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BG Chapter 18: Renunciation and Liberation

 

अर्जुन उवाच 

संन्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम् ।

त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिषूदन ॥१८- १॥

arjuna uvāca
saṁ
nyāsasya mahābāho tattvam icchāmi veditum
tyāgasya ca h
ṛṣīkeśa pthak keśiniūdana 18.1

arjuna uvāca
san
nyāsasya1 mahābāho
2 tattvam3 icchāmi4 veditum5
tyāgasya
6 ca7 hṛṣīkeśa9 pthak9 keśi-niūdana10 18.1

 

arjuna uvāca  = Arjuna said: mahābāho2 = O mighty-armed one; hṛṣīkeśa9 = O Killer of Demon Kesi; icchāmi4 = I desire; veditum5 = to know; tattvam3 = the truth; sannyāsasya1 = of asceticism or renunciation;   ca7 = and; tyāgasya6 = of Tyaga; pthak9 = severally [one by one, individually and comparatively = compare and contrast ];  keśi-niūdana10  = O Killer of Demon Kesi. 18.1

 

18.1 Arjuna said:

I wish (or desire) to know the Truth about Sannyāsa and Tyāga and the difference (thereof), O Mahabaho, O Kesi-nisūdana.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच 

काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः ।

सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः ॥१८- २॥

śrībhagavān uvāca
kāmyānāṁ karmaṇāṁ nyāsaṁ saṁnyāsaṁ kavayo viduḥ
sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṁ prāhus tyāgaṁ vicakṣaṇāḥ 18.2

śrībhagavān uvāca
kāmyānām
1 karmaṇām2 nyāsam3 sannyāsam4 kavaya5 viduḥ6
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgam
7 prāhu8 tyāgam9 vicakṣaṇāḥ10 18.2

 

śrībhagavān uvāca = Sri Bhagavan said: kavaya5 = the learned; viduḥ6 = know; sannyāsam4 = renunciation; [is] nyāsam3 = renunciation; karmaṇām2 = of actions; kāmyānām1 = attached to desire vicakṣaṇāḥ10 = the wise (the experienced); prāhu8 = declare; tyāgam9 = Tyaga; [is] sarva7A-karma7B-phala7C-tyāgam7D = giving up7D the fruits7C of all7A actions7B.18.2 

 

18.2:  Sri Bhagavan said:

The seer knows that sannyāsa is renunciation of work attached to desires. The wise declare Tyāga as renouncing the fruits of all actions. Sannyasam= renouncing of action. Tyagam: renouncing of fruits.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

त्याज्यं दोषवदित्येके कर्म प्राहुर्मनीषिणः ।

यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यमिति चापरे ॥१८- ३॥

tyājyaṁ doṣavad ity eke karma prāhur manīṣiṇaḥ
yajadānatapaḥ
karma na tyājyam iti cāpare 18.3

tyājyam1 doṣavat2 iti3 eke4 karma5 prāhu6 manīṣiṇaḥ7
yaja-dāna-tapaḥ-
karma
8 na9 tyājyam10 iti11ca12 apare13 18.3

 

eke4 = Some; manīṣiṇaḥ7 = wise men; prāhu6 = say or declare; karma5 = work or action;  doṣavat2 = laden with evil; iti3 tyājyam1 = should be renounced1 thus3;  ca12 = and; apare13 = others; [say] yaja8A-dāna8B-tapaḥ8C-karma8D = acts8D of sacrifice8A, charity8B & penance8C; [should] na9 tyājyam10  = not be relinquished; iti11 = thus.18.3
 

18.3:  Some wise men say that all work is evil and should be renounced, while others say that acts of sacrifice, charity, and penance should not be relinquished.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

निश्चयं शृणु मे तत्र त्यागे भरतसत्तम ।

त्यागो हि पुरुषव्याघ्र त्रिविधः संप्रकीर्तितः ॥१८- ४॥

niścayaṁ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama
tyāgo hi puru
avyāghra trividhaḥ saṁprakīrtitaḥ 18.4

niścayam1 śṛṇu2 me3 tatra4 tyāge5 bharata-sattama6
tyāga
7 hi8 purua-vyāghra8 trividha9 saṁprakīrtitaḥ10 18.4

 

bharata-sattama6  = O the Best of Bharatas; niścayam1 = certainly; śṛṇu2 = hear; me3 = from Me; tatra4 = with regards to;  tyāge5 = renunciation;  tyāga7 = renunciation; hi8 = indeed; purua-vyāghra8  = O tiger among men; saṁprakīrtitaḥ10 = is declared to be; trividha9 = of three kinds. 18.4

 

  18.4:  Certainly, hear from Me, O the Best of the Bharatas. In renunciation, Tyāga is declared to be of three kinds, O Tiger among men.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यं कार्यमेव तत् ।

यज्ञो दानं तपश्चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम् ॥१८- ५॥

yajadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyaṁ kāryam eva tat
yajo dānaṁ tapaś caiva pāvanāni manīṣiṇ
ām 18.5

yaja1 dāna2 tapaḥ3 karma4 na5 tyājyam6 kāryam7 eva8 tat9
yaja
10
dānam11 tapa12 ca13 eva14 pāvanāni15 manīṣiṇām16 18.5

 

karma4 = Acts; [of] yaja1 =sacrifice; dāna2 = charity; [and]  tapaḥ3 = penance; na5 tyājyam6 = should not be renounced; eva8 = indeed; tat9 = that [these]; kāryam7 = should be done;  yaja10 = sacrifice; dānam11 = charity; ca13 = and; eva14 = indeed; tapa12 = austerity; [are] pāvanāni15 = purifiers; manīṣiṇām16 = of the wise. 18.5

 

18.5:  Acts of sacrifice, charity, and penance should not be renounced and must be done. Sacrifice, charity, and penance purify the wise.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

एतान्यपि तु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलानि च ।

कर्तव्यानीति मे पार्थ निश्चितं मतमुत्तमम् ॥१८- ६॥

etāny api tu karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā phalāni ca
kartavyānīti me pārtha niścitaṁ matam uttamam 18.6

etāni1 api2 tu3 karmāṇi4 saṅgam5 tyaktvā6 phalāni7 ca8
kartavyāni9  iti
10 me11 pārtha12 niścitam13 matam14 uttamam15 18.6

 

tu3 = But; etāni1 = these; karmāṇi4 = actions; api2 = indeed; kartavyāni9  = should be performed; tyaktvā6 = by renouncing; saṅgam5 = attached; phalāni7 = fruits;  ca8= and; iti10 = thus; [it is] me11 = My;  niścitam13 = firm/decided/entrenched; [and]  uttamam15 = the best/the highest; matam14 = opinion; pārtha12 = O Partha.18.6 
 

18.6:   All actions should be performed renouncing the attached fruits. It is thus My decided (considered) and best opinion, O Partha.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

नियतस्य तु संन्यासः कर्मणो नोपपद्यते ।

मोहात्तस्य परित्यागस्तामसः परिकीर्तितः ॥१८- ७॥

niyatasya tu saṁnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate
mohāt tasya parityāgas tāmasa
ḥ parikīrtitaḥ 18.7

niyatasya1 tu2 saṁnyāsaḥ3 karmaṇa4 na5 upapadyate6
mohāt7 tasya8 parityāga
9 tāmasa10 parikīrtitaḥ11
18.7

 

tu2 = But; saṁnyāsaḥ3 = renunciation; niyatasya1 = of prescribed/obligatory;  karmaṇa4 = acts/duty; [is] na5 = not; upapadyate6 = proper. parityāga9 = renunciation; tasya8 = of them [obligatory acts]; mohāt7 = because of delusion; parikīrtitaḥ11 = is said to be; tāmasa10 = due to ignorance.18.7

 

18.7:  Renunciation of prescribed duty is improper. Renunciation because of illusion is (said to be) due to Tamas or ignorance. Tamas = darkness, ignorance.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

दुःखमित्येव यत्कर्म कायक्लेशभयात्त्यजेत् ।

स कृत्वा राजसं त्यागं नैव त्यागफलं लभेत् ॥१८- ८॥

duḥkham ity eva yat karma kāyakleśabhayāt tyajet
sa k
tvā rājasaṁ tyāgaṁ naiva tyāgaphalaṁ labhet 18.8

duḥkham1 iti2 eva3 yat4 karma5 kāya-kleśa-bhayāt6 tyajet7
sa
8 ktvā9 rājasam tyāgam10 na11 eva12 tyāga-phalam13 labhet14
18.8

 

yat4 = Whatever;  karma5 = work;  tyajet7 = one renounces; iti2 eva3  = thus indeed from [on account of'] duḥkham1 = difficulty; [and] kāya-kleśa-bhayāt6 = for fear of bodily pain; sa8 = he; ktvā9 = having done; rājasam tyāgam10 = renunciation based on passion; na11 = does not; eva12 = indeed; labhet14 = gain; tyāga-phalam13  = the fruits of renunciation  18.8 

 

18.8:  He, who renounces his work because of difficulty and for fear of bodily pain, does not gain the fruits of Tyāga by doing Rajasic Tyāga or renunciation.  Rajas = passion, motion.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

कार्यमित्येव यत्कर्म नियतं क्रियतेऽर्जुन ।

सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलं चैव स त्यागः सात्त्विको मतः ॥१८- ९॥

kāryam ity eva yat karma niyataṁ kriyaterjuna
saṅgaṁ tyaktvā phalaṁ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ 18.9

kāryam1 iti2 eva3 yat4 karma5 niyatam6 kriyate7 arjuna8
saṅgam9 tyaktvā
10 phalam11 ca12 eva13 sa14 tyāgaḥ15 sāttvika16 mataḥ17 18.9

 

 yat4 = Whatever; niyatam6 = obligatory; karma5 = action/duty;  kriyate7 = is done; iti2 = thus; eva3 = indeed; [is] kāryam1 = prescribed duty;   arjuna8= O Arjuna; tyaktvā10 = giving up; saṅgam9 = attachment; ca12 = and; phalam11 = fruits;  sa14 = that; eva13 = indeed; mataḥ17 = is regarded; sāttvika16 = Sattvic; tyāgaḥ15 = renunciation.18.9

 

18.9:   When he does the prescribed duty, that ought to be done, O Arjuna, giving up the attachment and the fruits, in My opinion, is sattvic Tyāga or renunciation.  Sattva = virtue, goodness.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते ।

त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः ॥१८- १०॥

na dveṣṭy akuśalaṁ karma kuśale nānuṣajjate
tyāgī sattvasamāvi
ṣṭo medhāvī chinnasaṁśayaḥ 18.10

na1 dveṣṭi2 akuśalam3 karma4 kuśale5 na6 anuṣajjate7
tyāgī8 sattva9 samāvi
ṣṭa10 medhāvī11 chinna12 saṁśayaḥ13 18.10

 

[He who] na1 = neither; dveṣṭi2 = hates; akuśalam3 = disagreeable; karma4 = action; na6 = nor; anuṣajjate7 = is attached to; kuśale5 = agreeable;  [action] [is] tyāgī8 = a renouncer; samāviṣṭa10 = full of; sattva9 = Sattva/goodness; medhāvī11 = a wise man; chinna12 = having cut off; saṁśayaḥ13 = doubts. 18.10
 

18.10:  He, who neither hates disagreeable action nor is attached to agreeable action, is a sattvika, a Tyagi, and a wise man, having cut off all doubts.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

न हि देहभृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्माण्यशेषतः ।

यस्तु कर्मफलत्यागी स त्यागीत्यभिधीयते ॥१८- ११॥

na hi dehabhṛtā śakyaṁ tyaktuṁ karmāṇy aśeṣataḥ
yas tu karmaphalatyāgī sa tyāgīty abhidhīyate 18.11

na1 hi2 deha-bhṛ3 śakyam4 tyaktum5 karmāṇi6 aśeṣataḥ7
ya
8 tu9 karma-phala-tyāgī10 sa11 tyāgi12 iti13 abhidhīyate14 18.11

 

[It is] na1 = never; hi2 = indeed; śakyam4 = possible; [for] deha-bhṛ3  = the corporeal being; [to]  tyaktum5 = renounce; karmāṇi6 = actions; aśeṣataḥ7= entirely;  tu9 = but; ya8 = whoever;  karma10A-phala10B-tyāgī10C = renounces10C fruits10B of actions10A; sa11 = he; abhidhīyate14 = is said to be; iti13 = thus; tyāgi12 = the renouncer. 18.11

 

18.11:  It is certainly never possible for the embodied one to renounce all actions. However, anyone renouncing the fruit of work is (said to be) a Tyagi.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम् ।

भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु संन्यासिनां क्वचित् ॥१८- १२॥

aniṣṭam iṣṭaṁ miśraṁ ca trividhaṁ karmaṇaḥ phalam
bhavaty atyāgināṁ pretya na tu saṁnyāsināṁ kvacit 18.12

aniṣṭam1 iṣṭam2 miśram3 ca4 trividham5 karmaṇaḥ6 phalam7
bhavati8 atyāginām9 pretya
10 na11 tu12 sannyāsinām13 kvacit14 18.12

 

aniṣṭam1 = The undesirable (hell); iṣṭam2 = the desirable (gods); ca4 = and; miśram3 = mixed (humans): trividham5 = three kinds; [of] phalam7 = fruits/results; karmaṇaḥ6 = of actions; [that] bhavati8 = happen; pretya10 = after death; atyāginām9 = to the non-renouncer;  tu12 = but; na11 = not; sannyāsinām13 = to the Sannyasis or renouncers; kvacit14 = at any time. 18.12

 

18.12:  The desirable, the undesirable, and the mixed are the three kinds of fruits of work that come after death for the Atyagi but not for the Tyagi.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे ।

सांख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् ॥१८- १३॥

pacaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me
khye ktānte proktāni siddhaye sarvakarmaām 18.13

paca1 etāni2 mahābāho3 kāraṇāni4 nibodha5 me6
khye7 ktānte8 proktāni9 siddhaye10 sarva-karmaām11 18.13

 

nibodha5 = Learn; me6 = from Me; mahābāho3 = O Mighty-armed one; etāni2 = these; paca1 = five;  kāraṇāni4 = factors/causes; siddhaye10 = for fulfillment; sarva-karmaām11 = of all actions; proktāni9 = as said; khye7 = in Samkhya doctrinal; ktānte8 = conclusions. 18.13

 

18.13:  Learn from Me O Mahā-Bāho, these five factors/causes for fulfillment of all actions as stated in the Samkhya doctrinal conclusions (Sānkhye-krtānte).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम् ।

विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम् ॥१८- १४॥

adhiṣṭhānaṁ tathā kartā karaṇaṁ ca pṛthagvidham
vividhāś ca p
ṛthakceṣṭā daivaṁ caivātra pacamam 18.14

adhiṣṭhānam1 tathā2 kartā3 karaṇam4 ca5 pṛthak6 vidham7
vividhā
8 ca9 pṛthak10 ceṣṭā11 daivam12 ca13 eva14 atra15 pacamam16 18.14

 

adhiṣṭhānam1 = The place (the body); tathā2 = also; kartā3 = the doer/the agent/the experiencer/the enjoyer; pṛthak6 = different; vidham7= kinds; karaṇam4 = of the organs/instruments; ca5 = and;  vividhā8 = various; ca9 = and; pṛthak10 = different; ceṣṭā11 = efforts; ca13 = and; eva14 = indeed; daivam12 = divinity; [are] atra15 = here; pacamam16 = the fifth. 18.14  (the body1, the doer2, the organs3, efforts4 and divinity5)

18.14:  The body, also the agent or the doer, the organs of various kinds, various and separate efforts, and the  divinity the fifth are also here.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

शरीरवाङ्‌मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः ।

न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः ॥१८- १५॥

śarīravāṅmanobhir yat karma prārabhate nara
nyāyyaṁ vā viparītaṁ vā pacaite tasya hetava
18.15

śarīra-vāṅ-manobhi1 yat2 karma3 prārabhate4 nara5
nyāyyam67 viparītam89 paca
10 ete11 tasya12 hetava13 18.15

 

yat2 = Which [whatever]; karma3 = action; nara5 = man; prārabhate4 = performs/does; śarīra-vāṅ-manobhi1 = by body, speech and mind; nyāyyam6 = proper; 7 = or; tasya12 = its; viparītam89 = opposite/reverse/contrary/perverse; ete11 = these;  paca10 = five; [are] hetava13 = the causes.18.15

 

18.15:  Whether karma is done in a proper or perverse manner (right or wrong), a man does it by his body, speech and mind; these are its five primary causes. (the body1, the doer2, the organs3, efforts4 and divinity5)

  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तत्रैवं सति कर्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः ।

पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः ॥१८- १६॥

tatraivaṁ sati kartāram ātmānaṁ kevalaṁ tu yaḥ
paśyaty akṛ
tabuddhitvān na sa paśyati durmatiḥ 18.16

tatra1 evam2 sati3 kartāram4 ātmānam5 kevalam6 tu7 yaḥ8
paśyati9 akṛ
ta-buddhitvāt10 na11 sa12 paśyati13 durmati14 18.16

 

tu7 = But; tatra1 evam2  sati3 = that being so; yaḥ8 = he; paśyati9 = sees; kevalam6 = the pure; ātmānam5 = his own Self; kartāram4 = As the doer; sa12 = he; akṛta-buddhitvāt10  = due to lack of intelligence; na11 = never; paśyati13 = sees; [ and thus he is] durmati14 = one with perverse intellect. 18.16

 

18.16:   He sees his own pure Self as the [sole] doer or agent due to lack of intelligence. Thus, this ignoramus never sees or perceives.   (The ego is the doer; agent is one among the five entities. The pure self is not the agent.)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यस्य नाहंकृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते ।

हत्वापि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते ॥१८- १७॥

yasya nāhaṁkṛto bhāvo buddhir yasya na lipyate
hatvā api sa imā
l lokān na hanti na nibadhyate 18.17

yasya1 na2 ahakṛta3  bhāva4 buddhi5 yasya6 na7 lipyate8
hatvā
9 api10 sa11 imān12 lokān13 na14 hanti15 na16 nibadhyate17 18.17

 

yasya1 = He who; na2 = does not; [have] bhāva4 = the state of mind; [of] ahakṛta3  = doership; yasya6 = whose;  buddhi5 = intelligence; [is]  na7 = not; lipyate8= attached or tainted; api10 = even; hatvā9 = by killing;  imān12 = these; lokān13 = beings; sa11 = he; na14 = does not; hanti15 = kill; na16 = nor; nibadhyate17 = is bound.18.17

 

18.17:  He who is free from doership or ego, whose intelligence is not tainted, though he kills in this world, never kills and is never bound (by his killing).  (Duteous killing by a soldier does not bind.)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना ।

करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसंग्रहः ॥१८- १८॥

jānaṁ jeyaṁ parijātā trividhā karmacodanā
karaṇaṁ karma karteti trividhaḥ karmasaṁgraha
18.18

jānam1 jeyam2 parijātā3 trividhā4 karma-codanā5
karaṇam6 karma7 karta8 iti9 trividhaḥ
10 karma-saṅgraha11 18.18

 

jānam1 = Knowledge; jeyam2 = object of knowledge; [and] parijātā3 = the knower; [are] trividhā4 = three kinds; [of] karma-codanā5  = impeller to action. karaṇam6 = The sense organs; karma7 = the action; [and] karta8 = the doer; iti9 = thus; [are] trividhaḥ10 =  three kinds; karma-saṅgraha11 = components of action [forming the aggregate].18.18

 

18.18: Knowledge, object of knowledge, and the knower are the three kinds of stimulus (impelling) to action. The sense organs, the action, and the doer are the threefold confluence of action.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः ।

प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि ॥१८- १९॥

jānaṁ karma ca kartā ca tridhaiva guṇabhedataḥ
procyate guṇasaṁ
khyāne yathāvac chṛṇu tāny api 18.19

jānam1 karma2 ca3 kartā4 ca5 tridhā6 eva7 guṇa-bhedataḥ8
procyate9 guṇa-sa
khyāne10 yathāvat11 śṛṇu12 tāni13 api14 18.19


jānam1 = Knowledge; karma2 = action; ca3 = and; kartā4 = doer/agent; [are] tridhā6 = threefold; eva7 = indeed; guṇa-bhedataḥ8  = according to differences in Gunas; ca5 = and; procyate9 = are referred to; guṇa-sakhyāne10  = in the science of Gunas; śṛṇu12 = Hear; api14 = also; tāni13 = all of them; yathāvat11 = as they are. 18.19
 

18.19:   Jnāna, karma, and kartā are threefold, according to the difference in Gunas as stated in the science of Gunas of Sankhya doctrine. Hear it rightly.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते ।

अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम् ॥१८- २०॥

sarvabhūteṣu yenaikaṁ bhāvam avyayam īkṣate
avibhakta
ṁ vibhakteṣu taj jānaṁ viddhi sāttvikam 18.20

sarvabhūteṣu1 yena2 ekam3 bhāvam4 avyayam5 īkṣate6
avibhakta
m7 vibhakteṣu8 tat9 jānam10 viddhi11 sāttvikam12 18.20

 

īkṣate6 = One sees; sarvabhūteṣu1 = all beings; [in] ekam3 = One; avyayam5 = imperishable; bhāvam4 = Being; yena2 = by which; [that Being remains] avibhaktam7 = undivided; vibhakteṣu8 = in the divided; viddhi11 = know; tat9 = that; jānam10 = knowledge; [is]  sāttvikam12 = goodness.18.20 

 

18.20:   That is knowledge, by which One Being is seen in all beings as the Imperishable and the Undivided in the divided. Know that knowledge is Sattva.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान् ।

वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम् ॥१८- २१॥

pṛthaktvena tu yaj jānaṁ nānābhāvān pṛthagvidhān
vetti sarve
u bhūteu taj jānaṁ viddhi rājasam 18.21

pṛthaktvena1 tu2 yat3 jānam4 nānā-bhāvān5 pṛthagvidhān6
vetti7 sarve
u8 bhūteu9 tat10 jānam11 viddhi12 rājasam13 18.21

 

tu2 = But;  jānam4 = knowledge; yat3 = which; vetti7 = knows or sees; sarveu8 = among all; bhūteu9 = beings; pṛthaktvena1 = because of separateness or individuality; nānā-bhāvān5  = distinct nature; [and] pṛthagvidhān6 = diverse condition; viddhi12 = know; tat10 = that; jānam11 = knowledge; [comes] rājasam13 = from Rajas.18.21 Rajas: The principle of motion, activity and disharmony constituent of Prakrti.

 

18.21:  The knowledge by which one sees manifold divisions among all beings because of their separateness (individuality), distinct nature and diverse condition, know that knowledge is Rajas.  (We are all one.)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यत्तु कृत्स्नवदेकस्मिन्कार्ये सक्तमहैतुकम् ।

अतत्त्वार्थवदल्पं च तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१८- २२॥

yat tu kṛtsnavad ekasmin kārye saktam ahetukam
atattvārthavad alpa
ṁ ca tat tāmasam udāhṛtam 18.22

yat1 tu2 kṛtsnavat3 ekasmin4 kārye5 saktam6 ahaitukam7
a-tattva-artha-vat8 alpa
m9 ca10 tat11 tāmasam12 udāhṛtam13 18.22

 

 tu2 = But; tat11 = that;  udāhṛtam13 = is said to be;  tāmasam12 = of the nature of Tamas; yat1 = which is; saktam6 = clinging/attached; ekasmin4 = to one; kārye5 = act; kṛtsnavat3 = as if it were the whole; ahaitukam7 = without regard to the cause; ca10 = and; a-tattva-artha-vat8 = without regard to knowledge of the Reality or Truth; [and therefore] alpam9 = is frivolous. 18.22

 

18.22:  Tamas holds to a single act as if it were the whole, without regard to the cause, and knowledge of the Reality or Truth and therefore, is frivolous.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

नियतं सङ्गरहितमरागद्वेषतः कृतम् ।

अफलप्रेप्सुना कर्म यत्तत्सात्त्विकमुच्यते ॥१८- २३॥

niyataṁ saṅgarahitam arāgadveṣataḥ kṛtam
aphalaprepsunā karma yat tat sāttvikam ucyate 18.23

niyatam1 saṅga-rahitam2 arāga-dveṣataḥ3 kṛtam4
aphala-prepsunā5
karma6 yat7 tat8 sāttvikam9 ucyate10 18.23

 

tat8 = That; karma6 = action; yat7 = which;  kṛtam4= is performed; [as] niyatam1 = obligation; saṅga-rahitam2  = free from attachment; arāga-dveṣataḥ3 = without love or hatred;  aphala-prepsunā5 = by one without attachment to fruits;  ucyate10 = is called; sāttvikam9 = Sattva.18.23  Sattva = goodness.

 

18.23:  That action, which is performed as duty or obligation, without love, hatred, or desire, by one without attachment to its fruits, is called Sattva.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म साहंकारेण वा पुनः ।

क्रियते बहुलायासं तद्राजसमुदाहृतम् ॥१८- २४॥

yat tu kāmepsunā karma sāhaṁkāreṇa vā puna
kriyate bahulāyāsaṁ tad rājasam udāhṛ
tam 18.24

yat1 tu2 kāmepsunā3 karma4 sa-ahakāreṇa56 puna7
kriyate8 bahula-āyāsam9 tat
10 rājasam11 udāhṛtam12 18.24

 

tu2 = But; karma4 = action; yat1 = which; kriyate8 = is done; kāmepsunā3 = by one attached to fruits; [and] sa-ahakāreṇa5  = an egoistic person; 6 = or;  puna7 = again; bahula-āyāsam9 = with extraordinary effort; tat10 = that;  udāhṛtam12 = is declared to be; rājasam11 = imbued with Rajas. 18.24

 

18.24:  Action, which is performed  with a desire to enjoy the fruits, and is prompted by ego and an extraordinary effort , is considered Rajasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अनुबन्धं क्षयं हिंसामनवेक्ष्य च पौरुषम् ।

मोहादारभ्यते कर्म यत्तत्तामसमुच्यते ॥१८- २५॥

anubandhaṁ kṣayaṁ hiṁsām anapekya ca pauruam
mohād ārabhyate karma yat tat tāmasam ucyate 18.25

anubandham1 kṣayam2 hiṁsām3 anapekya4 ca5 pauruam6
mohāt
7 ārabhyate8 karma9 yat10 tat11 tāmasam12 ucyate13 18.25

 

tat11 =That; karma9 = work; yat10 = which; ārabhyate8 = is undertaken; mohāt7 = with delusion; anapekya4 = without regard to; anubandham1 = bondage/consequence; kṣayam2 = loss; hiṁsām3 = injury;  ca5 = and; pauruam6= capability; ucyate13 = is regarded; tāmasam12 = Tamas.18.25
 

18.25: Work that is undertaken with delusion, and without regard to consequence, loss, injury, and ability, is said to be Tamasic.  Tamas = darkness, ignorance.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मुक्तसङ्गोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वितः ।

सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योर्निर्विकारः कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८- २६॥

muktasaṅgonahaṁvādī dhṛtyutsāhasamanvitaḥ
siddhyasiddhyor nirvikāraḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate 18.26

muktasaṅga1 anahaṁvādī2 dhṛti-yutsāha-samanvitaḥ3
siddhi-asiddhyo
4 nirvikāraḥ5 kartā6 sāttvika7 ucyate8 18.26

 

kartā6 = The doer/agent; [who] muktasaṅga1 = is liberated from attachment; anahaṁvādī2 = is not egoistic in speech; dhṛti-yutsāha-samanvitaḥ3  = is endowed with determination and enthusiasm; [and] nirvikāraḥ5 = is unaffected by; siddhi-asiddhyo4 = success and failure; ucyate8 = is said to be; sāttvika7 = imbued with Sattva. 18.26

 

18.26:   The doer or agent, who is unattached, not egoistic in speech, endowed with determination and enthusiasm, and unaffected by success or failure, is said to be sattvic.  Sattva = Virtue and goodness.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

रागी कर्मफलप्रेप्सुर्लुब्धो हिंसात्मकोऽशुचिः ।

हर्षशोकान्वितः कर्ता राजसः परिकीर्तितः ॥१८- २७॥

rāgī karmaphalaprepsur lubdho hiṁsātmakośuciḥ
harṣaśokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ 18.27

rāgī1 karma-phala-prepsu2 lubdha3 hiṁsa-ātmaka4 aśuciḥ5
harṣa-śoka-anvitaḥ6
kartā7 rājasaḥ8 parikīrtitaḥ9 18.27

 

 kartā7 =The doer/agent;  rāgī1 = who is attached; karma-phala-prepsu2 = who desires for fruits of actions; [is] lubdha3 = greedy; hiṁsa-ātmaka4 = injurious by nature; aśuciḥ5 = impure/unclean; [and] harṣa-śoka-anvitaḥ6  = who is subject to joy and sorrow; parikīrtitaḥ9 = is proclaimed to be; rājasaḥ8 = imbued with Rajas .18.27 Rajas = motion and passion.

 

18.27:  The doer, who is passionate and desires fruits of actions; who is greedy, injurious by nature, and impure; and who is subject to joy and sorrow, is proclaimed to be Rajasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अयुक्तः प्राकृतः स्तब्धः शठो नैष्कृतिकोऽलसः ।

विषादी दीर्घसूत्री च कर्ता तामस उच्यते ॥१८- २८॥

ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ śaṭhao naiṣkṛtikolasaḥ
viṣ
ādī dīrghasūtrī ca kartā tāmasa ucyate 18.28

ayuktaḥ1 prākṛtaḥ2 stabdhaḥ3 śaṭha4 naiṣkṛtika5 alasaḥ6
viṣ
ādī7 dīrghasūtrī8 ca9 kartā10 tāmasa11 ucyate12 18.28

 

kartā10 = Doer/agent; [who] ayuktaḥ1 = is unbalanced; prākṛtaḥ2 = uncultivated; stabdhaḥ3 = stubborn; śaṭha4 = deceitful; naiṣkṛtika5 = usurping; alasaḥ6 = lazy; viṣādī7 = despondent; ca9 = and; dīrghasūtrī8 = procrastinating; ucyate12 = is said to be;  tāmasa11 = imbued with Tamas.18.28

 

18.28:  The doer, who is unbalanced, uncultivated, obstinate, deceitful, usurping, lazy, despondent, and procrastinating, is said to be Tamasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

बुद्धेर्भेदं धृतेश्चैव गुणतस्त्रिविधं शृणु ।

प्रोच्यमानमशेषेण पृथक्त्वेन धनंजय ॥१८- २९॥

buddher bhedaṁ dhṛteś caiva guatas trividhaṁ śṛṇu
procyamānam aśe
ṣeṇa pthaktvena dhanajaya 18.29

buddhe1 bhedam2 dhṛte3 ca4 eva5 guata6 trividham7 śṛṇu8
procyamānam9 aśe
ṣeṇa10 pthaktvena11 dhanajaya12 18.29

 

śṛṇu8= Hear; trividham7 = the three kinds; [of] bhedam2 = differences;  buddhe1 = of intellect; ca4 = and; dhṛte3 = of steadiness;  eva5 = indeed; guata6 = according to the Gunas;  procyamānam9 = that being said; aśeṣeṇa10 = fully; [and] pthaktvena11 = severally; dhanajaya12 = O Dhananjaya. 18.29

 

18.29: Hear the three kinds of differences in intellect and steadiness explained fully and severally according to the gunas, O Dhananjaya.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च कार्याकार्ये भयाभये ।

बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥१८- ३०॥

pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye
bandhaṁ mokṣaṁ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī 18.30

pravṛttim1 ca2 nivṛttim3 ca4 kārya-ākārye5 bhaya-abhaye6
bandham7 mokṣam8 ca9
10 vetti11 buddhiḥ1213 pārtha14 sāttvikī15 18.30

 

buddhiḥ12 = Intellect;10 = by which;[ one] vetti11 = knows; pravṛttim1 = Pravrrti Marga; ca2 = and; nivṛttim3 = Nivrrti Marga; ca4 = and; kārya-ākārye5  = duty and unduteousness; bhaya-abhaye6  = fear and fearlessness; bandham7 = bondage; ca9 = and; mokṣam8 = liberation: 13 = that [Buddhi]; pārtha14 = O Partha; sāttvikī15 = is imbued with Sattva.18.30. Sattva = virtue and goodness.   kārya-ākārye= right action and wrong action; 'enjoined and prohibited action'. (Sankara). pravṛttim1 = Path of worldly action; nivṛttim3 = Path of spirituality or renunciation, the path that leads through unfolding back to the spiritual worlds; often called the path of light or luminous arc. (Theosophical dictionary)

 

18.30:  Buddhi, by which one knows action and non-action (renunciation), what should be done and what should not be done, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation, O Partha, is sattvic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यया धर्ममधर्मं च कार्यं चाकार्यमेव च ।

अयथावत्प्रजानाति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥१८- ३१॥

yayā dharmam adharmaṁ ca kāryaṁ cākāryam eva ca
ayathāvat prajānāti buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī 18.31

yayā1 dharmam2 adharmam3 ca4 kāryam5 ca6 akāryam6 eva7 ca8
ayathāvat9 prajānāti
10 buddhiḥ1112 pārtha13 rājasī14 18.31

 

buddhiḥ11 = Intellect; yayā1 = by which; prajānāti10 = it knows; ayathāvat9 = imperfectly/wrongly; dharmam2 = virtue; ca4 = and; adharmam3 = vice; ca6 = and; kāryam5 = permitted action; eva7 ca8 = as also;  akāryam6 = prohibited action:  12 = that [intellect]; pārtha13 = O Partha; rājasī14 = is imbued with Rajas.18.31  Rajas = passion and motion.

 

18.31:  Buddhi, by which it knows imperfectly dharmam and adharmam, what should be done and what should not be done, is Rajasic, O Partha.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता ।

सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी ॥१८- ३२॥

adharmaṁ dharmam iti yā manyate tamasāvṛ
sarvārthān viparītāś ca buddhi
ḥ sā pārtha tāmasī 18.32

adharmam1 dharmam2 iti34 manyate5 tamasā6 āvṛ7
sarva-arthān8 viparītā9 ca
10 buddhi1112 pārtha13 tāmasī14 18.32

 

buddhi11 = Intellect; 4 = which; manyate5 = thinks; adharmam1 = vice; iti3 = thus; [as]  dharmam2 = virtue; āvṛ7 = is covered; tamasā6 = by darkness or ignorance; ca10 = and; [sees] sarva-arthān8  = all objects; viparītā9 = contrary [to truth]: 12 = that [intellect]; pārtha13 = O Partha; tāmasī14 = is imbued with Tamas.18.32

 

18.32:  Tamasic Buddhi, covered by ignorance, thinks Adharmam (vice) as Dharmam (virtue), and sees all things contrary to their real nature, O Partha. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

धृत्या यया धारयते मनःप्राणेन्द्रियक्रियाः ।

योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥१८- ३३॥

dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manaḥprāṇendriyakriyāḥ
yogenāvyabhicāriṇ
yā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī 18.33

dhṛtyā1 yayā2 dhārayate3 mana4 prāṇa5 indriya6 kriyāḥ7
yogena8 avyabhicāriṇ
9 dhṛtiḥ1011 pārtha12 sāttvikī13 18.33

 

avyabhicāriṇ9 = Unswerving, unfailing; dhṛtyā1 = determination; yayā2 = by which; dhārayate3 = one controls; mana4 prāṇa5 indriya6 kriyāḥ7 = actions7 of mind4, breath5 and sense organs6; yogena8 = by Yoga: 11 = that; dhṛtiḥ10 = firmness;  pārtha12 = O Partha; sāttvikī13 = is imbued with Sattva.18.33

 

18.33:  The unswerving determination, by which one controls and steadies the mind, the life-breaths, and the activities of the senses by yoga (meditation)-- that firmness-- O Partha, is sattvic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यया तु धर्मकामार्थान्धृत्या धारयतेऽर्जुन ।

प्रसङ्गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥१८- ३४॥

yayā tu dharmakāmārthān dhṛtyā dhārayaterjuna
prasa
gena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī 18.34

yayā1 tu2 dharma-kāma-arthān3 dhṛtyā4 dhārayate5 arjuna6
prasa
gena7 phala-ākāṅkṣī8 dhṛtiḥ910 pārtha11 rājasī12 18.34

 

arjuna6 = O Arjuna; tu2 = but; dhṛtyā4 = determination; yayā1 = by which; [one] dhārayate5 = holds fast; dharma-kāma-arthān3  = duty, desire and wealth; prasagena7 = with attachment; phala-ākāṅkṣī8 =  desirous of fruits:; 10 = that;  dhṛtiḥ9 = determination; pārtha11 = O Partha; rājasī12 = is imbued with Rajas.18.34

 

18.34:  The determination, by which one holds fast to Dharma, Kāma, and Artha (duty, desire and wealth) with attachment to desires of fruit O Partha, is Rajasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च ।

न विमुञ्चति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी ॥१८- ३५॥

yayā svapnaṁ bhayaṁ śokaṁ viṣādaṁ madam eva ca
na vimucati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī 18.35

yayā1 svapnam2 bhayam3 śokam4 viṣādam5 madam7 eva8 ca9
na
10 vimucati11 durmedhā12 dhṛtiḥ1314 pārtha15 tāmasī16 18.35

 

dhṛtiḥ13 = Determination; yayā1 = by which; durmedhā12 = a fool; na10 = never; vimucati11 = gives up; svapnam2 = dream; bhayam3 = fear; śokam4 = grief; viṣādam5 = despondence; ca9= and; madam7 = conceit: eva8 = indeed; 14 = that [determination];  pārtha15 = O partha; tāmasī16 = is imbued with Tamas.18.35

 

18.35:  The determination by which a fool never gives up dream, fear, grief, despondence, and conceit or arrogance, O Partha, is Tamasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं शृणु मे भरतर्षभ ।

अभ्यासाद्रमते यत्र दुःखान्तं च निगच्छति ॥१८- ३६॥

sukhaṁ tv idānīṁ trividhaṁ śṛṇu me bharatarabha
abhyāsād ramate yatra du
ḥkhāntaṁ ca nigacchhati 18.36

sukham1 tu2 idānīm3 trividham4 śṛṇu5 me6 bharatarabha7
abhyāsāt8 ramate9 yatra
10 duḥkhāntam11 ca12 nigacchhati13 18.36

 

tu2 = But; idānīm3 = now; śṛṇu5 = hear; me6 = from Me; bharatarabha7 = O the Best of Bharatas; sukham1 = happiness; [is of] trividham4 = three kinds; yatra10 = which; ramate9 = one enjoys; abhyāsāt8 = by practice;  ca12 = and; nigacchhati13 = attains; duḥkhāntam11 = end of suffering. 18.36
 

18.36:  And now hear from Me, O Best among Bharatas, the three kinds of happiness, which one enjoys by practice and by which he reaches the end of suffering.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यत्तदग्रे विषमिव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम् ।

तत्सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तमात्मबुद्धिप्रसादजम् ॥१८- ३७॥

yat tadagre viṣam iva pariṇāmemṛtopamam
tat sukha
ṁ sāttvikaṁ proktam ātmabuddhiprasādajam 18.37

yat1 tat2 agre3 viṣam4 iva5 pariṇāme6 amṛta7 upamam8
tat9 sukha
m10 sāttvikam11 proktam12 ātma-buddhi-prasādajam13 18.37

 

tat2 = That; sukham10 = happiness; yat1 = which; [is] iva5 = like; viṣam4 = poison; agre3 = at the outset; [and]  pariṇāme6 = at the end; upamam8 = comparable to; amṛta7 = nectar:  tat9 = that [happiness];  sāttvikam11 = imbued with Sattva; proktam12 = is said; ātma-buddhi-prasādajam13  = to arise from the Grace of the intellect of the Self. 18.37
 

18.37:  That happiness, which is like the poison at the beginning and nectar at the end, comes from Atma buddhi and is sattvic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

विषयेन्द्रियसंयोगाद्यत्तदग्रेऽमृतोपमम् ।

परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥१८- ३८॥

viṣayendriyasayogād yat tad agremtopamam
pari
āme viam iva tat sukhaṁ rājasaṁ smṛtam 18.38

viṣaya1 indriya2 sayogāt3 yat4 tat5 agre6 amtopamam7
pari
āme8 viam9 iva10 tat11 sukham12 rājasam13 smṛtam14 18.38

 

tat5 = That; sukham12 = happiness; yat4 = which; [arises from] viṣaya1 indriya2 sayogāt3 = contact3 between sense organs2 and objects of the senses1; [is] amtopamam7 = like ambrosia; agre6 = at the outset; [and]  iva10 = like; viam9 = poison; pariāme8 = at the end: tat11 = that [happiness]; smṛtam14 = is said to be;  rājasam13 = imbued with Rajas.18.38

 

18.38:  The happiness, which comes from the contact of objects of senses with the senses, is nectar at the beginning and poison at the end, and is known as Rajasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यदग्रे चानुबन्धे च सुखं मोहनमात्मनः ।

निद्रालस्यप्रमादोत्थं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१८- ३९॥

yad agre cānubandhe ca sukhaṁ mohanam ātmanaḥ
nidrālasyapramādotthaṁ tat tāmasam udāhṛ
tam 18.39

yat1 agre2 ca3 anubandhe4 ca5 sukham6 mohanam7 ātmanaḥ8
nidrā9  ālasya
10 pramāda11 uttham12 tat13 tāmasam14 udāhṛtam15 18.39

 

tat13 = That; sukham6 = happiness; yat1 = which; [is] mohanam7 = delusive; ātmanaḥ8 = of the self; agre2 = in the beginning; ca3 = and; anubandhe4 = at the end; [which]  uttham12 = rises; [from] nidrā9  = sleep; ālasya10 = laziness; ca5 = and;  pramāda11 = negligence; udāhṛtam15 = is declared to be; tāmasam14 = imbued with Tamas.18.39

 

18.39:  That happiness, which deludes the atman in the beginning and at the end and which comes from sleep, laziness, and negligence, is said to be Tamasic.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

न तदस्ति पृथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा पुनः ।

सत्त्वं प्रकृतिजैर्मुक्तं यदेभिः स्यात्त्रिभिर्गुणैः ॥१८- ४०॥

na tad asti pṛthivyāṁ vā divi deveṣu vā puna
sattvaṁ prakṛ
tijair muktaṁ yad ebhiḥ syāt tribhir guṇaiḥ 18.40

na1 tat2 asti3 pṛthivyām45 divi6 deveṣu78 puna9
sattvam
10 prakṛti-jai11 muktam12 yat13 ebhiḥ14 syāt15 tribhi16 guṇaiḥ17 18.40

 

asti3 = There is; na1 = no;  tat2 = such; sattvam10 = being or entity; pṛthivyām4 = on earth;  5 = or; divi6 = in heaven; 8 = or; puna9 = again; deveṣu7 = among the gods; yat13 = who/which; syāt15 = is/can be; muktam12 = free; ebhiḥ14 = from these; tribhi16 = three; guṇaiḥ17 = Gunas; prakṛti-jai11 = born of Nature.18.40 

 

18.40:  There is no being either on earth or in heaven or among the gods, who is free from the three modes of Gunas born of Prakrti.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूद्राणां च परन्तप ।

कर्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्वभावप्रभवैर्गुणैः ॥१८- ४१॥

brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṁ śūdrāṇāṁ ca paraṁtapa
karmā
i pravibhaktāni svabhāvaprabhavair guṇai18.41

brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśām-śūdrāṇām-ca1 parantapa2-

karmāi3 pravibhaktāni4 svabhāva-prabhavai5 guṇai6 18.41

 

parantapa2 = O Parantapa; brāhmaṇa1A-kṣatriya1B-viśām1C-ca1D-śūdrāṇām1E = of the Brahmanas1A, Ksatriyas1B, Vaisyas1C, and1D Sudras1E:  karmāi3 = their activities; pravibhaktāni4 = are separated/distinguished; [according to] guṇai6 = Gunas; svabhāva-prabhavai5  =  born of their own inherent disposition.18.41
 

18.41: Brāhmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sūdra, O Parantapa, and their activities are divided according to the Gunas born of their own nature.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च ।

ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम् ॥१८- ४२॥

śamao damas tapaḥ śaucaṁ kṣāntir ārjavam eva ca
jāna
ṁ vijānam āstikyaṁ brahmakarma svabhāvajam 18.42

śama1 dama2 tapaḥ3 śaucam4 kṣānti5 ārjavam6 eva7 ca8
jāna
m9 vijānam10 āstikyam11 brahma-karma12 svabhāvajam13 18.42

 

śama1 dama2 tapaḥ3 śaucam4 kṣānti5 ārjavam6  jānam9 vijānam10 ca8 eva7 āstikyam11 = Tranquility1, self-control2, austerity3, purity4, patience5, honesty6, knowledge9, wisdom10, and8 indeed7 belief in God11; [are] brahma-karma12 = duty of Brahmana; svabhāvajam13 = born of his innate disposition. 18.42

 

18.42:  Tranquillity, self-control, austerity, purity, patience, honesty, knowledge, wisdom, and belief in God are the duty of the Brāhmana born of his inherent disposition (karma SvA-bhAva-jam)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् ।

दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम् ॥१८- ४३॥

śauryaṁ tejo dhṛtir dākṣyaṁ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam
dānam īśvarabhāvaś ca kṣātraṁ karma svabhāvajam 18.43

śauryaṁ tejo dhṛtir dākṣyaṁ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam
dānam īśvarabhāvaś ca kṣātraṁ karma svabhāvajam 18.43

 

śauryam1 teja2 dhṛti3 dākṣyam4 yuddhe5 ca6 api7 apalāyanam8
dānam9 īśvarabhāva
10 ca11 kṣātram12 karma13 svabhāvajam14 18.43

 

śauryam1 = Heroism; teja2 = boldness; dhṛti3 = determination; dākṣyam4 = skill; ca6 = and; api7 = also; apalāyanam8 = not running away; yuddhe5 = from battle; dānam9 = generosity; ca11 = and; īśvarabhāva10 = lordliness; [are] karma13 = the duty; kṣātram12 = of a Ksatriya;  svabhāvajam14 = born of his inherent disposition.18.43

 

18.43:  Heroism, boldness, determination, skill, not fleeing from the battle, generosity, and lordliness are the duty of Kshatriya born of his inherent disposition or becoming.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम् ।

परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम् ॥१८- ४४॥

kṛṣigaurakṣyavāṇijyaṁ vaiśyakarma svabhāvajam
paricaryātmakaṁ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāvajam 18.44

kṛṣi-gaurakṣya-vāṇijyam1 vaiśya-karma2 svabhāvajam3
paricaryātmakam
4 karma5 śūdrasya6 api7 svabhāvajam8 18.44

1 

kṛṣi-gaurakṣya-vāṇijyam1 = Cultivation, cow protection, and trade; vaiśya-karma2 = duties of Vaisya; [are] svabhāvajam3 = born of his own nature;  paricaryātmakam4 = the nature of service; [and] karma5 = duty; śūdrasya6 = of the Sudra; api7 = also; [are] svabhāva-jam8  = born of his own inherent disposition. 18.44

 

18.44:  Cultivation, cow protection, and trade are the duty of Vaishya, born of his own (Vaishya) nature. Duty of Sudra is of the nature of service (to other three), born of his own inherent disposition.  (Cow protection is rearing of cattle.)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

स्वे स्वे कर्मण्यभिरतः संसिद्धिं लभते नरः ।

स्वकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच्छृणु ॥१८- ४५॥

sve sve karmaṇy abhirataḥ saṁsiddhiṁ labhate naraḥ
svakarmanirataḥ siddhiṁ yathā vindati tac chṛṇ
u 18.45

sve sve1 karmaṇi2 abhirata3 saṁsiddhim4 labhate5 naraḥ6
sva-karma-nirataḥ7 siddhim8 yathā9 vindati
10 tat11 śṛṇu12 18.45

 

abhirata3 = Devoted to; sve sve1 = one's own; karmaṇi2 = duty; naraḥ6 = man; labhate5 = attains; saṁsiddhim4 = perfection. śṛṇu12 = Hear; yathā9 = as; [to how] sva-karma-nirataḥ7 = one engaged in his own duty; vindati10 = attains/achieves; tat11 = that; siddhim8 = success.18.45

 

18.45:  Devoted to his own duty, man attains perfection. Hear now as to how one engaged in his own duty attains perfection/success. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यतः प्रवृत्तिर्भूतानां येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।

स्वकर्मणा तमभ्यर्च्य सिद्धिं विन्दति मानवः ॥१८- ४६॥

yataḥ pravṛttir bhūtānāṁ yena sarvam idaṁ tatam
svakarmaṇ
ā tam abhyarcya siddhiṁ vindati mānava 18.46

yataḥ1 pravṛtti2 bhūtānām3 yena4 sarvam5 idam6 tatam7
svakarmaṇ
ā8 tam9 abhyarcya10 siddhim11 vindati12 mānava13 18.46

 

[By doing] svakarmaṇā8 = his own duties; [and] abhyarcya10 = by worshipping; tam9 = Him; yataḥ1 = from whom; pravṛtti2 = manifestation; [of] bhūtānām3 = all beings; [arises]  yena4 = by whom; sarvam5 = all; idam6 = this; tatam7 = is pervaded; mānava13 = a man; vindati12 = attains; siddhim11 = perfection/success.18.46

 

18.46: By worshipping Him, from Whom all beings arise, and Who pervades all this, and by doing his own duties, man attains perfection.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।

स्वभावनियतं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥१८- ४७॥

śreyān svadharmo viguṇaḥ paradharmot svanuṣṭhitāt
svabhāvaniyata
ṁ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam 18.47

śreyān1 svadharma2 viguṇaḥ3 paradharmāt4 su-anuṣṭhitāt5
svabhāva-niyata
m6 karma7 kurvan8 na9 āpnoti10 kilbiṣam11 18.47

 

śreyān1 = Better/superior; svadharma2 = one's own dharma/duty; [though] viguṇaḥ3 = imperfect/deficient; [than] paradharmāt4 = dharma of another; su-anuṣṭhitāt5  = perfectly done. [By] kurvan8 = doing;  karma7 = duty; svabhāva-niyatam6 = according to one's own nature; [one] na9 = never; āpnoti10 = attains/incurs; kilbiṣam11 = sin.18.47

 

18.47:   Better is one's own dharma though imperfectly performed than the dharma of another however perfectly done. By performing one's karma according to one's own nature, one does not incur any sin.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सहजं कर्म कौन्तेय सदोषमपि न त्यजेत् ।

सर्वारम्भा हि दोषेण धूमेनाग्निरिवावृताः ॥१८- ४८॥

sahajaṁ karma kaunteya sadoṣam api na tyajet
sarvārambhā hi do
ṣeṇa dhūmenāgnir ivāvṛtāḥ 18.48

sahajam1 karma2 kaunteya3 sadoṣam4 api5 na6 tyajet7
sarva-ārambhā
8 hi9 doṣeṇa10 dhūmena11 agni12 iva13 āvṛtāḥ14 18.48

 

kaunteya3 = O son of Kunti; [one should] na6 = never; tyajet7 = abandon/give up; sahajam1 = natural/innate/inborn; karma2 = duty; api5 = though;  sadoṣam4 = defective.  sarva-ārambhā8  = All endeavors; hi9 = indeed; [are afflicted] doṣeṇa10 = with defects; iva13 = as; agni12 = fire; āvṛtāḥ14 = is surrounded/covered/enveloped; dhūmena11 = with smoke. 18.48

 

18.48:  One should not give up ones innate karma, O Kaunteya, though defective. All endeavors are covered with defects as the fire is covered by smoke.  

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

असक्तबुद्धिः सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृहः ।

नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिं परमां संन्यासेनाधिगच्छति ॥१८- ४९॥

asaktabuddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigataspṛhaḥ
naiṣkarmyasiddhiṁ paramāṁ saṁ
nyāsenādhigacchati 18.49

asakta-buddhiḥ1 sarvatra2 jitātmā3 vigata-spṛhaḥ4
naiṣkarmya-siddhim5 paramām6 san
nyāsena7 adhigacchati8 18.49

 

[He whose] asakta-buddhiḥ1 = Buddhi or intellect is unattached; sarvatra2 = everywhere; jitātmā3 = who has control over self; vigata-spṛhaḥ4 = whose desires departed; [who attained] naiṣkarmya-siddhim5 = perfection of non-action or transcendence of Karma; adhigacchati8 = attains; paramām6 = the Supreme; sannyāsena7 = through renunciation.18.49

 

18.49. He whose Buddhi is unattached everywhere,  who has control over self, whose desires have departed, who has attained perfection of non-action or transcendence of Karma,  attains the Supreme  through renunciation.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे ।

समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा ॥१८- ५०॥

siddhiṁ prāpto yathā brahma tathāpnoti nibodha me
samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭ
hā jānasya yā parā 18.50

siddhim1 prāpta2 yathā3 brahma4 tathā5 āpnoti6 nibodha7 me8
samāsena9 eva
10 kaunteya11 niṣṭ12 jānasya1314 parā15 18.50

 

nibodha7 = Learn; me8 = from me; samāsena9 = briefly; eva10 = indeed; kaunteya11 = O son of Kunti; prāpta2 = having achieved; siddhim1 = spiritual perfection; [he]  yathā3 = as  tathā5 = by that; āpnoti6 = attains; brahma4 = Brahman; 14 = which; [is] parā15 = the supreme; niṣṭ12 = state; jānasya13 = of knowledge. 18.50

 

18.50:  Learn from Me briefly, O Kaunteya, having achieved perfection, he attains Brahman, which is the supreme state of knowledge.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

बुद्ध्या विशुद्ध्या युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च ।

शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च ॥१८- ५१॥

buddhyā viśuddhayā yukto dhṛtyātmānaṁ niyamya ca
śabdādīn viṣayāṁ
s tyaktvā rāgadveau vyudasya ca 18.51

buddhyā1 viśuddhayā2 yukta3 dhṛtyā4 ātmānam5 niyamya6 ca7
śabdādīn
8 viṣayān9 tyaktvā10 rāga-dveṣau11 vyudasya12 ca13 18.51

 

yukta3 = Endowed with; viśuddhayā2 = pure; buddhyā1 = intellect; niyamya6 = controlling; ātmānam5 = the self; [with] dhṛtyā4 = steadiness; ca7 = and; tyaktvā10 = giving up/rejecting; viṣayān9 = sense objects; śabdādīn8 = beginning with sound;  ca13 = and; vyudasya12 = casting aside;  rāga-dveṣau11 = likes and dislikes...  18.51 continued

 

18.51:  Endowed with purified Buddhi, controlling self with determination, giving up sound, and sense objects, and casting aside likes and dislikes (continued)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानसः ।

ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः ॥१८- ५२॥

viviktasevī laghvāśī yatavākkāyamānasaḥ
dhyānayogaparo nityaṁ vairāgyaṁ samupāśrita
18.52

vivikta-sevī1 laghu-āśī2 yata3 vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ4
dhyāna-yoga-para
5 nityam6 vairāgyam7 samupāśrita8 18.52

 

vivikta-sevī1 = living in solitude; laghu-āśī2  = eating lightly; yata3 =controlling; vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ4 = speech, body, and mind; [engaged] nityam6 = always; dhyāna-yoga-para5  = in the highest as in meditation and yoga; samupāśrita8 = taking refuge in; vairāgyam7 = detachment or dispassion;  18.52 continued...
 

18.52:  Living in solitude, eating lightly, controlling speech, body, and mind, engaged all the time in yoga of meditation, having taken refuge in detachment (continued)

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् ।

विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥१८- ५३॥

ahaṁkāraṁ balaṁ darpaṁ kāmaṁ krodhaṁ
parigraham vimucya nirmamaḥ śānto brahmabhūyāya kalpate 18.53

ahakāram1 balam2 darpam3 kāmam4 krodham5
parigraham6 vimucya7 nirmamaḥ8 śānta
9 brahma-bhūyāya10 kalpate11 18.53

 

vimucya7 = giving up; ahakāram1 = ego; balam2 = power; darpam3 = pride; kāmam4 = lust; krodham5 = anger; parigraham6 = possession; [exercising] nirmamaḥ8 = indifference to a sense of mine; [and upholding] śānta9 = peace; [he] kalpate11 = becomes worthy of; brahma-bhūyāya10 = absorption in Brahman.  18.53

 

18.53:  giving up ego, power, pride, lust and anger, possession, and in perfect indifference to a sense of  mine, and endowed with peace, he becomes worthy of attaining Brahma-būyāyas (absorption in Brahman).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।

समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम् ॥१८- ५४॥

brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati
sama
ḥ sarveṣu bhūteu madbhaktiṁ labhate parām 18.54 

brahma-bhūtaḥ1 prasanna-ātmā2 na śocati3 na kāṅkṣati4
sama
5 sarveṣu bhūteu6 madbhaktim7 labhate8 parām9 18.54 

 

brahma-bhūtaḥ1 = Being one with Brahman; prasanna-ātmā2 = the bliss-self; na śocati3 = does neither lament; na kāṅkṣati4 = nor desires; [being] sama5 = the same; sarveṣu bhūteu6 = towards all beings; [he] labhate8 = gains; parām9 = supreme; madbhaktim7 = devotion to Me. 18.54    

18.54:  Being one with Brahman, the tranquil atma neither laments nor desires. Regarding all beings equal, he attains Supreme devotion to Me.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः ।

ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनन्तरम् ॥१८- ५५॥

bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ
tato māṁ tattvato jātvā viśate tadanantaram 18.55

bhaktyā1 mām2 abhijānāti3 yāvān4 ya5 ca6 asmi7 tattvataḥ8
tata
9 mām10 tattvata11 jātvā12 viśate13 tadanantaram14 18.55

 

bhaktyā1 = Through devotion; mām2 = to Me; abhijānāti3 = he knows; tattvataḥ8 = in truth; yāvān4 = what I am; ca6 = and; ya5 = who; asmi7 = I am;  tata9 = then; jātvā12 = knowing; mām10 = Me; tattvata11 = in truth; viśate13 = he enters; [into Me] tadanantaram14 = after that. 18.55

 

18.55:  Through devotion to Me, he comes to know in Truth who I am, and what My nature is. Knowing Me thus in Truth, he enters into Me after that.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वकर्माण्यपि सदा कुर्वाणो मद्व्यपाश्रयः ।

मत्प्रसादादवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदमव्ययम् ॥१८- ५६॥

sarvakarmāṇy api sadā kurvāo madvyapāśraya
matprasādād avāpnoti śāśvataṁ padam avyayam 18.56

sarva1 karmāṇi2 api3 sadā4 kurvāa5 madvyapāśraya6
mat-prasādāt7 avāpnoti8 śāśvatam9 padam
10 avyayam11 18.56

 

kurvāa5 api3 = While performing; sarva1 = all; karmāṇi2 = activities; sadā4 = all the time; madvyapāśraya6 = he who takes refuge in Me;  avāpnoti8 = attains; śāśvatam9 = eternal; avyayam11 = imperishable; padam10 = abode; mat-prasādāt7 = by My Grace.18.56

 

18.56:  While performing all activities all the time, he, who takes refuge in Me, attains the eternal imperishable abode by My grace.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

चेतसा सर्वकर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्परः ।

बुद्धियोगमुपाश्रित्य मच्चित्तः सततं भव ॥१८- ५७॥

cetasā sarvakarmāṇi mayi sanyasya matpara
buddhiyogam upāśritya maccittaḥ satataṁ bhava 18.57

cetasā1 sarva-karmāṇi2 mayi3 sannyasya4 matpara5
buddhi-yogam6 upāśritya7 mat-cittaḥ8 satatam9 bhava
10 18.57

 

cetasā1 = Mentally; sannyasya4 = renouncing; sarva-karmāṇi2  = all actions; mayi3 = to Me; upāśritya7 = by observing; buddhi-yogam6  = concentration with your intellect; [on] matpara5 = Me as the Supreme; bhava10 = become such; [by] satatam9 = constantly; mat-cittaḥ8 = thinking of Me in your mind. 18.57
 

18.57:  Mentally renouncing all actions to Me, and practicing Buddhi-yoga, think of Me in your mind as the Supreme Goal all the time.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मच्चित्तः सर्वदुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि ।

अथ चेत्त्वमहंकारान्न श्रोष्यसि विनङ्क्ष्यसि ॥१८- ५८॥

maccittaḥ sarvadurgāṇi matprasādat tariyasi
atha cet tvam aha
kārān na śroyasi vinaṅkṣyasi 18.58

maccittaḥ1 sarva-durgāṇi2 mat-prasādat3 tariyasi4
atha5 cet6 tvam7 aha
kārāt8 na9 śroyasi10 vinaṅkṣyasi11 18.58

 

maccittaḥ1 = Concentrating your mind on Me; tariyasi4 = you will overcome (traverse); sarva-durgāṇi2 = all obstacles; mat-prasādat3  = by My Grace; atha5 = moreover; cet6 = if; tvam7 = you; ahakārāt8 = because of ego; na9 = do not; śroyasi10 = listen; [you] vinaṅkṣyasi11 = will perish.18.58

 

18.58:  Thinking of Me, you will overcome all your difficulties by My grace. However, if you do not listen to Me because of your ego, you will perish.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यदहंकारमाश्रित्य न योत्स्य इति मन्यसे ।

मिथ्यैष व्यवसायस्ते प्रकृतिस्त्वां नियोक्ष्यति ॥१८- ५९॥

yad ahaṁkāram āśritya na yotsya iti manyase
mithyai
a vyavasāyas te praktis tvāṁ niyokṣyati 18.59

yat1 ahakāram2 āśritya3 na3 yotsye4 iti5 manyase6
mithya7
eṣa8 vyavasāya9 te10 prakti11 tvām12 niyokṣyati13 18.59

 

āśritya3 = Taking refuge; [in] yat1 = that; ahakāram2 = ego; manyase6  = you think; na3  yotsye4 = I shall not fight; iti5 = thus.  eṣa8 = This; [is] mithya7 = false; vyavasāya9 = determination/decision;  te10 = of yours. prakti11 = [your] nature;  niyokṣyati13  = will compel; tvām12 = you [to fight].

 

18.59:  Taking refuge in your ego, you think: I shall not fight. Your decision is contrary (to Dharma). Your nature will compel you (to fight).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा ।

कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात्करिष्यस्यवशोऽपि तत् ॥१८- ६०॥

svabhāvajena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā
kartu
ṁ necchasi yan mohāt kariṣyasy avaśopi tat 18.60

svabhāvajena1 kaunteya2 nibaddhaḥ3 svena4 karmaṇā5
kartu
m6 na7 icchasi8 yat9 mohāt10 kariṣyasi11 avaśa12 api13 tat14 18.60

 

svabhāvajena1 = Begotten by your nature; kaunteya2 = O Kaunteya; nibaddhaḥ3 = bound; svena4 = by your own;  karmaṇā5 = activities; yat9 = that which; [you] icchasi8 = wish; na7 = not; kartum6 = to do; [because of] mohāt10 = delusion: api13 = even; tat14 = that; kariṣyasi11 = you will do; avaśa12 = against your will.18.60

 

18.60:   Born of your own nature O Kaunteya, bound by your own activities, what you wish not to do because of delusion, you will do even that against your will.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशेऽर्जुन तिष्ठति ।

भ्रामयन्सर्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया ॥१८- ६१॥

īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṁ hṛddeśerjuna tiṣṭhati
bhrāmayan sarvabhūtāni yantrārū
hāni māyayā 18.61

īśvaraḥ1 sarva-bhūtānām2 hṛt-deśe3 arjuna4 tiṣṭhati5
bhrāmayan
6 sarva-bhūtāni7 yantra8 ārūhāni9 māyayā10 18.61

 

īśvaraḥ1 = The Supreme Lord; tiṣṭhati5 = abides; hṛt-deśe3  = in the place of the heart; sarva-bhūtānām2  = of all beings. arjuna4 = O Arjuna; [Isvara]  bhrāmayan6 = spins; sarva-bhūtāni7 = all beings; [as if] ārūhāni9 = mounted on; yantra8 = a machine;  māyayā10 = through Maya.18.61

 

18.61:  The Supreme Lord resides within the hearts of all living beings, O Arjuna. By His māyā power, Isvara causes all beings to spin as if they are mounted on a machine (carousel or upright wheel).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्वभावेन भारत ।

तत्प्रसादात्परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम् ॥१८- ६२॥

tam eva śaraṇaṁ gaccha sarvabhāvena bhārata
tatprasādāt parāṁ śāntiṁ sthānaṁ prāpsyasi śāśvatam 18.62

tam1 eva2 śaraṇam3 gaccha4 sarva-bhāvena5 bhārata6
tat-prasādāt
7 parām8 śāntim19 sthānam10 prāpsyasi11 śāśvatam12 18.62

 

bhārata6 = O Scion of Bharata; gaccha4 = take; śaraṇam3 = refuge/surrender; tam1 eva2 = in Him;  sarva-bhāvena5  = with all your being.  tat-prasādāt7 = By His Grace; prāpsyasi11 = you will attain;  parām8 = Supreme; śāntim19 = peace; [and] śāśvatam12 = eternal; sthānam10 = abode.  18.62

 

18.62:  Surrender unto Him with all your being, O Bharata; by His grace, your will attain the Supreme peace and eternal abode.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

इति ते ज्ञानमाख्यातं गुह्याद्‌गुह्यतरं मया ।

विमृश्यैतदशेषेण यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥१८- ६३॥

iti te jānam ākhyātaṁ guhyād guhyataraṁ mayā
vimṛ
śyaitad aśeṣeṇa yathecchasi tathā kuru 18.63

iti1 te2 jānam3 ākhyātam4 guhyāt5 guhyataram6 mayā7
vimṛ
śya8 etat9 aśeṣeṇa10 yatha11 icchasi12 tathā13 kuru14 18.63

 

iti1 = Thus; jānam3 = knowledge; guhyataram6 = more secret; guhyāt5 = than the most secret; ākhyātam4 = has been related; te2 = to you; mayā7= by Me.  vimṛśya8 = Reflect; etat9 = on this; aśeṣeṇa10 = fully; [and] kuru14 = do; yatha11 = as; icchasi12 = you wish; tathā13 = likewise. 18.63

 

18.63:  Thus, knowledge that is more secret than the most secret has been related unto you by Me. Reflect on that fully, and then do as you wish.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वगुह्यतमं भूयः शृणु मे परमं वचः ।

इष्टोऽसि मे दृढमिति ततो वक्ष्यामि ते हितम् ॥१८- ६४॥

sarvaguhyatamaṁ bhūyaḥ śṛṇu me paramaṁ vacaḥ
iṣṭ
osi me dṛḍham iti tato vakyāmi te hitam 18.64

sarva-guhya-tamam1 bhūyaḥ2 śṛṇu3 me4 paramam5 vacaḥ6
iṣṭ
a8 asi9 me10 dṛḍham11 iti12 tata13 vakyāmi14 te15 hitam16 18.64

 

śṛṇu3 = Hear; me4 = from Me; bhūyaḥ2 = again; paramam5 = the Supreme; vacaḥ6 = word; sarva-guhya-tamam1 = the most secret of all:  iti12 = thus; asi9 = you are; dṛḍham11 = very; iṣṭa8 = dear; me10 = to Me. tata13 = Therefore; vakyāmi14 = I speak; te15 = to you; [for your] hitam16 = benefit. 18.64 

 

18.64:  Hear from Me the most secret of all, My Supreme word. You are very dear to Me; therefore, I speak to you for your benefit.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।

मामेवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे ॥१८- ६५॥

manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṁ namaskuru
mām evaiṣ
yasi satyaṁ te pratijāne priyosi me 18.65

manmanā1 bhava2 mad-bhakta3 madyājī4 mām5 namaskuru6
mām
7 eva8 eṣyasi9 satyam10 te11 pratijāne12 priya13 asi14 me15 18.65

 

manmanā1 = Keeping your thoughts on Me; bhava2 = become; mad-bhakta3  = My votary; madyājī4 = My sacrificer.  namaskuru6 = Do obeisance; mām5 = to Me.  mām7 = To Me; eva8 = indeed; eṣyasi9 = you will come.  [I] satyam10 = truly; pratijāne12 = promise; te11 = to you; asi14 = you are; priya13 = dear; me15 = to Me. 18.65

 

18.65:  Think of Me, become My devotee, worship Me, and offer your obeisance to Me. Certainly you will come to Me. I truly promise you that you are dear to Me.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।

अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥१८- ६६॥

sarvadharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja
ahaṁ tvā sarvapāpebhyo mokṣyayiṣ
yāmi mā śucaḥ 18.66

sarva-dharmān1 parityajya2 mām3 ekam4 śaraṇam vraja5
aham
6 tvām7 sarva-pāpebhya
8 mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 ma10 śucaḥ11 18.66

 

parityajya2 = abandoning; sarva-dharmān1 = all duties; śaraṇam vraja5  = take refuge; mām3 = in Me; ekam4 = only/alone .  aham6 = I; mokṣyayiṣyāmi9 = shall deliver; tvā7 = you; sarva-pāpebhya8 = from all sins.  ma10 = do not; śucaḥ11 = worry.18.66

 

18.66:  Abandoning all duties, surrender unto Me only. I shall deliver you from all sins. Do not lament.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन ।

न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति ॥१८- ६७॥

idaṁ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana
na cāśuśrūṣ
ave vācyaṁ na ca māṁ yobhyasūyati 18.67

idam1 te2 na3 atapaskāya4 na5 abhaktāya6 kadācana7
na8 ca9 aśuśrūṣ
ave10 vācyam11 na12 ca13 mām14 ya15 abhyasūyati16 18.67

 

idam1 = This; [should] na3 = not; [be divulged or taught] te2 = by you: na5 = neither; [to] atapaskāya4 = one who is not a Tapasvin; ca9 = and; na8 = nor; [to]  abhaktāya6 = one who is not a devotee; na12 = nor; [to] aśuśrūṣave10 = one who has no desire to listen to; [My]  vācyam11 = words; ca13 = and; [to] ya = one who; abhyasūyati16 = speaks ill;  mām14 = of Me; kadācana7 = at any time. 18.67

 

18.67:  This should never be divulged by you at any time to any one who is not austere, who is not a devotee (of Mine), who is disobedient (not god-obedient), or who speaks ill of Me.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

य इमं परमं गुह्यं मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति ।

भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा मामेवैष्यत्यसंशयः ॥१८- ६८॥

ya imaṁ paramaṁ guhyaṁ madbhakteṣv abhidhāsyati
bhakti
ṁ mayi parāṁ kṛtvā mām evaiyaty asaṁśaya18.68

ya1 imam2 paramam3 guhyam4 madbhakteṣu5 abhidhāsyati6
bhakti
m7 mayi8 parām9 kṛtvā10 mām11 eva12 eṣyati13 asaṁśaya14 18.68

 

ya1 = He who; abhidhāsyati6 = teaches; imam2 = this; paramam3 = Supreme; guhyam4 = Secret; madbhakteṣu5 = to My devotees; [is] kṛtvā10 = doing/offering; parām9 = Supreme; bhaktim7 = devotion; mayi8 = to Me;  eṣyati13 = attains; mām11 = Me; eva12 = indeed; asaṁśaya14 = without any doubt. 18.68 

 

18.68:  Anyone who teaches the Supreme secret of Mine to My devotees shall be doing the highest devotional service to Me and will come to Me without doubt. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

न च तस्मान्मनुष्येषु कश्चिन्मे प्रियकृत्तमः ।

भविता न च मे तस्मादन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि ॥१८- ६९॥

na ca tasmān manuṣyeṣu kaścin me priyakṛttamaḥ
bhavitā na ca me tasmād anyaḥ priyataro bhuvi 18.69

na1 ca2 tasmāt3 manuṣyeṣu4 kaścit5 me6 priya-kṛt-tamaḥ7
bhavitā8 na9 ca
10 me11 tasmāt12 anyaḥ13 priyatara14 bhuvi15 18.69

 

 ca2 = And; [there is] na1 = no; kaścit5 = one; tasmāt3 = other than him;  manuṣyeṣu4 = among men;  priya-kṛt-tamaḥ7 = dearer; me6 = to Me; ca10 = and; na9 = nor; bhavitā8 = will there be; anyaḥ13 = anyone; priyatara14 = dearer; me11 = to Me; tasmāt12 = than him;  bhuvi15 = in the world. 18.69

 

18.69:  There is no one other than him among men who performs a service dearer to Me and nor will there be any one other than him dearer to Me in this world.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादमावयोः ।

ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः ॥१८- ७०॥

adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṁ dharmyaṁ saṁvādam āvayo
jānayajena tenāham iṣṭaḥ syām iti me matiḥ 18.70

adhyeṣyate1 ca2 ya3  imam4 dharmyam5 saṁvādam6 āvayo7
jāna-yajena8 tena9 aham
10 iṣṭaḥ11 syām12 iti13 me14 matiḥ15 18.70

 

ca2 = And; ya3  = he who;  adhyeṣyate1 = will learn by study; imam4 = this; saṁvādam6 = dialogue; āvayo7 = of us two; dharmyam5 = steeped in virtue; aham10 = I; syām12 = shall be; iṣṭaḥ11 = worshipped; tena9 = by him;  jāna-yajena8 = through sacrifice of knowledge;  iti13 = thus; [is] me14 = My; matiḥ15 = opinion. 18.70

 

18.70:  He, who studies the sacred conversation of ours, steeped in Dharma, will worship Me through the sacrifice of knowledge. This is My opinion.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः ।

सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम् ॥१८- ७१॥

śraddhāvān anasūyaś ca śṛṇuyād api yo nara
sopi muktaḥ śubhāṁ
l lokān prāpnuyāt puṇyakarmaṇām 18.71

śraddhāvān1 anasūya2  ca3 śṛṇuyāt4 api5 ya6  nara7
sa
8 api9 muktaḥ10 śubhān11  lokān12 prāpnuyāt13 puṇya-karmaṇām14 18.71

 

śraddhāvān1 = The faithful; ca3 = and; anasūya2  = the good-willed; nara7 = man;  śṛṇuyāt4 = listens; api5 = indeed; api9 = also; sa8 = he; ya6  = who; [is] muktaḥ10 = free; prāpnuyāt13 = attains; śubhān11  = auspicious; lokān12 = world; [of] puṇya-karmaṇām14  = pious Karmics (the pious). 18.71
 

18.71:  The man, who listens with faith and good will (anasūyah), being liberated, attains the auspicious world of the pious karmics.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

कच्चिदेतच्छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा ।

कच्चिदज्ञानसंमोहः प्रनष्टस्ते धनंजय ॥१८- ७२॥

kaccid etac chrutaṁ pārtha tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā
kaccid ajānasa
ṁmohaḥ pranaṣṭas te dhanajaya 18.72

kaccit1 etat2 śrutam3 pārtha4 tvayā5 ekāgreṇa6 cetasā7
kaccit
8 ajāna
10 saṁmohaḥ11 pranaṣṭa12 te13 dhanajaya14 18.72

 

pārtha4 = O Partha; kaccit1 = has; etat2 = this; śrutam3 = been heard; tvayā5 = by you; [with] ekāgreṇa6 = one-pointed; cetasā7= mind? kaccit8 = Has; te13 = your; saṁmohaḥ11 = delusion; [born of] ajāna10 = ignorance; [been] pranaṣṭa12 = destroyed;  dhanajaya14 = O Dhananjaya ?18.72 

 

18.72:  O Partha, did you hear this with a (focused) single-minded attention? Has your delusion born of ignorance been destroyed, O Dhananjaya?

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

अर्जुन उवाच 

नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत ।

स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव ॥१८- ७३॥

arjuna uvāca
naṣṭ
o mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā tvatprasādān mayācyuta
sthitosmi gatasa
ṁdehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṁ tava 18.73

arjuna uvāca
naṣṭ
a1 moha2 smṛti3 labdhā4 tvat-prasādāt5 mayā6 acyuta7
sthita
8 asmi9 gata10 saṁdehaḥ11 kariṣye12 vacanam13 tava14 18.73

 

arjuna uvāca = Arjuna said: [my] moha2 = delusion; naṣṭa1 = has been destroyed; [and] smṛti3 = knowledge/memory; labdhā4 = has been gained; mayā6 = by me; tvat-prasādāt5  = because of Your Grace.  acyuta7= O Acuyta [Krishna]; asmi9 = I am; sthita8 = firm;  gata10 = removed; [of] saṁdehaḥ11 = doubts.  kariṣye12 = I shall act; [according to] tava14 = Your; vacanam13 = words.18.73 

 

18.73:  Arjuna said:

My delusion has been destroyed; I gained knowledge (smrti) by Your grace, O Acuyta. I stand firm with all doubts removed. I shall act according to Your word.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

संजय उवाच 

इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः ।

संवादमिममश्रौषमद्भुतं रोमहर्षणम् ॥१८- ७४॥

sajaya uvāca
ity aham vāsudevasya pārthasya ca mahātmanaḥ
saṁ
vādam imam aśrauam adbhutam roma-harṣaṇam 18.74

sajaya uvāca
iti1 aham2 vāsudevasya3 pārthasya4 ca5 mahātmanaḥ6
saṁ
vādam7 imam8 aśrauam9 adbhutam10 roma-harṣaṇam11 18.74

 

sajaya uvāca = Sanjaya said: iti1 = thus; aham2 = I; aśrauam9 = heard;  imam8 = this;  adbhutam10 = marvelous; saṁvādam7 = conversation; vāsudevasya3 = of Vāsudeva; ca5 = and; pārthasya4 = of Partha; mahātmanaḥ6 = the Great-souled [warrior];  roma-harṣaṇam11 = causing horripilation. 18.74
 

18.74:  Sanjaya said:

Thus, I heard this marvelous dialogue between Vasudeva (Lord Krishna) and the great-souled Partha (Arjuna). (It was) so wonderful that it made my hair stand on end. 

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

व्यासप्रसादाच्छ्रुतवानेतद्गुह्यमहं परम् ।

योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम् ॥१८- ७५॥

vyāsaprasādāc chrutavān etad guhyam ahaṁ param
yogaṁ yogeśvarāt kṛṣṇāt sākṣāt kathayataḥ svayam 18.75

vyāsa-prasādāt1 śrutavān2 etat3 guhyam4 aham5 param6
yogam7 yogeśvarāt8 kṛṣṇāt9 sākṣāt
10 kathayataḥ11 svayam12 18.75 

 

vyāsa-prasādāt1 = By the Grace of Vyasdeva; aham5 = I; śrutavān2 = heard; etat3 = this; param6= Supreme;  guhyam4 = secret; [and]  yogam7 = Yoga; sākṣāt10 = directly; kṛṣṇāt9 = from Krishna; yogeśvarāt8 = Lord of Yoga; svayam12 = Himself;  kathayataḥ11 = speaking [to Arjuna]. 18.75 

 

18.75:  By the grace of Vyasadeva, I heard this supreme secret and yoga directly from Yoga-Isvara Krishna as He Himself was speaking (to Arjuna).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम् ।

केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः ॥१८- ७६॥

rājan saṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya saṁvādam imam
adbhutam keśavārjunayoḥ puṇyaṁ hṛṣyāmi ca muhur muhuḥ 18.76

rājan1 saṁsmṛtya2 saṁsmṛtya3 saṁvādam4 imam5
adbhutam6 keśava7 arjunayoḥ8 puṇyam9 hṛṣyāmi
10 ca11 muhuḥ muhuḥ12 18.76

 

rājan1 = O king; saṁsmṛtya2 saṁsmṛtya3  = remembering again and again; imam5 = this; adbhutam6 = wonderful; ca11 = and; puṇyam9 = pious; saṁvādam4 = dialogue; [between] keśava7 = Kesava; [and] arjunayoḥ8  Arjuna;  hṛṣyāmi10 = I am thrilled with joy; muhuḥ muhuḥ12  = every moment upon moment. 18.76

 

18.76:  O King, again and again remembering this pious and wonderful dialogue between Kesava (Krishna) and Arjuna, I am thrilled with joy every moment upon moment.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः ।

विस्मयो मे महान् राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः ॥१८- ७७॥

tac ca saṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya rūpam atyadbhutaṁ hareḥ
vismayo me mahān rājan hṛṣ
yāmi ca punaḥ punaḥ 18.77

tat1 ca2 saṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya3 rūpam4 ati5 adbhutam6 hareḥ7
vismaya
8 me9 mahān10 rājan11 hṛṣyāmi12 ca13 punaḥ punaḥ14 18.77

 

ca2 = And; saṁsmṛtya saṁsmṛtya3  = remembering again and again; tat1 = that; ati5 = greatly; adbhutam6 = wondrous; rūpam4 = form; [of] hareḥ7 = Hari [Bhagavan Krishna]; [in] mahān10 = great; vismaya8 = amazement; ca13 = and; me9 = I; hṛṣyāmi12 = rejoice; punaḥ punaḥ14 = again and again;  rājan11 = O King. 18.77

 

18.77:  Remembering again and again the most wondrous form of Hareh ( Hari, Lord Krishna) in amazement I rejoice again and again, O King.

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

 

यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः ।

तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम ॥१८- ७८॥

yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanurdhara
tatra śrīr vijayo bhūtir dhruvā nītir matir mama 18.78

yatra1 yogeśvaraḥ2 kṛṣṇa3 yatra4 pārtha5 dhanuḥ-dhara6
tatra
7 śrī8 vijaya9 bhūti10 dhruvā11 nīti12 mati13 mama14 18.78

 

yatra1 = Where; [there is] kṛṣṇa3 = Krishna; yogeśvaraḥ2 = the Lord of Yoga;  yatra4 = where; [there is] pārtha5 = partha; dhanuḥ-dhara6  = the archer; tatra7 = there; [are] śrī8 = fortune; vijaya9 = victory; bhūti10 = power; [and] dhruvā11 = firm; nīti12 = morality. [that is] mama14 = my; mati13 = opinion.18.78

 

18.78:  Where there is Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, where Partha, the archer is, there will be fortune, victory, power, and morality. That is my opinion (according to Sanjaya).

Copyright 2009 Veeraswamy Krishnaraj

End BG Chapter 18: Renunciation and Liberation