asat9 = untruth; iti10 = thus; ucyate11 = is said; pārtha12 = O Partha; ca14 = moreover; tat15 = that; [has value] na13 = neither; pretya16 = after demise; na iha17 = nor in this [life]. 17.28
(17.28) Whatever offering or gift is made, whatever penance is performed, whatever rite is observed, without faith, it is called "asat," O Partha (Arjuna); it is of no account hereafter or here.
iti ••• śraddhātrayavibhāgayogo nāma saptadaśo 'dhyāyaḥ
This is the seventeenth chapter entitled The Yoga of the Threefold Division of Faith.