Bhagavadgita Pages in English, Chapters 1 to 18
Monier-Williams, 'Sanskrit-English Dictionary'
Chapter 02: The Battlefield of Kurusetra
तं तथा कृपयाविष्टमश्रुपूर्णाकुलेक्षणम् ।
विषीदन्तमिदं वाक्यमुवाच मधुसूदनः ॥२- १॥
sañjaya uvāca: taṁ tathā kṛpayā 'viṣṭam aśrupūrṇākulekṣaṇam
tam1 tathā2 kṛpayā3 āviṣṭam4
aśrupūrṇa5 ākula6 ikṣaṇam7
sañjaya uvāca = Sanjaya said: madhusūdanaḥ12 = O Madhusudana or the slayer of demon Madhu. uvāca11 = said; idam9 = these; vākyam10 = words; tam1 = to Arjuna [seeing]; tathā2 = thus; kṛpayā3 āviṣṭam4 = overcome by pity or compassion; ākula6 = confused; viṣīdantam8 = with grief or distress; [and] aśrupūrṇa5 = tearful; ikṣaṇam7 = eyes. 2.1
2.1: Madhusudhana (Killer of demon Madhu), Lord Krishna, having seen Arjuna overwhelmed by compassion, looking confused, eyes brimming with tears, depressed and lamenting,
Indo-Aryan culture insists on nobility, courage, and straight dealing--Dr. Radhakrishnan.
कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमिदं विषमे समुपस्थितम् ।
अनार्यजुष्टमस्वर्ग्यमकीर्तिकरमर्जुन ॥२- २॥
śrībhagavān uvāca: kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṁ viṣame samupasthitam
kutaḥ1 tvā2 kaśmalam3 idam4 viṣame5
śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said; arjuna11 = O Arjuna; kutaḥ1 = Wherefrom; idam4 = this; kaśmalam3 = Impurity; samupasthitam6 = came; tvā2 = to you; viṣame5 = at this hour of crisis; [which is] anārya-juṣṭam7 = UnAryan practice; [which] asvargyam8 = does not yield heaven; [which] akīrti9 karam10 = confers infamy.
2.2: Sri Bhagavan said to Arjuna where this filth (kasmalam) came from at this hour of crisis which is Unaryan practice and which would not lead him to heaven but to infamy. 2.2
akīrti9 karam10 = That which does not confer fame; Disgrace (Radhakrishnan).
क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते ।
क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परन्तप ॥२- ३॥
klaibyaṁ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha nai 'tat tvayy upapadyate
klaibyam1 mā2 sma3 gamaḥ4 pārtha5
na6 etat7 tvayi8 upapadyate9
pārtha5 = O Partha (Arjuna); mā2 sma3 gamaḥ4 = do not yield to; klaibyam1 = unmaniliness; etat7 = this is; na6 = not; upapadyate9 = becoming; tvayi8 = of you; [It is] kṣudram10 = base; [and] hṛdayadaurbalyam11 = weakness of the heart; parantapa14 = O Scorcher of foes; tyaktvā12 = give up; uttiṣṭha13 = rise.
2.3: O son of Partha (Arjuna), this smacks of impotence and weakness of the heart, which are unbecoming of you, the conqueror of enemies. Give up and rise up to the occasion.
कथं भीष्ममहं संख्ये द्रोणं च मधुसूदन ।
इषुभिः प्रति योत्स्यामि पूजार्हावरिसूदन ॥२- ४॥
arjuna uvāca: kathaṁ bhīṣmam ahaṁ sāṁkhye droṇaṁ ca madhusūdana
katham1 bhīṣmam2 aham3 sāṁkhye4
droṇam5 ca6 madhusūdana7
arjunaḥ uvāca = Arjuna said; madhusūdana7 = O Slayer of demon Madhu; katham1 = how [could]; aham3 = I; [fight] bhīṣmam2 = with Bhisma; ca6 = and; droṇam5 = with Drona; sāṁkhye4 = in combat; iṣubhiḥ8 = with arrows; [who are] pūjā-arhāu10 = worthy of worship; [and] pratiyotsyāmi9 = deliver counterattack; arisūdana11 = O destroyer of enemies (Krishna). 2.4
2.4: Arjuna said: O Madhusūdana, how could I ever fight with arrows on the battlefield Bhisma and Drona, who are worthy of my worship, O Arisūdana?
गुरूनहत्वा हि महानुभावान् श्रेयो भोक्तुं भैक्ष्यमपीह लोके ।
हत्वार्थकामांस्तु गुरूनिहैव भुञ्जीय भोगान् रुधिरप्रदिग्धान् ॥२- ५॥
gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvān śreyo bhoktuṁ bhaikṣyam apī ’ha loke
gurūn1 ahatvā2 hi3 mahā-anubhāvān4
bhoktum6 bhaikṣyam7 api8 iha9 loke10
śreyaḥ5 = it is better; bhoktum6 = to live; [by] bhaikṣyam7 = begging; api8 = even now; iha9 & loke10 = in this world. [rather than] ahatvā2 = slaying. hi3 = certainly; gurūn1 = the Gurus; [and] mahā-anubhāvān4= Great Souls; tu1 = but; [by] hatvā11 = slaying; gurun13 = gurus; [I] bhuñjīya16 = have to enjoy; artha-kāman12 = wealth and desires; [in the form of] bhogān17 = enjoyable things; iha14 = in this world; eva15 = indeed; pradigdhān19 = tainted with; rudhira18 = blood. 2.5
2.5: Begging would give me more joy than killing my gurus and the great souls; By killing the Gurus and great Souls, I will be enjoying wealth and desires tainted with blood.
न चैतद्विद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः ।
यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषाम- स्तेऽवस्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्तराष्ट्राः ॥२- ६॥
cai ’tad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ
na1 ca2 etat3 vidmaḥ4 katarat5
naḥ6 garīyaḥ7 yat8 vā9 jayema10
yadi12 vā13 naḥ14 jayeyuḥ15
naḥ6 = We; na1 = do not; ca2 = as well; vidmaḥ4 = know; etat3 = this katarat5 = which of the two; garīyaḥ7 = is better; yat8 vā9 jayema10 = whether either conquer them; vā13 yadi12 = or if; naḥ14 = we; jayeyuḥ15 = be vanquished; te21 = those; dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ24 = sons of Dhrtarastra; eva17 = assuredly; avasthitāḥ22 = are arrayed; pramukhe23 = before us; yān16 = whom; hatvā18 = by slaying; [we] na19 = never; jijīviṣāmaḥ20 = want to live. 2.6
2.6: We do not know what is better for us between the two: vanquish them or be vanquished by them. If we killed the sons of Dhrtarastra arrayed before us in the battlefield, we do not have a penchant for living.
कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावः पृच्छामि त्वां धर्मसम्मूढचेताः ।
यच्छ्रेयः स्यान्निश्चितं ब्रूहि तन्मे शिष्यस्तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् ॥२- ७॥
kārpaṇyadoṣopahatasvabhāvaḥ pṛcchāmi tvāṁ dharmasaṁmūḍhacetāḥ
kārpaṇya1 doṣa2 upahata3 svabhāvaḥ4
pṛcchāmi5 tvām6 dharma7 saṁmūḍha8
svabhāvaḥ4 = My own state of being; upahata3 = is afflicted; [by] doṣa2 = faulty; [misplaced] kārpaṇya1 = compassion. [I have a] saṁmūḍha8 = completely stupefied cetāḥ9= mind; [about] dharma7 = duty. pṛcchāmi5 = I beseech; tvām6 = You: brūhi14 = to say;tat15 = that; yat10 = what; syāt12 = perhaps; śreyaḥ11 = is assuredly good; niścitam13 = for certain; me16 = to me. aham19 = I am; te18 = Your; śiṣyaḥ17 = disciple. śādhi20 = give instructions; mām21 = to me; [I] prapannam23 = surrender; tvām22 = to You.
2.7: A taint of misplaced compassion afflicts my nature; I am addled about my sense of duty; what I ask of You is that You tell me in no uncertain terms what is honorable for me. I am Your disciple and seek advice and refuge in You.
न हि प्रपश्यामि ममापनुद्याद् यच्छोकमुच्छोषणमिन्द्रियाणाम् ।
अवाप्य भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं राज्यं सुराणामपि चाधिपत्यम् ॥२- ८॥
hi prapaśyāmi mamā ’panudyād yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām
na1 hi2 prapaśyāmi3 mama4 apanudyāt5
yat6 śokam7 ucchoṣaṇam8 indriyāṇām9
hi2 = indeed; na1 & prapaśyāmi3 = I do not see; [how I could] apanudyāt5 = expel; yat6 = that; śokam7 = sorrow; [which] ucchoṣaṇam8 = desiccates; mama4 = my; indriyāṇām9= senses [though] avāpya10 = having obtained; bhūmāv11 = on the earth; asapatnam12 = unrivalled [by foes]; ṛddham13 = richness; api16 = even; cā17 = also; adhipatyam18= sovereignty [over]; rājyam14 = kingdom; surāṇām15 = of the gods. 2.8
2.8: I do not see how I could get rid of my sorrow that has wilted my senses, even if I achieve unrivaled prosperity and kingdom on the earth and the supremacy over gods in heaven.
एवमुक्त्वा हृषीकेशं गुडाकेशः परन्तप ।
न योत्स्य इति गोविन्दमुक्त्वा तूष्णीं बभूव ह ॥२- ९॥
sañjaya uvāca: evam uktvā hṛṣīkeśaṁ guḍākeśaḥ paraṁtapaḥ
evam1 uktvā2 hṛṣīkeśam3 guḍākeśaḥ4
sañjaya uvāca = Sañjaya said [to] paraṁtapaḥ5= Chastener of foes (The blind king, Dhrtarastra):
uktvā2 = having spoken; evam1= in such manner; hṛṣīkeśam3 = to the Lord of the senses, Krishna; guḍākeśaḥ4 = the vanquisher of sleep [= nescience, ignorance], Arjuna; uktvā10 = so saying to;
govindam9 = Govinda; na6 yotsya7 = I will not fight; iti8 = thus; ha13 = indeed, babhūva12 = became; tūṣṇīm11 = silent. 2.9
Dr. Radhakrishnan: Govinda. The word indicates omniscience of the teacher, Krishna. tūṣṇīṁ babhūva = Became silent. The voice of the truth can be heard only in silence.
2.9: Sanjaya said (to Dhrtrastra): Having spoken thus to Hrisikesam (Krishna), Gudakesa (Arjuna) the conqueror of sleep said to Govinda (Krishna) “I will not fight” and became silent.
तमुवाच हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव भारत ।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वचः ॥२- १०॥
uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ prahasann iva bhārata
tam1 uvāca2 hṛṣīkeśaḥ3 prahasann4
bhārata6 = O Scion of Bharata clan [Dhritrastra]; hṛṣīkeśaḥ3 = Hrisikesa; [stationing Himself] madhye9 = in the middle of; ubhayoḥ8 = both; senayoḥ7 = armies; iva5 = as it were; prahasann4 = evincing a slight smile; tam1 = to him (Arjuna) [who is afflicted with] viṣīdantam10 = depression; uvāca2 = uttered; idam11 = these vacaḥ12 = words. 2.10
2.10: O Bharata (Dhritarastra), Hrisikesa smiling with a hint of ridicule, standing between the two armies, spoke the following words to Arjuna who was in acute sorrow.
अशोच्यानन्वशोचस्त्वं प्रज्ञावादांश्च भाषसे ।
गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः ॥२- ११॥
śrībhagavān uvāca: aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajñāvādāṁś ca bhāṣase
tvam3 prajñāvādān4 ca5 bhāṣase6
śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said; tvam3 = you; anvaśocaḥ2 = grieve; [for] aśocyān1 = him, not worthy of grievance; ca5 = and; bhāṣase6 = you speak; prajñāvādān4 = words of wisdom. paṇḍitāḥ14 = men of wisdom; na12 anuśocanti13 = do not grieve for; gata7 asūn8 = the dead (= gone life, the [dear] departed; the ones in whom life departed); ca11 = and; agata9 asūn10 = agata asūn = the living (= not gone life, the ones not yet dead, the living).
2.11: Sri Bhagavan (Krishna) said: You grieve for those worth not grieving for, yet you speak words of wisdom. The panditah (learned men) grieve neither for the dead nor for the living.
न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः ।
न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयमतः परम् ॥२- १२॥
tv evā ’haṁ jātu nā ’saṁ na tvaṁ neme janādhipāḥ
na1 tu2 eva3 aham4 jātu5
na6 āsam7 na8 tvam9 na10
na1 tu2 eva3 = never was there; jātu5 = at any time; aham4 = I; na6 āsam7 = did not exist, did not live (in actuality, I did exist); na8 tvam9 = neither did you (assuredly you existed in the past); na10 ime11 = nor these; jana-adhipāḥ12 = rulers of people (they did exist before); na13 ca14 eva15 = never also assuredly; vayam19 sarve18 = all of us; na16 bhaviṣyāmaḥ17 = shall cease to exist; ataḥ20 param21 = after this, after the death of the physical body. 2.12
2.12: Never was there a time that neither I, nor you, nor those kings did not exist and nor will all of us stop to exist from now on.
देहिनोऽस्मिन्यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा ।
तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति ॥२- १३॥
dehino ‘smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
yathā3 dehe4 kaumāram5 yauvanam6
yathā3 = As; kaumāram5 = (Kumara) = boyhood; yauvanam6 = youth; [and] jarā7= old age; [are related] dehinaḥ1 = to the corporeal soul , to one with physical body; asmin2 = herein; dehe4 = in the body; tathā8 = in like manner, likewise; dehāntara9 prāptiḥ10 = Deha + Antara + prāptiḥ = body + inner + acquisition = Entry into another body = acquisition of a body different from the present one; tatra12 = in that case; dhīraḥ11 = one with intelligence; the intellectual; na13 = does not; muhyati14 = become perplexed, stupefied, bewildered, deluded. 2.13
2.13: As the soul passes from childhood to youth to old age in a body, so also the soul takes another body. This does not confuse a sage (brave, composed and intelligent person).
मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः ।
आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास्तांस्तितिक्षस्व भारत ॥२- १४॥
mātrāsparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkhadāḥ
mātrā-sparśāḥ1 tu2 kaunteya3
kaunteya3 = O son of Kunti; mātrā-sparśāḥ1 = mātrā + sparśāḥ = organs and their target objects, congress or contact of sense organs with their specific objects, tu2 = now then; [are] Śīta-usna-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ4 = Inducers of cold, heat, happiness, and sorrow; [and are subject to] āgama5 apāyinaḥ6 = appearance and disappearance, having a beginning and an end; [ and are] anityāḥ7 = transient, opposite of Nitya, not eternal; bhārata10 = O Bharata , Arjuna: titikṣasva9 = put up with (= bear, tolerate; endure); tān8 = them (= cold, heat, happiness, and sorrow). 2.14
2.14: O son of Kunti (Arjuna), as organs and objects induce cold and heat, happiness and sorrow which are sensory perceptions, appearing, disappearing and impermanent. Learn to endure them, O Bharata (Arjuna).
यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ ।
समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते ॥२- १५॥
hi na vyathayanty ete puruṣaṁ puruṣarṣabha
yam1 hi2 na3 vyathayanti4 ete5
hi2 = in truth; puruṣam6 = the Purusa or person; yam1 =in whom; ete5 = these (= Śīta-usṇa-sukha-duḥkha- = cold, heat, happiness, and sorrow); na3 = do not; vyathayanti4 = cause anguish, perturb, agitate; dhīram11 the Intelligent. [with] sama8 duḥkha9 sukham10 = equipoise8 in sorrow9 and happiness10; sah12 kalpate14 amṛtatvāya13 = he12 is fit14 for immortality13; puruṣarṣabha7 = O the best among men.
2.15: He, who suffers no distress from these, O the best of men, and stays even in sorrow and happiness, is a sage and fit for nectar of eternity or liberation.
नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः ।
उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तस्त्वनयोस्तत्त्वदर्शिभिः ॥२- १६॥
’sato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ
asataḥ2 = Of the Asat, unreal or nonexistence; na1 vidyate3 = there is no; bhāvaḥ4 = existence or being (because they [cold, heat...] are subject to change); sataḥ8 = of the Sat or Real (= existence, being, real); na5 vidyate7 = there is no; abhāvaḥ6 = non-existence , cessation, nullity , absence, non-entity; tu15 = but; antaḥ14 = inner truth, Tattva, conclusion; ubhayoḥ10 = of the two (the Real and the unreal); api12 = in truth; anayoḥ16 = this; dṛṣṭaḥ13 = has been seen, observed, realized; tattva17 darśibhiḥ18 = by the Tattva-Jnanis or the Seers of Tattvas. 2.16
2.16: In the nonexistent (Asatah), there is no continuance (Bhāva), and in the existent (Satah), there is no cessation (Abhāva). In the two, the seers saw the truth and came to that conclusion.
अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।
विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित्कर्तुमर्हति ॥२- १७॥
avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam
avināśi1 tu2 tat3 viddhi4 yena5
sarvam6 idam7 tatam8
tu2 = but; viddhi4 = know; tat3 = that; avināśi1 = indestructible; yena5 = by which, by whom (Brahman); sarvam6 idam7 = all6 this7 (universe); [is] tatam8 = pervaded; na12 kaścit13 = no12 one13; arhati15 kartum14 = can15 bring about14; vināśam9 = destruction; asya11 = of this; avyayasya10 = [of] the immutable, the imperishable. 2.17
2.17: Know that which pervades all, is indestructible and immutable by anyone.
अन्तवन्त इमे देहा नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः ।
अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य तस्माद्युध्यस्व भारत ॥२- १८॥
antavanta ime dehā nityasyo ’ktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ
antavantaḥ1 ime2 dehāḥ3 nityasya4
ime2 = these [bodies]; [are] antavantaḥ1 = liable to destruction; dehāḥ3 = all bodies; uktāḥ5 = it is said; [belong to] nityasya4 = eternal; anāśinaḥ7 = indestructible; aprameyasya8 = unexplainable, indeterminable; śarīriṇaḥ6= of the embodied Soul; tasmāt9 = therefore; bhārata11= O Bharata or Arjuna; yudhyasva10 = engage in battle. 2.18
2.18: The material bodies are perishable, but the (embodied) souls being eternal, indestructible, and unexplainable are never destroyed and beyond comprehension. Therefore, fight O Bharata (Arjuna).
य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारं यश्चैनं मन्यते हतम् ।
उभौ तौ न विजानीतो नायं हन्ति न हन्यते ॥२- १९॥
enaṁ vetti hantāraṁ yaś cai ’naṁ manyate hatam
yaḥ1 enam2 vetti3 hantāram4 yaḥ5
ca6 enam7 manyate8 hatam9
yaḥ1 vetti3 enam2 = he who1 thinks3 this one2; [as] hantāram4 = the slayer; ca6 yaḥ5 manyate8 enam7 = and6 he who5 thinks8 this one7 (the victim7); hatam9= the killed; ubhau10 tau11 = both10 of them11; na12 = do not have; vijānītaḥ13 = knowledge [of the Self]; ayam15 = this one, this self; na14 hanti16 = does not14 slay16; na17 = nor; hanyate18 = is it slain. 2.19
2.19: Anyone who knows this (atman or soul) as the killer, and thinks that this is killed, knows not in his knowledge that this soul neither kills nor is killed.
न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचि- न्नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः ।
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥२- २०॥
jāyate mriyate vā kadācin nā ’yaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ
na1 jāyate2 mriyate3 vā4 kadācit5
bhūtvā8 bhavitā9 vā10 na11 bhūyaḥ12
na1 = never; kadācit5 = at any time; ayam7 = this Self, Atma, Soul; jāyate2 = was born; vā4 = or; na6 = never; mriyate3 = does it die; vā10 = and; bhūtvā8 = having existed previously;na11 bhavitā9 = does not come into existence; bhūyaḥ12 = again; ayam16 = this (Atma or soul); partless, whole; ajaḥ13 = is unborn; nityaḥ14 = eternal; śāśvatḥ15 = eternally existent; purāṇaḥ17 = ancient, na18 hanyate19 = is never killed; [when] śarīre21 = the body; hanyamāne20 = is killed. 2.20
2.20: This (atman or soul) is neither born, nor dead, nor coming to be, nor will it cease to be at any time. This atman is unborn, eternal, timeless, everlasting, and primeval; it is not killed when the body is slain.
वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययम् ।
कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हन्ति कम् ॥२- २१॥
’vināśinaṁ nityaṁ ya enam ajam avyayam
vedā1 avināśinam2 nityam3 yaḥ4
enam5 ajam6 avyayam7
yaḥ4 = He who; vedā1 = knows; enam5 = this [the soul]; [as] avināśinam2 = indestructible; nityam3 = eternal; ajam6 = devoid of birth, birthless, unborn; avyayam7 = decayless. katham8 = how, in what manner, whence; [and] kam12 = whom; saḥ9 = he, that man; puruṣaḥ10 = man, person [that highest spiritual person]; hanti14 = kills; [or] ghātayati13 = instigates others to kill; kam15 = whom; pārtha11 = O Arjuna. 2.21
2.21: How can a human being, who knows that this Soul is indestructible, eternal, immutable, and unborn, O Partha (Arjuna), think that he could kill or cause anyone to kill?
वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि ।
तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णा न्यन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही ॥२- २२॥
vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya navāni gṛhṇāti naro ’parāṇi
vāsāṁsi1 jīrṇāni2 yathā3 vihāya4
navāni5 gṛhṇāti6 naraḥ7 aparāṇi8
yathā3 = as such; naraḥ7 = man; vihāya4 = discarding, setting aside; jīrṇāni2 = tattered, worn out; vāsāṁsi1 = clothes; gṛhṇāti6 = puts on; aparāṇi8 = other; navāni5 = new ones [clothes]; tathā9 = in that manner; vihāya11 = leaving behind, discarding; jīrṇāni12 = tattered, worn out; śarīrāṇi10 = physical bodies; dehī16 = the corporeal one, embodied one; saṁyāti14 = takes on; anyāni13 = other, different, dissimilar; navāni15 = new ones. 2.22
2.22: As a person (narah) sheds the old and worn-out garment and wears a new garment, the embodied atman (soul), in the same manner, gives up the old and worthless body and takes on a new and different body.
नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।
न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ॥२- २३॥
nai ’naṁ chindanti śastrāṇi nai ’naṁ dahati pāvakaḥ
na1 enam2 chindanti3 śastrāṇi4 na5
enam6 dahati7 pāvakaḥ8
śastrāṇi4 = weapons; na5 = do not; chindanti3 = cleave,cut, sever; enam2 = it, that [embodied soul]. pāvakaḥ8 = Fire; na9 = does not; dahati7 = burn; enam6 = that [the soul]; ca10 = and; āpaḥ13 = water; na14 = does not; kledayanti12 = wet, moisten; enam11 = it (the soul); mārutaḥ16 = wind. na1 = does not; śoṣayati15 = dry, desiccate. 2.23
2.23: The weapons cannot cut the self, the fire cannot burn it, the water cannot wet it, and the wind cannot dry it.
अच्छेद्योऽयमदाह्योऽयमक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च ।
नित्यः सर्वगतः स्थाणुरचलोऽयं सनातनः ॥२- २४॥
acchedyo ’yam adāhyo ’yam akledyo ’śoṣya eva ca
acchedyaḥ1 ayam2 adāhyaḥ3 ayam4
akledyaḥ5 aśoṣyaḥ6 eva7 ca8
ayam2 = this one [the soul]; acchedyaḥ1 = is uncuttable, cannot be cut; adāhyaḥ3 = cannot be burnt; ayam4 = this one [the soul]; akledyaḥ5 = cannot be wetted, moistened; aśoṣyaḥ6 = cannot be dried; eva7 = truly; ca8 nityaḥ9 = and8 [is] eternal9; sarva-gataḥ10 = all-pervasive, omnipresent; sthāṇuḥ11 = standing firm and fixed; acalaḥ12 = not moving, immovable; ayam13 = this one [the soul]; [is] sanātanaḥ14 = eternal, perpetual, permanent, everlasting, primeval. 2.24
2.24: This (atman) is uncuttable, fireproof, waterproof, besides without doubt drought-proof, eternal, all-pervading, stable and immovable; it is everlasting (sanātanah).
Sankara: sanātanaḥ = Changeless; It is not produced from any cause, as a new thing.
तस्मादेवं विदित्वैनं नानुशोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- २५॥
avyakto ’yam acintyo ’yam avikaryo ’yam ucyate
avyaktaḥ1 ayam2 acintyaḥ3 ayam4
avikaryaḥ5 ayam6 ucyate7
ucyate7 = it is said; ayam2 = this (this soul); [is] avyaktaḥ1 = unmanifest; ayam4 = this (this soul);[is] acintyaḥ3 = inconceivable; [and] avikaryaḥ5 = unchanging; tasmāt8 = on that account, therefore; viditva10 = having known; ayam6 = this Self; evam9 = in such manner, as such; [you] na12 arhasi14 = do not12 deserve14; anuśocitum13 = to grieve [for] enaṁ11 = this one [this soul]. 2.25
2.25: This (atman) is unmanifest (avyaktah), inconceivable (acintyah), and unchanging (avikāryah). Knowing this, you don't deserve to grieve.
अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् ।
तथापि त्वं महाबाहो नैवं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- २६॥
cai ’naṁ nityajātaṁ nityaṁ vā manyase mṛtam
atha1 ca2 enam3 nitya-jātam4 nityam5
vā6 manyase7 mṛtam8
atha1 ca2 = moreover; that being so; manyase7 = thinking; enam3 = this one [this soul]; [is] nitya-jātam4 = continually born; vā6 = or; nityam5 = constantly; mṛtam8 = dying; tatha api9 = yet; tvam10 = you; mahābāho11 = mighty-armed one [Arjuna]; na12 arhasi15= do not12 deserve15; śocitum14 = to grieve; evam13 = in this way. 2.26
2.26: Even if you think that this atman is continuously born, and continuously dies, O mighty-armed (Mahābhāho), you should not grieve.
जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च ।
तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- २७॥
jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṁ janma mṛtasya ca
jātasya1 hi2 dhruvaḥ3 mṛtyuḥ4
dhruvam5 janma6 mṛtasya7 ca8
mṛtyuḥ4 = death; hi2 = for; jātasya1 = one who is born; dhruvaḥ3 = is certain; ca8 = and; janma6 = birth; mṛtasya7 = of the dead; [is] dhruvam5 = certainty; tasmāt9 = therefore; tvam13 = you; na12 = do not; arhasi15 = deserve; śocitum14 = to grieve; aparihārye10 = what is inevitable or unavoidable; arthe11 = relating to this matter. 2.27
2.27: For one who is born, death is a certainty. For one who dies, birth is a certainty. It is not proper that you grieve over something that is not an avoidable matter.
अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत ।
अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ॥२- २८॥
avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyaktamadhyāni bhārata
avyaktādīni1 bhūtāni2 vyakta3 madhyāni4
bhārata5 = O Scion of Bharata clan; bhūtāni2 = all living things; avyaktādīni1 = unmanifest before birth; [and] vyakta3 madhyāni4 = manifest in the middle; avyakta6 nidhanāni6 = unmanifest after death; eva7 = indeed; tatra8 = in that case, therefore; kā9 = what; [is the need for] paridevanā10= lamentation, bewailing, complaint. 2.28
2.28: All living beings are unmanifest before birth, manifest in the middle, and unmanifest again after death. Therefore, O Bharata, where is the need for lamentation?
आश्चर्यवत्पश्यति कश्चिदेन- माश्चर्यवद्वदति तथैव चान्यः ।
आश्चर्यवच्चैनमन्यः शृणोति श्रुत्वाप्येनं वेद न चैव कश्चित् ॥२- २९॥
āścaryavat paśyati kaścid enam āścaryavad vadati tathai ’va cā ’nyaḥ
āścaryavat1 paśyati2 kaścit3 enam4
āścaryavat5 vadati6 tatha7 eva8 ca9
kaścit3 = some person; paśyati2 = sees, perceives; enam4 = this one [this soul]; āścaryavat1 = as a wonder; tatha7 eva8 = likewise indeed; ca9 = and; anyaḥ10 = others [different Mahapurusas]; vadati6 = speak, talk, elaborate in words; = āścaryavat11 = as if it is wondrous; anyaḥ14 = others; śṛṇoti15 = hear; enam13 = this one [the soul];[as if it is a wonder]; ca12 = and; śrutvā16 + api17 = having heard of; enam18 = this one [the soul]; kaścit23 = some person; veda19 na20 ca21 = na+eva+veda = would never ever know. 2.29
2.29: Some see IT (Atman) as astonishing, moreover some speak of IT as marvelous, and another hears of IT as wonderful. Having heard of IT, no one yet knows what IT is.
देही नित्यमवध्योऽयं देहे सर्वस्य भारत ।
तस्मात्सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- ३०॥
nityam avadhyo ’yaṁ dehe sarvasya bhārata
dehī1 nityam2 avadhyaḥ3
ayam4 dehe5 sarvasya6 bhārata7
ayam4 = this; nityam2 = eternal; dehī1 = embodied soul; [exists] sarvasya6 dehe5 = in all bodies; [and] avadhyaḥ3 = cannot be slain; tasmāt8 = on that account, therefore; bhārata7= O Scion of Bharata clan; tvam12 = you; na11 = do not ; arhasi14 = deserve. śocitum13 = to grieve; [for] sarvāṇi9 + bhūtāni10 = all beings. 2.30
2.30: This atman, residing in the bodies of all living beings, is eternal and cannot be slain. Therefore, O Bharata, it is not proper that you grieve for all living beings.
स्वधर्ममपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुमर्हसि ।
धर्म्याद्धि युद्धाच्छ्रेयोऽन्यत्क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते ॥२- ३१॥
svadharmam api cā ’vekṣya na vikampitum arhasi
svadharmam1 api2 ca3 avekṣya4 na5
api2 = even; avekṣya4 = considering; svadharmam1 = your own duty; ca3 = indeed [you] na5 arhasi7 = ought not vikampitum6 = falter; hi9 = indeed; na14 + vidyate15 = there is nothing; anyat12 = else; śreyaḥ11 = better; kṣatriyasya13 = for a Ksatriya; yuddhāt10 = a battle; dharmyāt8 = according to Dharma. 2.31
2.31: When you view the duty inherent to a Ksatriya from the perspective of your inherent dharma, you should not falter. There is no greater duty for a Ksatriya than a fight in battle.
यदृच्छया चोपपन्नं स्वर्गद्वारमपावृतम् ।
सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभन्ते युद्धमीदृशम् ॥२- ३२॥
yadṛcchayā co ’papannaṁ svargadvāram apāvṛtam
yadṛcchayā1 ca2 upapannam3 svarga-dvāram4
pārtha8 = Son of Pritha; sukhinaḥ6 = joyous; [are] kṣatriyāḥ7 = Ksatriyas; [who] labhante9 = are facing; yuddham10 = battle; īdṛśam11= of this sort [which]; ca2 = also; upapannam3 = offers itself; yadṛcchayā1 = on its own accord unsought for; [which is ] apāvṛtam5= open; svarga4A-dvāram4B= gateway4B to Heaven4A. 2.32
2.32: It happens on its own accord; the battle comes unsolicited to a happy Ksatriya in the form of gateway to heaven, O Partha.
अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं संग्रामं न करिष्यसि ।
ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥२- ३३॥
cet tvam imaṁ dharmyaṁ saṅgrāmaṁ na kariṣyasi
atha1 cet2 tvam3 imam4 dharmyam5
saṅgrāmam6 na7 kariṣyasi8
atha1 = moreover; cet2 = if; tvam3 = you; na7 = do not; kariṣyasi8= engage in; imam4 = this; dharmyam5 = righteous; saṅgrāmam6 = fight, battle; tataḥ9 = then; hitvā14 = having abandoned; svadharmam10 = your own duty; ca13 = and; kīrtim12 = renown, fame; avāpsyasi16 = you will be subject to, you will incur; pāpam15 = sin. 2.33
2.33: If you do not prosecute this war according to your dharma, you will lose your inherent dharma and fame, and incur sin.
अकीर्तिं चापि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तेऽव्ययाम् ।
सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते ॥२- ३४॥
akīrtiṁ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti te 'vyayām
akīrtim1 ca2 api3 bhūtāni4
kathayiṣyanti5 te6 avyayām7
bhūtāni4 = people; ca2 + api3 = also; kathayiṣyanti5 = narrate, will talk, recount; te6 = your; avyayām7 = everlasting; akīrtim1 = infamy; ca9 = and; saṁbhāvitasya8 = to a respected man (man enjoying tributes); akīrtiḥ10 = infamy, dishonor; atiricyate12 = is worse than; maraṇāt11 = death. 2.34
2.34: Besides, people will forever talk of your infamy. For a man enjoying tributes, infamy is worse than death.
भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते त्वां महारथाः ।
येषां च त्वं बहुमतो भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवम् ॥२- ३५॥
bhayād raṇād uparataṁ maṁsyante tvāṁ mahārathāḥ
bhayāt1 raṇāt2 uparatam3 maṁsyante4
mahārathāḥ6 = the great chariot riders--warriors; maṁsyante4 = will regard, think; tvām5 = of you; uparatam3 = as having withdrawn, having stopped, desisted; raṇāt2 = from battle; bhayāt1 = out of trepidation or fear; ca8 = and; [you] yāsyasi12 = will attain; lāghavam13 = low esteem; [in the eyes of Duryodhana and other warriors] yeṣām7 = to whom; tvam9 = you; bhūtvā11 = have remained; bahu-mataḥ10 = in high regard. 2.35
2.35: The great Chariot-warriors, who held you in high esteem so far, would think low of you and say that you backtracked from the battlefield out of fear.
अवाच्यवादांश्च बहून्वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः ।
निन्दन्तस्तव सामर्थ्यं ततो दुःखतरं नु किम् ॥२- ३६॥
avācyavādāṁś ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tavā ’hitāḥ
avācya1 vādān2 ca3 bahūn4 vadiṣyanti5
ca3 = and; tava6 = Your; ahitāḥ7= foes; vadiṣyanti5 = will utter; bahūn4 = many; avācya1 = improper; vādān2 = words [prevarication]; nindantaḥ8 = while reviling; tava9 = your; sāmarthyam10 = Skill, ability; kim14 = what; nu13 = then; [brings] duḥkhataram12 = more sorrow, grief, pain; tataḥ11 = besides that. 2.36
2.36: Your enemies will utter many unspeakable words and prevarication, while disparaging your ability (Sāmarthyam). Is there any sorrow worse than that?
हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम् ।
तस्मादुत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ॥२- ३७॥
vā prāpsyasi svargaṁ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm
hataḥ1 vā2 prāpsyasi3 svargam4 jitvā5
vā6 bhokṣyase7 mahīm8
vā2 = either; prāpsyasi3 = you will achieve; svargam4 = heaven; hataḥ1 = if killed; vā6 = or; bhokṣyase7 = you experience joy; mahīm8 = on the earth, place; jitvā5 = by attaining victory; kaunteya11 = O Son of Kunti; tasmāt9 = therefore; uttiṣṭha10 = rise up; yuddhāya12 = for fighting; kṛta13 niścayaḥ14 = with certainty or firm resolution. 2.37
2.37: If you die you will go to heaven. If you conquer, you will enjoy this world. Therefore, O Kaunteya, firmly resolved on war (yuddhāya krta-niscayah), get up.
सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ ।
ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥२- ३८॥
sukhaduḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau
sukha1 duḥkhe2 same3 kṛtvā4
kṛtvā4 = by acting; same3 = with aplomb, with poise; sukha1 duḥkhe2 = in happiness1 and sorrow2; lābhālābhau5 = in gain and loss; jayājayau6= in victory and defeat; tataḥ7 = then, thereafter; yujyasva9 = get ready; yuddhāya8 = for the battle; evam11 = in such manner; na10 avāpsyasi13= you will not10 be subject to; pāpam12 = sin. 2.38
2.38: Holding happiness and sorrow, profit and loss, victory and defeat alike, you will prepare to fight for the sake of fighting. By doing this, you will incur no sin.
एषा तेऽभिहिता सांख्ये बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां शृणु ।
बुद्ध्या युक्तो यया पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि ॥२- ३९॥
te ’bhihitā sāṅkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṁ śṛṇu
eṣā1 te2 abhihitā3 sāṅkhye4 buddhiḥ5
yoge6 tu7 imām8 śṛṇu9
pārtha13 = O Partha (Arjuna); eṣā1 = this; buddhiḥ5 = Knowledge, wisdom; abhihitā3 = has been revealed; te2 = to you; sāṅkhye4 = by Jnana-Yoga; tu7 = but; śṛṇu9= hear, lend your ears to; imām8 = this; yoge6 = in connection with Karma Yoga; yuktaḥ11 = furnished, endowed; yayā12 = with which; prahāsyasi15 = you will free yourself from, completely remove, get rid of; karma-bandham14 = bondage of action; buddhyā10 = by wisdom. 2.39
2.39: I revealed to you this enlightened wisdom of Samkhya. Now hear thou the wisdom of yoga. With your intuitive intelligence (buddhya), O Partha, you will be able free yourself from the bondage of action (Karma).
नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते ।
स्वल्पमप्यस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात् ॥२- ४०॥
’hā ’bhikramanāśo ’sti pratyavāyo na vidyate
na1 ihā2 abhikrama3 nāśaḥ4 asti5
pratyavāyaḥ6 na7 vidyate8
ihā2 = here (in the path to emancipation); asti5 = there is; na1 = neither; abhikrama3 + nāśaḥ4 = ruined4 undertaking3 or attempt; na7 + vidyate8= nor7 there is8; pratyavāyaḥ6 = adverse effect, unintended consequence; svalpam9 + api10 = meager, even10 a little9; asya11 = of this; dharmasya12 = Dharma (known as Karma Yoga); trāyate13 = saves; [aspirant] mahataḥ14 + bhayāt15 = from great fear. 2.40
2.40: In this path (karma yoga path), loss and adverse effects are unknown. Even a meager pursuit of this dharma saves (the practitioner) from the great fear (of birth and death).
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेकेह कुरुनन्दन ।
बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च बुद्धयोऽव्यवसायिनाम् ॥२- ४१॥
vyavasāyātmikā buddhir eke ’ha kurunandana
vyavasāyātmikā1 buddhiḥ2 ekā3 iha4
kurunandana5 = O Beloved Joy of the Kurus; [there is] ekā3 = only one; vyavasāyātmikā1 = firm, resolute, focused; buddhiḥ2 = intellect; iha4 = in this [Karma Yoga]; [but] buddhayaḥ10 = thoughts; avyavasāyinām11 = of the unfocused or irresolute men; [are] hi7 = indeed; bahu-śākhā6 = many-branched, [have many perspectives]; ca9 = and; anantāḥ8 = endless. 2.41
2.41: (In this world), O beloved joy of Kurus – Arjuna, the intelligence is focused only in the resolute, while in the irresolute, the intelligence is many-branched, unfocused and endless.
No Wisdom for the Worldly-Minded (RKN)
यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः ।
वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः ॥२- ४२॥
imāṁ puṣpitāṁ vācaṁ pravadanty avipaścitaḥ
yām1 imām2 puṣpitām3 vācam4
pārtha8 = O Arjuna; avipaścitaḥ6= ignoramuses; pravadanti5 = utter, speak; yām1 imām2 puṣpitām3 vācam4 = all1 these2 flowery3 words4; veda-vāda-ratāḥ7 = enamored with discussion of Vedas; vādinaḥ13 = hold discussion, declare; astī11 = there is; na9 + anyat10 = nothing else; [other than] iti12 = this, that. 2.42
2.42: O Arjuna, ignoramuses utter all these flowery words enamored with the discussion of Vedas, declare there is nothing other than (2.43:) heaven as the goal, mind full of desires, recommend various special Vedic rites towards attainment of enjoyments and affluence which bestows birth as a result of karma.
कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम् ।
क्रियाविशेषबहुलां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति ॥२- ४३॥
kāmātmānaḥ svargaparā janmakarmaphalapradām
kāmātmānaḥ1 svargaparāḥ2 janma-karma-phala-pradām3
svargaparāḥ2 = heaven as the goal or destination; kāmātmānaḥ1 = mind full of desires, mind immersed in desires; [recommend] kriyā-viśeṣa4 bahulām5 = various special Vedic rites, [rites-special4 various5]; bhoga6 aiśvarya7 gatim8 prati9 = towards attainment of enjoyments and affluence; (enjoyments6-affluence7-obtainment8-towards9); [which] janma-karma-phala-pradām3 = bestow birth as a result of karma (birth-rites-fruit or result-bestow). 2.43
2.42: O Arjuna, ignoramuses utter all these flowery words enamored with the discussion of Vedas, declare there is nothing other than (...2.43:) heaven as the goal, mind full of desires, recommend various special Vedic rites towards attainment of enjoyments and affluence which bestows birth as a result of karma.
भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् ।
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ॥२- ४४॥
bhogaiśvaryaprasaktānāṁ tayā ’pahṛtacetasām
bhoga1 aiśvarya2 prasaktānām3 tayā4
prasaktānām3 = they who cling to; bhoga1 = enjoyment; [and] aiśvarya2 = sovereignty; [and they whose ] cetasām6 = mind; apahṛta5 = is taken away; tayā4 = by that [speech]; [for them] vyavasāyātmikā7 = focused; buddhiḥ8 = Buddhi; na10 vidhīyate11 = is not10 well established11; samādhau9 = in the Self. 2.44
2.44: For them who cling to enjoyment and sovereignty and whose mind is taken away by that [speech], focused Buddhi is not well established in the Self.
त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ॥२- ४५॥
traiguṇyaviṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavā ’rjuna
traiguṇya1 viṣayāḥ2 vedāḥ3 nistraiguṇyaḥ4 bhavā5 arjuna6
nirdvandvaḥ7 nitya-satva-sthaḥ8 niryoga-kṣemaḥ9 ātmavān9
arjuna6 = O Arjuna; vedāḥ3 = Vedas; [expound] traiguṇya1 viṣayāḥ2 = enjoyments2 proceeding from three qualities1, experiencing this world; [you] bhavā5 = become; nistraiguṇyaḥ4 = free of three qualities, free from desires, detached from enjoyments of the sense objects; nirdvandvaḥ7 = free from dualities (like and dislike etc); nitya-satva-sthaḥ8 = eternally established in Sattva (Goodness, Purity, Paramatma); niryoga-kṣemaḥ9= without regard for acquisition and safe-keeping; [be] ātmavān9 = One of pure Self. 2.45
2.45: The three modes of material nature (Prakrti) are the subject matter of the Veda. Do not attach yourself to these three gunas. O Arjuna, be free from dualities such as pain and pleasure, steady in goodness (Sattva), free from thoughts of acquisition and preservation, and fixed in atman (self).
यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः संप्लुतोदके ।
तावान्सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ॥२- ४६॥
yāvān artha udapāne sarvataḥ saṁplutodake
yāvān1 arthaḥ2 udapāne3 sarvataḥ4
yāvān1 = whatever; arthaḥ2 = usefulness [for drinking, bathing]; [there is ] udapāne3 = for water in a well or pond; [is no match to a vast lake] sampluta-udake5 = brimming with water sarvataḥ4 = in all directions; [Likewise] brāhmaṇasya9 = for one brimming with Brahman knowledge; vijānataḥ10 = One who is clever, shrewd or knowledgeable (of Brahmajnana); sarveṣu7 = all; vedeṣu8 = Vedas; [are useful or limited] tāvān6 = to that degree, extent, measure. 2.46
2.46: A Brahmana brimming with Brahman knowledge has as much use for knowledge from all Vedas, as he who has a large body of water all around has use for a pond [or a puddle].
Work without Concern for the Results (RKN)
कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन ।
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ॥२- ४७॥
karmaṇy evā ’dhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana
karmaṇi1 eva2 adhikāraḥ3 te4 mā5
te4 = your; adhikāraḥ3 = right, obligation; karmaṇi1 eva2 = is for action; mā5 = never; kadācana7= under any circumstances; phaleṣu6 = for the results, in the fruits; mā8 = never; bhūḥ12 = become; karma9 phala10 hetuḥ11 = the reason or agent for claiming the fruit of action [action9-fruit10-cause or agent11]; mā13 te14 astu16 = (you) may not have; saṅgaḥ15 = attachment, inclination; [to] akarmaṇi17= inaction. 2.47
2.47: You have a right to action and never to its fruits. At no time should your motive be the fruit of your actions. Never should there be any attachment to inaction either.
योगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय ।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ॥२- ४८॥
yogasthaḥ kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā dhanañjaya
yogasthaḥ1 kuru2 karmāṇi3 saṅgam4
yogasthaḥ1 = firmly established in Yoga; dhanañjaya6 = O victor over wealth, O Arjuna; kuru2 = do; karmāṇi3 = actions; tyaktvā5 = relinquishing; saṅgam4 = attachment; bhūtvā9 = remaining or becoming; samaḥ8 = equable, same; siddhi-asiddhyoḥ7 = in success and failure; [and possessing] samatvam10 = equanimity of mind; [This] ucyate12 = is called; yogaḥ11 = Yoga. 2.48
2.48: O Dhananjaya (Arjuna), give up attachment, and remain the same in success and failure. Be steadfast in yoga and do your work. Equanimity (Samatvam) is yoga.
दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्धनंजय ।
बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ कृपणाः फलहेतवः ॥२- ४९॥
dūreṇa hy avaraṁ karma buddhiyogād dhanañjaya
dūreṇa1 hi2 avaram3 karma4
dūreṇa1 = by a long shot; karma4 = action; hi2 = indeed; [is] avaram3 = inferior to; buddhi-yogāt5 = Buddhi Yoga [Yoga of wisdom]. dhanañjaya6= O Arjuna; anviccha9 = take; śaraṇam8 = refuge; buddhau7 = in wisdom. kṛpaṇāḥ10 = the pitiable ones; phala-hetavaḥ11 = hanker after fruits. 2.49
2.49: Action is inferior to Buddhi yoga by a long shot; therefore, O Dhananjaya, take refuge in Buddhi. The pitiable ones hanker after fruits.
बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते ।
तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् ॥२- ५०॥
buddhiyukto jahātī ’ha ubhe sukṛtaduṣkṛte
buddhi-yuktaḥ1 jahāti2 iha3 ubhe4
buddhi-yuktaḥ1 = The one of equable wisdom; jahāti2 = gives up; iha3 = here, in this world; ubhe4 = both; sukṛta-duṣkṛte5 = merits and demerits, virtue and vice; tasmāt6 = therefore; yujyasva8 = remain engaged; yogāya7 = in Yoga of [equable wisdom]; [for] yogaḥ9 = Yoga; [is] kauśalam11 = skill [in relinquishing oneself from bonds of Karma]; karmasu10 = in the performance of action. 2.50
2.50: He whose buddhi is equable gives up both virtue and vice in this world. Therefore, remain committed to yoga, for yoga is skill in action.
कर्मजं बुद्धियुक्ता हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः ।
जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्त्यनामयम् ॥२- ५१॥
karmajaṁ buddhiyuktā hi phalaṁ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ
hi3 phalam4 tyaktvā5 manīṣiṇaḥ6
buddhi-yuktāḥ2 = they who have equable wisdom; [and] manīṣiṇaḥ6 = who are enlightened men; tyaktvā5 = by doing Tyagam [= relinquishment], give up; phalam4 = fruit, benefit; karma-jam1 = caused or generated by actions; hi3 = indeed; gacchhanti10 = reach; padam9 = state, Parama Padam, Supreme State or Abode, Vaikuntam [abode of Vishnu]; anāmayam11 = free from disease or evil, [not pernicious, healthy, salubrious]; [which is] janma-bandha7 vinirmuktāḥ8 = Jivanmukti, soul liberated from the bondage of birth [birth-bondage7-liberation of soul8] . 2.51
2.51: The wise ones with equable intuitive intelligence, give up fruits of their actions, gain liberation from bondage of birth and death [Jivanmukti], and reach salutary (Anāmayam) supreme bliss.
यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति ।
तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ॥२- ५२॥
te mohakalilaṁ buddhir vyatitariṣyati
yadā1 te2 moha-kalilam3 buddhiḥ4
yadā1 = whenever; te2 = your; buddhiḥ4 = Buddhi, mind; vyatitariṣyati5 = goes beyond [passes the Rubicon of]; moha-kalilam3 = delusion-turbidity; tadā6 = at that moment; gantāsi7 = you will obtain; nirvedam8 = Vairagyam, dispassion, detachment; śrotavyasya9 = to what has to be heard, to scriptures; ca11 = and; śrutasya10 = to what has already been heard [other than Brahman Knowledge]. 2.52
2.52: When your intuitive intelligence goes beyond the turbidity of delusion, then, you become dispassionate, and indifferent to all that is heard and all that is yet to be heard.
श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला ।
समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ॥२- ५३॥
śruti-vipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā
śruti-vipratipannā1 yadā3 sthāsyati4 niścalā5
yadā3 = when; te2 = your; buddhiḥ8 = mind; śruti1A-vipratipannā1B = is perplexed1B by Vedas1A [=Vedas-state of perplexity from diverse statements]; [the mind] sthāsyati4 = becomes steady; niścalā5 = unshakable [= firm, immobile]; [and] acalā7 = steady [= immovable]; samādhāu6 = in Samadhi [mind steadfast in the Self]; [and] tadā9 = at that moment; avāpsyasi11 = you will reach; yogam10 = Yoga of enlightenment. 2.53
2.53: When your Buddhi, perplexed by the Vedas, remains unmoved and steadfast in contemplation on God (Samādhi), then you will achieve self-realization (yoga).
The Characteristics of the Perfect Sage (RKN)
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥२- ५४॥
arjuna uvāca: sthitaprajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhisthasya keśava
sthita-prajñasya1 kā2 bhāṣā3 samādhi-sthasya4
arjuna uvāca = Arjuna said: keśava5 = O Kesava, Krishna; kā2 + bhāṣā3 = what2 language3 [how do you characterize a man]; samādhi-sthasya4 = of one immersed and absorbed in the Self; kim7 = how does; sthita-prajñasya1 = one who is steady in prajna or wisdom; sthita-dhīḥ6 = man with steady wisdom; prabhāṣeta8 = speak; kim9 = how; āsīta10 = sit [does he sit]; kim12 = how; vrajeta11 = [does he] move. 2.54
2.54: Arjuna said, O Kesava (Krishna, destroyer of Kesin), what is the distinctive mark of a man who stands firm in wisdom and steadfast in Samādhi? How does he speak, how does he sit and how does he walk?
प्रजहाति यदा कामान्सर्वान्पार्थ मनोगतान् ।
आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ॥२- ५५॥
śrībhagavān uvāca: prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha manogatān
prajahāti1 yadā2 kāmān3 sarvān4
śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: pārtha5 = O Partha, Arjuna: yadā2 = when; prajahāti1 = [one] relinquishes in full; kāmān3 sarvān4 = a whole slew4 of desires3; [that] manaḥ-gatān6 = have gone into the mind; tuṣṭaḥ10 = remains pleased; ātmani7 = in his self; eva8 = alone; ātmanā9 = by his self; tadā12 = at that time; [he] ucyate13 = is identified as; sthita-prajñaḥ11= one with steady wisdom. 2.55
2.55: Sri Bhagavan said:
O son of Partha, When a man completely sheds the desires of his mind, and finds satisfaction in the self by the self, he is steady in wisdom.
दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।
वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥२- ५६॥
duḥkheṣv anudvignamanāḥ sukheṣu vigataspṛhaḥ
duḥkheṣu1 anudvigna-manāḥ2 sukheṣu3
duḥkheṣu1 = free of sorrow; anudvigna-manāḥ2 = unagitated in mind; sukheṣu3 = in happiness; [and] vigata-spṛhaḥ4 = free from covetousness; vīta5 rāga6 bhaya7 krodhaḥ8 = free from5 desire6, fear7, anger8; muniḥ10 = [that] sage [one who observes Maunam or silence]; ucyate11 = is called; sthita-dhīḥ9 = one of steady mind. 2.56
2.56: He, in whose mind sorrow does not cause perturbation, and who is not ardent in happiness and who is free from passion, fear, and anger, is (called) a sage (muni = the silent one) of steadfast wisdom.
यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।
नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ५७॥
sarvatrā ’nabhisnehas tattatprāpya śubhāśubham
yaḥ1 sarvatra2 anabhi-snehaḥ3 tat4
tat5 prāpya6 śubha-aśubham7
yaḥ1 = He who; [is] anabhi-snehaḥ3 = without attachment [fondness, affection, friendship]; [for] sarvatra2 = anything and everything; na8 + abhinandati9 = neither delights; na10 + dveṣṭi11 = nor detests; tat4 tat5 = that and that [= each, separately and severally]; subha-aśubham7 = good or bad [evil] things; prāpya6 = upon attaining them; tasya12 = his; prajñā13 = wisdom; pratiṣṭhitā14= remains steady. 2.57
2.57: He, who shows detachment from all desires, and who neither rejoices good nor detests evil, has a steadfast wisdom.
यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ५८॥
saṁharate cā ’yaṁ kūrmo ’ṅgānī ’va sarvaśaḥ
yadā1 saṁharate2 ca3 ayam4 kūrmaḥ5
aṅgānī6 iva7 sarvaśaḥ8
yadā1 = When; ayam4 = this [one = Sannyasin]; ca3 = also; saṁharate2 = retracts inside; indriyāṇī9 = sense organs; indriya-arthebhyaḥ10 = from contact with sense objects; iva7 = as; kūrmaḥ5 = a tortoise; [withdraws] aṅgānī6 = its limbs; sarvaśaḥ8 = completely [from all around]; tasya11 = his; prajñā12 = wisdom; pratiṣṭhitā13 = remains steady. 2.58
2.58: He, who retracts his senses from sense objects as a tortoise, which withdraws all its limbs from all directions, is steadfast in wisdom.
विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।
रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ॥२- ५९॥
viṣayā vinivartante nirāhārasya dehinaḥ
viṣayāḥ1 vinivartante2 nirāhārasya3 dehinaḥ4
viṣayāḥ1 = objects of sense organs; vinivartante2 = retreat; nirāhārasya3 + dehinaḥ4 = from the abstaining3 man's body4; rasa5A-varjam5B = except5B the taste5A; rasaḥ6 + api7 that enjoyment6; asya8 = of this person; nivartate11 = leaves, ceases to exist; dṛṣṭvā10 = after obtaining vision of, realization [of the Supreme]; param9 = Brahman. 2.59
2.59: Once the objects of senses of man turn away from (any contact with) the sense organs, the taste (rasah) remains, but it leaves once the Supreme (Param) is in sight.
यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।
इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥२- ६०॥
yatato hy api kaunteya puruṣasya vipaścitaḥ
yatataḥ1 hi2 api3 kaunteya4
kaunteya4 = O son of Kunti, Arjuna: pramāthīni8 = agitated; indriyāṇi7 = senses; haranti9 = carry away; manaḥ11 = the mind; vipaścitaḥ6 = of an intelligent; puruṣasya5 = person; prasabham10 = by force; api3 = even; yatataḥ1 = as he strives; hi2 = truly. 2.60
2.60: O sun of Kunti, agitated senses carry away the mind of an intelligent person by force, even as strives sincerely.
तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।
वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ६१॥
sarvāṇi saṁyamya yukta āsīta matparaḥ
tāni1 sarvāṇi2 saṁyamya3 yuktaḥ4
yuktaḥ4 = one with focused mind; mat-paraḥ6 = holding Me as the Supreme Refuge; saṁyamya3 = having subjugated or curbed; sarvāṇi2 = all; tāni1 = that [the senses]; [and] āsīta5 = sitting down; yasya9 = whose; indriyāṇi10 = sense organs; vaśe7 = under his own control or restraint; tasya11 = his; prajñā12 = wisdom; hi8 = indeed; pratiṣṭhitā13 = becomes steady. 2.61
Having curbed all his senses, he should meditate on (Supreme) Me; when his senses are under restraint, his wisdom is steadfast.
ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते ।
सङ्गात्संजायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ॥२- ६२॥
dhyāyato viṣayān puṁsaḥ saṅgas teṣū ’pajāyate
dhyāyataḥ1 viṣayān2 puṁsaḥ3 saṅgaḥ4
puṁsaḥ3 = the man; dhyāyataḥ1 = while thinking of; viṣayān2 = objects of senses; upajāyate6 = there comes up; saṅgaḥ4 = attachment; teṣu5 = for those objects of senses; saṅgāt7 = from attachment; sañjāyate8 = comes; kāmaḥ9 = desire; kāmāt10 = from desire; abhijāyate12 = comes, springs; krodhaḥ11 = anger. 2.62
2.62: A person while thinking about the sense objects develops attachment to them. From attachment develops desire (Kāmah). From desire develops anger...
क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।
स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ॥२- ६३॥
krodhād bhavati saṁmohaḥ saṁmohāt smṛtivibhramaḥ
krodhāt1 = from anger; bhavati2 = comes; saṁmohaḥ3 = delusion; saṁmohāt4 = from delusion; smṛti-vibhramaḥ5 = loss of memory; smṛti-bhraṁśāt6 = from loss of memory; buddhināśaḥ7 = destruction of Buddhi; buddhi-nāśāt8 = from loss of Buddhi; [he] praṇaśyati9 = perishes. 2.63
2.63: From anger comes forth delusion (Sammohah); from delusion comes loss of memory; from loss of memory comes loss of intuitive (discriminative) intelligence; and from loss of intuitive intelligence, he falls.
रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् ।
आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ॥२- ६४॥
rāgadveṣaviyuktais tu viṣayān indriyaiś caran
rāga-dveṣa-vimuktaiḥ1 tu2 viṣayān4 indriyaiḥ5
tu2 = but; rāga1A-dveṣa1B-viyuktaiḥ1C = he who is free from1C likes1A and dislikes1B; caran6 = moving among; viṣayān4 = objects of sense; indriyaiḥ5 = with [the help of] organs such as eyes etc; ātma-vaśyaiḥ7 = under his control, under control of the mind; vidheyātmā8 = one who has self-control; adhigacchati10 = gains, attains; prasādam9 = calmness, grace of God. 2.64
2.64: He, who is free from likes and dislikes, attachment or aversion, while keeping the senses and sense objects under control of, and regulated by atman, gains calmness of mind (prasādam).
vidheya-ātmā = whose mind ca be subdued at will (Sankara). ātma = mind (Sankara).
प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते ।
प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ॥२- ६५॥
prasāde sarvaduḥkhānāṁ hānir asyo ’pajāyate
prasāde1 sarva2 duḥkhānām3 hāniḥ4
prasāde1 = When there is a placid state of mind; hāniḥ4 = eradication, destruction, removal; asya5 sarva2 duḥkhānām3 = of all2 his5 sorrows3; upajāyate6= occurs, takes place; hi8 = Indeed; prasanna-cetasaḥ7 = of one whose mind is placid; buddhiḥ10 = intuitive intelligence, wisdom; āśu9 = soon; pari11 avatiṣṭhate12 = becomes established. 2.65
2.65: In that placid state of mind, the destruction of all sorrows takes place. In that placid mind, certainly, soon the wisdom (buddhi) becomes steady.
नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।
न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥२- ६६॥
’sti buddhir ayuktasya na cā ’yuktasya bhāvanā
na asti1 buddhiḥ2 ayuktasya3 na4 ca5
ayuktasya3 = for one who is unsteady; na asti1 = there is neither; buddhiḥ2 = intelligence, wisdom; ca5 = and; na4 = nor; bhāvanā7= meditation; ayuktasya6 = for the unsteady person; ca9 = and abhāvayataḥ10 = for one who is not meditative; na8 = there is no; śāntiḥ11 = peace; kutaḥ13 = Where is; sukham14 = happiness; aśāntasya12 = for one without peace?
2.66: There is neither wisdom nor meditation for the unsteady; for the unmeditative person there is no peace; for the one without peace, where is happiness?
इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनु विधीयते ।
तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ॥२- ६७॥
indriyāṇāṁ hi caratāṁ yan mano ’nuvidhīyate
indriyāṇām1 hi2 caratām3 yat4 manaḥ5
for; yat4 manaḥ5 =
the mind5 which4;
anuvidhīyate6 = becomes involved in;
= wandering3 senses seeking their objects1;
tat7 = that [mind];
harati9 = carries away;
prajñām10 = discriminative
wisdom; iva13 = like;
vāyuḥ11 = the wind;
[carries away] asya8 =
his; nāvam12 = boat;
ambhasi14 = on the waters.
2.67: As the wind sweeps away the boat in the water, the mind wandering among the senses succumbs to the senses, which sweep away the wisdom.
तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ६८॥
tasmād yasya mahābāho nigṛhītāni sarvaśaḥ
tasmāt1 yasya2 mahābāho3 nigṛhītāni4
yasya2 = his; indriyāṇi6 = senses; nigṛhītāni4 = are withdrawn, drawn back or retracted; indriya-arthebhyaḥ7 = from the respective sense objects; sarvaśaḥ5 = in all their constituents like mind; tasmāt1 = therefore; mahābāho3 = O mighty-armed one; tasya8 prajñā9 pratiṣṭhitā10 = his8-wisdom9-becomes established10. 2.68
2.68: Therefore, O mighty-armed (Arjuna), when his senses withdraw from the sense objects in all ways, his wisdom is steadfast.
या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।
यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ॥२- ६९॥
niśā sarvabhūtānāṁ tasyāṁ jāgarti saṁyamī
yā1 niśā2 sarva3 bhūtānām4 tasyām5
saṁyamī7 = the man with control of his sense organs; jāgarti6 = is awake; yā1 niśā2 = what is night; sarva3 bhūtānām4 = for all3 living beings4. tasyām5 = in that [night]; yasyām8 = in which; bhūtāni10 = the beings, creatures; jāgrati9 = keep awake; sā11 niśā12 paśyataḥ13 muneḥ14 = that is11 night12 for the seeing13 (Seer) Muni14 (the silent one or Sage).--2.69
2.69: What is night for all beings is awakening for the disciplined soul and what is awakening for all beings, is night for the seeing muni– the sage or seer.
आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।
तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ॥२- ७०॥
āpūryamāṇam acalapratiṣṭhaṁ samudram āpaḥ praviśanti yadvat
āpūryamāṇam1 acala-pratiṣṭham2 samudram3 āpaḥ4
yadvat6 = as;āpaḥ4 = water; praviśanti5 = flowing into; samudram3 = the ocean; āpūryamāṇam1 = brimming with water from all sides; acala-pratiṣṭham2 = remains steady without change; tadvat7 = likewise; saḥ12 = that man; yam9 = into whom; sarve11 = all; kāmāḥ8 = desires; praviśanti10 = flow into; āpnoti14 = attains; śāntim13 = peace; [it is] na15 + kāmakāmī16 = not so for the epicure (= kāma-kāmī, the person who seeks desires).-- 2.70
2.70: As the waters enter the ocean from all sides, it remains steady and unperturbed. So also, the desires enter a person of steadiness, tranquility, and peace (without causing any perturbation). It is not so in (an epicure) a person who seeks desires.
विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान् पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः ।
निर्ममो निरहंकारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ॥२- ७१॥
vihāya kāmān yaḥ sarvān pumāṁś carati niḥspṛhaḥ
vihāya1 kāmān2 yaḥ3 sarvān4 pumān5
yaḥ3 pumān5 = whoever person; adhigacchhati12 śāntim11 = 10 attains12 peace11; vihāya1 = after relinquishing, abandoning; sarvān4 = all; kāmān2 = desires; [and] carati6 = wanders; niḥspṛhaḥ7= free from desires, wants; nirmamaḥ8 = without a sense of Mine; saḥ10 = he; [is] nirahañkāraḥ9 = without ahamkara (ego). 2.71
2.71: He, who has abandoned his desires and who wanders free from desires and a sense of ego and mineness attains peace.
एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।
स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ॥२- ७२॥
brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha nai ’nāṁ prāpya vimuhyati
eṣā1 brāhmī2 sthitiḥ3 pārtha4 na5
enām6 prāpya7 vimuhyati8
pārtha4 = O Partha (Arjuna); eṣā1 = this; [is] brāhmī2 sthitiḥ3 = the State of Brahman; prāpya7 = attaining; enām6 = this; na5 vimuhyati8 = he does not5 become bewildered or deluded8. sthitvā9 = established asyām10 = in this state; [he] ṛcchati14 = attains, achieves; brahma-nirvāṇam13= Absorption in Brahman, Brahman-hood, Brahman Bliss, Liberation of soul; api12 = even; anta-kāle11 = at the end of time (in the autumn period of his life).
2.72: This is the state of God-realization for him, O Partha, and having achieved it, he does not suffer from delusion. Steadying himself in the state of God-realization at (the hour of) death, he gains Brahma-Nirvana (Absorption into Brahman, assimilation, union, Bliss).
End Chapter 02: The Battlefield of Kurusetra