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 Chapter Five:  Yoga of Renunciation of  Action

Original date of web publication: May 10, 2009.

अर्जुन उवाच 

संन्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगं च शंससि ।

यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम् ॥५- १॥

arjuna uvāca

saṁnyāsaṁ karmaṇāṁ kṛṣṇa punar yogaṁ ca śaṁsasi
yac chreya etayor ekaṁ tan me brūhi suniścitam 5.1

arjuna uvāca

sannyāsam1 karmaṇām2 kṛṣṇa3 puna4 yogam5 ca6 śaṁsasi7
yat
8 sreya9 etayo10 ekam11 tat12 me13 brūhi14 suniścitam15  5.1  

 

arjuna uvāca  = Arjuna said; kṛṣṇa3 = O Krishna; śaṁsasi7 = You praise; yogam5 = Yoga; [of] sannyāsam1 = renunciation;  ca6 = and; puna4 = again; karmaṇām2 = of actions. etayo10 = Of the two; brūhi14 = tell; me13 = me; suniścitam15 = for sure; tat12 = that; ekam11 = one; yat8 sreya9  = which is better.   5.1

5.1: Arjuna said: O Krishna, You praised or extolled the yoga of renunciation of action and then again the yoga of action. Of these two, tell me for sure which is better.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच

संन्यासः कर्मयोगश्च निःश्रेयसकरावुभौ ।

तयोस्तु कर्मसंन्यासात्कर्मयोगो विशिष्यते ॥५- २॥

śrībhagavān uvāca

saṁnyāsaḥ karmayogas ca niḥśreyasakarāv ubhau

tayos tu karmasaṁnyāsāt karmayogo viśiṣyate 5.2

śrībhagavān uvāca

sannyāsaḥ1 karmayoga2 ca3 niḥśreyasa-karāv4 ubhau5

tayo6 tu7 karma-sannyāsāt8 karmayoga9 viśiṣyate10  5.2

 

śrībhagavān uvāca  = Sri Bhagavan said; ubhau5 = both; sannyāsaḥ1 = renunciation;  ca3 = and; karmayoga2 = Karma Yoga;  niḥśreyasa-karāv4 = lead to salvation; tu7 = but; tayo6 = of the two;  karma-sannyāsāt8 = (as compared to) renunciation of action; karmayoga9 = Karma yoga; viśiṣyate10 = is better.  5.2

5.2: Sri Bhagavan said: Both renunciation of action and performance of action lead to salvation. Of the two, karma yoga (yoga of action) is better than renunciation of action.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ज्ञेयः स नित्यसंन्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति ।

निर्द्वन्द्वो हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते ॥५- ३॥

jeyaḥ sa nityasaṁnyāsī yo na dveṣṭi na kāṅkṣati
nirdvandvo hi mahābāho sukhaṁ bandhāt pramucyate 5.3

jeyaḥ1 sa2 nitya-sannyāsī3 ya4 na5 dveṣṭi6 na7 kāṅkṣati8
nirdvandva
9 hi10 mahābāho11 sukham12 bandhāt13 pramucyate14   5.3

 

jeyaḥ1 = [It] should be known; sa2 = he; ya4 na5 dveṣṭi6 = who neither hates; na7 kāṅkṣati8 = nor desires; [is] nitya-sannyāsī3 = an abiding (perpetual) relinquisher; nirdvandva9 = one free from dualities; [and] hi10 = for sure; pramucyate14  = attains liberation; sukham12 = easily; bandhāt13 = from bondage;  mahābāho11 = O mighty-armed one.   5.3

 

5.3: It should be known that the enduring renouncer - nityasannyāsi - neither detests nor desires, and free from dualities, O Mighty-armed one, is easily released from bondage.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सांख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः ।

एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम् ॥५- ४॥

sāṁkhyayogau pṛthag bālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ
ekam apy āsthitaḥ samyag ubhayor vindate phalam 5.4

khya yogau1 pṛthak2 bālāḥ3 pravadanti4 na5 paṇḍitāḥ6
ekam
7 api8 āsthitaḥ9
samyak10 ubhayo11 vindate12 phalam13  5.4

 

bālāḥ3 = The ignorant; na5 paṇḍitāḥ6 = [but] not the learned ones; pravadanti4 = say; khya yogau1 = Sankhya Yoga [path of knowledge and karma yoga]; pṛthak2 = are different. [One who is] samyak10  = accomplished; [and] āsthitaḥ9 = abiding in; api8 ekam7 = even one ; vindate12 phalam13 = enjoys the fruits; ubhayo11 = of both. 5.4

 

5.4: The ignorant, but not the learned (Panditah) say that Sankhya (yoga) and (karma) yoga are different. He who is firmly established in one gets the benefit of fruits of both. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यत्सांख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद्योगैरपि गम्यते ।

एकं सांख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥५- ५॥

yat  sāṁkhyaiḥ prāpyate sthānaṁ tad yogair api gamyate
ekaṁ sāṁkhyaṁ ca
yogaṁ ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati  5.5

yat1  sākhyaiḥ2 prāpyate3 sthānam4 tat5 yogai6 api7 gamyate8
ekam
9
sāṁkhyam10 ca11 yogam12 ca13 yaḥ14 paśyati15 sah16 paśyati17  5.5

 

tat5 = That; sthānam4 = place [state of Liberation, Paramapadam]; yat1 prāpyate3 = that is reached; khyaiḥ2 = by the Sankhyas; gamyate8 = is attained; yogai6 = by the Yogis; api7 = also. sah16 = He; yaḥ14 = who; paśyati17  = sees; sāṁkhyam10 = Saṅkhya; ca11 = and; yogam12 = Yoga; ca13 = as; ekam9 = one; paśyati15 = sees.  5.5

5.5: The place which is achieved by Sankhya Yogi is attained by karma Yogi also. He, who sees Sankhya yoga and karma yoga as one, sees (the truth).  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः ।

योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥५- ६॥

saṁnyāsas tu mahābāho duḥkham āptum ayogataḥ
yogayukto munir brahma nacireṇādhigacchati 5.6

sannyāsa1 tu2 mahābāho3 duḥkham4 āptum5 ayogataḥ6
yoga-yukta
7 muni8 brahma9 na10 cireṇa11 adhigacchati12   5.6

 

tu2 = But;  sannyāsa1 = renunciation; ayogataḥ6 = without yoga; mahābāho3 = O Mighty-armed one; [is] duḥkham4 = difficult;  āptum5 = to attain.  yoga-yukta7 = He who practices Karma-Yoga; [being]  muni8 = the Muni [the silent one, the meditative sage]; adhigacchati12  =  attains12  brahma9 = Brahman; na10 cireṇa11 = without10 delay115.6

 

5.6: But renunciation without karma yoga, O Mighty armed one, causes is difficult to attain. One engaged in karma yoga is a munih or sage and attains Brahman without any delay.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

योगयुक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः ।

सर्वभूतात्मभूतात्मा कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते ॥५- ७॥

yogayukto viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitendriyaḥ
sarvabhūtātmabhūtātmā kurvann api na lipyate 5.7

yoga-yukta1 viśuddha-ātmā2 vijita-ātmā3 jita-indriyaḥ4
sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā
5 kurvan6 api7 na8 lipyate9 
5.7

 

yoga-yukta1 = Karma Yogi; viśuddha-ātmā2 = pure in mind; vijita-ātmā3 = controlled in body; jita-indriyaḥ4 = conqueror of the sense organs; [identifies] sarva-bhūta5A ātma5B-bhūtātmā5C = his Self5B with the selves of5C all beings5A; kurvan6 api7 = while7 performing actions6.  [He] na8 lipyate9  = is not8 tainted9.    5.7

5.7: A karma yogi, who is a pure soul, a conqueror of his self and his senses, identifies his self with the selves of all beings, although engaged in work, is never affected or tainted. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

नैव किंचित्करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्ववित् ।

पश्यञ्श्रृण्वन्स्पृशञ्जिघ्रन्नश्नन्‌गच्छन्स्वपञ्श्वसन् ॥५- ८॥

naiva kiṁcit karomīti yukto manyeta tattvavit

paśya śṛṇvan spṛśa jighrann aśnan gacchan svapa śvasan 5.8

na1 eva2 kicit3 karomī4 iti5 yukta6 manyeta7 tattva-vit8

paśya9 śṛṇvan10 spṛśa11 jighran12 aśnan13 gacchan14 svapa15 śvasan16 5.8  

tattva-vit8 = Knower of Reality; yukta6 = having been engaged in Yoga; manyeta7 = should think; [that he]  na1 = never; eva2 = really; karomī4 = does; kicit3 = anything; [while] iti5 = thus ;  paśya9 = seeing; śṛṇvan10 = hearing; spṛśa11 = touching; jighran12 = smelling; aśnan13 = eating; gacchan14 = moving; svapa15 = sleeping; śvasan16  = breathing...  5.8

 

5.8: He is engaged in yoga, knows the truth, and thinks without doubt that he does not do anything, while seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving, sleeping, breathing, (Continued in next verse)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

प्रलपन्विसृजन्गृह्णन्नुन्मिषन्निमिषन्नपि ।

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन् ॥५- ९॥

pralapan visṛjan gṛhṇann unmiṣan nimiṣann api
indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan 5.9

pralapan1 visṛjan2 gṛhṇan3 unmiṣan4 nimiṣan5 api6
indriyāṇi
7 indriya-atheṣu8 vartanta9
iti10 dhārayan11  5.9  

 

pralapan1 = speaking; visṛjan2 = excreting [discharging]; gṛhṇan3 = grasping; unmiṣan4 = opening; nimiṣan5 =  closing; api6 = though; dhārayan11 = realizing; iti10 = thus; indriyāṇi7 = all sense organs; vartanta9 = operate; indriya-atheṣu8  = in the respective sense objects . 5.9

5.9: Speaking, discharging (evacuation), grasping, opening, or closing his eyes. He realizes that the senses operate in the realm of sense objects. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ब्रह्मण्याधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः ।

लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा ॥५- १०॥

brahmaṇy ādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ
lipyate na sa pāpena padmapatram ivāmbhasā 5.10

brahmaṇi1 ādhāya2 karmāṇi3 saṅgam4 tyaktvā5 karoti6 yaḥ7
lipyate
8 na9 sa10 pāpena11 padma-patram12 iva13 ambhasā14  5.10 

 

sa10 = He; yaḥ7= who; ādhāya2 = dedicates; [his] karmāṇi3 = actions; brahmaṇi1 = to Brahman; tyaktvā5 = by relinquishing; saṅgam4 = [worldy] attachment; [to] karoti6 = acts;  na9 lipyate8 = is not9 tainted8;   

pāpena11 = by sin;  iva13 padma-patram12 = like13 lotus leaf12; ambhasā14  =  in the water. 5.10

 

5.10:  He, who dedicates his works to Brahman without attachment to work, is never subject to sin as a lotus leaf (does not get wet) by water.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि ।

योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्मशुद्धये ॥५- ११॥

kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalair indriyair api
yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṁ tyaktvātmaśuddhaye 5.11

kāyena1 manasā2 buddhyā3 kevalai4 indriyai5 api6
yoginaḥ
7 karma8 kurvanti9 saṅgam10 tyaktvā11 ātma12 śuddhaye13  5.11  

 

yoginaḥ7 = The Yogis; tyaktvā11 = give up; saṅgam10 = attachment [to fruits of actions]; [and] kurvanti9 = perform; karma8 = work, actions; kevalai4 = merely;  kāyena1 = with the body; manasā2 = with the mind; buddhyā3 = with the intellect; [and] api6 = even; indriyai5 = with the senses; ātma12 śuddhaye13  = for the purification13 of the self12 or themselves. 5.11


5.11: The yogis perform actions with the body, mind, intelligence, and the senses, giving up attachment for the purification of the self.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

युक्तः कर्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम् ।

अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते ॥५- १२॥

yuktaḥ karmaphalaṁ tyaktvā śāntim āpnoti naiṣṭhikīm

ayuktaḥ kāmakāreṇa phale sakto nibadhyate 5.12

yuktaḥ1 karma-phalam2 tyaktvā3 śāntim4 āpnoti5 naiṣṭhikīm6

ayukta7 kāma-kāreṇa8 phale9 sakta10 nibadhyate11   5.12

 

yuktaḥ1 = Karma yogi; tyaktvā3 = giving up; karma-phalam2  = the fruits of actions;  āpnoti5 = attains; śāntim4 = peace; naiṣṭhikīm6 = coming from steadfastness. ayukta7 = Man not pursuing Yoga; kāma-kāreṇa8  = by induction of desires; sakta10 = attached;  phale9 = to the fruit; nibadhyate11 = is bound.   5.12

 

5.12: A yogin, giving up the fruits of his actions, attains everlasting peace arising from steadfastness. The man ignorant of yoga, wanting in faith, by induction of desires, and attached to fruits of actions is ever bound.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वकर्माणि मनसा संन्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी ।

नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन्न कारयन् ॥५- १३॥

sarvakarmāṇi manasā saṁnyasyāste sukhaṁ vaśī

navadvāre pure dehī naiva kurvan na kārayan 5.13

sarva1 karmāṇi2 manasā3 sannyasya4 āste5 sukham6 vaśī7

nava-dvāre8 pure9 dehī10 na11 eva12 kurvan13 na14 kārayan15   5.13

 

dehī10 = The embodied soul; [and]  vaśī7 = self-controlled man; sannyasya4 = renouncing; sarva1 karmāṇi2 = all activities; manasā3 = mentally;  āste5 = remains; sukham6 = in happiness; [in] nava-dvāre8 pure9 = the nine gates8 city9 [body has nine openings]; na11 eva12 kurvan13  = neither11 really12 doing any work13; na14 kārayan15 = nor14 causing any work15.   5.13

5.13: The embodied soul, while controlling all his activities, renouncing them in his mind, and remaining in happiness in the city of nine gates, neither works nor causes any work. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

न कर्तृत्वं न कर्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः ।

न कर्मफलसंयोगं स्वभावस्तु प्रवर्तते ॥५- १४॥

na kartṛtvaṁ na karmāṇi lokasya sṛjati prabhuḥ
na karmaphalasaṁyogaṁ svabhāvas tu pravartate 5.14

na1 kartṛtvam2 na3 karmāṇ4 lokasya5 sṛjati6 prabhuḥ7
na
8 karma-phala9
saṁyogam10 svabhāva11 tu12 pravartate13   5.14

 

prabhuḥ7= Bhagavan, the Self;  sṛjati6 = creates; lokasya5 = for people; na1 kartṛtvam2  = no agency or doership; na3 karmāṇ4 = no activities; [and] na8  karma-phala9 saṁyogam10 = no connection between work and fruits [no8  work-fruits9-union10]; tu12 = but; svabhāva11 = one's own nature; pravartate13  = acts, prevails.  5.14

5.14: The Lord (the Self) does neither create the doership, nor the activities of people, nor the connection between the activities and their fruits. But one's own Nature prevails.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

नादत्ते कस्यचित्पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः ।

अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः ॥५- १५॥ 

nādatte kasyacit pāpaṁ na caiva sukṛtaṁ vibhuḥ
ajānenāvṛtaṁ jānaṁ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ 5.15

na1 ādatte2 kasyacit3 pāpam4 na5 ca6 eva7 sukṛtam8 vibhuḥ9
ajānena
10 āvṛtam11 jānam12 tena13 muhyanti14 jantavaḥ15   5.15

 

vibhuḥ9 = The all-pervading Brahman; na1 ādatte2  = neither accepts; kasyacit3 = anyone's; pāpam4 = sin; na5 ca6 eva7 sukṛtam8 = nor5 also6 surely7 virtuous acts8 [merits].  jānam12 =  knowledge; āvṛtam11 = is enveloped; ajānena10 = by ignorance; tena13 = thereby ; jantavaḥ15 = living beings; muhyanti14 = are deluded . 5.15

5.15:  The all-pervading Brahman or Supreme accepts neither the sin nor the merit of anyone. Ignorance envelops wisdom, deluding the living creatures.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः ।

तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम् ॥५- १६॥

jānena tu tad ajānaṁ yeṣāṁ nāśitam ātmanaḥ
teṣām ādityavaj jānaṁ prakāśayati tat param 5.16

jānena1 tu2 tat3 ajānam4 yeṣām5 nāśitam6 ātmanaḥ7
teṣām
8 ādityavat9
jānam10 prakāśayati11 tat12 param13  5.16  

 

tu2 = But; ātmanaḥ7 = of the living beings;  yeṣām5 = in whom; tat3 ajānam4 = that ignorance;  nāśitam6 = is destroyed; jānena1 = by knowledge; teṣām8 = their; jānam10 = knowledge; ādityavat9 = like the sun; prakāśayati11 = illumines;  tat12 param13  = that12 Supreme13.   5.16

5.16: For those, in whom ignorance is destroyed by knowledge of the Self, that knowledge lights up or illumines the Supreme like the sun. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तद्‌बुद्धयस्तदात्मानस्तन्निष्ठास्तत्परायणाः ।

गच्छन्त्यपुनरावृत्तिं ज्ञाननिर्धूतकल्मषाः ॥५- १७॥

tadbuddhayas tadātmānas tanniṣṭhās tatparāyaṇāḥ
gacchanty apunarāvṛttiṁ jānanirdhūtakalmaṣāḥ 5.17

tat-buddhaya1 tat-ātmāna2 tat-niṣṭhā3 tat-parāyaṇā4
gacchanti
5
apunaḥ-āvṛttim6 jāna7 nirdhūta8 kalmaṣāḥ5.17

 

tat-buddhaya1 = The one whose Buddhi abides in That [the Supreme]; tat-ātmāna2 = whose mind abides in That;  tat-niṣṭhā3  = who is steadfast in That; [and] tat-parāyaṇā4  = who has That as the Supreme Goal; gacchanti5 = attains;  apunaḥ-āvṛttim6  = that from which there is no return [ liberation]; [having jāna7 nirdhūta8 kalmaṣāḥ= sin cleansed by knowledge [knowledge7-cleansed8-dirt9].   5.17

 

5.17: They, whose intelligence, mind, and faith are fixed on Him and who have taken refuge in the supreme, attain That from which there is no return, having cleansed their sin by knowledge.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

विद्याविनयसंपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि ।

शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः ॥५- १८॥

vidyāvinayasaṁpanne brāhmaṇe gavi hastini
śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ samadarśinaḥ 5.18

vidya1 vinaya2 sampanne3 brāhmaṇe4 gavi5 hastini6
śuni
7 ca8 eva9 śvapāke10 ca11 paṇḍitāḥ12 sama-darśina13 
5.18

 

paṇḍitāḥ12 = The learned ones; sama-darśina13  = see with equal view [eye]; brāhmaṇe4 = on a Brahmana; vidya1 vinaya2 sampanne3  = endowed with knowledge and humility = [learning1-humility2-endowed3];  gavi5 = on a cow; hastini6 = on the elephant; ca8 = and; śuni7 = on the dog;  ca11 eva9 = and surely; śvapāke10 = on the dog-eater.   5.18

 

5.18:  A punditah (sage) regards (sees) with an equal eye a learned humble Brahmin, a cow, an elephant, a dog, and even a dog-eater. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः ।

निर्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद्ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः ॥५- १९॥

ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṁ sāmye sthitaṁ manaḥ
nirdoṣaṁ hi samaṁ brahma tasmād brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ
5.19

iha1 eva2 tai3 jitaḥ4 sarga5 yeṣām6 sāmye7 sthitam8 manaḥ9
nirdoṣam
10 hi11 samam12 brahma13 tasmāt14 brahmaṇi15 te16 sthitāḥ17  5.19

 

iha1 = Here; eva2 = surely; sarga5 = the created world [Samsara];  jitaḥ4 = is conquered; tai3 = by them; yeṣām6 = whose;  manaḥ9 = mind; sthitam8 = is established; sāmye7 = on equality, equilibrium.  brahma13 = Brahman; hi11 = certainly; [is] nirdoṣam10 = flawless; [and] samam12 = the same. tasmāt14 = Therefore; te16 = they; sthitāḥ17 = are established; brahmaṇi15 = in Brahman .  5.19

 

5.19. Here they whose mind is in equilibrium conquer Samsara and are established [abide] in Brahman, who is flawless and the same.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

न प्रहृष्येत्प्रियं प्राप्य नोद्विजेत्प्राप्य चाप्रियम् ।

स्थिरबुद्धिरसंमूढो ब्रह्मविद्ब्रह्मणि स्थितः ॥५- २०॥

na prahṛṣyet priyaṁ prāpya nodvijet prāpya cāpriyam

sthirabuddhir asaṁmūḍho brahmavid brahmaṇi sthitaḥ 5.20

na1 prahṛṣyet2 priyam3 prāpya4 na5 udvijet6 prāpya7 ca8 apriyam9

sthira-buddhi10 asammūḍha11 brahmavit12 brahmaṇi13 sthitaḥ14  5.20

 

[He] na1 = neither; prahṛṣyet2 = rejoices; prāpya4 = on attaining;  priyam3 = the pleasant, the desirable; na5 = nor; udvijet6 = trembles, grieves; prāpya7 = by getting; ca8 = also; apriyam9 = the unpleasant.  [He is] sthira-buddhi10  = the steady intelligent one; brahmavit12 = the knower of Brahman; asammūḍha11 = the unbewildered; [and]sthitaḥ14 = remains established; brahmaṇi13 = in Brahman.   5.20

5.20: He neither rejoices for getting that which is pleasant nor laments at getting that which is unpleasant. Since he is steady in his intelligence without bewilderment, the knower of Brahman or God is established in God. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

बाह्यस्पर्शेष्वसक्तात्मा विन्दत्यात्मनि यत् सुखम् ।

स ब्रह्मयोगयुक्तात्मा सुखमक्षयमश्नुते ॥५- २१॥

bāhyasparśeṣv asaktātmā vindaty ātmani yat sukham
sa brahmayogayuktātmā sukham ak
ayam aśnute 5.21

bāhya-sparśeṣu1 asakta-ātmā2 vindati3 ātmani4 yat5 sukham6

sa7 brahma-yoga8 yukta-ātmā9 sukham10 akṣayam11 aśnute12  5.21 

 

asakta2A-ātmā2B  = One2B with no attachment2A; bāhya1A-sparśeṣu1B = to external1A sense objects1B; vindati3 = obtains; sukham6 = happiness; yat5 = which is; ātmani4 = in the Self.  sa7 = he; [is] brahma-yoga8 yukta-ātmā9  = one absorbed9 in Brahma yoga8; [and] aśnute12 = experiences; akṣayam11 = undecaying; sukham10 = happiness.   5.21

5.21: He, whose soul (mind) is unattached to external sense objects, enjoys happiness in the self. He, with his self absorbed in Brahma yoga, enjoys undecaying (imperishable) happiness or bliss. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ये हि संस्पर्शजा भोगा दुःखयोनय एव ते ।

आद्यन्तवन्तः कौन्तेय न तेषु रमते बुधः ॥५- २२॥

ye hi saṁsparśajā bhogā duḥkhayonaya eva te
ādyantavantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ 5.22

ye1 hi2 saṁsparśajā3 bhoga4 duḥkha5 yonaya6 eva7 te8
ādi
9
anta10 vantaḥ11 kaunteya12 na13 teṣu14 ramate15 budhaḥ16 5.22

 

ye1 = Certainly;  bhoga4 = enjoyments; saṁsparśajā3 = result from contact between senses and their objects; hi2 = which; [are] eva7 = indeed; duḥkha5 yonaya6 = sources6 of sorrow5te8= They; ādi9 anta10 vantaḥ11 = have11 a beginning9 and an end10; kaunteya12 = O son of Kunti.  budhaḥ16 = The wise; na13 teṣu14 ramate15  = never delight in them [never13 in them14 delight15].  5.22

 

5.22: Certainly, the pleasures derived from contact between senses and sense objects are source (seats) of sorrow. They have a beginning and an end, O Kaunteya, and the wise do not take any pleasure in them. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक्शरीरविमोक्षणात् ।

कामक्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः ॥५- २३॥

śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṁ prāk śarīravimokṣaṇāt
kāmakrodhodbhavaṁ vegaṁ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ 5.23

śaknoti1 iha2 eva3 yaḥ4 soḍhum5 prāk6 śarīra7 vimokṣaṇāt8

kāma9 krodha10 udbhavam11 vegam12 sah13 yuktaḥ14 saḥ15 sukhī16 naraḥ17  5.23

 

 śaknoti1 iha2 eva3 yaḥ4 soḍhum5 = One who is able to endure in this birth [one who4 is able to1 endure5  in this birth2-3; udbhavam11 = the origin of ; vegam12 = the flood of;  kāma9 krodha10 = desire and anger; prāk6 = before;  śarīra7 vimokṣaṇāt8 = giving up8 the body7; sah13 yuktaḥ14 = he [is]Yogi.  saḥ15 naraḥ17 = That man; sukhī = [is] a happy one.   5.23

 

5.23: He, who can endure the flood of desire and anger, before he gives up his body, is a yogin and a happy man. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

योऽन्तःसुखोऽन्तरारामस्तथान्तर्ज्योतिरेव यः ।

स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतोऽधिगच्छति ॥५- २४॥

yontaḥsukhontarārāmas tathāntarjyotir eva yaḥ
sa yogī brahmanirvāṇaṁ brahmabhūtodhigacchati 5.24

ya1 antaḥ-sukha2 antar-ārāma3 tathā4 anta-jyoti5 eva6 yaḥ7
sah
8 yogī9 brahma-nirvāṇam10 brahma-bhūta11 adhigacchati12  5.24 

 

ya1 = One who; [is] antaḥ-sukha2  = happy inside; [and] antar-ārāma3 = happy within;  tathā4 anta-jyoti5 = in like manner4 has inner light5. eva6 yaḥ7 = Surely anyone; [like] sah8 yogī9 = that Yogi; Brahma-bhūta11 = having become Brahman; adhigacchati12 =  attains; brahma-nirvāṇam10  = absorption in Brahman --liberation. 5.24

 

5.24: He, who finds happiness, pleasure, and the inner light within his self, is a yogin and having become Brahman, attains Brahman (and the bliss of Brahman or beatitude of Brahman).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

लभन्ते ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृषयः क्षीणकल्मषाः ।

छिन्नद्वैधा यतात्मानः सर्वभूतहिते रताः ॥५- २५॥

labhante brahmanirvāṇam ṛṣayaḥ kṣīṇakalmaṣāḥ
chinnadvaidhā yatātmānaḥ sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ 5.25

labhante1 brahma-nirvāṇam2 ṛṣayaḥ3 kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ4
chinna
5 dvaidhā6 yata-ātmānaḥ7 sarva-bhūta8 hite9
ratāḥ10  5.25

 

ṛṣayaḥ3 = Rishis [sages];  kṣīṇa4A-kalmaṣāḥ4B = whose sins4B are destroyed4A; chinna5 dvaidhā6 = [who] cut off5 dualities6; yata7A-ātmānaḥ7B = [who have] subdued7A their mind7B; ratāḥ10  = [who are] engaged in; hite9 = weal and welfare;  sarva8A-bhūta8B = of all8A beings8B;  labhante1 = attain; brahma-nirvāṇam2  = Brahma-nirvanam--absorption in Brahman.   5.25

 

5.25: The sages, who restrain the mind, whose sins are destroyed, whose doubts and dualities are dissolved, and who are devoted to the welfare of all beings, attain Bliss of Brahman.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कामक्रोधवियुक्तानां यतीनां यतचेतसाम् ।

अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदितात्मनाम् ॥५- २६॥

kāmakrodhaviyuktānāṁ yatīnāṁ yatacetasām

abhito brahmanirvāṇaṁ vartate viditātmanām 5.26

kāma1 krodha2 viyuktānām3 yatīnām4 yata-cetasām5

abhita6 brahma-nirvāṇam7 vartate8 vidita-ātmanām9  5.26  

 

kāma1 krodha2 viyuktānām3 = Free from3 desire1 and anger2; yatīnām4 yata-cetasām5  = the ascetic4 who has restrained his mind5 ;vidita-ātmanām9 = who has known the Self; vartate8 = there is; abhita6 = in every way or on all sides; brahma-nirvāṇam7  = absorption in Brahman or liberation.  5.26

 

5.26: The beatitude of Brahman is imminent in the ascetic, whose desire and anger are removed, whose mind is restrained, and who has knowledge of the Self.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

स्पर्शान्कृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः ।

प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तरचारिणौ ॥५- २७॥

sparśān kṛtvā bahir bāhyāṁś cakṣuś caivāntare bhruvoḥ
prāṇāpānau samau kṛtvā nāsābhyantaracāriṇau 5.27

sparśān1 kṛtvā2 bahi3 bāhyān4 cakṣu5 ca6 eva7 antare8 bhruvoḥ9
prāṇa
10 apānau11 samau12 kṛtvā13 nāsa-abhyantara14 cāriṇau15  5.27 

 

kṛtvā2  = Keeping; bāhyān4  = the external; sparśān1 = objects; bahi3  = outside; ca6  = and;  cakṣu5  = the eyes; eva7  = certainly;  antare8  = keeping inside;  bhruvoḥ = between the eyebrows; samau12 kṛtvā13  = making13 equal12; prāṇa10  = out-breath; [and]  apānau11 = in-breath; cāriṇau15  =  moving;  nāsa14Aabhyantara14B = within14B nostrils14A  (Pranayama = breath control)    5.27

 

5.27: Abandoning all sense objects, fixing the gaze between the eye brows, and keeping the movement of air up and down (Prāna, Apāna) the nostrils in equilibrium within the nostrils, (continued) 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यतेन्द्रियमनोबुद्धिर्मुनिर्मोक्षपरायणः ।

विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधो यः सदा मुक्त एव सः ॥५- २८॥

yatendriyamanobuddhirmunir mokṣaparāyaṇaḥ
vigatecchābhayakrodho yaḥ sadā mukta eva saḥ 5.28

yata1 indriya2 mana3 buddhi4 muni5 mokṣa6 parāyaṇaḥ7
vigata
8 icchā9
bhaya10 krodha11 yaḥ12 sadā13 mukta14 eva15 saḥ16   5.28

 

muni5 = Ascetic; [who] yata1 = has control over; indriya2 = his sense organs mana3 = mind; [and] buddhi4 = intellect; [has]  mokṣa6 = liberation; [as] parāyaṇaḥ= aim [goal]; vigata8 = free from [gone away]; icchā9 = desire; bhaya10 = fear; [and] krodha11 = anger; yaḥ12 = who; sadā13 = always; mukta14 = is liberated. eva15 = Verily; saḥ16 = he is.  5.28

 

5.28: The sage, who has controlled his senses, his mind, and his intellect, has his highest aim as moksa or liberation, having freed himself from desire, fear, and anger, and is forever liberated.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम् ।

सुहृदं सर्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति ॥५- २९॥

bhoktāraṁ yajatapasāṁ sarvalokamaheśvaram

suhṛdaṁ sarvabhūtānāṁ jātvā māṁ śāntim ṛcchati 5.29

bhoktāram1 yaja2 tapasām3 sarva-loka4 maheśvaram5

suhṛdam6 sarva-bhūtānām7 jātvā8 mām9 śāntim10 ṛcchati11 5.29 

 

bhoktāram1 yaja2 tapasām3 = Knowing Me as enjoyer of the fruits of sacrifices and austerities [enjoyer1-sacrifices2-austerities3] ; [and] sarva-loka4 maheśvaram5  = the Great Lord of all the worlds [all-worlds4-the great Lord5]; suhṛdam6 sarva-bhūtānām7 jātvā8 mām9 śāntim10 ṛcchati11  = one attains peace knowing Me as the friend of all beings [friend6-all beings7-knowing8-Me9-peace10-one attains11].  5.29

 

5.29: Knowing me thus as the enjoyer or experiencer of all sacrifices and austerities (Yajana-tapasam) and the supreme Lord of this whole world or universe, the Friend of all living beings, one attains peace. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

End of BG Chapter Five: Yoga of Renunciation of Action