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BG Chapter 13: The Knower, the Field, and the Nature

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच 

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते ।

एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः ॥१३- १॥ 

śrībhagavān uvāca
idaṁ śarīraṁ kaunteya kṣ
etram ity abhidhīyate
etad yo vetti ta
ṁ prāhuḥ kṣetraja iti tadvidaḥ 13.1

śrībhagavān uvāca
idam
1 śarīram2 kaunteya3 kṣetram4 iti5 abhidhīyate6
etat7 ya
8 vetti9 tam10 prāhuḥ11 kṣetraja12 iti13 tadvida14 13.1

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: idam1 = this; śarīram2 = body; kaunteya3 = O son of Kunti; abhidhīyate6 = is referred to; iti5 = as; kṣetram4 = the field; ya8 = he who; vetti9 = knows; etat7 = this; tadvida14 = the learned ones;  prāhuḥ11 = call; tam10 = him;  iti13 = as; kṣetraja12 = the knower of the field. 13.1 

 

13.1:   Sri Bhagavan said:

This body, O son of Kunti, is called the field; he, who knows this, is called the knower of the field by the learned ones.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत ।

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥१३- २॥ 

kṣetrajaṁ cāpi māṁ viddhi sarvakṣetreṣu bhārata
k
ṣetrakṣetrajayor jānaṁ yat taj jānaṁ mataṁ mama 13.2

kṣetrajam1 ca2 api3 mām4 viddhi5 sarva-kṣetreṣu6 bhārata7
k
ṣetra8 kṣetra-jayo9 jānam10 yat11 tat12 jānam13 matam14 mama15
13.2

 

ca2 = And; api3 = indeed; viddhi5 = know; mām4 = Me; [as] kṣetrajam1 = the Knower of the field; sarva-kṣetreṣu6  = in all fields; bhārata7 = O Bharata.  tat12 = That;  yat11 = which; [is] jānam10 = knowledge;  kṣetra8 kṣetra-jayo9 = of the field and the knower of the field; [is]; jānam13 = knowledge. [That is] mama15 = My; matam14 = opinion. 13.2   
 

13.2: Know Me as the Knower of the field in all fields, O Bharata. The knowledge of the field and its Knower is knowledge in My opinion or mind.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत् ।

स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे शृणु ॥१३- ३॥ 

tat kṣetraṁ yac ca yādṛk ca yadvikāri yataś ca yat
sa ca yo yatprabhāvaś ca tat samāsena me ś
ṛṇu 13.3

tat kṣetram yat1 ca2 yādṛk3 ca4 yat-vikāri5 yata ca yat6
sa
ca ya
7 yat-prabhāva8 ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu9 13.3

 

tat kṣetram yat1 = What field is that? [that-field-what]; ca2 = and; yādṛk3 = what kind it is? ca4 = and ; yat-vikāri4 = what are its  transformations? [what-transformations].  yata ca yat6 = And from what it originates? [from what-and-what originates].  sa ca ya7  = And who is he? [he-and-who].  yat-prabhāva8 = What greatness pertains to Him? ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu9  = And hear that from Me briefly [and-that-briefly-from me-hear].  13.3
 

13.3:  What the field is; what kind it is; what its transformations are; what its source is; what he is; who he is; and what his greatness is, hear from Me briefly.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् ।

ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥१३- ४॥ 

ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītaṁ chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak
brahmasūtrapadaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitai
ḥ 13.4

ṛṣibhi1 bahudhā2 gītam3 chandobhiḥ4 vividhaiḥ5 pṛthak6
brahma-sūtra-padai
7 ca8 eva9 hetumadbhi10 viniścitai11 13.4

 

ṛṣibhi1 = The Rishis/Sages; bahudhā2 = in many ways; gītam3 = sang;  pṛthak6 = separately; chandobhiḥ4 = various Vedic hymns; vividhaiḥ5 = of different kinds;ca8 = and; eva9 = indeed; brahma-sūtra-padai7 = Brahma Sutra aphorisms; [with] hetumadbhi10 = logic, reason; [and] viniścitai11 = certainty [determined knowledge]. 13.4
 

13.4: The rishis sang this in many ways, in various Vedic hymns, and aphorisms of Brahma sutra with logic, reason, and certainty.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च ।

इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥१३- ५॥ 

mahābhūtāny ahaṁkāro buddhir avyaktam eva ca
indriyā
i daśaikaṁ ca paca cendriyagocarāḥ 13.5

mahābhūtāni1 ahaṅkāra2 buddhi3 avyaktam4 eva5 ca6
indriyā
i7 daśa8 ekam9 ca10 paca11 ca12 indriya-gocarāḥ13 13.5

 

mahābhūtāni1 = The great elements; ahaṅkāra2 = ego; buddhi3 = Buddhi/intellect; avyaktam4 = the unmanifest; daśa8 = the ten; indriyāi7 = sense organs; eva5 = indeed; ca6 = and;  ekam9 = the one [the mind]; ca10 = and; ca12 = also; paca11 = the five; indriya-gocarāḥ13 = objects of the senses. 13.5

 

13.5:  The great elements, the egoism, the intellect, the unmanifested, the senses, the mind, and the five sense objects... continued

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

 

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं संघातश्चेतना धृतिः ।

एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम् ॥१३- ६॥

icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ saṁghātaś cetanā dhṛtiḥ
etat kṣetraṁ samāsena savikāram udāhṛ
tam 13.6

icchā dveṣaḥ1 sukham duḥkham2 saṅghāta3 cetanā dhṛtiḥ4
etat5 kṣetram6 samāsena7 savikāram8 udāhṛ
tam9 13.6

 

icchā dveṣaḥ1 = desire, hatred; sukham duḥkham2 = happiness, sorrow; saṅghāta3 = the agglomerate [of body and organs, made of 25 elements]; cetanā = sentience; [and] dhṛtiḥ4 = firmness: etat5 = this; kṣetram6 = field; udāhṛtam9 = is described; samāsena7 = in brief; [with the] savikāram8 = modifications. 13.6
 

13.6:  Desire, hatred, happiness and sorrow; the body as an agglomerate (of 25 elements), consciousness, and firmness: this is the field briefly described with their modifications.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् ।

आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥१३- ७॥

amānitvam adambhitvam ahisā kāntir ārjavam
ācāryopāsana
ṁ śaucaṁ sthairyam ātmavinigrahaḥ 13.7

amānitvam1 adambhitvam2 ahi3 kānti4 ārjavam5
ācārya-upāsana
m6 śaucam7 sthairyam8 ātma-vinigrahaḥ9 13.7

 

amānitvam1 = Humility; adambhitvam2 = nonostentation; ahi3 = non-injury; kānti4 = patience; ārjavam5 = straightforwardness;  ācārya-upāsanam6  = service to teacher; śaucam7 = purity; sthairyam8 = steadfastness; ātma-vinigrahaḥ9  = self-restraint; 13.7  continued.

 

13.7:  Humility, nonostentation (Adambhitvam), nonviolence, patience, straightforwardness, service to Ācārya, purity, steadfastness, self-restraint... (continued)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहंकार एव च ।

जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ॥१३- ८॥

indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam anahakāra eva ca
janmam
ṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkhadoṣānudarśanam 13.8

indriyārtheṣu1 vairāgyam2 anahakāra3 eva4 ca5
janma6A-m
ṛtyu6B-jarā6C-vyādhi6D-duḥkha6E-doṣa6F-anudarśanam6G 13.8

 

vairāgyam2 = non-attachment; indriyārtheṣu1 = to sense objects; anahakāra3 = paucity of egoism; eva4 = indeed; ca5 = and; anudarśanam6G = having insight into; doṣa6F = suffering related to [fault or evil]; janma6A = birth; mṛtyu6B = death; jarā6C = old age; vyādhi6D = disease; duḥkha6E = sorrow...  13.8 continued

 

13.8:  aversion towards sense objects, absence of egoism, having insight into the suffering related to birth, death, old age, disease, sorrow (continued)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।

नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥१३- ९॥

asaktir anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu
nitya
ṁ ca samacittatvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu 13.9

asakti1 anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ2 putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu3
nitya
m4 ca5 sama-cittatvam6 iṣṭa-aniṣṭa-upapattiṣu7 13.9

 

asakti1 = detachment; anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ2 = absence of attachment or mineness;  putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu3 = for son, wife, & home; ca5 = and; nityam4 = constant; sama-cittatvam6  = mental equilibrium; [on] iṣṭa-aniṣṭa-upapattiṣu7 = attainment of the desirable and the undesirable... 13.9  (continued)

 

13.9:  detachment; absence of attachment to son, wife, home; constant equilibrium on attainment of the desirable and the undesirable; (continued)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।

विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥१३- १०॥

mayi cānanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicāriī
viviktadeśasevitvam aratir janasa
sadi 13.10

mayi1 ca2 ananya-yogena3 bhakti4 avyabhicāriī5
vivikta-deśa-sevitvam6 arati
-jana-sasadi7 13.10

 

ananya-yogena3 = dedicated concentration; ca2 = and; avyabhicāriī5 = unswerving; bhakti4 = devotion; mayi1 = to Me; vivikta-deśa-sevitvam6  = resorting to solitary places [solitary-places-resorting]; arati-jana-sasadi7 = dissatisfaction [discomfort] in the company of people [dissatisfaction-people-assembly]... 13.10
 

13.10 Dedicated concentration and unswerving devotion to Me having no other refuge, resorting to solitary places, discomfort in the midst of people.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् ।

एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥१३- ११॥

adhyātmajānanityatvaṁ tattvajānārthadarśanam
etaj jānam iti proktam ajānaṁ yad atonyathā 13.11

adhyātma-jāna-nityatvam1 tattva-jāna-artha-darśanam2
etat3 jānam4 iti5 proktam6 ajānam7 yat8
ataḥ anyathā9 13.11

 

adhyātma-jāna-nityatvam1 = steadfastness in the attainment of knowledge of the Self [Self-knowledge-steadfastness] tattva-jāna-artha-darśanam2  = contemplation and insight into knowledge of Reality [Truth-knowledge-insight-contemplation]: etat3 = this; proktam6 = is declared; iti5 = thus; [as]  jānam4 = knowledge;   yat8 = that which is; ataḥ anyathā9 = other than this [than this-other]; [is] ajānam7 = non-knowledge. 13.11
 

3.11:  steadfastness in the attainment of the knowledge of the Supreme Self, and insight into the knowledge of the Truth are (declared) the knowledge, and that which is otherwise is non-knowledge.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते ।

अनादि मत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥१३- १२॥

jeyaṁ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj jātvāmtam aśnute
anādimat para
ṁ brahma na sat tan nāsad ucyate 13.12

jeyam1 yat2 tat3 pravakṣyāmi4 yat5 jātvā6 amtam7 aśnute8
anādimat9 para
m10 brahma11 na12 sat13 tat14 na15 asat16 ucyate17 13.12

 

pravakṣyāmi4 = I will explain; tat3 = that; yat2 = which; [is] jeyam1 = knowable; [by] jātvā6 = knowing;   yat5 = which; aśnute8 = one attains; amtam7 = ambrosia/immortality. param10 = The supreme; brahma11 = Brahman; [is] anādimat9 = one without a beginning. tat14 = That; ucyate17 = is said to be; na12 = neither; sat13 = being; na15 = nor; asat16 = non-being. 13.12 

13.12:  I will explain to you that by knowing which one gains the nectar of immortality. That beginningless Supreme Brahman is neither Sat nor Asat.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् ।

सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥१३- १३॥

sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṁ tat sarvatokṣiśiromukham
sarvata
ḥ śrutimal loke sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhati 13.13

sarvataḥ1 pāṇi-pādam2 tat3 sarvataḥ4 akṣi-śira-mukham5
sarvata
6 śruti-mat7 loke8 sarvam9 āvṛtya10 tiṣṭhati11 13.13

 

sarvataḥ1 = Everywhere; pāṇi-pādam2  = hands and feet; sarvataḥ4 = everywhere; akṣi-śira-mukham5  = eyes, heads and faces; sarvata6 = everywhere; śruti-mat7 = having ears:  tat3 = That; tiṣṭhati11 = exists; āvṛtya10 = pervading; sarvam9 = everything; loke8 = in the world. 13.13 
 

13.13:  Everywhere hands and feet; everywhere eyes, heads and faces; everywhere ears:  He exists pervading everything.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम् ।

असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥१३- १४॥

sarvendriyaguṇābhāsaṁ sarvendriyavivarjitam
asaktaṁ sarvabhṛ
c caiva nirguṇaṁ guṇabhoktṛ ca 13.14

sarva-indriya-guṇa-ābhāsam1 sarva-indriya-vivarjitam2
asaktam3 sarva-bhṛ
t4 ca5 eva6 nirguṇam7 guṇa-bhoktṛ8 ca9 13.14

 

[He is] sarva-indriya-guṇa-ābhāsam1 = the light of all organs and Gunas [all-organs-Gunas-light]; sarva-indriya-vivarjitam2  = abstaining from all sense organs [all-organs-abstaining]; asaktam3 = unattached; sarva-bhṛt4 = supporter of all; ca5 = moreover; eva6 = indeed; nirguṇam7 = devoid of Gunas; ca9 = also; guṇa-bhoktṛ8 = enjoyer of Gunas. 13.14.  Guna = Sattva, Rajas and Tamas = Virtue, passion and darkness.

13.14:  He is the light of all Indriyas and Gunas; He is also the abstainer from Indriyas. He is unattached to anything; He is the supporter of all. He is devoid of any Gunas and yet enjoys the senses.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च ।

सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् ॥१३- १५॥

bahir antaś ca bhūtānām acaraṁ caram eva ca
sūkṣ
matvāt tad avijeyaṁ dūrasthaṁ cāntike ca tat 13.15

bahiḥ1 antaḥ2 ca3 bhūtānām4 acaram5 caram6 eva7 ca8
sūkṣ
matvāt9 tat10 avijeyam11 dūrastham12 ca13 antike14 ca15 tat16 13.15

 

[What is] bahiḥ1 = outside; ca3 = and; antaḥ2 = inside; eva7 = also; [in]  bhūtānām4 = beings; acaram5 = the non-mobile; ca8 = and; caram6 = the mobile; tat10 = That; sūkṣmatvāt9 = on account of subtleness; [is]  avijeyam11 = unknowable; ca13 = and; tat16 = That; [is] dūrastham12 = far away; ca15 = and; antike14 = near. 13.15
 

13.15: What is outside and inside all beings, and in the moving and the unmoving is too subtle (fine, minute, or small) for apprehension. That, which is near and yet is far away, is That.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम् ।

भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥१३- १६॥

avibhaktaṁ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktam iva ca sthitam
bhūtabhart
ṛ ca taj jeyaṁ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca 13.16

avibhaktam1 ca2 bhūteṣu3 vibhaktam4 iva5 ca6 sthitam7

bhūta-bhart8 ca9 tat10  jeyam11 grasiṣṇu12 prabhaviṣṇu13 ca14 13.16

 

jeyam11 = Knowable; tat10  = That [Para Brahman]; [is] avibhaktam1 = undivided; ca2 = and; vibhaktam4 = divided; bhūteṣu3 = in all beings; ca6 = and; iva5 = in the same manner;  sthitam7 = Existing; bhūta-bhart8 = Sustainer of beings; ca9 = and;   grasiṣṇu12 = Devourer; ca14 = also; prabhaviṣṇu13 = the Creator.13.16
 

13.16: He is undivided and yet He appears divided in all beings. He is the supporter of the world, also the object of knowledge, swallowing and creating also (of beings).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते ।

ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम् ॥१३- १७॥

jyotiām api taj jyotis tamasaḥ param ucyate
jānaṁ jeyaṁ jānagamyaṁ hṛ
di sarvasya viṣṭhitam 13.17

jyotiām1 api2 tat3 jyoti4 tamasa5 param6 ucyate7
jānam8 jeyam9 jāna-gamyam
10 hṛdi11 sarvasya12 viṣṭhitam13 13.17

 

tat3 = That; [is]  jyoti4 = the Light; api2 = even;  jyotiām1 = of lights; [It] ucyate7 = is said; [It is] param6 = beyond; tamasa5 = darkness; [It is]  jānam8 = knowledge; [ It is] jeyam9 = knowable; [It is] jāna-gamyam10 = the Known; [It] viṣṭhitam13 = exists; hṛdi11 = in the heart; sarvasya12 = of everyone.13.17
 

13.17:  He (that) is the Light of all lights. He is beyond Tamas (darkness and delusion). He is the knowledge. He is the object of knowledge. He is the knowledge worthy of knowing. He stands firm in the hearts of all, so it is said.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः ।

मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥१३- १८॥

iti kṣetraṁ tathā jānaṁ jeyaṁ coktaṁ sanāsataḥ
madbhakta etad vijāya madbhāvāyopapadyate 13.18

iti1 kṣetram2 tathā3 jānam4 jeyam5 ca6 uktam7 samāsataḥ8
mat-bhakta9 etat
10 vijāya11 mat-bhāvāya12 upapadyate13 13.18

 

iti1 = Thus; kṣetram2 = the field; tathā3 = also;  jānam4 = the knowledge; ca6 = and; jeyam5 = the knowable; uktam7 = were spoken of;  samāsataḥ8 = briefly. mat-bhakta9 = My votary; vijāya11 = knowing; etat10 = this;  upapadyate13 = attains; mat-bhāvāya12  = My nature.13.18

13.18: Thus, the field, also knowledge, and the object of knowledge were briefly recited. My devotee, by understanding their wisdom, enters My own nature or state of Being.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि ।

विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान् ॥१३- १९॥

prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva viddhy anādi ubhāv api
vikārāś ca guṇāṁ
ś caiva viddhi prakṛtisaṁbhavān 13.19

prakṛtim1 puruṣam2 ca3 eva4 viddhi5 anādi6 ubhāu7 api8
vikārān9 ca
10 guṇān11 ca12 eva13 viddhi14 prakṛti-sambhavān15  13.19

 

viddhi5 = Know; prakṛtim1 = Nature; ca3 = and; puruṣam2 = the individual souls; [are]  ubhāu7 = both; eva4 = indeed; anādi6 = without beginning; ca10 = and ; viddhi14 = know; api8 = also; vikārān9 = transformation [change]; ca12 = and; eva13 = indeed; guṇān11 = Gunas; [are]  prakṛti-sambhavān15  = born of Nature.13.19

 

13.19:  Know that Prakriti and Purusa are both without beginning; know also that Vikārān and gunas (transformation and modes) are born of Prakriti. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कार्यकरणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।

पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥१३- २०॥

kārya kāraa karttve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate
puru
ṣaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṁ bhoktṛtve hetur ucyate 13.20

kārya-kāraa-karttve1 hetu2 prakṛti3 ucyate4
puru
ṣaḥ5 sukha-duḥkhānām6 bhoktṛtve7 hetu8 ucyate9 13.20

 

prakṛti3 = Nature; ucyate4 = is said to be; hetu2 = the cause of;  kārya-kāraa-karttve1 = agency to body and sense organs [body-organs-agency].  puruṣaḥ5 = The individual soul [the self]; ucyate9 = is said be; hetu8 = the cause; bhoktṛtve7 = in the experiencing; sukha-duḥkhānām6 = of happiness and sorrow. 13.20

13.20:   It is said that Prakriti is Kārya Kārana (cause of effect), instrument, and agency. The Purusa is said to be the cause of experience of pleasure and pain.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्‌क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् ।

कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥१३- २१॥

puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhukte praktijān guān
kāra
ṇaṁ guṇasaṅgosya sadasadyonijanmasu 13.21

puruṣaḥ1 prakṛtistha2 hi3 bhukte4 praktijān5 guān6 

kāraṇam7 guṇasaṅga8 asya9 sad-asad-yoni-janmasu10 13.21

 

puruṣaḥ1 = Purusa [Jivatma, the individual living soul]; prakṛtistha2 = abiding in Prakrti; hi3 = indeed; bhukte4 = enjoys; guān6  = Gunas; praktijān5 = born of Nature. guṇasaṅga8 = Attachment to Gunas; [is] kāraṇam7 = the cause; sad-asad-yoni-janmasu10  = of birth in good or evil wombs [good-evil-womb-birth];  asya9 = for that Jivatma. 13.21
 

13.21:  Purusa situated in Prakriti certainly enjoys the Gunas of Prakriti. Attachment to the Gunas (modes) is the cause of birth of a being in good and evil wombs [ = animal wombs].

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः ।

परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥१३- २२॥

upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvara
paramātmeti cāpyukto dehesmin puruṣaḥ paraḥ 13.22

upadraṣṭā1 anumantā2 ca3 bhartā4 bhoktā5 maheśvara6
paramātma7 iti8 ca9 api
10 uktaḥ11 dehe12 asmin13 puruṣaḥ14 paraḥ15 13.22

 

maheśvara6 = Mahesvara [Great Lord]; uktaḥ11 = is said to be; upadraṣṭā1 = the Witness; anumantā2 = the Approver; ca3 = and; bhartā4 = the Supporter; bhoktā5 = the Enjoyer;  paramātma7 = the Supreme Soul; ca9 = moreover; iti8 = thus;  api10 = even; asmin13 = this; paraḥ15 = Supreme; puruṣaḥ14 = Purusa; [is] dehe12 = in the body.13.22

13.22:  The Mahā-Īsvara, the Great Ruler in the body is the witness, the approver, the supporter, the enjoyer, the Supreme Self (Paramātmā) in the body, and the Supreme Purusa.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह ।

सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥१३- २३॥

ya evaṁ vetti puruṣaṁ prakṛtiṁ ca guṇaiḥ saha
sarvathā vartamānopi na sa bhūyobhijāyate 13.23

yaḥ1 evam2 vetti3 puruṣam4 prakṛtim5 ca6 guṇaiḥ7 saha8
sarvathā9 vartamānaḥ
10 api11 na12 saḥ13 bhūyaḥ14 abhijāyate15
13.23

 

yaḥ1 = He who; evam2 = thus; vetti3 = knows; puruṣam4 = man; ca6 = and; prakṛtim5 = nature; saha8 = with; guṇaiḥ7 = Gunas/qualities; [though] vartamānaḥ10 = living; sarvathā9 api11 = in all ways; saḥ13 = he;  na12 abhijāyate15 = is never born; bhūyaḥ14 = again.  13.23 
 

13.23:  He who understands Purusa and Prakriti with the gunas (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas), is never born again though existing in the present in all modes (any mode).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।

अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥१३- २४॥

dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecid ātmānam ātmanā
anye sāṁ
khyena yogena karmayogena cāpare 13.24

dhyānena1 ātmani2 paśyanti3 kecit4 ātmānam5 ātmanā6
anye7 sāṅ
khyena yogena8 karma-yogena9 ca10 apare11 13.24

 

dhyānena1 = By meditation; kecit4 = some; paśyanti3 = see/realize; ātmānam5 = Self; ātmani2 = in the self;   ātmanā6 = through Buddhi/mind/intellect; anye7 = others; sāṅkhyena yogena8  = through Sankhya Yoga; ca10 = and; apare11 = others; karma-yogena9  = through Karma Yoga. 13.24
 

13.24:  By meditation, some see the Atman (The Greater Soul) in the self through intellect, others by the yoga of knowledge (Sānkhya yoga or Jnāna Yoga) and still others by Karma Yoga.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते ।

तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः ॥१३- २५॥

anye tv evam ajānantaḥ śrutvānyebhya upāsate
tepi cātitaranty eva mṛtyuṁ śrutiparāyaṇāḥ 13.25
anye1 tu2 evam3 ajānanta4 śrutvā5 anyebhyaḥ6 upāsate7
te8 api9 ca
10 atitaranti11 eva12 mṛtyum13 śruti-parāyaṇāḥ14 13.25

 

 tu2 = But;  anye1 = others; evam3 = thus; ajānanta4 = ignorant of [Yogas]; upāsate7 = worship; śrutvā5 = by hearing; anyebhyaḥ6 = from others [gurus or teachers]; ca10 = and; te8 = they; api9 = also;  eva12 = indeed; atitaranti11 = cross over; mṛtyum13 = death; śruti-parāyaṇāḥ14 = by trust in what they heard.13.25
 

13.25:  But others worship, ignorant of these yogas (Jnāna and Karma), by hearing from others. They certainly go (across) beyond death by (leap of faith) trust in what they heard.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यावत्संजायते किंचित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ।

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥१३- २६॥

yāvat saṁjāyate kicit sattvaṁ sthāvarajaṅgamam
k
ṣetrakṣetrajasaṁyogāt tad viddhi bharatarabha 13.26

yāvat1 sajāyate2 kicit3 sattvam4 sthāvara5 jaṅgamam6
k
ṣetra-kṣetraja-saṁyogāt7 tat8 viddhi9 bharatarabha10 13.26

 

yāvat1 kicit3 = Whatever; sajāyate2 = comes into existence; sattvam4 = beings; sthāvara5 = immobile; [and] jaṅgamam6 = mobile; viddhi9 = know; tat8 = that; [it happens from] kṣetra-kṣetraja-saṁyogāt7 = union of the field and the knower of the field  [field-knower of the field-union]   bharatarabha10 = O the best of Bharatas.13.26
 

13.26:  Whatever comes into being, unmoving or moving, you must know that (it is by) the union of the ksetra and ksetrajna (field and the knower of the field).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम् ।

विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥१३- २७॥

samaṁ sarveṣu bhūteu tiṣṭhantaṁ parameśvaram
vinaśyatsv avinaśyantaṁ yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati 13.27

samam1 sarveṣu2 bhūteu3 tiṣṭhantam4 parameśvaram5
vinaśyatsu6 avinaśyantam7 yaḥ8 paśyati9 saḥ
10 paśyati11 13.27

 

saḥ10 = He; yaḥ8 = who; paśyati9 = sees; avinaśyantam7 = the imperishable; parameśvaram5 = Supreme Lord; samam1 = equally; sarveṣu2 = in all; tiṣṭhantam4 = existing; vinaśyatsu6 = perishable; bhūteu3 = beings; paśyati11 = [really] sees.13.27
 

13.27:  He who sees the imperishable Supreme Lord, residing equally in all perishable living entities, really sees.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम् ।

न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥१३- २८॥

samaṁ paśyan hi sarvatra samavasthitam īśvaram
na hinasty ātmanātmānaṁ tato yāti parāṁ gatim 13.28

samam1  paśyan2 hi3 sarvatra4 samavasthitam5  īśvaram6
na hinasti7 ātmanā8 ātmānam9 tataḥ
10 yāti11 parām gatim12 13.28

 

paśyan2 = Seeing; īśvaram6 = the Lord; samam1 = equally;  hi3 = indeed; sarvatra4 = everywhere; samavasthitam5  = equally abiding; [everywhere] [he] na hinasti7 =does not injure/destroy;  ātmānam9 = Self; ātmanā8 = by the self/mind; tataḥ10 = therefore; [he] yāti11 = attains; parām gatim12  = the supreme goal.13.28

 

13.28:  Seeing Isvara (Lord) equally abiding everywhere, he does not injure the (Greater) Self by the (individual) self, and then attains the Supreme goal.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः ।

यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ॥१३- २९॥

prakṛtyaiva ca karmāi kriyamāāni sarvaśa
yaḥ paśyati tathātmānam akartāraṁ sa paśyati 13.29

prakṛtya1 eva2 ca3 karmāi4 kriyamāāni5 sarvaśa6
yaḥ7 paśyati8 tathā9 ātmānam
10 akartāram11 saḥ12 paśyati13 13.29

 

yaḥ7 = He who; paśyati8 = sees; karmāi4 = activities; kriyamāāni5 = being performed; sarvaśa6 = in many ways; prakṛtya1 = by Nature; eva2 = indeed; ca3 = and;  tathā9 = also; ātmānam10 = the Self; [as] akartāram11 = the non-agent; saḥ12 = he; paśyati13 = sees. 13.29   
 

13.29:  He, who sees that Prakriti (nature) performs all activities, knows that the self is not the doer; he truly sees.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति ।

तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म संपद्यते तदा ॥१३- ३०॥

yadā bhūtapṛthagbhāvam ekastham anupaśyati
tata eva ca vistāra
ṁ brahma saṁpadyate tadā 13.30

yadā1 bhūta-pṛthak-bhāvam2 ekastham3 anupaśyati4
tata5
eva6 ca7 vistāram8 brahma9 sampadyate10 tadā11 13.30

 

yadā1 = When; anupaśyati4 = one sees/realizes; bhūta-pṛthak-bhāvam2  = the state of diversity and individuality of beings [living beings-diverse-state]; ekastham3 = abiding in One; ca7 = and; [which are His] vistāram8 = expansions;  tata5 eva6 = from That also; sampadyate10 = he attains;  brahma9 = Brahman; tadā11 = at that time.13.30 
 

13.30: When one sees that the individuality of all living beings abides in One, and that all living beings are expansions of One, he attains Brahma (realization) then.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः ।

शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥१३- ३१॥

anāditvān nirguatvāt paramātmāyam avyaya
śarīrasthopi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate 13.31

anāditvāt1 nirguatvāt2 paramātmā3 ayam4 avyaya5
śarīrasthaḥ6 api7 kaunteya8 na karoti9 na lipyate
10 13.31

 

avyaya5 = The immutable; paramātmā3 = Supreme Soul; [is] anāditvāt1 = without beginning; [and] nirguatvāt2 = without attributes; api7 = though; śarīrasthaḥ6 = dwelling in the body; kaunteya8 = O Kaunteya; ayam4 = [This] It; na karoti9 = neither acts; na lipyate10  = nor is stained. 13.31
 

13.31:  The imperishable (or immutable) Supreme Self is without beginning and attributes, though dwelling in the body, O Kaunteya; It neither acts nor is stained.  Ramanuja; Gunas = Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते ।

सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥१३- ३२॥

yathā sarvagataṁ saukṣmyād ākāśaṁ nopalipyate
sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate 13.32

yathā1 sarva-gatam2 saukṣmyāt3 ākāśam4 na upalipyate5
sarvatra6 avasthitaḥ7 dehe8 tathā9 ātmā10 na upalipyate
10 13.32

 

yathā1 = As; sarva-gatam2 = all-pervasive; ākāśam4 = Ether; na upalipyate5 =  is not stained; saukṣmyāt3 = due to its subtle nature; sarvatra6 = everywhere; tathā9 = likewise; ātmā10  = the Self;  avasthitaḥ7 = present; dehe8 = in the body;  na upalipyate10 = is not stained [ by the Gunas due to its Nirguna state]  13.32
 

13.32:  As the all-pervasive ether is not stained due to its subtle nature, the all-pervasive Self, taking abode in the body, is never stained.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः ।

क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥१३- ३३॥

yathā prakāśayaty ekaḥ kṛtsnaṁ lokam imaṁ raviḥ
kṣetraṁ kṣ
etrī tathā kṛtsnaṁ prakāśayati bhārata 13.33

yathā1 prakāśayati2 ekaḥ3 kṛtsnam lokam4 imam5 raviḥ6
kṣetram7 kṣ
etrī8 tathā9 kṛtsnam10 prakāśayati11 bhārata12 13.33

 

yathā1 = As;  ekaḥ3 = one; raviḥ6  = sun; prakāśayati2 = lights up; imam5 = this;  kṛtsnam lokam4 = whole world; tathā9 = likewise; kṣetrī8 = the Knower of the field; prakāśayati11 = illuminates; kṛtsnam10 = all; kṣetram7 = field/body; bhārata12 = O Bharata [Arjuna]. 13.33

 

13.33:  As the sun lights up this the whole world, similarly, the ksetrin (the knower of the field) illuminates all of the ksetram (the field), O Bharata.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।

भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ॥१३- ३४॥

kṣetrakṣetrajayor evam antaraṁ jānacakṣuṣā
bhūtaprak
ṛtimokṣaṁ ca ye vidur yānti te param 13.34

kṣetra-kṣetrajayo1 evam2 antaram3 jāna-cakṣuṣā4
bhūta-prak
ṛti-mokṣam5 ca6 ye7 viduḥ8 yānti9 te10 param11 13.34

 

ye7 = They who; viduḥ8 = know; antaram3 = the difference; kṣetra-kṣetrajayo1 = between the field and the Knower of the field; ca6 = and; evam2 = thus; jāna-cakṣuṣā4 = the eye of wisdom; [focused on] bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣam5 =  liberation of beings from Nature [beings-Nature-liberation]; te10 = they; yānti9 = attain;  param11 = the Supreme. 13.34

13.34: They who know the difference between the field and the knower of the field and who have the eye of wisdom focused on liberation of beings from Prakrti attain the Supreme.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

End BG Chapter 13: The Knower, the Field, and the Nature