Guruvayurappan Temple has the layout as follows. As you go up the steps and
past the humongous decorated doors, you will see a hall and to your right is
the ticket counter. Proceed straight ahead. The Temple opens up before you as
a panorama of bigger and smaller shrines of gods and goddesses of the Hindu
pantheon. On your immediate left side is Siva Pańcāyatana (1). Proceed from 6
o'clock position starting at number ONE open shrine. The bigger shrines are
Ayyappa (8), Lińga (10), Guruvayurappan (14), and Venkatesvara (17) and
the devotees enter by the side door leading to the wash area with shoe racks
in the basement at the street level. The Hall of Shrines can be reached by
staircase or elevator. Beyond this, is the common hall with gift shop,
elevator and wash rooms. Further down is the humongous hall with raised
platform for functions.
Guruvayurappan Temple had a humble beginning in a
hall in the said address several years ago, though its greatness was not any less
than now. Then, it was a modest shrine; its grandeur is yet to manifest. The
devotees saw the girders rise against the azure sky with fluffy clouds. The
building rose around the steel girders through rain, shine, storm and snow in
the middle of the woods to the delight of the devotees and the astute planners.
Its vista is spectacular. I tried to capture its beauty surrounded by verdant
woods turning colors from spring to fall. The trees and the spring and the
summer leaves bore witness to the devotees coming and going with reverence in
their hearts. As the rains came down from the heavens, each leaf shed its tears
of joy to see the temple rise from mother earth.
The temple bears rainbow colors on its exterior and its
architecture is wonderful. Could this location be Brindavanam of North America?
Could this have been where Krishna sported with Gopis in His youth. Such thoughts come
up in the mind. See the splash of
colors in this portrait bearing witness to the colorful persona of Bhagavan
The Morganville Temple the namesake of Gurvayur Sri
Krishna Temple in Kerala houses Guruvayoorappan as the central deity.
Its broad appeal is that the temple houses other deities.
The presiding deity is MahaVishnu in the form
of Krishna with Tulasi garland, in standing posture with four hands carrying
Sankhu (conch), Sudarshana chakram (a serrated disk), lotus and mace. He is
worshipped as Balakrishna, the full avatar (Purnaavatara) of Mahavishnu. The
idol is made of a rare stone known as Patala Anjana. The temple in Kerala is the
Bhuloka Vaikunta. This form of Krishna is what His parents saw when Krishna was
born in the jail cell of His evil uncle King Kamsa.
The temple complex in Guruvaur Kerala has in addition shrines for Ganesa,
Ayyappa, and Bhagavati.
The legend goes as follows. Brahma in Padma Kalpa requested of Mahavishnu to
offer Mukti (Salvation) to his creations and himself. Vishnu obliged Brahma by
giving a gift of Himself in the form of an idol, made by Him. In Varaha Kalpa,
Lord Brahma offered the idol as progeny-bringing gift to the childless devotees
of Vishnu, Sutapass and his consort Prasni. In Satya Yuga, Lord vishnu took the
form of Prasnigarbha, the male progeny of Sutapass and Prasni. In Treta yuga,
the couple took birth as Kashyapa and Aditi, who bore Vamana, the dwarf form of
Vishnu Himself. The couple took birth later as Dasaratha and Kausalya and Rama
was born of them. The couple entered Dwapara Yuga as Vasudeva and Devaki and
bore Krishna, who took the idol to Dwaraka for daily worship. Krishna taught
Bhagavadgita to Arjuna on the battlefield on Ekadasi. More on this later.
Krishna foresaw the sea washing and drowning Dwaraka and entrusted the idol to
His friend Uddhava for safekeeping and delivery to Brihaspati and Vayu Bhagavan
(Wind god), who took a southern journey with the idol. They saw a beautiful lake
in a forest and met Sage Parasurama who promptly took them to Lord Siva and His
They discovered that Siva worshipped Vishnu in that
very place after taking a ritual bath in the lake Rudrathirtham. Prachetas, a
handsome tensome princely brothers came to see Siva seeking the title of
Prajapati. Siva taught them Rudrathirtham and they uttered the hymns in the
worship of Vishnu and earned the title of Prjapati.
Brihaspati and the Wind god, hiving heard the story decided that it was the
place for the consecration of the idol. Visvakarma, upon request to build a
temple there, built it in a flash and the twosome deities consecrated the idol,
which changed from hand to hand and eventually found a place in what was to
become Guruvayoor, the abode of Guruvayoorappan.
Guruvayoorappan Temple is one of the famous Vaishnava sacred pentad, of the
which the rest are Jagannath Temple in Puri; Venkatesvara Temple in Tirupati;
Nathdwara in Rajasthan; and Dwaraka in Gujarat.
There are 108 Divyadesams in India.
The idol was made of magnetic black antimony. There are several variant
narratives in the substance of the idol. Sesame seed oil is used to anoint it.
The idol gets a sprinkling of herbs (vaka) and the priests pour on the idol
water consecrated with mantras. The devotees receive the healing water as
Krishna here is Unni Krishnan. He presents Himself here as a child. Though He
is a child, He swallows the universe into his stomach after pralaya (deluge) and
yet floats on a leaf, earning a name, Vatapatrasayi (Vishnu sleeping on a banyan
Temple has 52 elephants, which are the centerpiece of attraction and
There are several explanations why the town is named Guruvayur.
Brihaspati is the Guru and the wind god is Vayu. The name is GURU-VAYU-R.
Narayaneeyam by Narayana Bhattatiri: 1560 to 1656 age 96 years. Compare
it to contemporary William Shaskespeare 26 April 1564 to 23 April 1616
Narayana Bhattatiri (1560 C.E.), the author of Narayaneeyam, came from a
distinguished South Malabar family of Brahmana poets, scholars and
Bhaktas. Bhatta is the honorific title of a learned Brahmana.
Bhattacharya and Bhattatiri have similar import. He married early in
life to the daughter of Acyuta Pisaroti, who recognized the lad's talent
and taught him Vyaakarana (Grammar). He had teachers, Madhavacharya for
Vedas and Damodara for Taraka. Pisaroti (Pisharady) and Narayana
Bhattatiri suffered from a similar joint and or paralytic disease; it is
presumed that the student took his teacher's disease by Āvāhana
(Invitation, invocation). Many physicians treated him to no avail and
the story goes like this. (Could it possible that they had paralytic
polio with joint contractures? Many were afflicted with paralysis and
joint disease. This combination suggests paralytic polio. Many recover
from paralytic polio and some end up with paralysis, wasting of limbs
and joint contractures.) NB sent a messenger to a scholar and poet about
his illness and the latter wrote a cryptic note, "eat
with fish." NB took it to mean he should write eulogies on
Narayana starting from his Fish incarnation. The journey to Guruvayur
and composition of Nārāyanīyam began. The work is an epitome of
Bhagavata Purana and comprises 1036 verses. The date of completion of
Narayaneeyam was Nov 27, 1586, when he was about 27 . He composed one
canto or Dashakam every day and in 100 days he completed his work. Every
day, he begged Krishna to give him mercy and bliss and cure his disease.
On the 100th day, upon completion of his work, Krishna appeared before
him. He cried out, "Here he is before me." He lived to the age of 96
A variation of the story says that NB composed NArAyaneeyam after he
contracted the disease; he thanked his disease for inducing him to write
the composition. Later only, he paid his second homage to Bhagavan.
Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple's history goes into the mist of antiquity
and it stands 25 km north-west of Trichur in Kerala state. Guru-Vayu-Pura-Mahatmyam
in Sanskrit, part of Narada Purana, contains mention of its antiquity.
Legend has it that the temple is over 5100 years old; the idol hewn out
of black stone is much older. The legend dates it back to Dwapara Yuga.
The chief architect was Visvakarma at Guruvayur. The town took the name
of Guruvayur after Guru (Brhaspati) and Vayu who brought the idol to
shores of the Lotus Lake, now known as Arattu-kulam (Bathing pond).
Being the first worshipper, Brahma initially of Padma Kalpa worshipped
Krishna. (Visvakarma is the celestial architect for the gods.)
The Guruvayur Temple in Kerala depicts Krishna [Krishnavathara] as he
appeared to Vasudeva and Devaki at the time of His birth on this earth
with four arms carrying the conch, the discus, the mace, and the lotus,
Tulsi garland and pearl necklace. This is the effulgent and majestic
form of MahaVishnu. Guruvayur is so sacred that it is the Vaikunta on
earth (Bhuloka Vaikunta) with MahaVishnu appearing with four hands.
When Krishna departed to Vaikunta after his sojourn on earth, Dwaraka
was swallowed by the sea. (Now we know that tsunami waves --Dec 2004
dealt a heavy blow to mostly the coast of Tamil Nadu and Andhra, Dwaraka
was swallowed up by some cataclysmic event. To this list of victims, we
have to add Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu. Or maybe the oceans rose from
global warming.) Uddhava, an old man, devotee, friend and counselor of
Krishna during Krishna's Dwaraka days was left behind when Krishna
ascended to Vaikunta. Uddhava saved the image of Narayana (Krishna with
four hands), according to Brhaspati, the preceptor of gods. Mahavishnu
Himself worshipped the idol in Vaikuntham. Varuna, the sea-god swallowed
the image and tossed it everywhere by its waves; the sea receded; the
image, worshipped for 100 years in Dwaraka, was recovered and the
wind-god took it on his head and Brhaspati and Vayu began their journey
to find a home for the image. During their wanderings all over India,
they met Parasurama who chose a place for the idol near a Lotus Lake,
where Siva and Parvati welcomed the Guru and Vayu. The idol was named
Guru-Vayu-r-Appan (Guru-Vayu-the Father or Lord--the Lord of Guruvayur).
According to the legend, Siva named the place Guruvayur to honor Guru
Brhaspati and his disciple Vayu. Siva and Parvati having ceded their
site for the installation of the idol, moved to the opposite bank of the
lake and had a temple of their own,
Mamiyur temple. Before Dwaraka had the idol of Mahavishnu-Krishna,
many hands had the idol from the time Mahavishnu gave it to Brahma in
the first Brahma Kalpa: Sutapas, Kasyapa, Vasudeva, Krishna, Uddhava,
Brhaspati and Vayu and lastly Guruvayur. Sutapas and Prsni, Kasyapa and
Aditi, and Vasudeva and Devaki over generations served as parents of
Vishnu in many forms: Sutapas and Prsni gave birth to Vishnu in
Prsnigarbha, Kasyappa and Aditi to Vamana, and Vasudeva and Devaki to
Krishna, who installed the idol in Dwaraka, consecrated and worshipped
it after the demise of Vasudeva and Devaki.
The idol in Guruvayur according to
the legend is neither Svayambhuva nor an artifact made by human hand. It is a
Vigraha (life-like image) of Narayana carved out of stone,
dark-colored stone). Anjanam = அஞ்சனம் == அஞ்சக்கல் == Sulphuret of anitmony, black bismuth.
See elsewhere for an alternate opinion.) His form in the temple is called
form---10-15 years of age). Devotees feel the
Chaitanya (Divine Cosmic Consciousness or Intellect) in the temple. This
Chaitanya is pure innocence of child Krishna. The High Priests (Melsanthi)
of the temple in sacred deference to worship of Child Krishna remain in temple
premises in voluntary celibacy for a period up to 6 months.
The Lord of Guruvayoor is easy to please; His
appearance is one of puerile levity of divine kind, quick forgiveness, and
liberal munificence. Sankaracharya composed
Govindashtakam and Bhajagovindam
when he was on a visit to Guruvayur.
The present is Sveta Varaha Kalpa (White Boar Kalpa),
meaning that Vishnu in his incarnation as White Boar lifted the earth from the
netherworld Rasatala after Hiranyaksa hid it there. In the present Kali Yuga of
432,000 years, 5000 years have gone by. The immediately preceding Kalpa was
Padma Kalpa (Padma = Lotus).
Table: The Kalpas
4,320,000,000 (4.32 Billion)
8,640,000,000 (8.64 Billion)
259,200,000,000 (259.2 Billion)
3,110,400,000,000 (3.1104 Trillion)
311,040,000,000,000 (311.04 Trillion)
Brahma lives for 311.04 Trillion years and dies; a
new Brahma replaces him.
He is known as Unni Krishnan (உன்னி கிருஷ்ணன் =
Krishna fit to be meditated upon) in Guruvayur. He appears as a child and yet
harbors the universe in his stomach. The couples married at the temple live a
long life and thus many weddings take place here. The rich rituals happen in
well established tradition. Here the priests observe physical, mental and spiritual
purity before and during their service shifts at the temple. The devotees take a
dip in the Rudra Tirtham and go for worship donned in the wet clothes and obtain
great merits from the Lord.
People with Vitiligo (Depigmentation of the
skin) mistakenly called White Leprosy worship here to alleviate such condition.
When the supplication and worship come to a
fruition, the devotees offer Thulaparam (துலாபாரம்
< tulābhāra. 1. Ceremony of weighing a great person like a king (here a devotee)
against gold (any object of value), which is then offered as a gift to
the Lord). The offer is usually in
the form of grains and other edibles.
Parents offer the first solids to the child in
the temple, hoping that the person will have nutritious food for the rest of his
or her life.
There are many festivals here. Eleventh day of
Bright Half of the Moon phase as Virchika Ekadasi (விருச்சிக [கார்த்திகை] ஏகாதசி)
is important. The temple maintains a herd of 52 elephants, which open the temple
doors, carry the Lord on the back. The temple opens at 3 AM and the Lord in
Nirmalya Puja (நிர்மாலியம்)
morning worship of a deity
before the removal of the decoration done on the previous day, wears flowers
from the day before.
Ritual ablution (அபிஷேகம்
apiṣēkam , n. < abhi-ṣēka. 1. Bathing of an idol with water
Festival celebrated on the full moon day in the
month of Cittirai draws crowds.
மேல்சாந்தி mēl-cānti , Chief priest, in a
temple performs கைநீட்டம் kai-nīṭṭam.
கைநீட்டம் = kai-nīṭṭam = Presents; கொடை. 1. the first devotee gets a
coin as gift from the Lord 2.
First cash-payment for the first article sold after opening the shop for the
day; . Kerala politicians get the kainittam all day long. This means the coin
received will keep the recipient in wealth.
Guru (Jupiter) and Wind god established the
temple. Jupiter removes all malefic forces. Vayu bhagavan comes in as a
benevolent breeze to Pandavas and a virulent storm to the Kauravas.
The story of Pracinabarhid
Pracinabarhi, son of
Svaymbhuva Manu and Satarupa, had ten sons, collectively called Pracetas,
who upon attaining majority declined married life and entered the ocean
to perform penance for ten thousand years after receiving instructions
from Siva. Before such an act, Pracetas came upon a tranquil lake with
aquatic animals, lotus flowers of many colors and a shore with luxuriant
vegetation. They heard musical sounds and saw lord Siva emerging from
the water along with his attendants and musicians. His body was molten
gold in motion, his throat blue, and his eyes three. They fell at the
feet of Siva like ten sticks and paid their obeisance. Siva, impressed
with their piety and sattvic behavior, wished them well and told the
princes that anyone who was devoted and surrendered to Krishna was very
dear to him. He continued to speak. "Any person who performs his duty
well for one hundred births becomes equal to Brahma. With longer
performance, he can come close to me. Any one who surrenders to Krishna
or Vishnu earns his privilege of going to high spiritual domains. (Lord
Siva and lesser gods go to these domains after Pralaya [Great Deluge]).
All my devotees are dear to me. Now I reveal to you a Mantra chanting
which will take you to the ultimate realization.
Having said that, Siva eulogized
Lord Krishna, "You are the Supreme Lord, all glories to you. You are the most
realized Soul in this universe. Please let me partake of your auspiciousness.
You are the most worship-worthy Supersoul (Unni Krishnan) and I offer my obeisance." He went on further singing
his panegyric hymns. Siva having said the hymns disappeared. The Prectas stood
in the water of the
Tranquility and repeated the hymns of praise to Vishnu. Legend
has it that the Lotus lake of Narayaneeyam
was the ancient Rudrathirtham
(presently called Arattukulam) extending to
Mamiyur and Thamarayur, 3 km away. The site of Guruvayur temple is known as
This passage of the idol from antiquity to the present is for the express
purpose of conferring salvation (moksa) to the devotees and worshippers of Lord
Krishna in His four-handed form. Though the idol is Mahavishnu, it is commonly
worshipped as Krishna in Guruvayur.
The outer enclosure of the temple houses a 33.5 meter-tall
gold-plated Dwajastambham (flagpost) and a 7 meter-high Deepastambham
(lamppost). Srikoil constitutes the sanctum sanctorum with other deities,
Ganesa, Ayyappa, and Bhagavathi.
There is another legend associated with the temple at Guruvayur. King Parikshit was killed by the serpent Chief,
Takshaka. Parikshit's son Janamejaya avenged his father's death by raising a
sacrificial fire which killed many innocent snakes. The king of the serpents
cursed Janamejaya to suffer from leprosy. The leprous king was in great distress
and decided to commit suicide; sage Dattatreya appeared before him and
recommended worshipping and propitiating Lord Krishna in Guruvayur. The king was
cured of leprosy after many years of worship of Lord Krishna. Another version
says that Janamejaya was afflicted with painful rheumatism and sores, visited
Guruvayur with his Guru Atreya, prayed to Guruvayurappan and after four months
of worship and devotion, was free of his rheumatism and sores.
The temple was renovated by Pandya King. Court astrologers
predicted that the king would die of snake bite within 12 months. The king
undertook a pilgrimage to holy places and visited the Guruvayur temple. At the
end of the 12-month period of uncertainty and fear of death, the king chided the
astrologer for causing distress to him and false prediction. The astrologer told
the king to look for the healed mark of snake bite on his left leg. There was
one and the astrologer explained that Ananta-Adisesa (the serpent bed of Vishnu)
protected him from snake-bite because at the time of bite he was inside the
temple and promised to renovate the temple. The king accepted the explanation
and forgave the astrologer. The king rebuilt the temple at a date unknown to us.
It is beyond any doubt that Guruvayurappan is the God of
health, healing and welfare. As NB was narrating the story of Krishna, Guruvayurappan (idol) nodded His head in approval and agreement and
instructions. His rheumatism ameliorated with the passage of time and later he
was completely cured. NB addresses Guruvayurappan in the first person Plural,
presents in verses the exploits of the Lord, and seeks his assent by asking Him,
"Is'nt that so?" He also begs to cure him of his disease. For all, the Lord
nodded his head in approbation. His 1036 verses are the epitome and essence of
18,000 verses in 12 Cantos of Bhagavata Purana. In addition, Ramayana and
Sankhya philosophy are presented in their essence. His ardent heart-felt
devotion shines in each verse. It is a face-face conversation with the Lord,
where NB utters the verses and the Bhagavan nods the head in reply.
In Canto 100 in Narayaneeyam, NB experiences the Vision of the Lord.
Translation is rendered in prose for clarity. This is what NB says:
1. I see the grand radiance (Tejas) of the Lord
excelling the thicket of Kalaya flowers (Ruby Saltbush--Enchylaena tomentosa--
Emu Bush). I am drenched and immersed in the nectar of Bliss as the Tejas
suffuses me from all around. I see in the midst of the glow a divine youngster
blossoming into a beautiful youth, surrounded by sages like Narada delightfully
horripilated by the glow and immersed in Brahmananda and a bevy of beauties, who
are the deified Upanishads.
2. I see your thick luxuriant black curly hair
coiffured into a thick and heavy coil (Kondai or braid) on the top of the head,
adorned with jewels with precious gems, a wreath of Mandara flowers (Erythrina
Indica, one of the five celestial trees), and many-colored plume of peacock.
Your broad and rising forehead reminiscent of waxing moon looks beautiful with
the upstroke of sandalwood Tilakam (mark on forehead).
3. O Guruvayurappa, Your beautiful
eyes, bound by eyebrows oscillating like gentle waves of Ocean of Mercy, attract
my heart and mind, are lined by lustrous eyelashes along their lids, shine with
splendorous pupils, appear as long, tender, and red Lotus Petals and by their
playful dancing glance of Mercy cool the worlds. Please cast such glance of
yours on destitute me.
4. Permit me to visualize your face
endowed with a majestic nose, mirror-like emerald cheeks which reflect the two
fish-shaped earrings that adorn your ears, and two red ruby lips showing the
soothing benign smile that proceeds from thy inner Bliss.
5. Jewels adorn your coral-red
hands; your lustrous finger nails cast many colors on the flute held to your
lotus-like lips and face; your flute emanates cool sweet melodious sounds that
soothe all worlds. Drench my ears with your ambrosial music, which is
6. I meditate on
your neck sporting Kaustaba
jewel casting its radiant luster, adorning and rendering your handsome neck
crimson and your chest
splendorous with Srivatsa
mark sporting brilliant sinuous undulating pearl necklace and a
Vanamala made of wild flowers
and sprigs with buzzing bees seeking nectar.
Srivatsa : a mark or curl of hair on the chest of
Vishnu or Krishna, white in color and represented in pictures by a symbol
resembling a cruciform flower (Sanskrit Dictionary).
Vanamala: Garland made of wild flowers and sprigs.
7. O Guruvayurappa, I meditate on
You who attracts the whole world with fivefold wondrously fragrant unguents;
though you contain the
in your stomach, your waist is slim and slender like a vine; you wear an yellow
like molten gold set on a sapphire rock of bluish tint; Your waist band is
adorned with shining gems and tinkling small bells.
Pitambaram = yellow robe
= Brahma + Anda = Brahma's + Egg; the universe.
8. I meditate on your radiant,
firm, sturdy thighs, the cynosure and stealer of Ramah's heart and mind, which
are covered by Pitambaram
for fear they may induce raucous excitement in the world; on your box-like knees
containing the precious gifts of life to the humble devotees prostrating at your
feet; and on your tapering forelegs with strong, sturdy, and beautiful calves.
Eulogizing the Lord and his body parts are very common among devotee-saint-poets
of India. Alwars, the worshippers of Vishnu, stand in the forefront in such
poetic panegyric. They also assume the role of a spouse in relation to the Lord.
The worship of the body parts first and later the whole body and still later the
void, is the progression of worship from Sagunabrahman to Nirgunabrahman.
Ordinary people need an object to concentrate on during meditation; body part is
such an object. Once the votary becomes proficient, he can visualize the whole
body; later he can focus on the nameless, formless, and attributeless
Nirgunabrahman, which is in the realms of the Yogi. Extraneous thoughts do not
jostle Yogi's mind; His mind and body forget their substance and merge with
Nirgunabrahman, which is the highest form of worship
9. I meditate
on your anklet whose sweet
soft sounds profess the importance of worshipping your feet;
on your feet which rescue
your votaries drowning in the sea of ignorance as you rescued and stabilized the
sinking churning pin of a Mandara Mountain in the Milk Ocean for Ambrosia by
letting it rest and churn on your back in the form of a Tortoise;
and on the aggregate of your crimson toes
with moon-like radiant nails which dispel the suffering from the mind of
Churning of the ocean. The tortoise (Transmuted Vishnu)
serves as the stable base for churning; his form is sitting on the top of the
mountain, the churning pole, to stabilize it, as Asuras (demons) on your left
and Suras (gods) on your right churn the ocean for nectar of immortality.
The Suras (the gods are here represented by Siva and Brahma. They may not have
actually participated in the churning. Lesser gods and demons did all the
10. Your feet, of all parts,
are the most beloved by the Yogis; serves as the refuge for the
Muktas; and are like the
Kalpatru yielding all
wants of the votaries. O Krishna, let those feet of yours abide in my heart,
expunge all my suffering and grant me Brahmananda.
Muktas: The liberated souls.
Kalpatru: wish-yielding celestial tree.
Brahmananda: Brahma's Bliss; Supreme Bliss.
me for saying things here in my ignorance not knowing your greatness in its
entirety. May this hymn consisting of more than 1000 verses be the source
of Prasadam. This
piece obtained the name of Narayaneeyam on account of the fact that it is an
eulogy of Sri Narayana and the author also bears the name, Narayana. This hymn
adheres to the Vedic Pramanam
describing your Lilas.
May it bring long life, health and happiness to all its listeners and readers.
Prasadam = Grace
Pramanam = Vedic authority
Lilas = sports (activities) of the Lord
End of Narayaneeyam, the Last Canto (100) and the last
The history of the Temple: continued.
The rulership of the area in and around Guruvayur came
under Perumals, who being Siva devotees neglected the Guruvayur temple and
supported the nearby Mamiyur temple of Siva and Parvati. The Krishna temple came
into disuse and temple lights went dead for lack of support. One day a Sannyasi
went to the Mamiyur temple and asked for food and shelter for the night; the
temple priests told him derisively that they ran out of food and he could find
plenty of food and shelter in the rich Krishna Temple. What he found on arrival
was a decrepit and destitute temple; a Brahmana boy received him and provided
him with sumptuous food and shelter.
The Sannyasi conferred his blessing on the poor temple and said that the
Mamiyur priests' prediction would come true in that Krishna temple would be
rich. Thus, Maiyur temple declined and Krishna temple ascended in fame and
riches. Swami Tapasyananda in his commentary on
Narayaneeyam, says that the temple kept no records before 17th
century. He further states that Alvars (era ending in 8th century) did not make
any mention of the temple in Divyaprabhandam. Kuruvayur was the name
mentioned by a 15th century poet for the temple town and the name took Sanskrit
flavor, Guruvayur, later. The Dutch in 1716 and Tippu in 1789 attacked the
temple and stole what they could. The main idol was stashed away by the temple
priests elsewhere and brought back after fall of Tippu. The temple came into its
intrinsic worth when the devotee-saints received mystic experiences including
recovery from paralysis by Bhattatiri.
The philosophy of Narayaneeyam
Brahman is THAT, knowing which everything is known.
Timeless Brahman is eternal, immeasurable and expansive. Bhagavata Puranam and
its epitomic successor, Narayaneeyam expound Vedic and Upanishadic Truths
couched in stories of Krishna.
worship. Concept of Mayabrahman and Avidyabrahman not accepted. Pancadasi
paradigm not accepted in Krishna worship.
Brahman is Parabrahman
The individual soul is
Avidyabrahman (Brahman with ignorance).
Mayabrahman and Avidyabrahman
are terms coined by me to show the three levels of Brahman.
We are all Brahmans with a difference. We came from
him and we go back to him. He took two forms Mayabrahman
(also known as Isvara) and
Avidyabrahman or Brahman with ignorance.
When Isvara sheds his Maya and Avidyabrahman sheds his Avidya or ignorance, both
go back and merge with Parabrahman. Isvara is God, while Avidyabrahman is man.
The above concept advanced by Panchadasi is
accepted as such by the advocates of Acintya Bhedabheda. Go to
BG04 for Acintya Bhedabheda.
Isvara is a powerful intermediary between
Avidyabrahman and Parabrahman. The Isvara and avidya states are a clinical
condition, while Parabrahman transcends these states. Mayabrahman, commonly
known as Isvara, the Controller or simply God, uses Maya to create, maintain,
and destroy this world and helps the soul expunge its sins and impurities,
infuses the soul with Brahman Knowledge (Brahma Vidya) and eventually
facilitates re-absorption (involution or merging with Brahman).
Coming to Isvara and Brahman,
Upacana is worshipping ParaBrahman through Isvara (worshipping Vakya
Sakti). Ishtamantra is the Deity-specific Mantra, which brings the aspirant to
Ishtadevata (god or goddess of his liking).
Vakya Sakti is
Parabrahman without attributes; he is the goal of Upasana; ordinary mortals
except perfected Yogis cannot realize him. Tantrics worship Vacaka Sakti,
the clinical Brahman, Sabdabrahman, Saguna Isvara, Saguna Brahman, Mayabrahman
or god with form and name--all preceding names are synonyms.
Vacya = Vakya = meaning of Mantra
Vacaka = Vasaka = words, phrases and
sentences of Mantra.
Every Mantra has two Saktis
Sakti and Vacaka
former is the seed and latter is the flesh of the fruit. The former is life of
Mantra and the latter is the sustainer of life; the
Vakya Sakti is subject
and transcendent, and
Sakti is object and immanent. One cannot get to the seed without
going through the fruit; one cannot understand the meaning and true nature of Vakya
sakti without worshipping
Sakti (they are like Brahman and Isvara).
Vakya sakti is without
attributes (Brahman), Vacaka
Sakti is with attributes (Isvara);
Vakya sakti is seed and
Sakti is the tree; seed and
Vakya Sakti are latent
and dormant, and tree and
Sakti are awake and florid.
Vakya Sakti is white
Sakti is spectral or rainbow colors, yellow, blue, red and more of
Kundalini Devi. Paramatma is
Vakya Sakti, while the
son of Devaki (Krishna) is
sakti is words, phrases and mutterings of Mantra.
God, who is the subject of Mantra, is
Sakti and Pratipaadya (to be explained,
meaning); Devata and god, who is Mantra itself
(god's sound body = Mantra), is
Sakti in his manifest form.
Vakya Sakti is like
Sakti is like rainwater. (one cannot quench his thirst with the
cloud; rainwater serves the purpose well; Nirguna Brahman is the cloud and
Saguna Brahman is water.)
Vakya Sakti is
Sakti is delimited.
Vakya sakti is
all-pervasive and unmanifest, while
Sakti is all-pervasive and manifest. Siddhi of Sadhakas
Sakti of Mantra; with the help of Devi, they step into the
monistic world of Brahman knowledge. (White light, spectral or rainbow colors,
seed and tree, cloud and rainwater are input from author.)
Sakti is the road to
Vakya Sakti; the former
is the means and the latter is the goal. Yogis are capable of meditating on
Brahman without going through the preliminary step of worshipping and meditating
on Isvara (Vacaka
Sakti). In this instance, the yogi is the seeker of Cashew Nut,
which is outside the fruit; somehow the Yogi coaxes and brings out the nut from
inside the fruit; it takes a Yogi to meditate on attributeless Brahman--author's
Manifest God or Goddess, Sabda
Brahman or Sound Brahman is the object of worship. Sabda Brahman is immanent and
pervades the universe and beings; Virat Purusa is the one with manifest body (Virat
sarira) and comes down to earth as Avatara (incarnation). Five gross elements,
ten senses (five of motor organs and five sensory organs), five vital airs,
Manas (mind as an organ), Buddhi (intellect), Ahankara (ego), and Citta
(thinking) make the body of Sabda Brahman. Worship of Sabda Brahman is at the
level of human consciousness and worship beyond that is Turiya, where the
Sadhaka and formless Brahman become one. That is
When you see jewelry, you see
gold; when you see pots, you see clay; when you see the world and the universe,
you see Brahman. When you see people you see Brahman (That Thou Art); He is the
Knower in each one of us. For more details on Brahman and Atman, go to
PANCHADASI (ATMAN AND BRAHMAN).
Bhattatiri equates Parabrahman
with Mahavishnu / Narayana, and Krishna with the manifest Brahman (Mayabrahman,
Sagunabrahman or Isvara), Guruvayurappan. Parabrahman without attributes
or conditions is not an entity receptive to worship or approach. His manifest
surrogate with complete potency (Purna avatar), Krishna-Guruvayurappan is the
manifest god or Saguna brahman for worship. What is unapproachable and
unreachable in Parabrahman becomes approachable and reachable in Krishna.
Parabrahman is Niskala (without parts), while Krishna is Sakala with parts.
Although Parabrahman is omnipresent in the universe, Bhattairi worships Him in
the likeness of Krishna-Guruvayurappan, because he cannot see Him in the
universal form. There are very few people who saw Him in His universal form; one
among them was Arjuna.
His medium of worship is Bhakti, devotion or love
of Ishta-devata. His Bhakti colors all he sees, feels, says and writes about
In the first canto, Narayana Bhattatiri (NB)
describes the Glory of the Lord, " Your form is Suddha Sattva, which is like the
waves on the surface of a deep ocean, that is Pure Supreme Brahman, a
treasure-house of pearls of liberated souls."
We mortals have in our constitution
three Gunas: Sattva Rajas and Tamas (Virtue, Passion and darkness.) Krishna's
constitution is Pure Sattva: Suddha Sattvam.
Since Krishna is a manifestation
of attributeless Parabrahman, Vyasa states that His constitution is Pure Sattva
without the contaminating Rajas and Tamas. Pure Sattva does not exist in nature;
it is always admixed with Rajas and Tamas. Suddha Sattva is His internal
constitution (Swarupa Sakti) in contradistinction to his external sakti,
Prakrti, which in its equilibrium consists of equal amounts of Sattva, Rajas,
and Tamas. He is Purna avatar as opposed to other partial avatars.
Krishna has a special place among Vaishnavites. He is Bhagavan.
One who is endowed with Bhaga (Grace) is Bhaga-van.
Bhaga consists of six attributes: (Transliteration from Tamil) Aisvaryam, Viryam,
Pukaz, Tiru, Jnanam, and Viaragyam (Supremacy, Power, Glory, Sacredness, Wisdom,
and desirelessness or detachment. others list the following attributes:
knowledge of creation, maintenance, destruction, origin and sublation of all
life forms, Supreme Truth, and Avidya or ignorance. Yes, He is Ignorance and
Knowledge at the same time; He is everything; there is nothing He is not. Some
say that the attributes correspond to nine angles of Yantra, which is a mystical
diagram made of lines, curves, alphabets and syllables etched on metals and
stones, whose purpose is to invoke god for progeny, health, and wealth.
Others list the
following: Sri (Auspiciousness), Virya (Power), Jnana (Wisdom), Vairagya
(Dispassion), Kirti (Glory), and Mahatmya (Greatness).
Bhaga is Grace and any desirable quality such as
dignity, majesty, distinction, excellence, beauty, loveliness, love, affection.
NB seems to make
such fine distinction between Parabrahman and Bhagavan (Clinical or
Sabdabrahman) that they are one and the same except in philosophical analysis.
Krishna being the waves and Parabrahman being the ocean, he sees no difference.
To the stickler to semantics, there is a world and ocean of difference.
(Incomprehensible difference -
nondifference) According to this, the individual
souls are like sparks in the fire and depend on Krishna. These atomic souls are
like the rays of the sun, but the rays are not the sun. The individual soul is
the wave and the Parabrahman is the ocean. The wave is different and yet there
is non difference between the wave and the ocean. Each soul is partly divine in
its likeness to God and partly animal because of its animal nature; the latter
is ignorance, and māyā affects it. Once the jiva earns release, it goes to God
but never merges with God.
The same simile is applied to Parabrahman and Krishna. There is
a difference between the Krishna-waves and
Parabrahman-ocean and yet there is no difference between
the waves and the ocean. To reduce Krishna
as a surrogate and Parabrahman as Higher Being runs counter to the notion that
Krishna is real and resides in the idol. Why would anybody parley one's devotion
into liberation by worshipping a lesser or a surrogate god?
NB sees the non-difference between Krishna with form and
the Supreme Brahman without form.
Ramanuja and Sankara
agree that Reality is One; for
the Real has internal complexities (Vishishta,
qualified), while S
says that Reality is simple. Brahman has
three Reals in his Complex: Isvara, Cit and Acit. 1.
The Soul of the Universe, The Transcendant Lord,
Sagunabrahman, Mayabrahman, SatChitAnanda (the liberated
souls are the Bliss body of the Lord). 2.
a Community of Jivas or individual souls, dependent on Isvara;
the subtle body of the Lord 3.
Prakrti, matter, the Gross body of the Lord.
becomes the strong proponent of Bhakti movement
(coming into full fruition) that began with Bhagavad Gita as laid out to Arjuna
by Lord Krishna.
advances his qualified nondualistic philosophy (Vishishtadvaida)
that the Soul of the universe and the community of individual souls are one with
the qualification that the individual souls are identical with God but not
equal. Let my explain this apparent contradiction with an example.
Vishnu and liberated souls move as
one unit, but there is Vishnu as one identity and the myriad souls as the second
entity. Vishnu is heavy water and the souls are light water.
Heavy Water and light water
are chemically identical but not equal. Chemically Heavy Water (D2O
or 2H2O and light water (H2O) are the same and
yet they are different. The two Hydrogen atoms in light water are replaced by
heavier Deuterium atoms in D2O. The atomic nucleus of Deuterium has
one proton and one neutron and one orbiting electron. It is the extra
neutron that makes D2O heavier than H2O by 10%. D2Oand
H2O exist in lake water in a proportion of 1 to 20 million water
molecules. When you drink water it is a mixture of both. Likewise your body is
soaked in Heavy Soul and light soul. An infinitesimal tad of Heavy Water Vishnu
is necessary for you to sustain life. Vishnu is the Inner Soul (AntarAtman) in
you. You are the ubiquitous abundant light-weight individual soul compared to
the all-pervasive Heavier Soul of Vishnu. Just remember that Vishnu is zillion
times heavier than the individual soul, though Vishnu and the pure soul are
(chemically) identical. Though they are identical, the light-weight individual
souls cannot create, maintain or destroy the universe and beings; that is the
exclusive domain of Vishnu. There
are myriad qualities of Vishnu that we do not have. As the Heavy Water is not
radioactive, Vishnu is not dangerous to your health; He exists in minute
quantity in your Spiritual Heart.. Pralaya (destruction of the body) by Vishnu
through Rudra is recycling of soul, until they merge with him. This merger is
the merger of light water of individual souls with Heavy Water of Vishnu. During
Pralaya, Bhagavan is portrayed to be floating on a banyan leaf. How is it
possible for a Being who has swallowed the whole universe to float on a leaf?
That quality is what is called
(versatile doer of the impossible). It appears that the leaf supports Bhagavan.
Is it the leaf that supports Bhagavan? Is it Bhagavan who supports the leaf? It
is the former supporting the latter. He is the one who supports all the weight
of the universe and the leaf itself.
= The impossible.
Saamarthiyam = adeptness.
Sri is known not to stay in one place thus reversing the fortunes of many
a being. The Lord was grateful to Bhrgu Muni for guaranteeing Sri to stay on His
chest permanently for He had a large debt to repay to Lord Kubera, Croesus of
heavens. Sri is known as Cancala which literally
means " moving to and fro, unsteady". NB
injects a humorous strain in Sri being a vacillator. He states in Verse 14, that
Mahalaksmi (Sri) is enamored by the divine beauty of her consort, Vishnu; and
yet (in the next verse to highlight her fickleness, he says that) she
becomes attached to the Bhaktas who eulogize the auspicious qualities of her
Consort. Sri and Vishnu have an understanding between them. They do not
like to be eulogized right on their face. They know a sycophant, a million miles
away. Yes, Sahasranamam is an exception. Vishnu likes to hear Sri eulogized
before Him and Vice Versa. Vishnu is the DECIDER
(word borrowed from President Bush, April 2006) and Sri is the
MEDIATOR between the devotee and Vishnu. Vishnu
always checks with Sri on the veracity and genuineness of a devotee and plays
the role of a DECIDER to confer boons.
(A scenario to consider: George W, the DECIDER
checks with Laura before he decides. This information is not confirmed by the
Nammalvar says that Sri, Lord's consort, removes the karma and facilitates
attainment of moksa at the feet of Vishnu / Narayana. The
Tenkalais believe that Sri is very high up in the
ontological status, but separate and unequal to Vishnu, simply because she is a
finite soul. But Vadakalais believe that Sri is an
integral part of Vishnu and infinite and therefore enjoys equal status.
All the Alvars and the followers agree that Vishnu has become tender,
understanding, loving, auspicious, creative, life-sustaining and is in a
constant state of bliss because of Sri. Sri is regarded as a facilitator
and mediator between man and God, Vishnu.
Purana (chapter eight) discusses Sri enjoying equal status with Lord Vishnu. He is meaning and She is speech; He is understanding and She is
intellect; He is the creator and She is the creation; He is the sun and She is
the radiance; He is the moon and She is the light; He is the ocean and She is
the shore; He is the lamp and She is the light; He is the tree and She is the
vine; and He is the Male and She is the Female.
Canto 4 V10
The devotee who desires for
Sadyo Mukti, sheds his desire and attachment;
he abandons his Linga Sarira (because it does not anymore carry a frontload of
Karma, Samskaras and Vasanas;) thus he merges (Laya =
lysis) with Paramatma. (His Linga Sarira actually "lyses"
in Paramatma.) Before his physical body goes back to the elements; his five
breaths, mind, buddhi, and ten Indriyas depart through Brahma Randhara on his
head. This instantaneous liberation or lysis is called
Sadyo Mukti. Sadyo = instantaneous; Mukti = liberation.
Bhagavad Gita States the following, coming from
the very mouth of Bhagavan Krishna Himself.
The paths of the departing souls, who attain Brahman because of Brahman
knowledge, are the fire, the day, the bright half of the month and the six
months of sun’s northern passage.
Chāndyogya Upanishad 4.15.5 and 5.10.1-2
The knower of Brahman, at the time of
departure, reaches the Brahman by following the paths of the deities presiding
over the fire, the day, the bright fortnight of the waxing moon and the six
months of sun’s northern passage. These deities take the soul in the fashion of
a relay race handing over the soul to the deity in the next relay station. The
light and time are the common factors; the deities of fire, day, bright
fortnight, and six months of sun’s northern passage travel progressively longer
distances, carrying the soul. Thus, the soul lands in the abode of Brahma for
eventual attainment of the Supreme or returns to the earth in the embodied form.
This is the “Path of Light” (aka, Northern
path or Path of Gods) for the passage of souls which are endowed with Brahma
knowledge (Brahma-Vido Jnāna), but not realized knowledge (Vijnāna), possessing
which would have liberated them right here on earth. He, who practices
austerities and goes on the path of deva-yāna (Path of Gods), never takes a
birth again in this world. He, who practices actions and ceremonies with
expectation of a reward, goes on the path of pitr-yāna to the land of the
ancestors and returns to the earth.
Those who go on the
Path of Light go to Maharloka
and keep company with Siddhas. The Northern Path is evolutionary
salvation taking the Path of Light. The House-holder practicing
Vidya (Knowledge of
and inveterate life-long Brahmacharins take the Path of Light. This is the Path
of gods. If there is no karmic load on the soul, they live with the gods for
consorting with married woman esp the wife of a Guru, killing, and consorting
with the former four are the five fires.
One who knows this and avoids these fires becomes
clean and virtuous and goes to the world of gods.
Chandogya Upanishad says the following about Path of the Gods. C5.S10. it is the
Path of the Gods. Those who in the know meditate
with faith and austerity go to light, day, the bright half of the month of the
waxing moon, and the northern passage of the sun during six months. The Northern
passage takes the route to the sun, moon, and lightning; a celestial picks up
the soul and takes it to Brahma. The Path of Gods derives its cartographic
details from Rg Veda, which mentions that Fire (Agni) is the go-between between
gods and men. Agni takes the oblations of men to the gods by the path specified
above; the accomplished sacrificer also takes the same path to the gods. Dr.
Radhakrishnan states that we should not take this path as a literal edict; the
stopovers on the Path to the Gods indicate progressive knowledge and light,
while Pitr Yana (path of forefathers) is a path of darkness and corruption.
Narayaneeyam Canto 15 Verse 8:
Grahasta (householder) who worships and offers sacrifices to Pitras and Devas,
goes on the Southern Path of Smoke; as Punyam runs out on him he falls (to
Samsaric life on earth or returns to earth as a human being). He who surrenders
himself to Me and performs action without desire, goes on the Northern Path of
Light and attains liberation. You in the form of Kapila taught Devahuti. Isn't
Smoke, night, also the dark (half of the month), the six months of sun's
southern passage are the paths the departing yogi takes, attains the lunar
light, and returns (to earth after a sojourn).
are expressed in Bhagavad Gita (8.25) and Narayaneeyam 15.8
The path of the souls who perform rituals and sacrifices:
the path of smoke, also known as Dhumadi Marga.
The paths of the departing souls, attached
to desires are the smoke, the night, the dark fortnight, and the six months of
sun’s southern passage, reach the light of the moon and return to earth after a
Chāndyogya Upanishad 5.10.3
Again, the deities presiding over the smoke, the night, the dark
fortnight, and the six months of sun’s southern passage take the departed soul
who wallows in desires to the world of fathers, space, and moon, who is the king
of Soma. They become the servant of the gods and develop mutual liking for each
other. Once the meritorious Karma is spent, they return to earth to resolve the
residual karmic overhang.
Those who do not perform any sacrifice go to the Kingdom of Yama, never to
The return path is just retracing the path back to where they began the journey.
The returnee resides for a while, but comes back to the earth on account
of residual karma. Once the positive karma from meritorious deeds is spent, he
comes back to the earth in a form that transforms from one substance to the next
substance: space, air, smoke, moisture, cloud, rain, rice, barley, trees, and
plants. They take birth as rice, barley, herbs and trees. The fate of soul
trapped in the plant kingdom depends on the merit of the animal or person who
eats or sows the vegetable matter. From this stage onwards, the soul takes
residence in an animal or a person depending on the deeds.
The soul with the good conduct takes its birth in a Brahmin, Ksatriya or
Vaisya; the evil ones take birth as a dog, a hog or a Chandala.
Chādyogya Upanishad 5.10.8 says: He, who
is wise (Vijnānam) takes the path of the gods and goes to the gods; he, who
works with expectation of a reward, takes the path of the manes and returns to
the earth as a person; he who does neither continues to ride the wheel of life
The stealer of gold, the wine drinker, the paramour of teacher's wife, a
Brahmana killer and they who consort with the former four take a fall into
These paths attest to the spiritual development of a person. They will tread the
lesser path until they become spiritually enlightened and take the path of gods,
never to return to this world of Samsara.
Light and darkness are the two eternal paths of this world. By (the
former) one, he goes, not to return; by (the latter) the other, he returns
Jiva takes on the qualities
of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Jiva's body is Avidya while Isvara's body is Maya.
Subtle and gross bodies of Jiva come out of Avidya causal body. Lord's
will (Ichha) is Maya Sarira (body) and the creator
of the world. Here the term "body" does not mean a palpable body with head,
trunk and limbs, in the same sense that a "body of knowledge" does not walk on
feet. Isvara's Maya Body is creative (of the universe) while Jiva (man's
individual soul) is the causal body, creative in its own limited sense because
it gives rise to subtle and gross body--Suksma and
Sthula Sarira). Jiva's causal body (Karana
Sarira) is pervaded by Avidya (ignorance) of its true nature that it is
part of Brahman; it is temporary amnesia (loss of memory or forgetfulness, that
). In its amnesic state, Jiva is not contaminated with
(projection, dispersion) until it takes on the gross body with head, trunk and
limbs. Jiva without Vikshepa is closer to Isvara
(Supreme Consciousness and Supreme Knowlege) than the Sthula Sarira (gross
body). Though it forgets its true nature, the causal body is closer to Isvara
than the gross body; therefore, it has supreme knowledge within ignorance (Prajna
within Praajna--knowledge within ignorance).
This ignorance is
both veiling and
projecting (Avarana and
Vikshepa). This ignorance veils Sat and Cit
(Being and Consciousness) of Brahman and projects the phenomenal world by
power of ignorance that causes the world seem real. This projection is mediated
by Tanmatras: Principles of Sound, touch, vision and color, taste and smell,
which are pervaded by qualities Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The Sattva of Sound
becomes the sense of hearing; that of touch, the sense of touch and so on. These
in combination form an entity called Antakarana or inner organ which has three
components: Manas, Buddhi, and Ahamkara. These were discussed elsewhere. The
Rajas-dominated sound, touch, vision (color and form), taste, and smell become
the respective organs.
verse describes the effects of Brahma Pralaya and subsequent events. After
Brahma Pralaya, there was no existence to speak of, neither this world nor
heaven, neither in the gross nor subtle form (Vyakta-avyaktam).
Maya,(the potent and fecund precursor of the building blocks of the universe),
subsided (Laya-lysed or dissolved) in You, having entered a latent phase due to
rendering of the three Gunas into equilibrium. Neither existence, nor
non-existence, nor Time, nor day nor night existed. Only You existed as
Parānanda Parakāsāthman (Supreme Bliss-Radiant Super Soul = Sat-Chit-Ananda =
Explanation with example:
Vyakta-avyaktam = manifest-unmanifest or partially manifest. In another context
God's form (Murti) is spoken of Vyakta-avyaktam. Murti (form) is unmanifest,
manifest or partially manifest. Sivalinga is aniconic (an-iconic or A-Vyaktam),
while Nataraja is Vyaktam or manifest. An intermediate form, Vyakta-avyaktam, is
the Muka Linga which depicts a face on the Linga.
Note: The sequence of creation
differs from account to account.
Garuda Purana (Book one, chapter four) tells us in
the words of Lord Hari the details of creation as narrated to Rudra.
Nara-Narayana is the Supreme soul.
The visible universe with the manifest and the unmanifest abide in Spirit
(Purusa) and Time. The Lord has no beginning and no end (death). He came Avyakta,
the Unmanifest from which the Soul was born.
In a cascade fashion, entities started evolving from the Soul: Mahat or
Intellect, mind, firmament, air, fire, water, and earth. He creates a cosmic
golden egg (Hiranyagarbha), which is infertile
until he penetrates it. The
four-faced Brahma in Rajas mode becomes busy with creation of the movable and
the immovable. The whole universe
and beings emerge from the golden egg. At the end
of the Kalpa, the Lord in the form of Rudra dissolves the universe.
The first creation (Sarga or Sristi)
is Mahat, cosmic Intellect from Brahman himself.
The second creation (Vi-sarga
or Vi-Sristi) is Bhuta sarga, the subtle elements (Tanmatras).
The third creation is
Vaikarika sarga (transformational creation). It is
also known as Aindriyaka sarga (creation of sense organs). These three preceding
creations are called Prakrta sarga (elemental, natural, or original creation –
building blocks). The
fourth creation is Mukhya
sarga (chief or principal creation). Insentients and immobile objects
belong to this category. The fifth creation
is Tiryak-yonasyah or Triyaksrotas.
(Tiryak=oblique, horizontal + yonasyah=womb) = animals. (Tiryak=oblique,
horizontal + srotas=canal) = animals, whose propulsion of nutrients go
horizontally or have horizontal canals (intestines). Srotas means canal and
therefore, it is natural to think that they (birds and beasts) have intestines
that run parallel to the ground in their standing position.
Some other explanations are offered. They are called Tiryaksrotas, not
because their bodies move obliquely, but because their nature is full of
ignorance (Ajnabahula) and ego and their ways are
wrong. The sixth creation is
Urdhvasrotas, the gods who have canals going up or
whose nutrients go upwards. The seventh
creation is Arvaksrotas, the human beings whose
flow of nutrients goes downwards. Though the literal meaning says that their
canal and nutrients go downward, another explanation is given: They live below
the heaven; they are full of brilliance, but are contaminated with darkness
(Tamas) and stimulated by Rajas. They are enlightened both inside and outside.
The eighth creation is
Anugraha sarga, meaning creation of mental conditions like Sattva and
Tamasa gunas. It is of four types:
Viparyaya, Sakti, Siddha, and Mukhya. The immobile
creation such as mountain is viparyaya, meaning it
is unconscious. The last five creations from the
fourth to the eighth are called Vaikrta sarga, transformational creation.
Vaikrta sarga is a product of meditation by Brahma. The ninth creation is
Kaumara, belonging to both Prakrta and Vaikrta creations.
Garuda with spread wings near the
Guruvayurappan Temple. Wikipedia
In all living beings, the Lord exists in four
forms: Viparyaya, Sakti, Buddhi, and Siddhi.
Viparyaya in this context means that the lower principal
creation such as trees and plants is deprived of consciousness. In
animals, the dominant mode of his presence is sakti
or physical power. In human
beings, he exists as buddhi or intelligence. In
realized souls like yogis, he exists as
Siddhi or spiritual
other immobile objects belong to this opaque,
principal creation (Mukhya sarga) because of the
cover of avidyam (ignorance).
All of the above process is a centrifugal evolutionary force going away from
Atman; the matter cannot come together and give life to itself; the glance of
the Lord is essential for the incorporation life into these assembled elements.
Coming to the Kaumara or Kumaras (Sanatkumara, Sanandana,
Sanaka, Sanatana and Rbhu), that is the ninth
creation. These are the mind-born sons of Brahma, who refused to raise a
family, remained bachelors and enjoyed youth
sequence: Time reigns supreme in involution of the manifest universe and the
gunas into undifferentiated matter (Mula Prakrti, or undifferentiated primordial
matter) Avyakta. Mula Prakrti means original germ or root substance.
First let us look into partial dissolution before
we go to total dissolution. After a thousand MahaYugas, Brahma laya (Naimitika
laya, occasional, partial, periodic, kalpal dissolution) takes place. (Varaha is
the present kalpa preceded by padma kalpa.) It
will be one hundred years of no rains. Seven blazing suns will light up the sky,
turn everything in the path of their rays dry and burn the three worlds, the
earth, Bhuvah and Svah, and Mahar loka. The nether
worlds will undergo incineration at the sight of Rudra, Vishnu’s form.
Mysterious clouds emanate from the mouth of Lord Visnu, which, for 100
years, will pour down rains that flood the whole world. Fire and floods will
destroy all mobile and immobile things. This dissolution coincides with the
onset of Brahma’s sleep. The primary creation remains intact and only secondary
creation has undergone dissolution.
It would be raining,
not cats and dogs, but “elephants' trunks” meaning that each drop would be the
size of an elephant's trunk. There is water everywhere, fire subsides, wind dies
down, there is no light, and there is total darkness. Brahma with his thousand
eyes, thousand feet, thousand heads, thousand mouths and thousand arms presides
over this watery grave of cosmic size.
He is learned in three Vedas. He has the radiance and the color of the
sun. He is Virat, he is Hiranyagarbha, and he is
beyond thought and imagination. All came beings, now dead, are wrapped in
darkness. In Maharloka the sages see Time sleeping. The survivors of this great
deluge are the Time, Saptarishis and
Satya in Maharloka;
Sri, Bhu, Siva, and Sanatkumara in Janaloka; Brahma
and Sankarsana in Satyaloka; Narayana and his
devotees in Vaikuntha;
Radha and Sridhama in Goloka.
Vishnu sleeps on the coils of serpent Ananda taking the form of supreme Brahman.
Visnu wakes up from Yoganidra after a thousand divine years and will create the
universe once again in the form of Brahma, who creates the world and beings
again and again at the beginning of each Kalpa. He is both
Vyakta (manifest) and Avyakta (unmanifest).
dissolution is Prakrtika
Pralaya (total, natural dissolution; retrograde involution; elemental
involution, Brahma’s dissolution). When Brahma dies after one hundred Brahma
years (311.04 Trillion man years), Lord Hari destroys the universe and absorbs
into his body the creator, Brahma. The significance of this is that Brahma who
was responsible for secondary creation of the universe from the elements
supplied by Lord Vishnu is no more, and the universe has reverted back to its
primordial state in Vishnu.
Saiva belief, Mahadeva (Supreme Siva) destroys the
universe, beings, gods including Brahma, Vishnu and Siva (adjunct status of the
same Gods). Saiva Siddhantists consider Supreme Siva,
Paraparam (Beyond the Beyond, Supreme Supreme) as their God of gods; Siva, one
of the Holy Triumvirate, is a mere god of the triad. The students from the west
believe that Saiva Siddhantists selectively elevated the status of Siva of the
earlier Triad to the Super-supreme status. Supreme Siva stays while Brahma and
Vishnu come and go in this and many other
universes. But Vaishnavites believe that Siva and Brahma
come and go while Vishnu remains for ever.
Henotheists of Hindu religion are of the belief that Siva and Vishnu are of
equal status, though Siva and Vishnu may stride up and down the parallel
hierarchal ladders of their respective sects; Siva and Vishnu do not knock each
other's ladder for supremacy; they switch their relative
positions with amity.
MahaVishnu is superior to Vishnu and is equal to
Sadasiva, the revealer of Grace and the third Consciousness in Suddha Tattvas.
Lord Siva performs his Tandava (wild dance) wearing
a garland of skulls. The universe undergoes retrograde involution; each
substance (like earth) or element falls back into its previous state until the
state of Mahat is reached, when Mahat and Devi
(Siva's spouse) merge into the body of Siva. Pradhana (Primary essential
progenitor substance, matter) and Purusa (Spirit) exist separately in him and
the gunas are inert.
At the onset of Prakrtika
Pralaya, there will be a drought followed by
scorching sun, which will be followed by heavy downpour for one hundred years.
Now the egg of the universe will rupture and dissolve in water, which marks the
death of Brahma.
Vishnu’s manifestation, sends forth the poison-fire from below. The egg of the
universe catches fire on all its sides. The wind blows violently for one hundred
years. The universe is reduced to dust and smoke. The universe and beings
vaporize to a subtle state of smell.
conflagration dissolves in water. Involution takes place from the gross to
subtle elements until it reaches the element sound. In a linear retrograde
fashion the earth dissolves (or involutes into) in the water, the water in the
fire, the fire in the air, the air in the ether, the ether in the senses, the
senses in the subtle elements, the subtle elements in their subtle sources, the
latter in Mahat, and Mahat in three gunas. The sensory and motor organs (Indreyas)
merge into their respective deities. The deities merge with their inner
controller. The mind merges with Sattvika ahankara, sound with Tamasa ahankara.
Ahankara itself merges into Mahat, which dissolves in three gunas, which
dissolve in the unmanifest Prakrti, the latter in the imperishable and the
latter in the darkness. Darkness becomes one with the
transcendent, which is neither existing nor
nonexisting. Joseph Campbell explains what transcendent is.
the word transcendent
is used to mean
outside of the world.
In the East, it means outside of thought.
Brahma, the creator
merges or involutes into avyakta or Mula Prakrti. The earth, the fire, and all
other elements lose their intrinsic properties and merge or fall into Mula
Prakrti. As you see, the universe is came from the undifferentiated (Unmanifest)
Mula Prakrti; and on dissolution, it retraces its steps backwards. Mula Prakrti
merges with Time-Spirit, which stops all its functions. Time-spirit merges with
the final repository and the wielder of Maya, the Atman also known as Purusa.
The Lord refers to Eternal Atman as Me.
states in Book twelve, Chapter four that the Unmanifest Primordial matter is
Pradhāna (Mula Prakrti), which is the progenitor
unmanifest substance, not subject to Time, modification, death, and decay; it
has no beginning, no end and is the cause of everything. It has no form and all
elements are present in a potential state.
Sankara's view: Between the Brahman and the
Universe, there is Brahman's māyā (time, space, and
causation) as the divine mysterious driving or projecting force.
Here is a table of
the Indriyas and the respective presiding deities
QTR*: The quarters
of the world.
Perialvar sings the praise of Baby Krishna in verse
40 of Divyaprabhandam, he describes the
pralaya or dissolution:
“You swallow the earth, the mountains, the oceans, and the seven worlds
and keep them in your protective custody.”
According to Samkhya theory, the evolution and
involution are linear starting from the Transcendent and ending in the world and
vice versa. In involution, the world burns up. Dissolution (retrograde
involution, Centripetal march of souls and matter to their source) takes place
until the stage of the Transcendent. The next cycle of evolution starts.
Creation according to Bhagavatam,
Vishnu Puranas and other sacred texts
Bhagavatam contains the views on creation in question-answer sessions.
There are ten features: Sarga,
Visarga, Vrrti, Raksā,
Hetu, and Apāsraya.
Sarga is primary
elemental creation. Another descriptive name for it is subtle creation. The
principal product is Maha-tattva,
the Great Principle also known as Cosmic Intelligence, came by the disturbance
in the equilibrium of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, the three modes of matter or
Prakrti. This is the first part of the primary creation; the will (Iccha)
of the Lord provides the fillip. In all, Mahat, Ahankara, five
tanmatras, five gross elements, five
janendriyas, Sattva, Rajas, Tamas, ten presiding
deities of five motor and five sensory functions, mind and its presiding deity,
moon, and Time make Sarga. These 33 elements form
the building blocks for launching the secondary creation (Visarga).
elements (pancha Bhutas).
Water, Air, and Ether.
Taste, Smell and Touch.
Tongue, Nose, and Skin.
From the Cosmic
Intelligence proceeds Aham or
ego, the second element, in a downstream
fashion. The third is the evolution of
(matter). The fourth is the evolution of knowledge and work (Sarga
– jnāna and kriya).
The fifth is the appearance of divinities in the
mode of Sattva (goodness), and the mind. The
sixth is the assertion of Tamas (darkness) of
ego, resulting in abuddhi (lack of judgment).
This secondary creation is an act of Brahma under the direction of the Lord of
lords, Nārāyana or Vishnu, who came all the elements
and the mind in primary creation. Brahma’s other name is
Virat (manifestation) Purusa. In reality,
Virat Purusa is the Lord himself in the form
of Brahma. Brahma’s assignment is to assemble the elements with the help of
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, which help the elements undergo combination,
recombination, mutation, and permutation in so many ways that the whole universe
appears as many disparate objects and beings. Another name for it is gross
creation. “Internatal” (from birth to birth) Karma
clinging to the subtle body is the invisible entity that gives form, character,
and destiny to living beings. Neither Brahma nor the Lord of the lords normally
interferes with Karma or Time, though the Lord of the lords can expunge karma by
The seventh creation is that of plants and trees,
which have feeling of touch but are wanting in mental function. The eighth is
the creation of animals and birds. The ninth is the creation of humankind (Nri
or Nuri). Here all the living beings come to life
out of elements made by the Supreme Purusa in the primary creation.
Note the order in which beings are came differ from system to system. They
differ in other things also.
Sākta-Sānkhya theory, the Parā
Sakti (the Supreme Power) of the Lord MahāVisnu is
the force behind creation. The power has three components: Prakrti, Purusa, and
Kāla (Time). When the equilibrium of Prakrti becomes
unstable from glance of Time-Spirit, a cascade of events and products takes
place in a linear fashion, where the preceding product is the substrate for the
next substance or entity: Prakrti, Mahat, Ahamkāra,
Bhūtas, Ākāsa (Ether),
Vāyu (Air), Agni (Fire), Jala
(Water), and Bhūmi (Earth). Once the basic elements
are in place, Brahma goes to work using guna, which is of three types: Sattva,
Rajas, and Tamas. Tamoguna (darkness, delusion, and
ignorance) becomes the basic quality of the winged creatures like insects and
birds, quadrupeds, and worms. Sattvaguna (Virtue and
Truthfulness) is the basic quality of the gods. Rajoguna
(motion and passion) is the basic quality of the bipeds (humans). Progenitors,
came by Brahma, populated the world and contributed in increasing the
According to Kurma Purana Book two, chapter three,
Kāla manifests from the union of Purusa with
Pradhāna, matter or Prakrti. Brahman is the
repository of Purusa, Pradhāna and Time, which have
no beginning or end. Time is the
begetter and the destroyer of living beings. Siva admits that he owns Tamasi
(also known as Time), the annihilator of the world, having taken the form of
Rudra. No one controls Time except
who owns it, and is beyond its effects.
Time controls all animate and inanimate, mobile and immobile entities,
and all products of Mahat including mind, matter, moods, and modes. Brahman is
an entity, claimed by both Vaisnavites and Saivites.
Brahman accordingly manifests as a personal God in the form of Narayana
and Siva for their respective sects.
That is his Maya (illusion)
describe the following.
or Sthana: Mode of life, and means of sustaining
life. The ontological hierarchy is described. This describes the various planets
and its inhabitants.
Protection and preservation. This depicts all the descents and incarnations of
the Lord for the benefit of humanity, including sinners. It talks about the
eternal and endless grace of the Lord.
The reign of the Manus, and the life and times of gods,
rishis, and sages are discussed with reference to
the benefit they offered to all living creatures.
Genealogy or lineage. Brahma and the saptarishis
(seven sages) and their disciples, the royalty and the genealogy tree starting
from Brahma are described along with their achievements and service to humanity.
(Vamsa + Charita means
genealogy or dynastic history of the pious kings and rulers who served God and
Canto 5, Verse 4-10
5.4 O Guruvayurappa, You are characterized as the Witness in the Vedas,
remaining by Maya and not entering into it. You appear as Pratibimba (reflected
image) in the products of Maya; one such reflection is Jiva, which has no
independent existence without You. Directed by You, Maya through its medium of
Kālam, (Karmam, and svabh
came Buddhi Tattva, which is known as
and svabhavam): Time, Karma and inherent quality.
Buddhi Tattva: Intelligence
5.5. Prakrti has three qualities:
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Sattva-dominated Mahat
(product of Prakriti) gives rise to a generic sense
of Aham. Tamas-dominated Mahat generates in a Jiva
a specific sense of Aham,
which regards itself different from others.
Virtue and goodness; motion
darkness, ignorance, sloth and
I am; "I" sense; I, My, Mine. I as different from you, them, it; Ahankara
individual, individual soul.
Aham (Ahankara) at its onset differentiates into Sattvika Ahankara, Rajasic
Ahankara and Tamasic Ahankara. Sattvika Ahankara also known as Vaikarika
Ahankara generates the indwelling deities of Indriyas (organs): Dikpalas, Vayu,
Surya, Varuna, Asvini, Agni, Indra, Mitra, Prajapathi, Chandra, Brahma, Rudra,
All-pervasive Guruvayurappa, Upon your direction, Sattvika Ahankara generated
Citta consisting of Manas, Buddhi, and Ahankara. Likewise, Rajasic (Taijasa)
Ahankara generated ten Indriyas (organs). Tamasa Ahankara came the Tanmatra,
Guruvayurappa, under your guidance and direction, from
from Ether came Touch;
from Touch came Air,
from Air came Form;
from Form came Fire;
from Fire came Taste;
from Taste came Water;
from Water came Smell;
from Smell came Earth.
Thus, O Bhagavan, you created the Five
Maha Bhutas (Great
5.9. The Maha
Bhutas, Indriyas, and their respective deities did not have the power to create
this living world. The deities prayed and pleaded with You and thus, you
pervaded into the Maha Tattvas. You infused them with the action power and
Hiranyagarba-Brahmāndam: Golden Egg
/ Brahma's Egg = this universe.
5.10. O Guruvayurappa, You
created water in which remained the
for a thousand years. You broke
through the Egg and assumed the form of 14 worlds of Virat Purusa. With
thousands of hands, feet and heads, you appeared in the form of many Jivatmas.
I plead with you to cure and protect me from all kinds of illnesses.
Hearing the supplication of NB, Bhagavan nodded his head in assent.
following write-up you may notice some minor internal variations which speak of
the different sources and interpretations.
We are spirit and matter, which are recycled
according to the merit or demerit of karmic load. It is Samsara, birth and
rebirth. Samkhya philosophy of dualism: Kapila was the founder and propounder of
Samkhya philosophy. Its basis is not Vedic; it treats two juxtaposed
contrary polar principles: Prakrti and Purusa. In Samkhya, Prakrti does not
contaminate Purusa but the latter lights up Prakrti.
Purusa is Consciousness and Supreme Unparalleled
Intelligence, and Prakrti [Pra (before) krti (creation)] is
matter, unconscious, indiscriminate, and
insentient. If PRAKRTI sounds similar to PROCREATE, it is so in meaning too.
Prakrti indicates an urgency to produce, as Prasavam (parturition) has the
imminence to deliver a baby. It is the same as PROCREATIX in Latin.
Matter in Saiva Siddhanta has the following
2. anything that
obstructs consciousness and its working.
3. anything that
obstructs obtaining right knowledge.
4. anything that
imparts false, incomplete and partial knowledge.
5. senses which
do not have intrinsic consciousness or omniscience.
6. a mind that
does not present knowledge of things as they truly are.
physiological and psychological processes.
8. all organs.
9. Space, Time.
10. Apara vidya,
not supreme knowledge as opposed to Para Vidya.
arts and sciences.
Andakosa, the cosmic egg,
represents matter. The cosmic egg has seven layers: water, fire, Hara, ether,
ahankara (ego), Mahat, and gunas. Vishnu pervades the egg as Vairaja and makes
it viable and productive. The individual souls emanate from the Lord’s Para
Prakrti (Supreme Nature), while the universe emanates from his Apara Prakriti
(Inferior [not supreme] Nature). The cosmic egg is Apara, while Vairaja is
Prakrti (inferior nature) consists of elements, mind, ego and intellect. Since
the Lord is the owner of
Para and Apara, He is Man (Purusa) and all created beings
are women (Striyah).
Nothing new can come out in this world that does
not exist in Aparaprakrti in its potential form. Also from Prakrti evolves,
Citta which consists of Mahat,
buddhi, ahankāra, and manas. Mahat has the unique ability to undergo
transformation into this universe when it comes under the field of vision of the
Lord, (influence of) Time, and three gunas, according to Bhagavatam 3.5.28.
Mahat is the Great principle and results in buddhi,
from which develops ahankāra, I-ness or individuation. Mahat and buddhi are the
cosmic and individual counterparts of intellect. Sixteen entities such as five
faculties of action, manas (instinctive mind) five faculties of sense, and five
tanmatras namely sound, touch, color, taste, and smell arise from ahankāra
(ego). This pluripotential Prakrti (nature) results in gunas – Sattva, Rajas,
and Tamas. These three constituents of gunas are inseparable and form a complex
– Sattva-Rajas-Tamas complex, which is inert, if it is in equilibrium. Only one
of the three constituents is dominant in a person or entity. Sattva is
knowledge, intellect, light, and balanced emotion; Rajas is the motor behind
Sattva and Tamas; Tamas is darkness, passivity, or negativity. Without Rajas,
Sattva, and Tamas are inert; dominance of Rajas naturally means revved-up
emotions. These three gunas, complex or strands condition the manifest world,
both animate and inanimate; the force behind this complex or strands is
excitatory Purusa, which agitates these strands or gunas and causes
disequilibrium and subsequently diversity and polymorphism. Bhagavatam (3.10.14)
states that God created the first product Mahat by causing disturbance in the
equilibrium of the gunas.
the second product, is subject to Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas:
Sattvika ahankāra gives rise to the mind and the presiding deities of
the senses; the
Rajasic ahankāra gives rise to the sensory and motor organs; the
ahankāra gives rise to the subtle elements like sound, touch, color
and vision, taste, and odor.
Ego by nature
does not express satisfaction and is in a state of restless motion. Ego has
ignorance, likes and dislikes: 1. ignorance of the difference between the
eternal and the noneternal, 2. mistaken belief that body and mind are the same
as self, 3. love and attachment to gratifying objects, 4. hatred and avoidance
of unpleasant things, and 5. love of life and fear of death.
The sensory and
motor organs are called Jnanedriyani and Karmendriyani. (Jnana +Indriyani =
perception organs. Karma + Indriyani = action (motor) organs.) Organs of
perception are eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. Motor organs are larynx,
hands, feet, anus and genitals and their functions are speech, grasp,
locomotion, evacuation and reproduction. Citta, the command and control center
or inner organ (antahkarana), presides over the vital functions of the universe
of the body. These vital functions go by the generic name Prana which consists
of five parts: Prana, Samana, Apana, Udana, and Vyana.
Please refer to the commentary on verse, BG10.9 for more details on Vital
breaths. Here breath does not
exclusively mean physiological respiration. Implicit in the terms is the fact
that all the organs to work optimally need breathing of air (prana) by the
says, soul is the ever-awake
knowing entity in wakefulness, deep sleep and dream sleep. The sense organs
receive their respective stimuli (eyes perceive color and form, ears receive
sound.) and pass them on to Antakarana, the inner organ which consists of
Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Citta
(Citta covers manas, ahamkara, and buddhi: mind, ego and
power of discernment or
judgment). Perception received by the inner organ reaches the soul, as the wave
rolls to the shore.
elements proceed in their formation in a cascade fashion starting with sound,
which gives rise to ether. The elements combine under the enzymatic action of
Time, Maya, Jiva, and the glance of the Lord. Ether, treated with these enzymes,
becomes touch, which transforms to air; the air and ether combine in the
presence of enzymes to become color; from color evolves fire; fire and air
combine to produce water, whose special quality is taste; water and fire combine
to form earth, whose special quality is odor. Source: Bhagavatam 3.5.27-37.
The elements starting with Ether going forward in
their combinations and permutations sequentially and progressively pick up
qualities of the previous elements and display their own special qualities.
||Cumulative & Special quality
||Ether (all-pervasive, one
||Air (two qualities)
||Sound and Touch
|Air and Ether
||Fire (three qualities)
||Sound, Touch, and color/form
|Air and Fire
||Water (four qualities)
||Sound, Touch, Color, and Taste
|Water and Fire
||Earth (five qualities)
||Sound, Touch, Color, taste and
As I said earlier, the elements need four factors
for transformation and they are Time, Maya, Jīva, and the glance of the Lord;
time connotes change; Maya is illusion plus distraction; Jīva is the life force;
the most critical deciding factor in the combinations, permutations, and
transformations is the glance of the Lord. Maya is the cause of the universe,
which, in its female form, derives its energy and support from the Lord. Avyakta
(the Unmanifest) is the father of Maya.
According Saiva Siddhanta and its main proponent
Tirumular, Sakti is the mother of Maya. Space, air, fire, water, and earth were
born of Maya in succession. From Maya came the subtle elements
which the gross elements were born; thus, Maya is the Mother of the Universe and
Maya according to Ramakrishna
On attainment of
Nirvikalpa Samadhi, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa sees Maya as Brahman in its twofold
aspect: Avidyamaya and Vidyamaya. (Avidya = ignorance; Vidya = wisdom)
Avidyamaya in terms of Kundalini Chakras is living in the pelvis and
abdomen--Muladhara, Svadhisthana and Manipura Chakras of lower order; it is
living a life of animal passions, Kama, Krodha, lobha, Raga and Dvesha (lust,
anger, greed, passion and hate). One should transcend the lower Chakras and
ascend to higher chakras. Avidyamaya keeps man in samsara, a cycle of birth and
rebirth. Vidyamaya represents the higher centers and consciousness of Anahata,
Visuddha, Ajna and Sahasrara Chakras or stations of life. Once Avidyamaya is
conquered with Vidyamaya, the round of birth and rebirth is abolished and one
enters a state of Mayatita, end of Maya or freedom from Maya. Maya is the power
of Kali who transcends both types of Maya. She shines far above the clouds of
Maya, under whose spell and shadow man lives.
Let us take cloning as an example: The biologists
have mastered the physical art of cloning. The product is not as perfect as
nature because the main factor – glance of the Lord – is lacking.
In the following diagram, the concept of Sūtra, not
found in Sankhya system, is a contribution of Bhagavata purana.
Sūtra means thread or
aphoristic rule. Sutra is the functional counterpart of Mahat, the Cosmic
Intelligence. Both work together --Intelligence and function—to evolve Ahankara.
Sutra is subtler than Mahat.
(Sutra and Suture are cognate words.)
Here is another version of the evolutes of Prakrti (Bhagavata Purana).
Here is the Saivite view of Prakrti
and its evolutes.
are five motor organs, voice box, hands, feet, rectum and
genitals, causing speech, grasp, locomotion, evacuation, and generation.
Janendriyani are five sensory organs,
ear, skin, eye, tongue and nose involved in hearing, touch, vision, taste, and
Sarasvati, Savitri and Gayatri
preside over the gunas, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas respectively.
Sakra (Indra) took one look at
Urvasi and heard the narration of Your greatness. Krishna Avatar is Purna
Avatar and greater than Your descent as Nara-Narayana.
Nara-Narayana was a Rishi of impeccable
character. His austerities alarmed the gods. So Indra (Sakra), the chief of
gods, sent celestial nymphs to induce passion and confusion and terminate the
austerities. Nara-Narayana put a flower on his
thigh; immediately a nymph of incredible and inimitable beauty, charm and grace
blossomed forth from the flower, putting Indra's nymphs to shame. The newly
blossomed nymph was named Urvasi, because she came
from the Uru (thigh) of the Rishi.
Urvasi, upon request from the sage, went along with
the crest-fallen celestial nymphs to heaven. Manmatha accompanied them and
related the story of the Sage, celestial nymphs and Urvasi. He praised
Nara-Narayana for his extreme Tapas, lack of anger, steady-mindedness, and
presentation of Urvasi to the heavens. Indra became indisposed upon hearing the
greatness of an earth-bound Sage. NB says in this verse that Krishna is
even greater than Narayana for the following reasons. Krishna Bhagavan is
endowed with auspicious qualities.
One who is endowed with Bhaga (Grace) is Bhaga-van.
Bhaga consists of six attributes: (Transliteration from Tamil) Aisvaryam, Viryam,
Pukaz, Tiru, Jnanam, and Viaragyam (Supremacy, Power,
Glory, Sacredness, Wisdom, and desirelessness or detachment. Vairagyam is
the most important quality in Krishna. As Nara-Narayana showed complete
Vairagyam towards the celestial nymphs, Krishna exhibits the same quality.
Krishna was married to 16 thousand wives and besides had more or less equal
number of lovers. And yet he was an inveterate Brahmacharin.
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and Bhagavan Krishna.
1.1. Brahma Tattva is Supreme Reality, which is replete with
bliss and free of maya and shines in the form of Krishna in the Guruvayur
1.2. Guruvayurappan is the embodiment of all the souls in the
1.3. Your constitution is Suddha Sattvam devoid of Rajas and
Tamas, meditating on which leads us to Bliss and wisdom.
1.4. Your immutable Suddha Sattvam makes you the complete One.
1.5. Your glance propels Maya in the beginning of Kalpa without
diminution of your glory and Suddha Sattvam.
1.6. Your divine form is like the dark nimbus clouds and the blue Kalaya flower. You are the abode of Lakshmi and the source of nectarine bliss
drowning the devotees in it.
1.7. I was wrong thinking that your creation put us in the
misery of birth, death and rebirth. Now I know our souls are liberated by our
eyes and ears drinking the nectar of supreme bliss.
1.8. Not knowing what true bliss is, we are mired in the worldly
pleasures. Men look for Parijata tree when you are the liberating Kalpavriksha.
1.9. You are the God of gods and men.You are the Inner Controller of all.The
lesser gods offer what is within their power. Only You can offer Bliss and
Liberation. Homage to thee.
1.10. You are the God of gods beginning with Sankara. Your prowess excels.
Sages sing your praise. Lakshmi abides in your bosom. You are all-knowing and
free from attachment. Bhagavan as a term finds meaning in you.
2.1. I meditate on you with a diadem that rivals the sun, a head sporting
Tilakam, expressive eyes full of mercy, a smile dancing on your lips, a
beautiful nose, resplendent cheeks reflecting the fish pendants from the ears,
the neck radiant from the Kastubha gem, your neck and chest with Vanamala,
precious faceted lustrous stones and gold on your chest and the auspicious
2010 festivities on the grounds of Morganville Gurvayurappan/Krishnaji
Temple. Photos by Krishnaraj See Below