(KR) = The Translation of the verse is by Krishnaraj.
Madurai Project
Translation by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
Madurai Project
Translation of Kural by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
Madurai Project
Translation by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
Madurai Project
Translation of Kural by V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, M.A.,
Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras
21. ஒழுக்கத்து நீத்தார் பெருமை விழுப்பத்து
வேண்டும் பனுவல் துணிவு.
21. The one supreme thing all scriptures affirm is the great renunciation of those who walk in right conduct.
This statement highlights a common theme found in various religious scriptures. It states that the fundamental principle upheld by all scriptures is the act of renunciation by those who lead a righteous and virtuous life. The concept of renunciation involves letting go of attachments, desires, and worldly pursuits in order to attain spiritual enlightenment or higher states of consciousness. It suggests that regardless of religious or spiritual traditions, the practice of selflessness and detachment is considered paramount for individuals who strive to live in accordance with moral and ethical principles.

22. துறந்தார் பெருமை துணைக்கூறின் வையத்து
இறந்தாரை எண்ணிக்கொண் டற்று.

22. To measure the greatness of one who has renounced is like reckoning the number of the dead in this world.   துறந்தார் = Renunciate

This statement compares the difficulty of measuring the greatness of someone who has renounced worldly attachments to the impossibility of counting the number of deceased individuals in the world. It implies that the magnitude of the renunciant's greatness is beyond conventional measurement or quantification. Renunciation is often associated with spiritual or moral elevation, and the statement suggests that the depth and significance of this transformation are immeasurable. It emphasizes the profound and transcendent nature of renunciation and its impact on the individual's character and spiritual path.

23. இருமை வகைதெரிந்து ஈண்டுஅறம் பூண்டார்
பெருமை பிறங்கிற்று உலகு.
23. The greatest thing on earth is the renunciation of those who understand birth and liberation.
This statement asserts that the most significant and remarkable aspect on Earth is the act of renunciation by those who possess understanding or insight into the concepts of birth and liberation. It implies that individuals who comprehend the nature of existence and the potential for liberation from the cycle of birth and death possess a profound wisdom. The act of renunciation, in this context, is seen as a transformative and noble pursuit, reflecting a deep understanding of the transient nature of worldly attachments and the pursuit of spiritual liberation or enlightenment.
24. உரனென்னும் தோட்டியான் ஓரைந்தும் காப்பான்
வரனென்னும் வைப்பிற்கோர் வித்து.
24. He who with firmness bridles the five senses is (himself) the seed of the eternal bliss.
Verily he is the seed of the immortals who with firmness bridles the five senses.
This statement highlights the importance of self-control and mastery over the five senses. It suggests that an individual who possesses the strength and discipline to restrain and control their senses is the source or origin of eternal bliss. By exercising control over desires, impulses, and sensory temptations, one can attain a state of inner peace and everlasting happiness. The statement emphasizes the power of self-restraint and self-discipline in achieving spiritual fulfillment and experiencing a state of profound bliss.
25. ஐந்தவித்தான் ஆற்றல் அகல்விசும்பு ளார்கோமான்
இந்திரனே சாலுங் கரி.
25. Indra, the Lord of the skies is himself a witness, to the might of those who have conquered their five senses.
This statement acknowledges Indra, the Lord of the skies, as a witness to the incredible strength and power demonstrated by individuals who have attained mastery over their five senses. Despite Indra's association with indulgence and worldly pleasures in certain mythologies, he recognizes and admires the remarkable achievements of those who have conquered their senses. It highlights the significance and impact of self-control, showcasing how even a powerful divine being like Indra acknowledges and respects those who have achieved such mastery. This further emphasizes the profound transformation and inner strength that come with conquering the senses.
26. செயற்கரிய செய்வார் பெரியர் சிறியர்
செயற்கரிய செய்கலா தார்.
26. The great achieve the impossible; the little cannot.
This poem contrasts the achievements of the great and the small, suggesting that the great have the ability to accomplish the impossible, while the small or lesser individuals do not possess the same capacity. The commentary on this poem would highlight the theme of human potential and the role of greatness in surpassing limitations. It would explore the idea that those who are deemed great, whether due to their talents, determination, or extraordinary qualities, have the ability to accomplish feats that may seem insurmountable to others. On the other hand, the commentary would acknowledge that this poem also implies a sense of limitation for those who are considered small or lesser in comparison. However, it is important to note that greatness can be subjective and that every individual has the potential to achieve their own version of greatness within their own capabilities.
27. சுவைஒளி ஊறுஓசை நாற்றமென ஐந்தின்
வகைதெரிவான் கட்டே உலகு.
27. The world falls at the feet of one who has realised the true nature of the taste, sight, touch, sound and smell.
27. The world praises the one who knows the nature of the five sensory organs (taste, seeing, touch, hearing and smell) and has the ability to control them. (KR)
It's important to note that the perspective of this verse is specific to asceticism (நீத்தார் = Renunciate) and the associated ideals. The admiration expressed here is directed toward individuals who adhere to the ascetic way of life, possessing knowledge of the senses, and maintaining control over them in pursuit of their spiritual goals.
28. நிறைமொழி மாந்தர் பெருமை நிலத்து
மறைமொழி காட்டி விடும்.
28. The greatness of the sages (renunciate) in this world is borne out by their prophetic utterance (the Vedas).
Therefore, the verse suggests that the greatness of the sages or ascetics is evidenced by their ability to make prophetic utterances, which are found within the sacred texts such as the Vedas.
29. குணமென்னும் குன்றேறி நின்றார் வெகுளி
கணமேயும் காத்தல் அரிது.
29. The momentary anger of the renunciate who stands on the hill of virtue, does not last long. (KR)
This refers to an individual who has embraced a life of renunciation, often associated with spiritual pursuits and detachment from worldly attachments.
"The hill of virtue": This metaphorical phrase signifies a high moral or ethical ground. It represents the renunciate's commitment to upholding virtuous principles and living in accordance with them.
"Momentary anger": This indicates a brief or fleeting experience of anger. It implies that while the renunciate may occasionally feel anger, it is short-lived and quickly subsides.
The verse suggests the following interpretations:
Emotional Transience: Despite being momentarily angry, the renunciate's anger does not endure. This implies that they have developed a level of emotional mastery or control, allowing them to quickly let go of negative emotions such as anger.
Virtuous Disposition: By standing on the "hill of virtue," the renunciate is committed to upholding moral values and principles. This dedication to virtue may influence their ability to swiftly overcome anger and return to a state of equanimity.
Spiritual Practice: The verse implies that the renunciate's spiritual practice has enabled them to cultivate qualities such as patience, compassion, and forgiveness. These qualities may contribute to their ability to manage anger and prevent it from lingering.
It's important to note that this verse reflects an idealized view of a renunciate who has attained a high level of spiritual development. While it suggests that anger is short-lived in such individuals, it does not imply that renunciates are immune to anger or never experience it. Rather, it emphasizes their capacity to swiftly overcome anger and maintain a virtuous disposition.
30. அந்தணர் என்போர் அறவோர்மற் றெவ்வுயிர் க்கும்
செந்தண்மை பூண்டொழுக லான்.
30. They are the Brahmans who are righteous and love all creation.
30. Extending their love towards all beings and conferring blessings, these virtuous are known as Brahmanas.  (KR)
The verse states that virtuous individuals who extend their love to all beings and bestow blessings are known as Brahmanas. Here's a concise explanation:
Virtuous individuals who express love and bestow blessings upon all beings are referred to as Brahmanas. The term "Brahmanas" here denotes those who embody spiritual qualities and exhibit compassionate and benevolent behavior towards others.