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BG Chapter 14::The Three-Guna Psychology

 

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच

परं भूयः प्रवक्ष्यामि ज्ञानानां ज्ञानमुत्तमम् ।

यज्ज्ञात्वा मुनयः सर्वे परां सिद्धिमितो गताः ॥१४- १॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
paraṁ bhūyaḥ pravakṣyāmi jānānāṁ jānam uttamam
yaj jātvā munayaḥ sarve parāṁ siddhim ito gatāḥ 14.1

śrībhagavān uvāca
param
1 bhūyaḥ2 pravakṣyāmi3 jānānām4 jānam5 uttamam6
yat
7 jātvā8 munayaḥ9 sarve10 parām11 siddhim12 ita13 gatāḥ14 14.1

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said:  pravakṣyāmi3 = I shall declare; bhūyaḥ2 = again;  param1 = supreme; jānam5 = knowledge; uttamam6 = the highest; jānānām4 = of all knowledge;  jātvā8 = knowing; yat7 = which;  sarve10 = all; munayaḥ9 = sages; gatāḥ14 = attained; ita13 = from here [this world]; parām11 = supreme; siddhim12 = perfection. 14.1

 

14.1:  Sri Bhagavan said:

I shall again declare the supreme knowledge, which is the highest of all knowledge, by knowing which all munis (sages) attained supreme perfection in their afterlives.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

इदं ज्ञानमुपाश्रित्य मम साधर्म्यमागताः ।

सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च ॥१४- २॥

idaṁ jānam upāśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ
sargepi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca 14.2

idam1 jānam2 upāśritya3 mama4 sādharmyam5 āgatāḥ6
sarge
7 api8 na upajāyante9 pralaye10 na vyathanti11 ca12 14.2

 

upāśritya3 = Taking refuge in;  idam1 = this; jānam2 = knowledge; [and] āgatāḥ6 = attaining; mama4 = My; sādharmyam5 = Nature [same identity]; [they]  na upajāyante9  = are neither born; sarge7 = during creation; na vyathanti11ca12  = nor suffer pain; api8 = even;  pralaye10 = at dissolution.14.2

 

14.2:  Having taken refuge in knowledge, and having entered My nature, they are neither born at the time of creation nor suffer at the time of dissolution.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

मम योनिर्महद्ब्रह्म तस्मिन्गर्भं दधाम्यहम् ।

संभवः सर्वभूतानां ततो भवति भारत ॥१४- ३॥

mama yonir mahad brahma tasmin garbhaṁ dadhāmy aham
saṁbhavaḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ tato bhavati bhārata 14.3

mama1 yoni2 mahat brahma3 tasmin4 garbham5 dadhāmi6 aham7
sambhavaḥ
8 sarva-bhūtānām9 tata10 bhavati11 bhārata12 14.3

 

mahat brahma3  = The Great Brahman; [is] mama1 = My; yoni2 = Womb;  tasmin4 = in it [in the Womb]; aham7= I; dadhāmi6 = induce [place]; garbham5 = pregnancy;  tata10 = thereafter;  sambhavaḥ8 = birth; sarva-bhūtānām9 = of all beings;bhavati11 = occurs; bhārata12 O Scion of Bharata. 14.3

 

14.3:   The great Brahman is My womb, in which I induce pregnancy. From that, all living beings are born, O Bharata.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

सर्वयोनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्तयः संभवन्ति याः ।

तासां ब्रह्म महद्योनिरहं बीजप्रदः पिता ॥१४- ४॥

sarvayoniṣu kaunteya mūrtayaḥ saṁbhavanti yāḥ
tāsāṁ brahma mahad yonir ahaṁ bījapradaḥ pitā 14.4

sarva-yoniṣu1 kaunteya2 mūrtayaḥ3 sambhavanti4 yāḥ5
tāsām
6 brahma7 mahat8 yoni9 aham10 bīja-pradaḥ11 pitā12 14.4

 

yāḥ5 = Whatever; mūrtayaḥ3 = forms; sambhavanti4 = appear/are born; sarva-yoniṣu1 = from all wombs; kaunteya2 = O son of Kunti; mahat8 = the Great; brahma7 = Brahman; [is] yoni9 = the Womb; aham10 = I; [am]  bīja-pradaḥ11= the seed giving; pitā12 = father tāsām6 = of them.    14.4

 

14.4:  Whatever forms appear in the wombs, O son of Kunti, I am the seed-giving father of all of them in the great womb of Brahma. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः ।

निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥१४- ५॥

sattvaṁ rajas tama iti guṇāḥ prakṛtisambhavāḥ
nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinam avyayam 14.5

sattvam1 rajas2 tama3 iti4 guṇāḥ5 prakṛti-sambhavāḥ6
nibadhnanti
7 mahābāho8 dehe9 dehinam10 avyayam11 14.5

 

sattvam1 = Sattva/goodness; rajas2 = Rajas/passion; tama3 = Tamas/darkness; iti4 = thus; guṇāḥ5 = the Gunas or qualities; prakṛti-sambhavāḥ6  = are born of nature; [and] nibadhnanti7 = bind down; avyayam11 = the imperishable; dehinam10 = living being [soul]; dehe9 = to the body; mahābāho8 = O Mighty-armed Arjuna. 14.5
 

14.5:  Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas are the gunas, born of Prakriti, bind down the imperishable self to the body.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तत्र सत्त्वं निर्मलत्वात्प्रकाशकमनामयम् ।

सुखसङ्गेन बध्नाति ज्ञानसङ्गेन चानघ ॥१४- ६॥

tatra sattvaṁ nirmalatvāt prakāśakam anāmayam
sukhasaṅgena badhnāti jānasaṅgena cānagha 14.6

tatra1 sattvam2 nirmalatvāt3 prakāśakam4 anāmayam5
sukhasaṅgena
6 badhnāti7 jāna-saṅgena8 ca9 anagha10 14.6

 

tatra1 = Therefore; sattvam2 = Sattva; nirmalatvāt3 = being pure; [is] prakāśakam4 = shining; [and] anāmayam5 = free of sickness; [ but] badhnāti7 = binds; sukhasaṅgena6 =  because of connection to happiness; ca9 = and; jāna-saṅgena8 = connection to knowledge;  anagha10 = O sinless one.14.6

 

 14.6:  Because Sattva is pure, it is shining and sickness-free (anāmayam), but binds one (the self) because of its attachment to happiness and knowledge, O Arjuna.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि तृष्णासङ्गसमुद्भवम् ।

तन्निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्मसङ्गेन देहिनम् ॥१४- ७॥

rajo rāgātmakaṁ viddhi tṛṣṇāsaṅgasamudbhavam
tan nibadhnāti kaunteya karmasaṅgena dehinam 14.7

raja1 rāgātmakam2 viddhi3 tṛṣṇā-asaṅga-samudbhavam4
tat
5 nibadhnāti6 kaunteya7 karma-saṅgena8 dehinam9 14.7

 

kaunteya7 = O son of Kunti; viddhi3 = know; raja1 = Rajas/passion; [is] rāgātmakam2 = of the form of desire;  tṛṣṇā-asaṅga-samudbhavam4 = born of avidity and attachment [avidity-attachment-born of]; tat5 = that; nibadhnāti6 = binds; dehinam9 = the embodied self; karma-saṅgena8  = by its attachment to actions.  14.7

 

14.7:  Know that Rajas is (of the nature of) passion and greed. O son of Kunti, it (Rajas) binds the embodied self by its attachment to fruits of work.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

तमस्त्वज्ञानजं विद्धि मोहनं सर्वदेहिनाम् ।

प्रमादालस्यनिद्राभिस्तन्निबध्नाति भारत ॥१४- ८॥

tamas tv ajānajaṁ viddhi mohanaṁ sarvadehinām
pramādālasyanidrābhis tan nibadhnāti bhārata 14.8

tama1 tu2 ajānajam3 viddhi4 mohanam5 sarva-dehinām6
pramāda-ālasya-nidrābhi
7 tat8 nibadhnāti9 bhārata10 14.8

 

tu2 = But; viddhi4 = know; tama1 = Tamas/darkness; ajānajam3 = is born of ignorance; [causing] mohanam5 = delusion; sarva-dehinām6  = to all embodied selves; tat8 = that;  nibadhnāti9 = binds; pramāda-ālasya-nidrābhi7 = by negligence, laziness, and sleep;  bhārata10 = O son of Bharata.14.8 

 

14.8:  Know that Tamas is born of ajnāna (ignorance) and it deludes all embodied selves. It (Tamas) binds by negligence, laziness, and sleep, O son of Bharata.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सत्त्वं सुखे संजयति रजः कर्मणि भारत ।

ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे संजयत्युत ॥१४- ९॥

sattvaṁ sukhe saṁjayati rajaḥ karmaṇi bhārata
jānam āvṛtya tu tamaḥ pramāde saṁjayaty uta 14.9

sattvam1 sukhe2 sajayati3 rajaḥ4 karmaṇi5 bhārata6
jānam
7 āvṛtya8 tu9 tamaḥ10 pramāde11 sajayati12 uta13 14.9 

 

sattvam1 = Sattvam/goodness; sajayati3 = attaches a person; sukhe2 = to happiness; rajaḥ4 = rajas/passion; karmaṇi5 = to action; bhārata6 = O Bharata; tu9 = but; tamaḥ10 = tamas/darkness; sajayati12 =  attaches; pramāde11 = to negligence; uta13 = also āvṛtya8 = by hiding; jānam7 = wisdom.14.9   

 

14.9:  Sattva attaches one to happiness; Rajas to action; O Bharata, and Tamas to negligence by hiding wisdom. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत ।

रजः सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस्तथा ॥१४- १०॥

rajas tamaś cābhibhūya sattvaṁ bhavati bhārata
rajaḥ sattvaṁ tamaś caiva tamaḥ sattvaṁ rajas tathā 14.10

raja1 tama2 ca3 abhibhūya4 sattvam5 bhavati6 bhārata7
rajaḥ
8 sattvam9 tama10 ca11 eva12 tamaḥ13 sattvam14 raja15 tathā16 14.10

 

sattvam5 = Sattva/virtue; bhavati6 = becomes; abhibhūya4 = superior; [by subduing] raja1 = Rajas/passion; ca3 = and; tama2 = Tamas/darkness; bhārata7 = O Scion of Bharata Clan. rajaḥ8 = Rajas; [augments by subduing] sattvam9 = Sattva; ca11 = and;  tama10 = Tamas; eva12 = indeed. tamaḥ13 = Tamas; tathā16 = thus; [augments by subduing] sattvam14 = Sattva; [and] raja15 = Rajas. 14.10
 

14.10:  Sattva dominates by overcoming Rajas and Tamas; O Bharata, Rajas (dominates) Sattva and Tamas like that; and Tamas (dominates) thus Sattva and Rajas.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन्प्रकाश उपजायते ।

ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्याद्विवृद्धं सत्त्वमित्युत ॥१४- ११॥

sarvadvāreṣu dehesmin prakāśa upajāyate
jānaṁ yadā tadā vidyād vivṛddhaṁ sattvam ity uta 14.11

sarva-dvāreṣu1 dehe2 asmin3 prakāśa4 upajāyate5
jānam
6 yadā7 tadā8 vidyāt9 vivṛddham10 sattvam11 iti12 uta13 14.11

 

yadā7 = When; prakāśa4 = light; [of] jānam6 = knowledge; upajāyate5 = manifests [shines]; sarva-dvāreṣu1 = from all gates; asmin3 = in this; dehe2 = body; tadā8 = then; vidyāt9 = know; sattvam11 = Sattva; iti12 = thus; uta13 = indeed; vivṛddham10 = has augmented.14.11

 

14.11:  When the light of knowledge shines forth from the gates of the body, we know that Sattva has increased or expanded. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

लोभः प्रवृत्तिरारम्भः कर्मणामशमः स्पृहा ।

रजस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे भरतर्षभ ॥१४- १२॥

lobhaḥ pravṛttir ārambhaḥ karmaṇām aśamaḥ spṛhā
rajasy etāni jāyante vivṛddhe bharatarṣabha 14.12

lobhaḥ1 pravṛtti2 ārambhaḥ3 karmaṇām4 aśamaḥ5 spṛhā6
rajasi
7 etāni8 jāyante9 vivṛddhe10 bharata-rṣabha11 14.12

 

lobhaḥ1 = Greed; pravṛtti2 = activity; ārambhaḥ3 = beginning; karmaṇām4 = of actions; aśamaḥ5 = unrest; [and] spṛhā6 = desire: etāni8 = these; jāyante9 = manifest; [when] rajasi7 = Rajas quality;  vivṛddhe10 = becomes dominant; bharata-rṣabha11  = O the best of Bharatas. 14.12

 

14.12:  Greed, activity, and beginning of self-serving endeavors, unrest, and eager desire: these come forth when Rajas increases, O Best of Bharatas.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

 

अप्रकाशोऽप्रवृत्तिश्च प्रमादो मोह एव च ।

तमस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे कुरुनन्दन ॥१४- १३॥

aprakāśopravṛttiś ca pramādo moha eva ca
tamasy etāni jāyante vivṛddhe kurunandana 14.13

aprakāśa1 apravṛtti2 ca3 pramāda4 moha5 eva6 ca7
tamasi
8 etāni9 jāyante10 vivṛddhe11 kuru-nandana12 14.13

 

aprakāśa1 = Darkness; apravṛtti2 = stagnation/inactivity; pramāda4 = negligence;  ca3 = and; moha5 ca7 = also delusion: etāni9 = these; eva6 = indeed; jāyante10 = come forth; [when]  tamasi8 = Tamas quality;  vivṛddhe11 = increases; kuru-nandana12  = O son of Kuru.14.13
 

14.13:  Darkness, stagnation, Negligence, and delusion: these come forth when Tamas increases, O Joy (son) of Kurus.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यदा सत्त्वे प्रवृद्धे तु प्रलयं याति देहभृत् ।

तदोत्तमविदां लोकानमलान्प्रतिपद्यते ॥१४- १४॥

yadā sattve pravṛddhe tu pralayaṁ yāti dehabhṛt
tadottamavidāṁ lokān amalān pratipadyate 14.14

yadā1 sattve2 pravṛddhe3 tu4 pralayam5 yāti6 deha-bhṛt7
tadā
8 uttamavidām9 lokān10 amalān11 pratipadyate12 14.14

 

yadā1 = When; deha-bhṛt7 = the embodied;  yāti6 = proceeds to; pralayam5 = dissolution/death; [and] sattve2 = Sattva/virtue; pravṛddhe3 = is on the ascent/ dominant; tu4 = certainly; tadā8 = then; pratipadyate12 = he attains; amalān11 = the pure; lokān10 = world; uttamavidām9 = of knowers of the highest. 14.14
 

14.14:  When the embodied proceeds to dissolution and Sattva is on the ascent, that time he reaches the world of the pure and the knowers of the Highest.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

रजसि प्रलयं गत्वा कर्मसङ्गिषु जायते ।

तथा प्रलीनस्तमसि मूढयोनिषु जायते ॥१४- १५॥

rajasi pralayaṁ gatvā karmasaṅgiṣu jāyate
tathā pralīnas tamasi mūḍhayoniṣu jāyate 14.15

rajasi1 pralayam2 gatvā3 karma-saṅgiṣu4 jāyate5
tathā
6 pralīna7 tamasi8 mūḍha-yoniṣu9 jāyate10 14.15

 

pralayam2 gatvā3 = Attaining death [ death-attain]; rajasi1 = in Rajas quality; jāyate5 = he takes birth;  karma-saṅgiṣu4 = [among people] attached to action;  tathā6 = likewise; pralīna7 = when one dies; tamasi8 = in Tamas; jāyate10 = he takes birth; mūḍha-yoniṣu9  = in ignorant wombs [in animal wombs]. 14.15
 

14.15:   Attaining dissolution during Rajas, (it) takes birth among those attached to action. In like manner, when one dissolves during Tamasic nature, he takes birth in an ignorant womb.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कर्मणः सुकृतस्याहुः सात्त्विकं निर्मलं फलम् ।

रजसस्तु फलं दुःखमज्ञानं तमसः फलम् ॥१४- १६॥

karmaṇaḥ sukṛtasyāhuḥ sāttvikaṁ nirmalaṁ phalam
rajasas tu phalaṁ duḥkham ajānaṁ tamasaḥ phalam 14.16

karmaṇaḥ1 sukṛtasya2 āhuḥ3 sāttvikam4 nirmalam5 phalam6
rajasa
7 tu8 phalam9 duḥkham10 ajānam11 tamasaḥ12 phalam13 14.16

 

phalam6 = The fruit; sukṛtasya2 = of good/pious; karmaṇaḥ1 = action;  āhuḥ3 = is said to be; nirmalam5 = pure; sāttvikam4 = virtue; tu8 = but; phalam9 = fruit;  rajasa7 = of passion; [is] duḥkham10 = sorrow; phalam13 = the fruit; [of] ajānam11 = ignorance; [ is] tamasaḥ12 = Tamas. 14.16

 

14.16:  The fruit of good action is (said to be) Sātvikam and purity, the fruit of Rājasah is misery (and suffering), and the fruit of Tamasah is ignorance.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सत्त्वात्संजायते ज्ञानं रजसो लोभ एव च ।

प्रमादमोहौ तमसो भवतोऽज्ञानमेव च ॥१४- १७॥

sattvāt saṁjāyate jānaṁ rajaso lobha eva ca
pramādamohau tamaso bhavatojānam eva ca 14.17

sattvāt1 sajāyate2 jānam3 rajasa4 lobha5 eva6 ca7
pramāda-mohau
8 tamasa9 bhavata10 ajānam11 eva12 ca13 14.17

 

sattvāt1 = From virtue; sajāyate2 = arises; jānam3 = knowledge; rajasa4 = from passion; lobha5 = greed; eva6 = indeed; ca7 = and; tamasa9 = from darkness; bhavata10 = comes; pramāda-mohau8 = madness and delusion; ca13 = and; ajānam11 = ignorance; eva12 = indeed.14.17
 

14.17:   From Sattva arises knowledge; from Rajas (arises) greed; and from Tamas arise negligence, delusion and ignorance.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

ऊर्ध्वं गच्छन्ति सत्त्वस्था मध्ये तिष्ठन्ति राजसाः ।

जघन्यगुणवृत्तिस्था अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः ॥१४- १८॥

ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattvasthā madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasāḥ
jaghanyaguṇavṛttisthā adho gacchhanti tāmasāḥ 14.18

ūrdhvam1 gacchanti2 sattvasthā3 madhye4 tiṣṭhanti5 rājasāḥ6
jaghanya-guṇa-vṛttisthā
7 adha8 gacchhanti9 tāmasāḥ10 14.18

 

sattvasthā3 = They who are steadfast in Sattva; gacchanti2 = go; ūrdhvam1 = higher [in the realm of gods];  rājasāḥ6 = the Rajasic; tiṣṭhanti5 = stay/remain; madhye4 = in the middle; tāmasāḥ10 = the Tamasic; jaghanya-guṇa-vṛttisthā7 = immersed in lowest quality, [the lowest-quality-being in any state or condition or employment]; gacchhanti9 = go; adha8 = low [born as worms, birds, animals]. 14.18

 

14.18:  They who are steadfast in Sattva go upward (to heaven); the Rajasic stay in the middle; and the Tamasic immersed in the meanest guna, go down or sink low.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

नान्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति ।

गुणेभ्यश्च परं वेत्ति मद्भावं सोऽधिगच्छति ॥१४- १९॥

nānyaṁ guṇebhyaḥ kartāraṁ yadā draṣṭānupaśyati
guṇebhyaś ca paraṁ vetti madbhāvaṁ sodhigacchhati 14.19

na anyam guṇebhyaḥ1 kartāram2 yadā3 draṣṭā4 anupaśyati5
guṇebhya
6 ca7 param8 vetti9 madbhāvam10 sa11 adhigacchhati12 14.19

 

yadā3 = When; draṣṭā4 = a Seer; anupaśyati5 = sees; na anyam guṇebhyaḥ1 = none other than the three Gunas; [as] kartāram2 = the agent;  ca7 = and; vetti9 = knows; [that which is] param8 = Supreme; guṇebhya6 = to the Gunas/qualities; sa11 = he; adhigacchhati12 = attains; madbhāvam10 = My State.14.19
 

14.19:  When the seer discovers no agent other than the Gunas, and knows that which is Supreme and beyond the Gunas, he attains to My state.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

गुणानेतानतीत्य त्रीन्देही देहसमुद्भवान् ।

जन्ममृत्युजरादुःखैर्विमुक्तोऽमृतमश्नुते ॥१४- २०॥

guṇān etān atītya trīn dehī dehasamudbhavān
janmamṛtyujarāduḥkhair vimuktomṛtam aśnute 14.20

guṇān1 etān2 atītya3 trīn4 dehī5 deha-samudbhavān6
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhai
7 vimukta8 amṛtam9 aśnute10 14.20

 

atītya3 = Transcending; etān2 = these;  trīn4 = three; guṇān1 = Gunas; [which] deha-samudbhavān6  = give rise to the body [body-giving birth to]; dehī5 = the embodied [soul]; vimukta8 = having become free; janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhai7 = from birth, death, old age, and sorrow; aśnute10 = attains/experiences; amṛtam9 = immortality.14.20
 

14.20: The embodied self transcends the three Gunas that give rise to the body and attains to immortality, having become free from birth, death, old age and sorrow.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अर्जुन उवाच

कैर्लिङ्गैस्त्रीन्गुणानेतानतीतो भवति प्रभो ।

किमाचारः कथं चैतांस्त्रीन्गुणानतिवर्तते ॥१४- २१॥

arjuna uvāca
kair liṅgais trīn guṇān etān atīto bhavati prabho
kimācāraḥ kathaṁ caitāṁs trīn guṇān ativartate 14.21

arjuna uvāca
kai
1 liṅgai2 trīn3 guṇān4 etān5 atīta6 bhavati7 prabho8
kim
9 ācāraḥ10 katham11 ca12 etān13 trīn14 guṇān15 ativartate16 14.21

 

arjuna uvāca = Arjuna said:  kai1 = by what; liṅgai2 = marks/signs; [one is said to] atīta6 = transcend; etān5 = these; trīn3 = three; guṇān4 = Gunas/qualities? kim9 = What; bhavati7 = is; [his] ācāraḥ10 = conduct; prabho8 = O Lord; ca12 = and; katham11 = how; [does he] ativartate16 = transcend; etān13 = these; trīn14 = three; guṇān15 = Gunas? 14.21

 

14.21:  Arjuna said:

What are the marks of a man who transcended the three Gunas? What is his conduct? How (in what manner) does he transcend these three Gunas, O Lord?

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच

प्रकाशं च प्रवृत्तिं च मोहमेव च पाण्डव ।

न द्वेष्टि संप्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति ॥१४- २२॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
prakāśaṁ ca pravṛttiṁ ca moham eva ca pāṇḍava
na dveṣṭi saṁpravṛttāni na nivṛttāni kāṅkṣati 14.22

śrībhagavān uvāca
prakāśam
1 ca2 pravṛttim3 ca4 moham5 eva6 ca7 pāṇḍava8
na
9 dveṣṭi10 sampravṛttāni11 na12 nivṛttāni13 kāṅkṣati14 14.22

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri bhagavan said; pāṇḍava8 = O Pandava; [he] na9 = neither; dveṣṭi10 = hates; prakāśam1 = Light [knowledge]; ca2 = and; pravṛttim3 = activity; ca4 = and; moham5 = delusion; eva6 = indeed; sampravṛttāni11 = when they arise; ca7 = and; na12 = nor; kāṅkṣati14 = desires; [for them, when they]   nivṛttāni13 = disappear or cease to exist;  14.22  
 

14.22:  Sri Bhagavan said:

O Pandava, he, who hates illumination, activity, and delusion, neither when they arise, and desires for them nor when they cease (continued)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

उदासीनवदासीनो गुणैर्यो न विचाल्यते ।

गुणा वर्तन्त इत्येव योऽवतिष्ठति नेङ्गते ॥१४- २३॥

udāsīnavad āsīno guṇair yo na vicālyate
guṇā vartanta ity eva yovatiṣṭhati neṅgate 14.23

udāsīnavat1 āsīna2 guṇai3 ya4 na vicālyate5
guṇā
6 vartante7 iti8 eva9 ya10 avatiṣṭhati11 na iṅgate12 14.23

 

ya4 = He who; āsīna2 = is sitting; udāsīnavat1 = indifferent to; guṇai3 = Gunas; na vicālyate5  = not perturbed; [knowing] guṇā6 = Gunas; vartante7 = act; iti8 = thus; eva9 = surely; ya10 = he; avatiṣṭhati11 = remains firm; [and] na iṅgate12 = does not waver... 14.23

 

14.23:  He, who is sitting indifferent to these Gunas, unperturbed, and knowing the Gunas are in motion, remains firm and does not waver.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

समदुःखसुखः स्वस्थः समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः ।

तुल्यप्रियाप्रियो धीरस्तुल्यनिन्दात्मसंस्तुतिः ॥१४- २४॥

samaduḥkhasukhaḥ svasthaḥ samaloṣṭāśmakācanaḥ
tulyapriyāpriyo dhīras tulyanindātmasaṁstutiḥ 14.24

sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ1 svasthaḥ2 sama-loṣṭa-aśma-kācanaḥ3
tulya-priya-apriya
4 dhīra5 tulya-nindā-ātma-saṁstutiḥ6 14.24

 

sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ1 = equal in sorrow and happiness; svasthaḥ2 = abiding in his self; sama-loṣṭa-aśma-kācanaḥ3  = equal in regarding a clod, a stone and gold [= equal-clod-stone-gold]; tulya-priya-apriya4 = equal in regarding the desirable and the undesirable [equal-desirable-undesirable]; dhīra5 = wise; tulya-nindā-ātma-saṁstutiḥ6 = equal in blame, and praise of him [equal-blame-self-praise]... 14.24

 

14.24:  He, who is tranquil in pain and pleasure, abides in his own self, regards that a clod, a stone, and gold are equal; to whom the desirable and the undesirable are the same; who is wise; who is the same in blame and praise; and  (continued)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मानापमानयोस्तुल्यस्तुल्यो मित्रारिपक्षयोः ।

सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते ॥१४- २५॥

mānāpamānayos tulyas tulyo mitrāripakṣayoḥ
sarvārambhaparityāgī guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate 14.25

māna-apamānayo1 tulya2 tulya3 mitra-ari-pakṣayoḥ4
sarva-ārambha-parityāgī
5 guṇātītaḥ6 sa7 ucyate8 14.25

 

[who is] tulya2 = equal; māna-apamānayo1 = in honor and dishonor;  tulya3 = equal; mitra-ari-pakṣayoḥ4  = to friends and foes;  arva-ārambha-parityāgī5 = who has renounced all initiatives; sa7 = he; ucyate8 = is said to; guṇa-atītaḥ6 = transcend the Gunas. 14.25

 

14.25:   He, who considers honor and dishonor equal; who regards friends and foes alike; and who abandons all (self-serving) initiatives, is said to transcend the Gunas.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्तियोगेन सेवते ।

स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान्ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥१४- २६॥

māṁ ca yovyabhicāreṇa bhaktiyogena sevate
sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahmabhūyāya kalpate 14.26

mām1 ca2 yah3 avyabhicāreṇa4 bhakti-yogena5 sevate6
sa
7 guṇān8 samatītya9 etān10 brahma-bhūyāya11 kalpate12 14.26

 

yah3 = Whoever; sevate6 = renders service; mām1 = to Me; avyabhicāreṇa4 = with unswerving; bhakti-yogena5  = devotional service;  ca2 = and; samatītya9 = transcends completely; etān10 = these; guṇān8 = Gunas [qualities]; sa7 = he; kalpate12 = is fit; brahma-bhūyāya11 = to become Brahman. 14.26

 

14.26:  He, who serves Me with unswerving Bhakti yoga (devotional service) and rises above all these gunas, becomes fit for the state of Brahman. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहममृतस्याव्ययस्य च ।

शाश्वतस्य च धर्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च ॥१४- २७॥

brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham amṛtasyāvyayasya ca
śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca 14.27

brahmaṇa1 hi2 pratiṣṭhā3 aham4 amṛtasya5 avyayasya6 ca7
śāśvatasya
8 ca9 dharmasya10 sukhasya11 aikāntikasya12 ca13 14.27

 

aham4 = I; [am] pratiṣṭhā3 = the abode; brahmaṇa1 = of Brahman; hi2 = indeed;  amṛtasya5 = of the immortal; avyayasya6 = of the imperishable/ the immutable; ca7 = and; śāśvatasya8 = of the eternal; ca9 = and; dharmasya10 = of Dharma/ righteousness; ca13 = and; aikāntikasya12 = of absolute; sukhasya11 = happiness or Bliss.14.27

 

14.27:   I am the abode of Brahman, immortal and imperishable, and eternal dharma and absolute bliss.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

End BG Chapter 14: The Three-Guna Psychology