HOME PAGE 

Bhagavadgita Pages in English, Chapters 1 to 18

BG01

BG02

BG03

BG04

BG05

BG06

BG07

BG08

BG09

BG10

BG11

BG12

BG13

BG14

BG15

BG16

BG17

BG18

 

bg01-Sanskrit

bg02-Sanskrit

bg03-Sanskrit

bg04-Sanskrit

bg05-Sanskrit

bg06-Sanskrit

bg07-Sanskrit

bg08-Sanskrit

bg09-Sanskrit

bg10-Sanskrit bg11-Sanskrit bg12-Sanskrit
bg13-Sanskrit bg14-Sanskrit bg15-Sanskrit bg16-Sanskrit bg17-Sanskrit

bg18-Sanskrit

 

 

www.bhagavadgitausa.com

V.Krishnaraj

Search Wikipedia:

 

 

BG Chapter 17: Gunas and Faith

 

 अर्जुन उवाच

ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।

तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥१७- १॥

arjuna uvāca
ye śāstravidhim utsṛ
jya yajante śraddhayānvitā
teṣāṁ niṣṭ
hā tu kā kṛṣṇa sattvam āho rajas tamaḥ 17.1

arjuna uvāca
ye
1 śāstra-vidhim2 utsṛjya3 yajante4 śraddhayā5 anvitā6
teṣām7 niṣṭ
8 tu910 kṛṣṇa11 sattvam12 āho13 raja14 tama15 17.1

 

arjuna uvāca  = Arjuna said: ye1 = those who; utsṛjya3 = give up; śāstra-vidhim2  = Scriptural injunctions; [and yet] anvitā6 = are endowed; śraddhayā5 = with faith; [and] yajante4 = worship; tu9 = but; 10 = what; [is] niṣṭ8 = the status;  teṣām7 = of them; kṛṣṇa11 = O Krishna; [Is it] sattvam12 = virtue; raja14 = passion; āho13 = or; tama15 = darkness. 17.1

17.1:  Arjuna said:

What is the status of those who give up the scriptural injunctions and worship with faith? Is it Sattva, Rajas, or Tamas: Goodness, passion, or ignorance?

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच 

त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।

सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥१७- २॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
trividhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṁ sā svabhāvajā
sāttvikī rājasī caiva tāmasī ceti tāṁ śṛṇ
u 17.2

śrībhagavān uvāca
trividhā
1 bhavati2 śraddhā3 dehinām45 svabhāvajā6
sāttvikī
7 rājasī8 ca9 eva10 tāmasī11 ca12 iti13 tām14 śṛṇu15 17.2

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: 5 = that; śraddhā3 = faith; dehinām4 = of the embodied; bhavati2 = becomes; trividhā1 = threefold; svabhāvajā6 = born of their own nature; sāttvikī7 = born of goodness; rājasī8 = born of passion; ca9 = and; eva10 = indeed; tāmasī11 = born of darkness; ca12 = and; iti13 = thus; śṛṇu15 = hear; tām14 = that [from Me]. 17.2

 

17.2:  Sri Bhagavan said:

The faith of the embodied is of three kinds, born of their own nature: Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Thus, hear that from Me.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत ।

श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥१७- ३॥

sattvānurūpā sarvasya śraddhā bhavati bhārata
śraddhāmayoya
ṁ puruṣo yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ 17.3

sattva-anurūpā1 sarvasya2 śraddhā3 bhavati4 bhārata5
śraddhā
6 maya
7 ayam8 puruṣa9 ya10 yat11 śraddha12 sa13 eva14 saḥ15 17.3

 

śraddhā3 = Faith; sarvasya2 = of all beings; bhavati4 = becomes [is]; sattva-anurūpā1 = according to their own nature;  bhārata5 = O Scion of Bharata clan; ayam8 = this; puruṣa9 = person; [is] śraddhā6 maya7 = faith incarnate; ya10 = that person; yat11 = whichever/whatever; [his] śraddha12 = faith [is]; sa13 eva14 = that indeed; saḥ15 = he [is]. 17.3
 

17.3:   Everyones faith is according to his own nature, O Arjuna. That person is faith incarnate--of the nature of his faith. Whatever his faith is, that certainly, he is.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः ।

प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥१७- ४॥

yajante sāttvikā devān yakṣarakṣāṁsi rājasā
pretān bhūtagaṇ
āś cānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ 17.4

yajante1 sāttvikā2 devān3 yakṣa-rakṣāṁsi4 rājasā5
pretān
6 bhūta-gaṇā7 ca8 anye9 yajante10 tāmasā11 janā12 17.4

 

sāttvikā2 = Virtuous people; yajante1 = worship; devān3 = the gods; rājasā5 = the passionate; yakṣa-rakṣāṁsi4 = Yaksas and Raksasas; ca8 = and; anye9 = others; tāmasā11 = the ignorant; janā12 = people; yajante10 = worship; pretān6 = ghosts; [&] bhūta-gaṇā7 = spirits.17.4 

 

17.4:  Good people worship the gods, the passionate worship the yaksas and raksasas, and (others who are) the ignorant people worship the spirits and ghosts.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः ।

दम्भाहंकारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः ॥१७- ५॥

aśāstravihitaṁ ghoraṁ tapyante ye tapo janāḥ
dambhāhaṁkārasaṁyuktāḥ kāmarāgabalānvitāḥ 17.5

aśāstra-vihitam1 ghoram2 tapyante3 ye4 tapa5 janāḥ6
dambha-aha
kāra-saṁyuktāḥ7 kāma-rāga-bala-anvitāḥ8 17.5

 

ye4 janāḥ6 = Those persons who; tapyante3 = perform; ghoram2 = terrible; tapa5 = austerities; aśāstra-vihitam1 = not ordained in scriptures; dambha7A-ahakāra7B-saṁyuktāḥ7C = engaged in7C hypocrisy7A and ego7B; kāma-rāga-bala-anvitāḥ8 = possessing8D lust8A, desire8B, strength8C...  17.5 continued
 

17.5:  Those people, who perform terrible austerities not ordained by the scriptures, given to hypocrisy and ego, impelled by lust, attachment, and strength... 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कर्षयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः ।

मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान् ॥१७- ६॥

karṣayantaḥ śarīrasthaṁ bhūtagrāmam acetasaḥ
māṁ caivāntaḥśarīrasthaṁ tān viddhy āsuraniścayān 17.6

karṣayantaḥ1 śarīrastham2 bhūta-grāmam3 acetasaḥ4
mām
5 ca6 eva7 antaḥ-śarīra-stham8 tān9 viddhi10 āsura-niścayān11 17.6

 

acetasaḥ4 = mindlessly; karṣayantaḥ1 = torturing; bhūta-grāmam3  = aggregate of elements; śarīrastham2 = in the body; ca6 = and; eva7 = indeed; mām5 = Me;  ntaḥ-śarīra-stham8  = who dwells inside the body [as a Witness]; viddhi10 = know; tān9 = them;  āsura-niścayān11  = as of the nature of demons. 17.6

 

17.6:  Mindlessly torturing the multitude of elements in the (physical) body and Me who dwell within the body, know those ignorant ones are of demonic resolve.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः ।

यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं शृणु ॥१७- ७॥
āhāras tv api sarvasya trividho bhavati priyaḥ
yajas tapas tathā dānaṁ teṣāṁ bhedam imaṁ śṛṇ
u 17.7

āhāra1 tu2 api3 sarvasya4 trividha5 bhavati6 priyaḥ7
yaja
8 tapa9 tathā10 dānam11 teṣām12 bhedam13 imam14 śṛṇu15 17.7

 

āhāra1 = Food; priyaḥ7 = dear;  tu2 = indeed; sarvasya4 = to all; api3 = also; bhavati6 = is [becomes]; trividha5 = threefold; tathā10 = so also; yaja8 = sacrifice; tapa9 = austerity; dānam11 = charity; śṛṇu15 = hear;  imam14 = these; bhedam13 = differences; teṣām12 = among them17.7
 

17.7:  The food dear to all is also of three kinds. (So are the) Sacrifice, austerity, and charity. Hear the differences between them.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः ।

रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥१७- ८॥

āyuḥsattvabalārogyasukhaprītivivardhanāḥ
rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛ
dyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ 17.8

āyuḥ-sattva-bala-ārogya-sukha-prīti1 vivardhanāḥ2
rasyāḥ
3 snigdhāḥ4 sthirā5 hṛdyā6 āhārā7 sāttvika-priyāḥ8 17.8

 

āhārā7 = Foods; vivardhanāḥ2 = that promote; āyuḥ-sattva-bala-ārogya-sukha-prīti2 = life, existence, strength, health, happiness,  [and] pleasure; [are]  rasyāḥ4 = juicy; snigdhāḥ5 = smooth; sthirā6 = firm; hṛdyā7 = hearty; sāttvika-priyāḥ9 = dear to Sattvic persons. 17.8
 

17.8:  The foods that augment a long life, existence, strength, health, happiness, and pleasure are juicy, smooth, firm, and hearty. (Those) foods are dear to Sattvic (people).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कट्‌वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षविदाहिनः ।

आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥१७- ९॥

kaṭvamlalavaṇātyuṣṇatīkṣṇarūkṣavidāhinaḥ
āhārā rājasasyeṣṭ
ā duḥkhaśokāmayapradāḥ 17.9

kaṭu-amla-lavaṇa-atyuṣṇa-tīkṣṇa-rūkṣa-vidāhinaḥ1
āhārā
2 rājasasya3 iṣṭā4 duḥkha-śoka-āmaya5 pradāḥ6 17.9

 

kaṭu-amla-lavaṇa-atyuṣṇa-tīkṣṇa-rūkṣa-vidāhinaḥ1 = Bitter, sour, salty, very hot, pungent, dry, fiery; āhārā2 = foods;  iṣṭā4 = dear;  rājasasya3 = to Rajasic people; pradāḥ6 = give; duḥkha-śoka-āmaya5  = pain, sorrow, disease.  17.9
 

17.9: Rajasic people like foods that are bitter, sour, salty, very hot, pungent, dry and burning and cause misery, grief and sickness.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत् ।

उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥१७- १०॥

yātayāmaṁ gatarasaṁ pūti paryuṣitaṁ ca yat
ucchiṣṭ
am api cāmedhyaṁ bhojanaṁ tāmasapriyam 17.10
yāta-yāmam1 gata-rasam2 pūti3 paryuṣitam4 ca5 yat6
ucchiṣṭ
am7 api8 ca9 amedhyam10 bhojanam11 tāmasa priyam12 17.10

 

bhojanam11 = Foods; yat6 = which; [are] yāta-yāmam1 = improperly cooked; gata-rasam2  = wanting in flavor; pūti3 = putrid; paryuṣitam4 = stale; ca5 = and;  ucchiṣṭam7 = left-over; ca9 = and; api8 = also; amedhyam10 = unfit for sacrifice; [are]  tāmasa priyam12 = dear to the Tamasic person.  17.10
 

17.10: Foods that are improperly cooked, wanting in flavor, putrid, stale, left-over, and unfit for sacrifice are dear to the Tamasic person.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।

यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥१७- ११॥

aphalāṅkṣibhir yajo vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate
ya
ṣṭavyam eveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sāttvikaḥ 17.11

aphala-āṅkṣibhi1 yaja2 vidhi-dṛṣṭa3 ya4 ijyate5
ya
ṣṭavyam eva6 iti7 mana samādhāya8 sa9 sāttvikaḥ10 17.11

 

yaja2 = Sacrifice; ya4 = which;  ijyate5 = was performed; vidhi-dṛṣṭa3 = according to injunctions; [by] aphala-āṅkṣibhi1 = those who have no desire for fruits of their labor; mana samādhāya8  = with fixed mind; [knowing it is]  yaṣṭavyam eva6 = expected performance of duty; sa9 = that;  iti7 = thus; [is] sāttvikaḥ10 = sattvika mode. 17.11
 

17.11:  Sacrifice performed according to injunctions with no desire for fruit, with conviction in the mind and a sworn duty is good (sattva).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अभिसंधाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।

इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥१७- १२॥

abhisaṁdhāya tu phalaṁ dambhārtham api caiva yat
ijyate bharataśreṣṭ
ha taṁ yajaṁ viddhi rājasam 17.12

abhisandhāya1 tu2 phalam3 dambhārtham4 api5 ca6 eva7 yat8
ijyate
9 bharataśreṣṭha10 tam11 yajam12 viddhi13 rājasam14 17.12

 

tu2 = But; yat8 = that which; ijyate9 = is performed; eva7 = indeed; dambhārtham4 = for the sake of ostentation; ca6 = or; abhisandhāya1 = holding in view;  phalam3 api5  = also5 the result/fruit3; bharataśreṣṭha10 = O best of Bharatas; viddhi13 = know; tam11 = that; yajam12 = sacrifice; rājasam14 = is Rajas. 17.12
 

17.12:  That which is performed for the sake of dambha (ostentation), and motivated by expectation of fruits, O best of the Bharatas, you know that as sacrifice in Rajasic nature.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।

श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥१७- १३॥

vidhihīnam asṛṣṭānnaṁ mantrahīnam adakṣiṇam
śraddhāvirahita
ṁ yajaṁ tāmasaṁ paricakṣate 17.13

vidhi-hīnam1 asṛṣṭa-annam2 mantra-hīnam3 adakṣiṇam4
śraddhā-virahita
m5 yajam6 tāmasam7 paricakṣate8 17.13

 

yajam6 = Sacrifice; vidhi-hīnam1 = opposed to injunctions; asṛṣṭa-annam2 = with undistributed food [prasadam]; mantra-hīnam3 = with no mantras chanted; adakṣiṇam4 = with no remuneration to priests;[ and] śraddhā-virahitam5 = deprived of faith; paricakṣate8 =  is said to be; tāmasam7 = Tamas. 17.13
 

17.13:  Sacrifice that is opposed to injunctions, in which no food is distributed, no mantra is chanted, no remuneration is paid to the priests, and no faith is expressed is declared Tamasic.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् ।

ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥१७- १४॥

devadvijaguruprājapūjanaṁ śaucam ārjavam
brahmacaryam ahiṁ
sā ca śārīraṁ tapa ucyate 17.14

deva-dvija-guru-prāja-pūjanam1 śaucam-ārjavam-
brahmacaryam
2 ahiṁ3 ca4 śārīram5 tapa6 ucyate7 17.14

 

deva1A-dvija1B-guru1C-prāja1D-pūjanam1E = Worship1E of gods1A , the twice-borns1B, the Guru1C, and the wise1D; śaucam-ārjavam-brahmacaryam2 = purity, honesty, celibacy; ca4 = and; ahiṁ2 = non-injury; [these] ucyate7 = are said to be; tapa6 = penance; śārīram5 = of the body.17.14
 

17.14:  The worship of the gods, the twice-born, the guru, and the wise; purity, honesty, celibacy, and ahimsa: these are (said to be) the penance of the body.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् ।

स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥१७- १५॥

anudvegakaraṁ vākyaṁ satyaṁ priyahitaṁ ca yat
svādhyāyābhyasanaṁ caiva vāṅmayaṁ tapa ucyate 17.15

anudvegakaram1 vākyam2 satyam3 priya-hitam4 ca5 yat6
svādhyāya-abhyasanam
7 ca8 eva9 vāk-mayam10 tapa11 ucyate12 17.15

 

vākyam2 = Speech; yat6 = which is; anudvegakaram1 = not causing apprehension;  satyam3 = truthful; priya-hitam4 = agreeable and beneficial;  ca5 = and; [promotes] svādhyāya-abhyasanam7 = Vedic study practice; ca8 = also; eva9 = indeed; ucyate12 = is said to be; tapa11 = austerity; vāk-mayam10  = of speech.  17.15
 

17.15:  Speech that is not frightening, truthful, agreeable, beneficial, and promotes practice of Vedic recitation, is said to be austerity of word.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।

भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥१७- १६॥

manaḥprasādaḥ saumyatvaṁ maunam ātmavinigrahaḥ
bhāvasaṁ
śuddhir ity etat tapo mānasam ucyate 17.16

manaḥ-prasādaḥ1 saumyatvam2 maunam3 ātma-vinigrahaḥ4
bhāva-saṁ
śuddhi5 iti6 etat7 tapa8 mānasam9 ucyate10 17.16

 

manaḥ-prasādaḥ1 = Serenity of mind; saumyatvam2 = gentleness; maunam3 = silence; ātma-vinigrahaḥ4 = self-restraint; bhāva-saṁśuddhi5  = purity of nature: iti6 = thus; etat7 = these; ucyate10 = are said to be; tapa8 = austerity; mānasam9 = of the mind.  17.16
 

17.16:  The serenity of mind, gentleness, silence, self-restraint and purity of nature are called penance of mind. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।

अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥१७- १७॥

śraddhayā parayā taptaṁ tapas tat trividhaṁ naraiḥ
aphalākāṅkṣ
ibhir yuktaiḥ sāttvikaṁ paricakṣate 17.17

śraddhayā1 parayā2 taptam3 tapa4 tat5 trividham6 naraiḥ7
aphala-ākāṅkṣ
ibhi8 yuktai9 sāttvikam10 paricakṣate11 17.17

 

tat5 = This; trividham6 = threefold; tapa4 = austerity; taptam3 = practiced; parayā2 śraddhayā1 = with supreme faith; naraiḥ7 = by men; aphala-ākāṅkṣibhi8  = who do not long for results: yuktai9 = Yogis; paricakṣate11 =  speak of it; sāttvikam10 = as endowed with the quality of Sattva. 17.17  
 

17.17:  Threefold penance performed with utmost faith by men of yogic pursuits without expectation of any fruits is called Sattvika.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।

क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥१७- १८॥

satkāramānapūjārthaṁ tapo dambhena caiva yat
kriyate tad iha proktaṁ rājasaṁ calam adhruvam 17.18

satkāra-māna-pūja-artham1 tapa2 dambhena3 ca eva4 yat5
kriyate
6 tat7 iha8 proktam9 rājasam10 calam11 adhruvam12 17.18

 

tapa2 = Austerity; satkāra1A-māna1B-pūja1C-artham1D = for the express purpose of or in consideration of1D reverence1A, honor1B, worship1C; ca eva4  = and also; yat5 = which; kriyate6 = is performed; dambhena3 = with hypocrisy;  tat7 = that; iha8 = in this world; proktam9 = is considered; rājasam10 = born of Rajas; calam11 = unsteady; [and] adhruvam12 = impermanent. 17.18 
   

17.18:  If the motivation for penance is to earn a name, accolade, honor, and reverential attention, and hypocritical in nature, it is said to be Rajasic and its gains are unsteady and impermanent.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः ।

परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१७- १९॥

mūḍhagrāheṇātmano yat pīayā kriyate tapa
parasyotsādanārthaṁ vā tat tāmasam udāhṛ
tam 17.19

mūḍha-grāheṇa1 ātmana2 yat3ayā4 kriyate5 tapa6
parasya
7 utsādanārtham89 tat10 tāmasam11 udāhṛtam12 17.19

 

yat3 = That; tapa6 = austerity; kriyate5 = performed; mūḍha-grāheṇa1 = with a foolish effort or plan; ayā4 = causing pain; ātmana2 = to one own self [body]; 9 = or utsādanārtham8 = for the purpose of destruction; parasya7 = of others;  tat10 = that; udāhṛtam12 = is said to be; tāmasam11 = of the nature of Tamas. 17.19
 

17.19:  Penance performed with foolish stubbornness and self-hurt or to cause destruction of others is said to be Tamasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।

देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥१७- २०॥

dātavyam iti yad dānaṁ dīyatenupakāriṇe
deśe kāle ca pātre ca tad dāna
ṁ sāttvikaṁ smṛtam 17.20

dātavyam1 iti2 yat4 dānam5 dīyate6 anupakāriṇe7
deśe kāle ca pātre
8 ca tat dānam9 sāttvikam smṛtam10 17.20

 

dātavyam1 = Charity or gift as a duty: yat4 = which; dānam5 = gift;  dīyate6 = given; iti2 = thus; anupakāriṇe7= to one who does not reciprocate; deśe8A kāle8B ca8C pātre8D  = at a proper place8A and8C time8 to a deserving person8D; ca tat dānam9  = and that gift; sāttvikam smṛtam10  = is regarded10B as of the nature of Sattva or virtue10A. 17.20

17.20:  Charity given to the deserving, who can make no return, in a proper place and time and to a worthy person, is regarded as sattvic or virtuous. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।

दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥१७- २१॥

yat tu prattyupakārārthaṁ phalam uddiśya vā punaḥ
dīyate ca parikliṣṭaṁ tad dānaṁ rājasaṁ smṛ
tam 17.21

yat1 tu2 pratti-upakāra-artham3 phalam4 uddiśya56 punaḥ7
dīyate
8 ca9 parikliṣṭam10 tat dānam11 rājasam smṛtam12 17.21

 

tu2 = But; tat dānam11 = that gift; yat1 = which; dīyate8 = is made; pratti-upakāra-artham3  = with the expectation of return in kind; 6 = or; punaḥ7 = again; uddiśya5 = with desire for; phalam4 = fruit, result or return favor;  ca9 = and; parikliṣṭam10 =  unwillingly/reluctantly;  rājasam smṛtam12  = is regarded as of the nature of Rajas or passion.  17.21
 

17.21:  Charity is regarded Rajasic or of the nature of passion, when the service is rendered unwillingly in anticipation of return in kind.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।

असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१७- २२॥

adeśakāle yad dānam apātrebhyaś ca dīyate
asatk
tam avajātaṁ tat tāmasam udāhṛtam 17.22

adeśa-kāle1 yat2 dānam3 apātrebhya4 ca5 dīyate6
asat-k
tam7 avajātam8 tat9 tāmasam udāhṛtam10 17.22

 

tat9 = That; dānam3 = charity; yat2 = which; dīyate6 = is given; a1-deśa1A-kāle1B = at wrong1 place1A and time1B; apātrebhya4 = to unworthy persons;  asat-ktam7 = without formal actions; ca5 = and; avajātam8 = with contempt;  tāmasam udāhṛtam10 = is regarded as of the nature of Tamas or darkness. 17.22 
 
17.22:  Charity given at the wrong place and time to an unworthy person (the undeserving) without respect and with contempt is said to be Tamasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ॐतत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।

ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥१७- २३॥

oṁ tat sad iti nirdeśo brahmaṇas trividhaḥ smṛtaḥ
brāhmaṇ
ās tena vedāś ca yajāś ca vihitāḥ purā 17.23

oṁ tat sat1 iti2 nirdeśa3 brahmaṇa4 trividha5 smṛtaḥ6
brāhmaṇ
ā7 tena8 vedā9 ca10 yajā11 ca12 vihitā13 purā14 17.23

 

oṁ tat sat1 = Om Tat Sat; smṛtaḥ6 = is regarded; iti2 = thus; trividha5 = a threefold; nirdeśa3 = appellation; brahmaṇa4 = of Brahman; ca10 = and; brāhmaṇā7 = the Brahmanas; vedā9 = Vedas; ca12 = and;  yajā11 = sacrifice; vihitā13 = are ordained; tena8 = by that [appellation]; purā14 = formerly or in ancient times.17.23

Om Tat Sat = Supreme-That-Truth.
 

17.23:  OM TAT SAT is regarded as the threefold appellation of Brahman. Accompanying this and at the beginning of creation, the Brahmanas, the Vedas, and the Sacrifices were decreed.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।

प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥१७- २४॥

tasmād om ity udāhṛtya yajadānatapaḥkriyāḥ
pravartante vidhānoktāḥ satataṁ brahmavādinām 17.24

tasmāt1 om2 iti3 udāhṛtya4 yaja-dāna-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ5
pravartante
6 vidhāna-uktāḥ7 satatam8 brahma-vādinām9 17.24

 

tasmāt1 = Therefore; yaja-dāna-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ5 = acts (kriyah) of sacrifice, charity, and austerity; vidhāna-uktāḥ7 = according to scriptural injunctions; brahma-vādinām9  = of the expounders of Brahman; satatam8 = always; pravartante6 = are initiated; udāhṛtya4 = after incantation of; om2 = om; iti3 = thus.  17.24

17.24:  Therefore, Veda-ordained sacrifice, charity, and penance are always initiated by incantation of AUM by the teachers (expounder) of Brahman.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।

दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥१७- २५॥

tad ity anabhisaṁdhāya phalaṁ yajatapaḥkriyāḥ
dānakriyāś ca vividhāḥ kriyante mokṣakāṅkṣibhiḥ 17.25

tat1 iti2 anabhisandhāya3 phalam4 yaja-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ5
dāna-kriyā
6 ca7 vividhāḥ8 kriyante9 mokṣa-kāṅkṣibhiḥ10 17.25

 

[After chanting] tat1 = THAT [TAT = Brahman];  iti2 = thus; yaja-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ5 = sacrifice, austerity, and action;  ca7 = and; vividhāḥ8 = various; dāna-kriyā6  = charitable acts; kriyante9 = are performed; mokṣa-kāṅkṣibhiḥ10  = by persons wanting liberation; anabhisandhāya3 = without aspiration for; phalam4 = fruitive results.  17.25
 

17.25:  The persons longing for moksa do sacrifice, penance, and various acts of charity without seeking the fruits, after incanting "TAT."

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।

प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥१७- २६॥

sadbhāve sādhubhāve ca sad ity etat prayujyate
praśaste karmaṇ
i tathā sacchabda
ḥ pārtha yujyate 17.26

sad-bhāve1 sādhu-bhāve2 ca3 sat4 iti5 etat6 prayujyate7
praśaste
8 karmaṇi9 tathā10 sat-śabda11 pārtha12 yujyate13 17.26

 

etat6 = This; [word] sat4 = SAT;  iti5 = thus; prayujyate7 = is uttered; [in connection with] sad-bhāve1 = coming into existence [like birth]; ca3 = and; sādhu-bhāve2 = becoming a virtuous person; sat-śabda11= the sound SAT;   yujyate13 = is used; tathā10 = also; [for] praśaste8 =  an auspicious; karmaṇi9 = act;  pārtha12 = O Partha.  17.26
 

17.26:  "SAT" is used in the sense of existence and goodness. The sound "SAT, O Partha is used for auspicious action.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।

कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥१७- २७॥

yaje tapasi dāne ca sthitiḥ sad iti cocyate
karma caiva tadarthīyaṁ sad ity evābhidhīyate 17.27

yaje1 tapasi2 dāne3 ca4 sthitiḥ5 sat6 iti7 ca8 ucyate9
karma
10 ca11 eva12 tat13 arthīyam14 sat15 iti16 eva17 abhidhīyate18 17.27

 

sthitiḥ5 = Steadfastness; yaje1 = in sacrifice; tapasi2 = in austerity; ca4 = and; dāne3 = in charity;  iti7 = thus; ucyate9 = is called; sat6 = SAT; ca8 = and; ca11 = moreover;  karma10 = the act;  arthīyam14 = meant; eva12 = indeed; [by] tat13 = That;  eva17 = indeed; abhidhīyate18 = is called; iti16 = thus; sat15 = SAT.17.27

17.27:  Firmness in sacrifice, penance, and charity is also called "SAT." The act serving these is called "SAT."  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् ।

असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥१७- २८॥

aśraddhayā hutaṁ dattaṁ tapas taptaṁ kṛtaṁ ca yat
asad ity ucyate pārtha na ca tat prepya no iha 17.28

aśraddhayā1 hutam2 dattam3 tapa4 taptam5 kṛtam6 ca7 yat8
asat
9 iti10 ucyate11 pārtha12 na13 ca14 tat15 pretya16 na iha17 17.28

 

 [Whatever is] hutam2 = offered in sacrifice; dattam3 = given in charity; [whatever] tapa4 = austerity; taptam5 = is performed; [and] kṛtam6 = done; aśraddhayā1 = without faith; ca7 = and; yat8= which [whatever]; asat9 = untruth; iti10 = thus; ucyate11 = is said; pārtha12 = O Partha; ca14 = moreover; tat15 = that; [has value] na13 = neither; pretya16 = after demise; na iha17  = nor in this [life]. 17.28

 

17.28:  Whatever offering, gift, penance, or any other act performed without faith is called "ASAT." It is null and void here or hereafter (after death}.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

End BG Chapter 17: Gunas and Faith