HOME PAGE 

 

Bhagavad-Gita:Chapters in Sanskrit

BGALLCOLOR.pdf 

(All 18 chapters in Sanskrit, Transliteration, and Translation.)

bg01-Sanskrit

bg02-Sanskrit

bg03-Sanskrit

bg04-Sanskrit

bg05-Sanskrit

bg06-Sanskrit

bg07-Sanskrit

bg08-Sanskrit

bg09-Sanskrit

bg10-Sanskrit bg11-Sanskrit bg12-Sanskrit
bg13-Sanskrit bg14-Sanskrit bg15-Sanskrit bg16-Sanskrit bg17-Sanskrit

bg18-Sanskrit

Bhagavadgita in English

BG01

BG02

BG03

BG04

BG05

BG06

BG07

BG08

BG09

BG10

BG11

BG12

BG13

BG14

BG15

BG16

BG17

BG18

HOME PAGE 

V.Krishnaraj

You have your Google search engine tailored for this site.

Please enter the word(s) in the search box; it will take you to the file with that word in this web site. Enjoy your visit here.

 

Please report  any errors.

 

Support Wikipedia

Author: SivaprakAsam by UmA-pathi-SivaNAr  1308 C.E.--உமாபதிசிவணார். காலம்: கி.பி.1308

SivapprakAsam in Tamil Verses. English Translation by Krishnaraj

Ref: Sivapprakasam : Commentary on the verses in Sivapprakasam by S.S. Mani.

Siva and soul are analyzed as if they are two unknown substances for laboratory characterization. Take verse 87 as an example of an objective study of God and soul. While other religions are afraid of analyzing God, His intentions, His actions, Saiva Siddhanta is a pioneer in the forefront in that effort. This is the rare beauty of Saiva Siddhanta, which no other religion has. The gumption, courage and audacity to parse God, the soul and the rest in very minute details are the strength of Saiva Siddhanta.

Verse of invocation: காப்பு = Invocation of deities at the commencement of a poem to facilitate its successful completion.

ஒளியான திருமேனி உமிழ்தான மிகமேவு
களியார வரும் ஆனை கழல்நாளும் மறவாமல்
அளி ஆளும் மலர் தூவும் அடியார்கள் உளம் ஆன
வெளியாகும் வலிதாய வினைகூட நினையாவே. 0

We the servitors worship at the feet of elephant-faced Vinayaka with effulgent body and streaming musths every day without miss with blossoms buzzing with bees. Vinayaka removes the darkness of the mind and soul  and confers Grace-effulgence to the flower-strewing servitors, whom the evil karma will never haunt. I worship the feet of  Siva's eldest son for completion of this treatise.

 

Verse 1/100. Every act of Siva is a dance.

ஓங்கொளியாய் அருண்ஞான மூர்த்தி யாகி
உலகமெலாம் அளித்தருளும் உமையம்மை காணத்
தேங்கமழும் மலரிதழி திங்கள் கங்கை
திகழரவம் வளர்சடைமேல் சேர வைத்து
நீங்கலரும் பவத்தொடர்ச்சி நீங்க மன்றுள்
நின்றிமையோர் துடி செய்ய நிருத்தஞ் செய்யும்
பூங்கமல மலர்த்தாள்கள் சிரத்தின் மேலும்
புந்தியினு முறவணங்கிப் போற்றல் செய்வாம்.  1
Siva dances on the stage of the universe to alleviate the suffering of humanity through the cycle of birth and death. One should know that His Sacred Feet, that help the soul attain liberation, should be worshipped and held on the head, in the heart and mind. The Sacred Dance is for conferring Grace and liberation and performed before Uma, His Consort, who also confers Grace on the souls.

Verse 2/100. Siva and His Saktis.  

பரந்தபரா பரையாதி பரன திச்சை
பரஞானம் கிரியைபர போக ரூபம்
தருங்கருணை உருவாகி விசுத்தா சுத்தத்
தனுகரண புவனபோ கங்கள் தாங்க
விரிந்தவுபா தானங்கண் மேவி யொன்றாய்
விமலாய் ஐந்தொழிற்கும் வித்தாய் ஞாலத்
தரந்தைகெட மணிமன்றுள் ஆடல் காணும்
அன்னையருட் பாதமலர் சென்னி வைப்பாம்.  2

Siva has five Saktis:  Parasakti 1, Tirodhana Sakti2, Iccha Sakti3, Jnana Sakti4, Kriya Sakti5 . Bindu, Mohini and Deer are associated with Siva and are responsible for the Pure Tattvas and Impure Tattvas, the latter giving rise to body, organs, the world, and the objects of experience.  Siva is One without a second, devoid of impurities, the seed for the five functions, and dances in Chidambaram to relieve the embodied souls of birth. Let us hold the lotus-feet of His Consort Ammai SivakAmi on our head and worship Her. Parasakti is of the nature of  inseparability, associated with the all-pervasive Siva. This nature is known as ThAthAnmiyam (தாதான்மியம் =  tātānmiyam  =  TAdAnmya in Sanskrit = Identity, Unity, Sameness). In this Unity, Siva and SivakAmi (சிவகாமி) remain inseparable and are known as அம்மை, அப்பன் (Mother and Father).

Adhisakti stands for Tirodhana Sakti or obscurant power of Siva. ParaSakti and AdhiSakti come together as AdhiParaSakti (ஆதிபராசத்தி). Siva's own nature as Intelligence (Supreme Consciousness) is Sivam. In relation to the world of objects, He is Sakti. There is no difference between the two.

Siva's Iccha, Jnana and Kriya Saktis stand for விழைவு, அறிவு, and ஆற்றல் ( Desire, Knowledge and Action) in Tamil. Thus ParAsakti, Adhisakti, Icchasakti, Jnanasakti and Kriyasakti form the pentad of Siva's functions. Siva sports five, seven or nine Saktis, which have contextual reference and significance.

Sivagnana Supakkam (Verse 165): The Saktis corresponding to the nine Deities are Sivam1, Sakti2, NAdam3, Bindu4, Manonmani5, Mahesvari6 , Uma7, Tirumakal8, and Kalaimakal9. Though they are individually listed, they are all forms of Siva-Sakti. Sakti is One and assumes nine forms. As Siva the supreme stands as the nine forms, so stands Sakti as the nine complementary forms.

Siva of nine forms and Sakti of nine forms.

Siva Sivam1 Sakti2 NAdam3 Bindu4 Sadasivam5 Isa6 Rudra7 Mal8 Brahma9
Sakti Sivam1 Sakti2 NAdam3 Bindu4 Manonmani5 Mahesvari6 Uma7 Tirumakal8 Kalaimakal9

 

Knowledge form is the Quiddity or Nature of Sivam; Sakti is the projection of Sivam into the external objects; thus, there is no difference between Sivam and Sakti.

 

Verse 3/100. Homage to Ganesa, the Lord of beginnings.

விநாயகர் துதி

நலந்தரல்நூ லிருந்தமிழின் செய்யுட் குற்றம்
நண்ணாமை இடையூறு நலியாமை கருதி
இலங்குமிரு குழையருகு பொருதுவரி சிதறி
இணைவேல்க ளிகழ்ந்தகயற் கண்ணியொடு மிறைவன்
கலந்தருள வருமானை முகத்தான் மும்மைக்
கடமருவி யெனநிலவு கணபதியின் அருளால்
அலர்ந்துமது கரமுனிவர் பரவவளர் கமல
மனைதிரு வடியினைகள் நினைதல் செய்வாம். 3

 

Umapathi Sivanar prays to Ganesa, the Lord of beginnings to bless him in the completion of his work. O God, make sure there are no grammatical errors. Please make sure there are no impediments in the prosecution of this work.  With sidelong eyes with red streaks that (eyes) extend from ears to ears , that seem to attack the fish-shaped earrings, and that won many a spear united with Iraivan (Siva), Kanniyammai gave birth to Ganapathi with elephant face streaming the three musths, whose (Ganapathi) Grace blossomed into His sacred Lotus-Feet at which the Munis buzz around as bees, and to which we offer our thoughts and worship.

 

The goddess is described as follows. She has long eyes whose outer canthi reach the ears so much so that the eyes seem to attack the fish-shaped earrings. It is a mark of beauty among woman to have long eyes. Canthi = plural of canthus, the outer end of the eyelids.

The elephant exudes Musth, the oily substance that streams from glands between the eyes and mouth. Indian poets say that there are three such streams (மும்மதம்) in the elephant: கன்னமதம், கைமதம், கோசமதம் (Kanna Matham, Kai Matham, Kosa Matham = Elephant's cheek, Trunkal discharge, Musth from the generative organ of a male elephant in rut. Musth exudation is said to come forth from seven places: Two Temples, Two Eyes, Two Nostrils and Two Testis via its male organ. All come under one term யானைமதம் (YAnaimatham).

 

Verse 4/100.  Homage to Muruga (Skanda).

முருகக்கடவுள் துதி

வளம்நிலவு குலம்அமரர் அதிபதியாய் நீல
மயில்ஏறி வரும்ஈசன் அருள்ஞான மதலை
அளவில்பல கலை அங்கம் ஆரணங்கள் உணர்ந்த
அகத்தியனுக் ஒத்துரைக்கும் அண்ணல்விறல் எண்ணாது
உளம்மருவு சூரன்உரம் எனதுஇடும்பை ஓங்கல்
ஒன்று இரண்டு கூறுபட ஒளிதிகழ்வேல் உகந்த
களபம்மலி குறமகள்தன் மணிமுலைகள் கலந்த
கந்தன்மலர் அடியிணைகள் சிந்தை செய்வாம். 4

We eulogize and worship sacred lotus-feet of Lord Kanda, the Chief of Prosperous celestials, who rides the peacock as his vehicle, who is the Grace-wisdom-child of Siva, who taught the essence of Vedas to Agasthiya Muni, well versed in many sciences, six division of Knowledge, and Vedas, who split open the Surapanman, my miseries proceeding from birth, and the Kiravunja mountain, each into two pieces with His effulgent Spear, and who married the Sandal-wearing daughter of Kurava tribe.

 

Verse 5/100. Santana Parampara. Santana Lineage or progeny.

சந்தான பரம்பரை

தேவர்பிரான் வளர்கயிலைக் காவல் பூண்ட
திருநந்தி அவர்கணத்தோர் செல்வர் பாரில்
பாவியசத் தியஞான தரிசனிகள் அடிசேர்
பரஞ்சோதி மாமுனிகள் பதியாம் வெண்ணைய்
மேவியசீர் மெய்கண்ட திறலார் மாறா
விரவுபுகழ் அருணந்தி விறலார் செல்வத்
தாவில்அருள் மறைஞான சம்பந்தர் இவர் இச்
சந்தானத்து எமையாளும் தன்மை யோரே.5

The Sacred Nandi (Siva's mount, the sacred Bull) that guards the entrance to the temple of DevarPiran (Siva); Sanatkumara, the incomparable among the Siva Ganas; SatyaJnanaDharisanis who established the Truth and Reality in the world; ParamJyoti Mamuni who attained Siva's feet; MeyKandaDevar with resplendent wisdom  who rejoiced in embracing Tiruvennai Nallur as his town; ArulnandiDevar who is a Spiritual teacher of great fame; and Sambandar who is a Vedic Scholar of plenitudinous Grace make the stalwarts of Spiritual lineage which took possession of me.

 

In the lineage of succession of teachers of Spiritual Knowledge in Saiva Siddhanta, there is a twofold division: one is the lineage of Divine Preceptors known as Inner Progeny (அகச்சந்தானம் = aka-c-cantAnam); the second is the Outer Progeny (புறச்சந்தானம் = pura-c-cantAnam).

The Inner Progeny consists of four Spiritual Divine Preceptors: Nadhi-Devar, Sanat-Kumara, Satya-Jnana-Dharisanis and Param-Jyoti (நந்தி-தேவர், சனத்குமாரர், சத்தியஞானதரிசனிகள், and பரஞ்சோதி-முனிவர்).

The Outer Progeny consists of four human preceptors: MeyKandaDevar, ArulnandhiSivam, MaraiJnana Sambandar,and Umapathi Sivam (மெய்கண்டதேவர், அருள்நந்திசிவம், மறைஞான சம்பந்தர், and  ஊமாபதி சிவம்).

 

Dictionary. The Inner Progeny = அகச்சந்தானம் aka-c-cantāam  = The succession of four divine preceptors who handed down the Šaiva Šiddhānta canons, viz., Nanti-tēvar, Caa- kumārar, Cattiya-ñāa-taricaika, Parañcōti- muivar; சைவசித்தாந்தக் கொள்கைகளைக் கைலாய பரம்பரையில் உபதேசித்துவந்தவர்களும் நந்திதேவர் சனற்குமாரர் சத்தியஞானதரிசனிகள் பரஞ்சோதி முனிவர் என்று.

சந்தானம் = Offspring, progeny, issue.

 

Verse 6/100. Homage to Guru.

குரு வணக்கம்

பார்திகழ வளர்சாம வேத மல்கப்

பராசரமா முனிமரபு பயில ஞானச்
சார்புதர வந்தருளி எம்மை யாண்ட

சைவசிகா மணிமருதைத் தலவன் அந்தன்
கார்மருவு பொழில்புடைசூழ் மதின்மீதே மதியங்

கடவாமை நெடுங்கொடியின் கரந்தகையுங் கடந்தைச்
சீர்நிலவு மறைஞான சம்பந்தன் எந்தை
திருவளரும் மலரடிகள் சென்னி வைப்பாம். 6

For the world to shine, for the augmentation of the tradition of Sama Veda, for the growth of the lineage of ParAsara Munivar, and for the conferment of Grace, let me pay tribute to JnAna Sambandar, my Spiritual Father and hold his grace-giving lotus feet on my head. My Spiritual Father reigns over my heart, and is Saiva sect's jewel in the Crest and the leading head of MaruthUr, the place of his birth.  He lives in PennAkadam which is overcast by cool clouds and surrounded by groves and high walls with creeping hands of vines that prevent the moon from crossing over the walls.

In Tillai town, Umapathi Sivanar sitting on the platform of a palanquin on a street tour in his honor with accompanying orchestra, bright lights and other accouterments of splendor overheard a pedestrian say, "பட்ட கட்டையிலே பகற் குருடு போகிறது"  meaning here goes the daylight-blind on a Palmyra timber.  The palanquin is made of Palmyra timber. Where is the need for lights in daylight? When he heard the stinging words, Umapathi Sivanar, the author of this composition, Sivapprakasam descended down on to the street,  immediately accepted Tiru-Jnana-Sambandar as his spiritual teacher and followed him receiving spiritual instructions.

 

Verse 7/100. The greatness of the Light of Inner Religion and Saiva Siddhanta.

நுதலிய பொருள் (தொடக்கம்)

புறச்சமயத் தவர்க்கிருளாய் அகச்சமயத் தொளியாய்ப்
புகல் அவைக் களவாகிப் பொற்பணிபோல் அபேதப்
பிறப்பிலதாய் இருள்வெளிபோற் பேதமும் சொற் பொருள்போல்
பேதாபே தமும் இன்றிப் பெருநூல் சொன்ன
அறத்திறனால் வளைவதா யுடலுயிர்கண் ணருக்கன்
அறிவொளிபோல் பிறிவருவருமத் துவித மாகுஞ்
சிறப்பினதாய் வேதாந்தத் தெளிவாம் சைவ
சித்தாந்தத் திறன்இங்குத் தெரிக்கலுற்றாம். 7

He is the Darkness to the External Religions (Outer External, External, and Inner External) and the effulgent Light of the Inner Religion. He is the Best among the Means of Knowledge (அளவை); He is Non-difference as between gold and ornaments; He is Difference as between Darkness and Light. He is devoid of Difference-Non-Difference as in the word and its meaning. We state here the greatness of Saiva Siddhanta. It is the product of the strength and skill in Saiva Agamas. It is the Body and Soul. It is the sun and the eye. It has the greatness of the inseparability between Intellect and Light as found in Advaitam (Monism). The greatness of explication of the Vedantas is in Saiva Siddhanta.

ALavai (அளவை = Pramanam = Means of acquiring knowledge) consists of காண்டல்1  கருதல் 2 உரைஅபாவம்4  பொருள்5   ஒப்பு5   (Direct Perception1 , Inference 2, Sacred Texts3, absence or non-existence4 , Inference from circumstances5, and Analogy5). Some add the following four, ஒழிபு, ண்மை, ஐதிகம், இயல்பு ( Indirect Knowledge, Existence, Tradition, and Nature)  and bring them to ten. Some say that there are more than ten Alavais. Though there are many Means, all these can be brought under three entities: காண்டல் கருதல் உரை  = Direct Perception, Inference and Sacred Texts. 

 

There are four religions: Outer External, External, Inner External, Inner (புறப்புறம், புறம், அகப்புறம், அகம). In this verse அகம் and புறம் (Inner and Outer) are mentioned. All four subside in these two. Outer External religion does not abide within the ambit of Vedas and Saiva Agamas. Inner External (அகப்புறச் சமயம) religion accepts Siva Peruman as God, the only Reality (உண்மைப்பொருள்) and yet doesn't accept Saiva Agamas but has their own different Agamas. Inner Religions (அகச்சமயங்கள்) accept Vedas, Saiva Agamas, and Siva as the Supreme Substance (பரம்பொருள), and yet differ from Saiva Siddhanta in the fundamental precepts of Substance Reality (பொருள் உண்ம) and state of Mukti (முத்தி).

Siava Siddhanta, remaining in the four religions, stands apart and shines as the best among them, expounding the path of salvation, and the way of clearing doubt, and Perverted understanding, as an obstacle to salvation. Path of salvation = உய்யும் நெறி. Avoiding doubt = ஐயம் Perverted understanding, as an obstacle to salvation = திரிபு.

 

Outer External Religions (புறப்புறசமயம்) are six in number: உலகாயதம்1, பௌத்த மதம் (மாத்தியாமிகம2, யோகாசாரம்3, சௌத்திராந்திகம்4, வைபாடிகம் 5), ஆருகதம் (சமணம்). 

 

Outer Religions: (புறச்சமயம்) are தருக்கம், மீமாஞ்சை, ஏகான்மவாதம், சாங்கியம், யோகம், பாஞ்சராத்திரம். Tharukkam1 , MImAnjai2, EkAnmavAtham3, SAnkiyam4, YOgam5, PAncharAththiram.

 

Inner Outer Religions (அகப்புறசமயங்கள்) are six in number: பாசுபதம், மாவிரதம், காபாலம், வாமம், வைரவம், ஐக்கியவாத சைவம்.  PAsupatham 1, MAviratham2, KApAlam3 , VAmam4, Vairavam5, and AikiyavAtham.

 

Inner Religions (அகச்சமயங்கள்) are six: பாடாணவாதசைவம் (பேதவாதம்), சிவசமவாதம், சிவசங்கிராந்தவாதம், ஈசுவர அவிகாரவாதம், நிமித்தகாரண பரிணாமவாதம் (சிவாத்துவிதசைவம்), சுத்தசைவம். PAtANavAthasaivam1 (BhEdhavAdham), SivasamavAtham2 , SivasankirAnthavaatham3, Isvara AvikAravAtham4, NimittakAraNa PariNAmavatham 5, and Suddhasaivam .

 

In this four divisions, the first three are the threefold Outer Religions (முக்கூற்று புறச்சமங்கள்). According to UmaPathiSivam, these outer religions do not appreciate or understand the greatness of Saiva Siddhanta and are called the Darkness of Outer Religions.

The Inner six Religions believe in ஏகன், ஆநேகன்,  இருள், கருமம், மாயை இரண்டு ஆக இவை ஆறு ஆதிஇல் (Ekan1 , AnEkan2, IruL3, Karma 4, Suddha MAyai5 and Asuddha Mayai6 = Siva as One1, Siva as many2, Darkness3 , Karma4, Suddha Mayai5,  and Asuddha Mayai6 . The followers of  Inner Religions come to understand these great truths when they are instructed by the teachers.  That is the reason why they are called Inner Religions.

Suddha Mayai are Supernal Principles unafflicted by Malam or impurities (Siva, Sakti, Sadasiva, Isvara, and Suddha Vidya Tattvas). Asuddha Mayai are the principles afflicted with Malams or impurities.

Soul's ability to understand Siva-Jnanam is limited. Soul understands the knowledge from sense organs as it is. The Outer Religions do not accept the Means of Knowledge (Alavai = அளவை) as depicted by Saiva Siddhanta. Umapathi says that Saiva Siddhanta Alavai is the Alavai of all Alavais (புகல் அளவைக்கு அளவாகி).

Advaitam (Non-duality =அத்துவிதம்). Theory: பொற்பணி போல் அபேதம் பிறப்பிலதாய். While trying to explain the relationship between Siva and souls, the EkAnmavadhis (Propounders of Oneness) declare that different ornaments with many names though made of gold are all gold and thus there is no difference among them. ApEtam/Abhetam (Absence of distinction or difference = அபேதம) is their theory.

BhEdavAdhis (பேதவாதிகள்) advance the theory that God and soul are as radically different as the Light and Darkness. This concept is not accepted by the Saiva Siddhantists. (இருள்வெளிபோல் பேதமும் இன்றி. )

BhEdha-AbhEdha-VAdhis (பேதாபேதவாதிகள் = Difference-Non-difference debaters or propounders). Their argument is that there is difference and non-difference between a word and its meaning. That is Non-duality. This argument is roundly rejected by Saiva Siddhantists. (சொற்பொருள் போல் பேதாபேதமின்றி)

Kumara Gurupara Munivar says, "சைவசித்தாந்தத் தேனமுது அருந்தினர் சிலரே,  meaning very few have imbibed the ambrosial honey of Saiva Siddhanta.  To emphasize the difficulty in understanding the concept of Saiva Siddhanta, he says, "பெருநூல் சொன்ன அறத்தினால் விளைவதாய்,"  பெருநூல் = Great Religious Texts refer to Vedas, Saiva Agamas, Tirumurai.... அறத்தினால் விளைவதாய் = Saiva Siddhanta is the product of performance of good works according to the Šāstras. Where there is no strength of Religious Certitude, Saiva Siddhanta is not reachable.

Saiva Siddhanta, as it explains the word Advaitam, takes the stand that the soul comes into being on account of active participation of Siva, that by the nature of Tattvas, the soul shows difference and non-difference, and that God being the Soul of the soul, stands with all the souls. Umapathi Sivam gives three examples to fortify his stand: 1) உடலும் உயிரும் போல, 2) கண்ணும் சூரியனும் போல, and 3) அறிவும் ஒளியும் போல [1)Like the Body and soul, 2) Like the eyes and the sun, 3) Like the Intellect and light].  These three analogies blend the three concepts of அபேதம், பேதம், and பேதாபேதம் (Non-difference, Difference, and Difference-Non-difference).

 

Verse 8/100. Three Classes of souls.

தீட்சாக்கிரமம்

மூவகையா ருயிர்வருக்க மலத்தார் கன்ம
மூலமலத் தார்மூன்று முடையாரன்றே
தீவகமா மெனவுருவாய் வந்து நாதன்
திருநோக்கால் பரிசத்தால் திகழும் வாக்கால்
பாவனையால் மிகுநூலா லியோகப் பண்பால்
பரவிவரு மவுத்திரியால் பாச நாச
மேவவரு ளுதவுமவுத் திரியிரண்டு திறனாம்
வியன்கிரியை ஞானமென விளம்பு மாறே.8

Souls are of three kinds: Vijnanakalars, Pralayakalars, and Sakalars. Vijnanakalars are afflicted only with Anava Malam. Anavam and Kanmam are the two Mala afflictions of Pralayakalars. Anavam, Kanmam and Maya Malams are the three afflictions of the Sakalar class souls.  God takes these classes of souls into His good graces in three different ways. Siva takes the form of a Guru, destroys the three Malas and allows them to merge in His feet. It is like catching a wild deer (soul)  with a domesticated deer (Guru) as a ruse or bait. This kind of Grace needs initiation, which are of many kinds: Sight Initiation, Touch Initiation, Word Initiation, Conduct Initiation, Agama Initiation, Yoga Initiation (சட்சுதீக்கை, பரிசதீக்கை, வாசகதீகை, பாவனைதீக்கை, ஆகமதீகை, யோகதீக்கை). Besides these, there are others. One is Avuttiri (அவுத்திரி ) Diksa, a fire sacrifice performed by Hotri. Avuttiri is of 2 kinds: Janavathi, and Kriyavathi ஞானவதி, கிரியாவதி).

The purpose of Initiation is to destroy the Malams and inculcate Jnanam in the pupil.

 

Avuttiri comes from Sanskrit word Hotri the fire priest.

Hotri  is a priest who recites the hymns from the Rig Veda, and makes oblations to the fire. Hotri Diksa is Fire sacrifice officiated by the priest for initiation of the pupil. 

One source gives these Diksas.

The Diksas are Nayana-Diksa (Sight), Sparsa-Diksa (Touch), VAcaka-Diksa (Word), MAnasa-Diksa, SAstra-Diksa, Yoga-Diksa, and Hotri-Diksa.

Nayana-Diksa: The Guru's glance destroys the Anava Mala in the pupil and showers enlightenment.

Sparsa-Diksa: The Guru touches five parts of the body of the pupil, making him understand the five letters.

VAcaka-Diksa: The Guru's initiates the pupil with Mantras.

MAnasa-Diksa: The Guru makes suggestions by hypnosis of the pupil.

SAstra-Diksa: The Guru teaches Sacred Texts and Saiva Siddhanta philosophy.

Yoga-Diksa: The Guru teaches austerities and Yogas.

Hotri-Diksa: Jnana-Hotri involves symbols. Kriya-Hotri is exoteric rituals.

 

அவுத்திரி = Avuttiri = ஔத்திரிதீட்சை = Hotri Diksa in Sanskrit. A mode of initiation in which GuruhOma, one of seven Diksas. It is two kinds: NirpIsa Diksa and SapIsa Diksa.  Diksa in Sanskrit is தீக்கை or ThIkkai.

ஓமகுண்டம் = Fire pit; Pit dug in the ground for keeping sacrificial fire to perform Avuttiri.

Avuttiri is of 2 kinds: Jnanavathi is sacrifice-initiation by thought. KriyAvathi is sacrifice-initiation by actions or rituals.

Jnanavathi (ஞானவதி) A mode of religious initiation in which the guru mentally performs the necessary rites by invoking mental images of the accouterments of sacrifice. This is the exoteric sacrifice

KriyAvathi (கிரியாவதி) Initiatory ceremony in which the guru actually performs the necessary rites according to Agamas with platform for fire sacrifice, Fire pit and other accouterments of Fire sacrifice. This is Internal Sacrifice.

NirpIsa Diksa (நிர்ப்பீசதீட்ச) is for ordinary people, children, ignoramus, the old and woman who are unable to observe religious rites, according to its purport.  It lets people do what they can, does not have the Guru authority (NiradhikAra Diksa) to back it, and yet confers Mukti or emancipation after death or at once.

SapIsa Diksa (சபீசதீட்சை) is for religiously observant exalted people who can stay on straight narrow prescribed path and observe the daily rituals. It carries the mantle of Adhikara or authority. It is twofold: Lokadharmini and Sivadharmini.  உலோகதருமினி (Lokadharmini) is a mode of initiation in which the hair tuft which represents the veiling Energy is not removed for the worldly minded disciple. Hair-tuft is the corporeal equivalent of Tirodhana or Veiling power of Siva, wherein Siva conceals Divine Knowledge and Grace until the soul sheds its impurities. சிவதருமினி (Sivadarmini) is a mode of initiation accompanied by the removal of hair-tuft which is believed to represent the obscuring principle.

 

Verse 9/100. The way to Final Bliss.

விரும்பியமந் திராதிகார மர்ச்சனா திகார
மேவுமியோ காதிகார மெனச்சமய விசேடம்
வரும்பொருவில் நிருவாண மந்திரங்கள் பதங்கள்
வன்னங்கள் பவனங்கள் தத்துவங்கள் கலைகள்
ளிரங்கடைவிற்றொகைபதினொன் றெண்பத் தொன்றைம்பத்தொன்
றிருநூற்றோ டிருபத்து நாலாறா றைந்திற்
பரந்தநெறி யறுவகையு மொருவிநினை வரிதாம்
பரபதத்து ளுயிர்விரவப் பயிற்று மன்றே. 9

SamayaThIkkai and VisEtaThIkkai (சமயதீக்கை, விசேடதீக்கை) offer the privilege of chanting Mantras, performing ceremonial Worship of God and Yoga practice for those desirous of liberation. NirvAnaThIkkai (நிர்வாணதீக்கை) is the third in the series of Initiation, capable of expunging all past Karmas. The soul transcends the 6 paths of Adhvas and attain பரபதம் (Final Bliss). Eleven Mantras, 81 words, 51 letters, 224 worlds, 36 Tattvas, 5 Kalas are the six Adhvas.

 

11 நிர்வாண மந்திரங்கள், 81 பதங்கள், 51 வன்னங்கள், 224 புவனங்கள், 36 தத்துவங்கள், 5 கலைகள் are the six Adhvas.

Below you will notice  slightly different presentation on Adhvas.

அத்துவாக்கள் = Attuva = Adhva in Sanskrit = steps or paths (to Liberation)

Adhvas = Attuvas: பதம்1, வன்னம்2, புவனம்3, மந்திரம்4 , தத்துவம்5 , சரீரம்6, போகம்7, கரணம்8 = Words1 , Letters2, Earth3, Mantras4, Tattvas5, Body6, Bhogam7, and Organs8 are known as Attuvas (Adhvas = அத்துவாக்கள்) are paths to liberation.  Here Body6, Bhogam7, and Organs8 are listed and  not mentioned by Tirumular in Verse 2184 in Tirumantiram.

Diksha is of four kinds: Samayam, visEtam, NirvAnam, AcAriya ApitEkam (சமயம், விசேடம், நிர்வாணம், ஆசாரிய அபிடேகம் ). The poet talks about the first three in this verse 9. The Initiated in SamayathIkkai have the privilege to perform and pursue the path of Chariyai. The Initiated in VisEtathIkkai obtain the privilege to perform and pursue the path of Kriyai and Yogam. Above these two, are the Initiated in NirvAnathIkkai, who have the privilege to perform and pursue the path of Jnana to attain liberation.

The soul has to go past the 6 Adhvas to avail itself of the Grace of attaining Final Bliss (பரபதம்). Adhvas mean paths and connect the soul to the world. The world is twofold: the world of words and the world of meaning (சொல் உலகு  and பொருள் உலகு = Sabda Prapanjam and Artta Prapanjam in Sanskrit). Mantras, words and letters (11 நிர்வாண மந்திரங்கள், 81 பதங்கள், 51 வன்னங்கள்)  refer to the World of Words--சொல் உலகு; Worlds, Tattvas, and Kalais ( 224 புவனங்கள், 36 தத்துவங்கள், 5 கலைகள் ) refer to the World of meaning --பொருள் உலகு.

Verse 10/100 The four paths to Siva Jnanam and Grace.

சிவஞானத்தின் சிறப்பும் வகையும்

கிரியையென மருவுமவை யாவும் ஞாங்
கிடைத்தற்கு நிமித்தமெனக்கிளக்குமுண்மைச்
சரியைகிரி யாயோகத் தன்மையோர்க்குச்
சாலோக சாமீப சாரூ பங்கண் மருவியிடு முயர்ஞான மிரண்டா மாறா
மலமகல வகலாது மன்னு போதத்
திருவருளொன் றொன்றதனைத் தெளிய வோதுஞ்
சிவாகமமென் றுலகறியச் செப்பும் நூலே.10

All that pertains to Kriyai (கிரியை =  Action) are the path to receive Jnanam (ஞானம் = Spiritual Knowledge). The one who abide by the the first three paths obtain SAlOkam, SAmIpam, SArUpam (சாலோகம், சாமீபம், சாரூபம் = The world of Siva, Nearness to Siva, Likeness to Siva). UNmai-Jnanam (உண்மைஞானம் =  ) is the fourth state which is of two kinds: Para-Janam and Apara-Jnanam = பரஞானம் and அபரஞானம் (= Supreme Spiritual Knowledge and Not Supreme spiritual Knowledge). Para-Jnanam expunges the Malas of the soul and helps the soul attain Siva-Jnanam and Grace. Apara-Jnanam is the the Knowledge expounded in Saiva Agamas.

 

 

 

 

Chariyai, Kiriyai, Yogam, and Jnanam are the four paths to attain Siva. Each path has two lanes: the fast lane is Unmai and the slow lane is UpAyam. The superior ones are Unmai Chariyai, Unmai Kriyai, Unmai Yogam and Unmai Jnanam; the slower lane is UpAya Chariyai, UpAya Kriyai, UpAya Yogam and UpAya Jnanam.

Unmai Jnanam consists of Superior Para-Jnanam and inferior Apara-Jnanam. Para-Jnanam is complete eradication of Malams and attainment of liberation (வீடு) also called Siva-Jnanam and Tiru-Arul (Siva Knowledge and Grace).  Apara-Jnanam is bookish knowledge of Agamas....

Verse 11/100.

நூல்வழியும் நூற்பெயரும்

தெரித்தகுரு முதல்வருயர் சிவஞான போதஞ்
செப்பினர்பின் பவர்புதல்வர் சிவஞான சித்தி
விரித்தனர்மற் றவர்கள்திரு வடிகள் போற்றி
விளம்பிநூ லவையிரண்டும் விரும்பினோக்கிக்
கருத்திலுறை திருவருளு மிறைவ னூலுங்
கலந்துபொது வுண்மையெனக் கருதி யானு
மருத்திமிக வுரைப்பன்வளர் விருத்த நூறு
மாசில்சிவப் பிரகாச மாகு மென்றே. 11

The foremost Guru is Meykanda Deva-Nayanar composed the most incomparable treatise, Siva-Jnana-Botham. His student, Arulnandhi Sivanar composed Sivagnana-Siddhiar, which explicates Sivagnana-Botham. I, Umapathi-Sivanar offer my homage to their sacred feet , learn their books thoroughly, present a book encompassing my ideas and the Saiva-Agamas in the name of Sivaprakasam of 100 verses.

 

Verse 12/100.

அவையடக்கம்

தொன்மையவாம் எனும் எவையும் நன்றாகா இன்று
தோன்றியநூல் எனும்எவையுந் தீது ஆகா துணிந்த
நன்மையினார் நலங்கொள்மணி பொதியும்அதன் களங்கம்
நவை ஆகாது எனஉண்மை நயந்திடுவர் நடுவாம்
தன்மையினார் பழமை அழகு ஆராய்ந்து தரிப்பர்
தவறுநலம் பொருளின்கண் சார்வு ஆராய்ந்து அறிதல்
இன்மையினார் பலர்புகழில் ஏத்துவார் எதிலர் உருற்று
இகழ்ந்தனரேல் இகழ்ந்திடுவர் தமக்கு என ஒன்று இலரே.12

Holding the ancient sacred texts as virtuous and avert others as evil are not justified. When a ruby is embedded in an inferiorly designed jewelry, the ones in the know like the jewelry knowing the quality of the ruby. The ones of the middling nature analyze, and wear it considering the antiquity and beauty of the jewel. The inferior type of evaluators don't know ruby's qualities, its beauty or the quality of the jewelry embedding the ruby. They join the crowd that praises the jewelry. Likewise, they join the ones who deprecate the jewelry. The last ones do not have an independent intellect or knowledge.

 

முதற் சூத்திரம்

பொது வதிகாரம். 1.பதி இயல்பு

பதி இலக்கணம் = Pati IlakkaNam = Definition of Pati or Siva.

Verse 13/100. Sivam is beyond the beyond.

பலகலை ஆகமம்வேதம் யாவையினும் கருத்துப்
பதிபசுபாசம் தெரித்தல் பதிபரமே அதுதான்
நிலவும் அரும் உருவின்றிக் குணம்குறிகள் இன்றி
நின்மலமாய் ஏகமாய் நித்தம் ஆகி
அலகில் உயிர்க்கு உணர்வாகி அசலம் ஆகி
அகண்டிதமாய் ஆனந்த உருவாய் அன்றிச்
செலவு அரிதாய்ச் செல்கதியாய்ச் சிறிதாகிப் பெரிதாய்த்
திகழ்வதுதற் சிவம்என்பர் தெளிந்து ளோரே. 13

 

The object of Agamas and Vedas is to explore the nature of Pati, Pasu and PAsam. Among these three, Pati is Param which is beyond Formlessness, Form or Form-formlessness. It has neither attributes nor an emblem. By nature it is Ninmalam without bondage. It is beyond comparison or analogy. It is an eternal substance without birth or death. It is realizable by all souls. It is immovable and does not yield to classification. Its form is Ananda (bliss). which is difficult to attain. It remains as the object of human endeavor. It is the atom of the atom and the biggest of all that is big. The ones who are enlightened with spiritual Knowledge (ஞானம்) call it Sivam (சிவம்).

Pati, Pasu and PAsam = Siva, soul and bondage (of the soul).  Param = The Supreme. Ninmalan = One without impurity.

Saiva Siddhanta considers that the universe has three things: The inimitable God, the ubiquitous souls, and the impediments or bonds in the way of souls to attain liberation. Agamas, Vedas and various spiritual treatises talk about these three entities. Worldly books talk about only the bonds (தளை).

Pati,  Chief or Master, refers to Param Porul (the Supreme Being--பரம் பொருள்). There is only One Pati in the universe. He is second to none. Pati is eternal, neither having a birth nor a beginning, nor an end. Pati is beyond form, formlessness and form-formlessness. And yet Pati can sport all the said forms and other forms as He desires. He comes into existence in all the said forms without attributes or marks. The attributes or Gunas proceed from MAyA and are called Sattva, Rajas and Tamas which are embraced by the souls and all objects without exception. The marks (icons, symbols, emblems) and the attributes are incidental to God and not His nature or His Supreme Nature.

God is the only one that remains without bonds or impediments. He is thus called Ninmalan--நின்மலன்.  Since He is not bound, He can remove the bonds from the roiling souls. He is the ONE-ஏகம்.  He has no one to compare with, no one greater than Him and no one above Him worthy of worship.

He is Eternal--நித்தன்--and thus does not take birth, live and die. He is Immutable and brings the world into existence, safeguards and destroys it.

Though the souls are endowed with intelligence, they do not have self-knowledge unless they are taught. God is not so; He is Omniscient and has a plenitude of Self-Knowledge. God stands as the Soul of every soul and confers knowledge of the world around Him. Though He is intimately involved in creation, maintenance and destruction of innumerable worlds and universes, He remains immutable and immovable and is not subject to transformation.

He is not subject to circumscription or division --அகண்டிதன்-- God, as an undivided whole.

God is the goal of human endeavor. The Knowledge of His Sacred Feet--திருவடிஞானம்-- is what takes the soul to the feet of Siva, is necessary for salvation and is provided by Siva Himself to the soul. He is of the form of Ananda--ஆனந்தம்--or Bliss.

He is smaller than the atom and bigger than the biggest. He is மெய்ப்பொருள் = Truth or Reality.  He is தற்சிவம்--Absolute Being, as self-existent; முதற்கடவுள்.

 

Verse 14/100. Siva of three Saktis and three forms of Siva.

முதல்வன் திருவுரு

நீடுபரா சத்திநிகழ் இச்சா ஞானம்
நிறைகிரியை தர அதனை நிமலன் மேவி
நாடு அரிய கருணைதிரு உருவம் ஆகி
நவின்றுபல கலைநாத விந்து ஆதி
கூடும் ஒளி வளர்குடிலை மாயை மேவிக்
கொடுவினைகொள் தனுகரணம் புவன போகம்
பீடுபெற நிறுவி அவை ஒடுக்கும் மேனி
பிறங்கிய நிட்கள சகளப்பெற்றி யாமே. 14

The Immutable ParAsakti--பராசத்தி-- confers Iccha Sakti, Jnana Sakti and Kriya Sakti and Ninmalan-SivaPeruman --நின்மலன் சிவபெருமான்-- of Great Compassion and the Form of Grace, undertakes to abide in Nada and Bindu, joins with Suddha MAyA and grants Vedas and Agamas. Ninmalan also abides in Asuddha MAyai and Prakriti MAyai; assumes the said three forms (Formlessness, Form or Form-formlessness) to provide the souls with body, sense organs, the world, and objects for experience; maintains the embodied souls in the world; and ultimately subjects them to death.

 

நின்மலன = The one who is Pure.

 

When Siva remains as Pati, He is without any of the three forms described below. Pati is beyond words and mind, full of compassion and when Pati decides, on account of his Grace to the souls, to perform the five acts of Creation, Maintenance, Destruction, Obscuration and Grace; at that instance Pati takes on the form (Sakalam). That body is not the corporeal body--கருமேனி-- as we have.

 

The Form of Siva is called Sakalam--சகளம. Sakalam is the aspect of Šiva as having form, represented by the images. This aspect of Siva is concerned with creation and bringing things into existence

Formless aspect of Siva is Nitkalam--நிட்களம்.  Nitkalam is the formless aspect of Šiva. This form is concerned with ஒடுக்கம் -- involution or death.

Form-formless Body is known as Sakala-Nitkala body--சகள-நிட்களம் Sakala-Nitkalan is the aspect of Siva as being with and without form, represented by the Linga.

ஒடுக்கம் = Involution, as of the elements one into another; absorption, dissolution, disappearance, as of salt in water.

Verse 15/100. Siva is Jnana-Mayan, Tani-Mutalvan, and Ninmalan.

ஈங்கு இது  என்றது கடந்த இயல்பி னாலும்
ஈறுமுதல் நடு ஒன்றம் இலாமை யாலும்
ஓங்கிவளர் ஞானமயன் ஆத லானும்
உண்மைபிறர்க்கு அறிவரிய  ஒருமை யானும்
தாங்கு அரிய வெறுப்பினொடு விருப்பும் எல்லாம்
சார்வு அரிய தனிமுதல்வன் ஆதலாலும்
நீங்கல் அரும் உயிர்க்கு உயிராய் நிற்ற லாலும்
நிறுத்திடுவன் நினைந்த உரு நிமலன் தானே. 15

Siva is of the nature beyond Place, Time and Space. He has no beginning, middle or end. He is the towering effulgent Jnana-Mayan--ஞானமயன் (Universal Soul, as the embodiment of intelligence). Without His Grace, no one can fathom His nature. He does not entertain love or hatred. He is Tanimutalvan --தனிமுதல்வன் -- God, as the First Cause. He is the inseparable Soul of soul. He assumes whatever form He desires and remains Ninmalan-நின்மலன் -- the Pure One.

Six attributes of Siva are listed here: Plenitude of Intelligence, Limitless Bliss, Inherent Apprehension, Control of Himself, Plenitude without wants, and limitless Power.

Siva is of the nature, not confined by Place, Time and Space. Siva is not limited to a place, Time or space. He is வியாபகன், Vyapakan (God, as omnipresent). One cannot put any limitations on Him on any parameter.

ஞானமயன், Jnana-Mayan, the Embodiment of Intelligence indicates that Siva is of the Form of Intelligence. In the triad, Pati, Pasu, and PAsam, PAsam is Acit or non-intelligent entity. Although Pati and Pasu are Cit, Pasu's Cit or intellect is veiled by PAsam and thus goes by the term சிற்றறிவு--CiRRaRivu (Limited knowledge of the soul as acquired by the senses; The condition of the soul, in which its intelligence is obscured by its connection with matter). The soul's intelligence needs instructions, demonstrations, guidance... and therefore is sometimes subject to learning, forgetting, misperception and such inconsistencies.

God is One. He is Siva. The attributes of His Real Nature is not knowable by any one. He stood as a fiery column, the ends of which still remain unknown as attested by Brahma and Vishnu. Siva, the Supreme God not only is unknowable but also knows all in all their completeness. That being so, everyone and everything come under His control.

தாங்கு அரிய வெறுப்பினொடு விருப்பும் எல்லாம் சார்வு அரிய தனிமுதல்வன்: Siva, the First Cause does not entertain likes or dislikes towards anyone or anything. He maintains a neutral stance. தாங்கு அரிய வெறுப்பினொடு விருப்பும் எல்லாம். Explanation. Dislike is something that does not stick to God. Likewise, like is something that does not stick to God.

Saiva Siddhanta attests the Truth that the soul has no beginning or end. And yet the soul's nature is it takes the corporeal form (bodily form) on this earth and changes its body from one to the next, which entirely depends on the weight of its Karma.

 

Verse 16/100. MAyai, soul, and Karma do not have the autonomous ability to clothe the soul with a body. Only Siva does.

உலகம் எலாம் ஒருவனோடு ஒருத்தி ஒன்று என்று
உளதாகி நின்று அளவில் ஒடுங்கும் பின்னும்
மலம் அதனால் உளதாகும் உருவம் மாறி
வருவது போவது செல்வது ஆதலாலும்
அலைவில் அசேதனம் மாயை ஆதலாலும்
அணுக்கள் உரு அடையும் அறிவு  இலாமையாலும்
நிலவு தொழில் மருவி உருநிற்ற லாலும்
நின்று எவையும் அளித்திடுவன் நிமலன் தானே. 16

In this world, there come into existence ஓருவன் and  ஒருத்தி (He and She or Man and Woman), each one being an individual, lives for a while and later ceases to exist. This reabsorbed world, for the sake of ripening Anava Malam, comes back into existence. The changing form comes and goes again. MAyai is Acetanam (அசேதணம் = non-intelligent). The souls do not have the intelligence to spontaneously assume or evolve into a form. The deeds from the previous births do not have the spontaneous ability to give forms to the soul. Ninmalan (Siva) is the only One to dispense all these (according to Karma, the body, the organs, the world, and the objects for experience).

Purport.

Siva-Jnana-Botham says that God brings into existence He, She, and It in this world. Each entity comes into existence, lives or stays for a while and comes to an end. All these are subject to Time and Space, once they come into existence. Embodied life is limited in scope, limited in life span, limited as to when it comes to an end.

Maturation and eradication Karma Malam (கன்ம-மலம்-பரிபாகம்) results in the dissolution of the world, while the world comes back into existence because of Anava Malam. Anava Malam has to under go maturation (அணவ மலம் பரிபாகம்). The world exists until the MAya Malam undergoes Paripakam (மாய மலம் பரிபாகம்).

Creation, Maintenance, and Destruction (C-M-D) is under the aegis of Siva. Soul, Anava Malam, Karma, and MAyai do not have the ability to prosecute these three functions of C-M-D.

MayAi is Acetanam (அசேதணம் = non-intelligent), though it provides the building blocks of body, organs, world, experiential objects. MAyai cannot create a form on its own accord. It is the exclusive power of God.

Likewise, the soul by itself does not have the intelligence to create a bodily form. The reason why the soul is called atomic (அணு) is because of its association with Anava Malam, it lost its ability to be all-pervasive (வியாபகம் = All-pervasiveness). Since the soul is not all-pervasive; is limited in Time, Space and size; and does not have the plenitude of Intellect and Knowledge (as Siva), the soul does not have the power to assume any bodily form according to its will.

Why Can't we assume that Karma can give a corporeal form to the soul? Karma, being formless itself, cannot give corporeality to the soul.  Thus corporeality precedes Karma in every corporeal event of the soul. Karma embraces Buddhi but does not have the power to shroud the soul with a body.

The power of creation of the world is not within the purview of MAyai, the soul, Karma, and Malas. Sivanar, saying நின்று எவையும் அளித்திடுவன் நிமலன் தானே, stresses the point that the power of Creation is in the sole domain of Siva.

 

Verse 17/100. Siva is Immutable though he acts through His surrogate gods.

கந்தமலர் அயன் படைக்கும் உலகம் எல்லாம்
கண்ணன் அளித்திடும் அவைஎம் கடவுள் தானே
அந்தம் உற அழித்திடுவன் ஆத லாலே
அயன் அரியும்  அவனது உயர் அதிகா ரத்து
வந்தமுறை தன்தொழிலே மன்னுவிப்பன் எல்லாம்
வருவிப்பன் விகாரங்கள் மருவான் வானில்
முந்து இரவி எதிர்முளரி அலர்வுறும் ஒன்று அலர்வான்
முகையாம் ஒன்று ஒன்று உலரும் முறையின் ஆமே.17

Ayan (Brahma) sitting on the fragrant Lotus creates all the world. Kannan (கண்ணன் = Vishnu) protects the world. My god, Siva brings all to an end by destruction. So Brahma and Ari (அரி = Hari or Vishnu) perform their respective work as surrogates under the delegated authority from Siva. They do their functions on the orders of Siva. Could Creation, Protection and Destruction make Siva, VikAri (விகாரி = an entity subject to mutation)?  Under the sun, the lotus sprig shows up; the lotus bud blossoms; yesterday's flower wilts. Though the lotus flower is subject to many transformations, these changes do not transform the sun. Likewise, though Siva creates, protects and destroys all worlds, He remains His effulgent Self without any change.

The presiding deities for Creation, Protection and Destruction are Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra. Siva is the only One who remains eternal and survives the universal destruction. Thus, Siva is the One who begins the new cycle and creates the world, after which Siva needs Vishnu to protect the world. Brahma and Vishnu are surrogate gods. But Siva is கடவுள் (Kadavul = the One who goes beyond or transcends all gods.)

Vishnu worships Siva with a thousand Lotus flowers. Once Vishnu discovered that he was short one flower. He enucleated His eye and made up the numbers to one thousand. Since he plucked the eye, He is called Kannan (கண்ணன். கண் = eye).

When someone implements his portfolio, he is subject to change, transformation or mutation. An object also undergoes change, transformation or mutation. Clay becomes a pot; fruit becomes juice; fodder becomes milk in the udder of a cow; DNA undergoes mutation upon exposure to sunlight (causing skin cancer). Siva, who performs the five functions of Creation, Preservation,  Destruction, Obscuration and Grace, does not undergo transformation or mutation. All acts of Siva are effortless, proceed from His Will and take place by Divine Grace and  intention (குறிப்பு). This is Action by Instantaneous Intention-Action (சங்கற்ப மாத்திரை). So God is called NirvikAri (நிர்விகாரி = Immutable Being). The analogies supporting this proposition is presented by Umapathi Sivanar are the flowering of the lotus bud and the wilting of the lotus flower by the immutable sun. The sun remains immutable though the lotus bud and flower underwent transformation.

 

உலகப் படைப்பின் பயன் = The purpose of creation of the world.

 

Verse 18/100. All five acts of Siva are Divine Play acts done with ease and concern and for the deliverance of the soul.

ஏற்ற  இவை அரன் அருளின் திருவிளையாட்டு ஆக
இயம்புவர்கள் அணுக்கள் இடர்க் கடல் நின்றும் எடுத்தே
ஊற்றம்மிக அருள்புரிதல் ஏது ஆக
உரைசெய்வர் ஒடுக்கம் இளைப்பு ஒழித்தல் மற்றைத்
தோற்றம்மல பாகம்வரக் காத்தல் போகம்
துய்ப்பித்தல் திரோதாயி நிறுத்தல் ஆகும்
போற்றல் அரும் அருளெ அன்றி மற்றுப்
புகன்றவையும் அருள் ஒழியப் புகல் ஒணாதே.18

All acts are Siva's Divine Play Acts. The object of these acts is to remove the souls from the sea of affliction to the shores of Bliss. Destruction or death is for the resting of the souls; coming into existence (Corporeality)  is for the maturation of Anava Malam; preservation is for the removal of Kanma Malam and partaking of the fruits of Karma; obscuration is for the soul to undergo Iruvinauoppu (இருவினையொப்பு--Iru-Vinai-Oppu = Two-deed equable resolution = expunging Karma); and Grace is for the souls to be relieved of the bonds and attain liberation (வீடு). All these acts are Divine Acts of Grace.

Creation, Preservation, Destruction, Obscuration and Grace are the five acts of God to liberate the soul from the sea of misery. The phrase, Play Act should not be mistaken as if it is a trivial pursuit of Siva. Play Act means that Siva does not engage in heavy lifting (shoulder any burden by these acts), and that Siva has the power to perform these acts with ease, that Siva has the munificence to liberate these souls and that Siva enjoys helping the souls.

இரண்டாம் சூத்திரம் = 2nd Sutra

2. பசுவியல்பு = The Nature of the soul, the nature of Pasu, the individual soul.

Verse 19/100. Soul in Kevala, Sakala and Suddha state.

எண் அரிதாய் நித்தமாய் இருல்மலத்தில் அழுந்தி
இருவினையின் தன்மைகளுக்கு ஈடான யாக்கை
அண்ணல் அருளால் நண்ணி அவை அவராய் அதனால்
அலகில் நிகழ் போகங்கள் அருந்தும் ஆற்றால்
புண்ணியபவம் புரிந்து போக்குவரவு உடைத்தாய்ப்
புணரும் இருள் மலபாகம் பொருந்தியக்காள் அருளால்
உள்நிலவும் ஒளியதனால் இருள் அகற்றிப் பாதம்
உற்றிடுநற் பசுவருக்கம் எனவுரைப்போர் உணர்ந்தோர். 19

The souls coming under the division of Pasu are beyond computation with numbers. They are Nithtam (நித்தம் = Niththam = not subject to destruction or eternal). The soul is obscured by Anava Malam from before its corporeal appearance.  Anava Malam, on account of attaining MalaParipakam (மலபரிபாகம் = equable resolution of impurities), acquires an appropriate body in accordance with the nature of Karma by the Grace of ANNal (அண்ணல் = Exalted Being, God or Siva);  becomes He, She or It, eating the fruits of Karma; performs acts of merit and demerit (புன்ணியம் and பாபம்); and subjects the body to goings and comings (birth and death). Once Anava Malam matures and falls by the Grace of Siva; the darkness is removed by the inner effulgence of Siva; and the soul reaches the feet of Siva, the soul qualifies for perpetual and changeless Bliss, so say the enlightened ones.

The soul is subject to three states: Irul, marul, and Arul (இருள், மருள், அருள் = Darkness, Confusion and Grace). These go by such terms like Kevalam, Sakalam, and Suddham (கேவலம், சகலம், சுத்தம் Orphan status or isolation; the soul subject to three Malas or the corporeal state; The Purity, devoid of Malams and liberated state.  The soul exists in Kevala state in darkness before it makes an appearance in the phenomenal world with a body of a human, animal, insect.... Sakala state is corporeal state in this world. Suddha state is liberation. 

3.பாசம் இயல்பு = The Nature of bonds or fetters.
மலமும் திரோதனமும் = Impurities of the soul and Obscuration of the soul.

Verse 20.  Anava Malam weakens,  Obscurant power morphs, and Grace flows.

ஏகமாய்த் தம்கால  எல்லைகளில் மீளும்
எண் அரிய சத்தியதாய் இருள்ஒளிர இருண்ட
மோகமாய்ச் செம்பில் உரு களிம்பு எய்ந்து நித்த
மூலமலமாய் அறிவு முழுதினையும் மறைக்கும்
பாகமாம் வகைநின்று திரோதாயி சத்தி
பண்ணுதலால் மலம் எனவும் பகர்வர் அது பரிந்து
நாகம்மா நதிமதியம் பொதிசடையன் அடிகள்

நணுகும்வகை கருணைமிக நயக்கும் தானே.20

Anavam is a single entity; upon maturation, it is of the nature of leaving the soul and thus of unimaginable power. Compared to the deep abysmal darkness, Anavam is like the effulgence. It causes mental delusion. It is inseparable from the soul like the verdigris in the copper vessel.  As the eternal original Malam (மூலமலம்), Anavam obscures knowledge. Because of obscuration and until maturation of Anavam takes place, Tirodhana Sakti (திரோதான சத்தி = power of obscuration) remains with the soul as a companion; after maturation of Anavam, compassionate Tirodhana Sakti, facilitating the soul to reach the feet of Siva who wears a snake, a crescent moon and Ganga on His matted locks, is also called Malam.

Though Anavam afflicts many souls, it is one inert entity. Inert (Jada) Objects are subject to appearance, remaining for a while and perishing. The souls are many but are not inert. Anava Malam, as an affliction of the soul, has a whole spectrum of affliction from mild to severe depending upon the weight of Karma. Since Anavam obscures knowledge of the soul, it called Dark or Original Malam (மூலமலம்). When the external darkness regards Anavam the internal darkness of the soul, the internal darkness is Darkness within darkness so much so it is called Malignant Darkness (கொடிய இருள).

External darkness manifests itself and hides only the objects in its ambit. Since the internal darkness, Anavam, blocks the sunshine of Knowledge completely, perception of objects is not possible; besides, Anavam being the causal agent of darkness veils itself too. This is what the poet says in his verse: "இருள் ஒளிர இருண்ட."

Anavam has 8 products in its arsenal: மோகம், மதம்,

Anavam's first product is மோகம்- delusion. It is delusion of mind which prevents one from discerning the truth; the moment Moham is severed, Anavam leaves the soul. Anavam is like the verdigris in copper. Sivasakti helps get rid of the Anava Malam. From beginningless time, Iruvinaiyoppu, Malaparipakam and SattinipAtam (இருவினையொப்பு, மலபரிபாகம், சத்திநிபாதம் = Resolution of two-deed Karma, removal of Malams from the soul, and descent of Sakti into the soul) are the weakening principles of Anava Malam.

 

மோகம் = Mokam = Delusion of mind which prevents one from discerning the truth. மலபரிபாகம் = Malaparipakam = Stage of a soul when its three malam meet with the causes of their removal

Anavam Malam is SahajaMalam (சகசமலம்) of the soul, meaning it is inherent, innate or natural to the soul or an obstructive principle or bond inherent in the soul. MAyA Malam and Kanma Malams are known as Akantuka Malam (ஆகந்துக மலம = Impurity that comes accidentally, incidentally and uninvited). These two Malams act for the gradual attrition of Anava Malam and its maturation. These three Malams prevents knowledge completely from entering the soul. Tirodhana Sakti stands by the soul in the removal of Anava Malam. Tirodhana Sakti is very important principle in Saiva Siddhanta. It is an obscurant, veiling the penetration of the soul by Siva Jnanam.  For the purpose of weakening and maturing the Anava Malam, God makes the soul eat the fruits of Karma Malam and lets the Tirodhana Sakti ride along veiling knowledge from the soul. When resolution of Karma, removal of Malams and descent of Grace are about to take place, Tirodhana Sakti morphs into Arul Sakti (Grace) and helps the soul obtain Siva Jnanam. Let me explain this as follows. Tirodhana Sakti is an obscurant preventing flow of Grace into the soul. The reason being the soul is not ready. Once the soul is ready, Tirodhana Sakti which was a kinked tube erstwhile suddenly unkinks and opens up to let the Grace flow into the soul.

Verse 21/100 Nadam, Bindu, Sadasiva Tattva, Isvara Tattva and Suddha Vidya Tattva nd their presiding Deities.

சுத்தமாயையின் காரியம் = The products of Suddha MAyai.

உன்னல் அரும் பரசிவன் தன் அருளாலே நாதம்
உதிக்கும் மிகும் குடிலைதனில் விந்துவரும் நாதம்
தன்னில் அதன் ஒளிவளரும் சதாசிவராம் அவரில்
தயங்கவரும் ஈசர்வித்தை தனை  அளிப்பர் அதனால்
மன்னுவர்  இவ்வகை ஐவர் வாய்மையினால் முன்னே
வந்திடும் என்று உரைசெய்த விந்துவழா வகையே
முன்  உதவும் சூக்குமாதி ஒருநான்கும்  என்று
மொழிந்திடுவர் அரும்கலைகள் முதிர்ந்து ளோரே. 21

Because of Parasivan's Grace which is beyond thought, NAdam (நாதம்) originates from Suddha MAyai--சுத்த மாயை.  From NAdam comes Bindu (விந்து). From Bindu comes forth Sadasiva Tattva, from whom comes Isvara Tattva. From isvara Tatva comes Suddha Vidya Tattva.  In this order, these five Tattvas gain five presiding deities (ஆதிதெய்வங்கள்): Siva, Sakti, Sadasivar, Mahesvarar, Rudra. From Bindu come Suksma, Paysanti, Madhyama, and Vaikari (சூக்குமை, பைசந்தி, மத்திமை, வைகரி), so say the the learned pundits of Saiva Agamas.

 

Here in this verse, Umapathi Sivanar calls Siva Tattva as NADam and Sakti Tattva as Bindu. These five belong to Knowledge and Action powers (ஞானசத்தி, கிரியாசத்தி) Siva Tattva is of the form of Knowledge in its entirety. Sakti Tattva is of the form of Action. When Knowledge and Action are equal, It is called Sadasiva Tattva. When Action is dominant and Knowledge is recessive, It is Isvara Tattva. Suddha Vidya Tattva is dominant in Knowledge and recessive in Action. Click here for details on Tattvas. TATTVAS-36 

 

Click and go to  Sabda or Sound  for more information on sound.

சூக்குமை = sūkumā. Subtle sound preceding full utterance, supposed to emanate from navel, one of four vākku

பைசந்தி = pašyantī. Sound from the navel, one of four kinds of vākku

மத்திமை = Madhyama. An inaudible sound believed to arise from the heart, as arising midway between the sources of vaikaripaicanti.

வைகரி = vaikharī. Articulate utterance, audible utterance of sounds or words, one of four vākku.

 

Verse 22/100. The MAyA though it veils soul's intelligence and knowledge, sheds some light to the soul.

மாயையின் இயல்பு  The Nature of MAyai.

உருவாதி சதுர்விதமாய் ஒன்று ஒன்று ஒவ்வா
உண்மையதாய் நித்தமாய் ஒன்றாய் என்றும்
அருவாகிக் கன்மம் ஆர் அணுக்கள் யார்க்கும்
ஆவாரமாய் அசித்தாய் அசலம் ஆகி
விரிவாய தன்செயலின் வியாபியாய் எல்லாம்
விரிந்தவகை புரிந்து அடைவில் மேவி அவை ஒடுங்க
வருகாலம் உயிர்கள் எல்லாம் மருவு இடமாய் மலமாய்
மன்னியிடும் அரன் அருளால் மாயை தானே. 22

Asuddha MAyai becomes four entities: Body, Sense, World, and Objects for experience, which are dissimilar, indestructible, eternal and basically one (originating from Asuddha MAyai).. They are formless in their unmanifest state in Asuddha MAyai. These entities veil the intelligence of the soul until they fall off or are removed. They are non-intelligent themselves and immobile and constitute seven Vidya Tattvas and twenty-four Anma Tattvas (31 in all). They are subject to appearance and disappearance,  induce confusion and delusion in the soul and become the Malams under the Grace of Siva.

Body, organs of sense, world, and objects of enjoyment (தணு, கரணம், புவனம், போகம்) are dissimilar in appearance, nature, and attributes and subject to change.

In their causal unmanifest formless state, these four entities are immutable and therefore eternal.

Kanma Malam, veiling the intellect and knowledge of the immature soul, and being itself non-intelligent and inert (சடம் or Jada in Sanskrit),  is incapable of any action (thus immobile = அசைவு அற்றது) and remains Acit (அசித்து = insentient, non-intelligent) and therefore immobile.

Asuddha Tattva is the hiding place for these four entities in their unmanifest state. In their manifest active state they are many,  polymorphic and pervasive (விரிவாய தன் செயலில் வியாபியாய்). They manifest in an orderly manner and subside back into Asuddha MAyai.

MAyai according to Saiva Siddhanta doctrine is Reality--உள் பொருள்--, serving as the small guiding light of knowledge to the soul tottering and groping in darkness of Anava Malam.

EkAnmavAda doctrine holds the view that MAyai is not Reality but improvable and indefinable entity அநிர்வசனியம்.     EkAnmavAdam = ஏகான்மவாதம் = Monistic doctrine according to which there is only one reality, viz., the soul. EkAnmavAdham argues that MAyai instead of being a  guiding light of the soul, causes confusion and delusion. TiruJnanaSambandar, the Saiva Saint, says MAyai is ஒண்தளை, (ONthaLai) meaning that though MAyai is a fetter, it sheds some light on the soul.

 

Verse 23. MAyai and God create a world of objects and beings.

மாயையின் உண்மை = The truth about MAyai.

என்னை இது எனில் உலகுக்கு உபாதானம் இல்லை
இறைவன் அலது எனில் அசித்துச் சித்தினிடத்து உதியா
மன்னி உளதேல் முதல்வ் எனகொல் என்னில்
மாயைதான் அசித்து உருவாய் மருவ மாட்டாது
அன்னவனும் இதுவொழிய   ஆக்க மாட்டான்
அசத்தனாம் எனில் அதுவும் அவன்போல் நித்தம்
முன்னவன்  அவ் அசித்தை விரித்து எவையும் ஆக்கும்
முதன்மை  அது கொடுத்தது என மொழிந்திடாரே. 23

What is this MAya all about? The First Cause of the world is MAyai, which is thus reality. Some may say that God is the First Cause. Answer. God is Cit, that is Knowing Reality. Question. Non-intelligent matter does not arise from Knowing Reality. World is Acit; if one says that the world arises from Cit that is God, it is not valid. When MAyai is the First Cause, why is their a need for God?  Answer. MAyai is a non-intelligent entity, so it is incapable of creating on its own accord, the body, the sense organs, the world and the objects of experience in their disparate varieties. God will not create MAyai without holding it as the First Cause. One may say that God is not capable of creation without the help of MAyai. Answer. MAyai is as much a reality as God is Reality. God does not have to look for a new entity to serve the purpose of MAyai. God creates all that He does with Acit-MAyai. The learned would not say that MAyai empowered God to create this universe and beings.

Creation of an object takes three causes: First Cause, Instrumental Cause and Efficient Cause. Let us take the clay, the instruments, the pot and the potter. The clay is the First Cause; the potter's wheel is the Instrumental Cause; the potter is the Efficient Cause.

Clay: First Cause = Material Cause. UpAdana KAranam. உபாதண காரணம்

Instruments: Instrumental Cause. துணைக் காரணம். Secondary Cause. SahakAri KArana.

Potter: Nimitta Karanam. The Efficient Cause. நிமித்தகாரணம்.

MAyai is the first cause, something like clay. It is Acit, non-intelligent and insentient. Clay cannot by itself become a pot. Clay needs a potter which is God, who uses non-intelligent clay to fashion a pot. All that you see in this world are pots of many shapes, sizes and colors. Thus clay's products are dissimilar, disparate, varied and many, which is the case with the products of MAyai. Clay and the potter are reality as MAyai and God are Reality. God is independent and Knowing Reality, while MAyai is dependent and non-intelligent reality.  We need both Realities for the creation of the world of matter and beings.

 

Verse 24. God brings Karma and the soul together and makes the world of beings with variable assets.

இருவினை உண்மை = The truth about Two-Deed Karma.

படைத்தது ஒரு படியின்றிப் பறவைபசு நரராய்ப்
பண்ணியது என் முன்னைவினைப் பான்மை என்பர்
அடுத்தவினை உளதாயின் இறை ஏன் என்னில்
அசேதனம் மற்று அவை  ஆவிக்கு அமைந்தது ஆகும்
எடுத்தவினை உறு  உறுவது உயிரேல் தானே
இருவினைக்குத் தக்க  உடல் எய்தும் என்னில்
சடத்திரளும் அகர்த்தாவாய் அறிவு ஒன்று இல்லாத்
தன்மையனும் கூடஒரு சங்கை ஒன்றே. 24

Question. Why is it so that the creations, instead of being of one nature, are varied like birds, cows, men...? Sages say that there is variability in creation, made possible by the Karmic merit and demerit of a beings in their previous birth. Question. A question may arise that if Karma-dependant birth comes in the form of chain-link, why is there a need for a God. Answer. Karma-dependant births are non-intelligent and Acit and thus do not spontaneously effectuate a linkage with the souls. God establishes the link between Karma and the products of MAyai. Question. Why should not the soul arrange Karma-based appropriate birth?  Karmic deeds and Karma-appropriate births are non-intelligent. . Though the soul is endowed with knowledge and intellect, the soul does not have the power of inherence and spontaneity to carry out such a link between Karma and appropriate birth. Soul is AkarthA (அகர்த்தா = non-agent or one who is not agent of action). There is no doubt that confluence of inanimate and inactive Jada (சடம் = inanimate lifeless matter) and soul without knowledge does not take place.

Souls with baggage of Karma are born every micro millisecond in this world. They may be men, birds, animals, insects, worms or amoeba. Man can be rich, poor, intelligent, stupid... depending upon his Karmic bag.  Such variables are the stuff of Karma.

 

Verse 25. The three Malams are integral parts of the soul right from beginningless time.

மும்மலமும் அநாதி Beginningless three Impurities.

அல்லல்மிக உயிர்க்கு இவைதான் அத்தது ஈசன்
அருவினைகள் அருந்துதற்கோ விளையோ அன்றிச்
சொல்லிவரும் மாயையோ அணுவை முந்தச்
சூழ்ந்தது எனும் உரைமுதலோர் தொடக்கு இலார்பால்
ஒல்லைவரும் எனில் உளதாம் உயிர் உண்டாவே
உளதுமலம் மலம்உளதாய் ஒழிந்த  எல்லாம்
நெல்லின்முளை தவிடு உமிபோல் அனாதி யாக
நிறுத்திடுவர் இதுசைவம் நிகழ்த்தும் ஆறே. 25

If that is so, the reason why Siva has brought the soul and the body together is to make the soul eat the fruits of two-deed Karma that gives interminable suffering. What came to seize the soul first: Karma or MAyai the repository of Karma? The answer is MAyai and Karma did not seize the fetterless soul. From beginningless time, the soul is eternally bound by Anava Malam (மூலமலம்).  AnAdhi (அனாதி -from beginningless time) Anava Malam and the other Malams clinging to the soul are like the chaff, germ and bran of the paddy  present right from the beginning.

MAyai gave the body to the soul. The bodies are polymorphic in every sense because of the fruits of past Karma.  Which came first, body or Karma?  If Karma is prior to body, Karma cannot bear fruits without the body. If body is prior to Karma, what did the soul do to deserve that body?  There is no place for questions like this. The answer follows. MAyai and Karma do not lay a seize on the blameless soul. The soul is afflicted from beginningless time with Anava Malam, which is responsible for all the subsequent events. Soul and Anava Malam are coeval. Anava Malam's impact on the soul makes it liable for affliction with Mayai and Kanma Malams. Thus the soul and the three Malams are coeval.

Rice is the main component of paddy. Chaff, germ and bran are integral parts of rice right from the beginning. Likewise, soul (rice) is afflicted with three Malams from beginningless time.

மூலமலம் = An impurity eternally clinging to the soul.

 

Verse 26.

தத்துவங்களின் தோற்றமுறை = The order of appearance of Tattvas.

அருத்திமிகும் கலைகாலம் நியதியுடன் வித்தை
அராகம் இவை அனந்தரால் மாயைதனல் ஆகும்
உருத்திரரால் கலை  அதனில் பிரகிருதி குணங்கள்
உளவாகும் ஆங்காரம் புந்திதனல் உதிக்கும்
தெரித்த இது திரிவிதமாம் தைசத  வைகாரி
திகழ்தரு பூதாதி எனத் திருந்திய சாத்துவிதம்
விரித்தகுணம் மனம்புத்தி இந்திரியம் என்று
விளம்பிய சோத்திராதி முதல் விளங்கியிடும் விரிந்தே! 26

Desirable KalA, Time, Niyati, Vidya, RAga arise from Assuddha MAyai on account of the grace of Anantha Deva. From KalA, on account of the grace of Rudra comes Prakriti, from which Guna Tattva arises. From Buddhi arises Ahamkaram, which is of three kinds: Taijasa, VaikAri, and BhutAdhi. Taijasa AhankAra also known as Sattvika Ahamkara gives rise to five sense organs like Mind, Ear....

Because of the Grace of Anantha Deva, from Asuddha MAyai, KalA, KAla (Time), Niyati, Vidya and RAga come into existence. There are variations in the sequential depiction of the origin of these Tattvas. They differ from author to author.  Siddhiar Suppakam, 2nd Sutra, 3rd Adhikaranam, verse 144 sivagnana_siddhiar  by Sivanar says that KAla (காலம் = time), Niyati (நியதி) and KalA (கலை) appear in that order. In this verse, KalA (கலை) takes antecedence.

S.S. Mani makes the following observation. Antecedent KAla (காலம் = Time) in Siddhiar depicts the order of appearance with reference to time. KalA. KalA in this context does not portray கலை = Arts or learning as used today; the word கலி takes its meaning from கலித்தல் --to cause to go, move.

From MAyai, KAla, Niyati, and KalA arise separately. From KalA arises Vidya (வித்தை), from which arises RAga (அராகம்). These five (KalA, KAla, Niyati, Vidya and RAga) are collectively known as Pancha Kancukas (பஞ்ச கஞ்சுகம் = five Jackets) of the soul. After the soul is jacketed with these five layers of Kancukas,  the soul is called Purusha (புருடன்), capable of enjoying by means of the senses; and experience, enjoy, and suffer the fruits of actions or Karma of the past.

From KalA, Prakriti (மூலப்பகுதி) originates. Prakriti manifests three attributes or modes: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. These three Gunas (modes or attributes) exist in equilibrium in Cittam (சித்தம்), and in disequilibrium in Buddhi (புத்தி). Buddhi gives rise to Ahankaram, which is of three kinds: Taijasa, VaikAri, and BhutAdhi (தைசதம், வைகாரி, பூதாதி). Taijasa is Light, Intelligence or Knowledge. VaikArikam--வைகாரிகம்-- indicates action or work. BhUtadhi --பூதாதி-- refers to form.

Taijasa Ahamkaram as the Light and Sattva Guna give rise to Mind, Ears, Body (skin), Eyes, Tongue, and Nose. Since they are of the form of light of perception or sense organs, they are called Janendriyas--ஞானேந்திரியங்கள்-- or Sense Organs which perceive Sound, Touch, Form, Taste, Smell --Sabda, Sparsa, RUpa, Rasa, and Gantha in Sanskrit.

 

Notes: Isvara Tattva encompasses eight attendant gods (அஷ்டவித்தியேசுரர் in Iccuram-Suddha-Tattvam) Antar, CUkkumar, CivOttamar, Eka-Ettirar, Ekaruttirar, TirimUrttar, CIkaNtar, CikaNti -- அநந்தர் சூக்குமர் சிவோத்தமர் ஏக நேந்திரர் ஏகருத்திரர் திரிமூர்த்தர் சீகண்டர் சிகண்டி

Buddhi works in awake environment, dream sleep, deep sleep and Turiya, while mind works in awake state and dream sleep.  Buddhi is Intuitive Intelligence or Higher Mind. Buddhi knows and discerns Truth from falsehood. Buddhi is the driver of a chariot or car. The reins or the steering wheel is the lower mind or Manas. Buddhi applies control over the mind. The chariot or the car has three wheels in this case. The two rear wheels are Sattva and Tamas (Virtue and Darkness); the front wheel is Rajas. Rajas wheel is steerable; when it turns to the right it takes the Sattvic route; when it turns to the left, it takes the Tamasic route; when it goes straight it neither Sattva or Tamas, it is just motion. Buddhi is the gateway between the phenomenal world and the transcendental world and thus functions well in Turiya. Teleologically, Buddhi is close to and derived from Mahat, the Cosmic Intelligence. Mind is reflex, while Buddhi is Intuition. Mind is cruise control and Buddhi is the driver. Cruising without steering ends in accident and death of the driver. Mind without Buddhi is a life of reflexes to external events. Mind moves from thought to thought in the awake and dream sleep state. Buddhi is stable like a mountain, while mind is a ocean with waves. When Buddhi reaches the transcendental state it becomes Cittam wherein all three Gunas are in equilibrium.

 

Verse 27. MAyA, its products, derivatives and functions.

மன்னியகன் மேந்திரியம் ஆன இராசதம் சேர்
வாக்கு ஆதி வைகாரி மருவிவரும் சத்தம்
தன்னைமுதல் ஆகிய  தாமதம் மிகுமாத்திரை பின்
தரும் இதனில் வான் அநிலம் அனல்புனல் மண் சத்தம்
முன்னதனில்வெளி  ஆதி ஒன்று ஒன்று ஆகும்
முறையில் உறும் இருமை அயன் முடிவாம் முன்னே
உன்னுசதா சிவர் ஆதி அதிபதிகள் ஒடுக்கம்
உதித்தஅடைவு எனஉரைப்பர் உணர்ந்துளோரே. 27

Enduring KarmEndriyas (Motor Organs) originate from VaikAri Ahamkaram, have Rajasa Guna as in five organs as speech... with their conjoint senses. The last and the final Bhutadhi Ahamkaram replete with Tamas Guna originates the five Tanmatras such as sound as the first product. From the Tanmatras originate sequentially the five Bhutas, the one giving rise to the next: Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. These five elements have presiding deities starting from Sadasivar ending in Ayan (Brahma). The Learned know that these elements subside in the reverse order.

TAijasa Ahamkaram is concerned with Sattva, Light and Intellect and generates Mind, Ears, Skin, Eyes, Tongue, and Nose collectively known as Jnanedriyas, which perceive sound, touch, form, taste and smell.

VAikAri Ahamkaram is concerned with Action and thus gives rise to KarmEndriyas or Motor organs: Mouth, Hands, Legs, Anus, and Genitals (வாய், கை, கால், எருவாய், கருவாய் = in Sanskrit, VAc, PAni, PAtham, PAyuru, Upattam.  The functions of Mouth, Hands, Legs, Anus, and Genitals are Speech, Grasp, Ambulation, Evacuation, Sexual enjoyment (In Sanskrit Vasanam, DhAnam, Kamanam, Visargam, and Anandam). These organs are of Rajasa Guna.

Bhutadhi Ahamkaram is of Tamasa Guna and generates Tanmatras which generate the Maha Bhutas or the Great Elements. They have the five presiding deities. Sabdam27 , Parisam28 , RUpam29, RAsam30 and Gandham31 (Sound27 , Touch28, Form29, Taste30, and Smell31 = ஓசை27, ஊறு28, உருவம்29, சுவை30,  நாற்றம்31 in Tamil) are the Tanmatras. 

From sound27, touch28, form29, taste30, odor31 originate ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36. (வான்32,வளி33, அனல்34, புனல்35, and மண்36).

The Tanmatras remain subtle and originate the five elements from ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36 . These are the Great elements that have the gross form in appearance and the subtle form as the basis.

When subtle sound27 becomes gross ether32, Ether remains as the medium for propagation of Sound. Sound cannot propagate in vacuum. sound27, and touch28 generate Air33; sound27, touch28,and  form29, generate Fire34; sound27, touch28, form29, and taste30 generate Water35; sound27, touch28, form29, taste30, odor31  generate Earth36

 

Sadasiva, Mahesvara, Rudra, Vishnu, and Brahma are the presiding deities of Ether32, Air33, Fire34, Water35, Earth36.

 

 

Siva1, Sakti2, Sadasiva3, Isvara4, Sadvidya5, MayA6, Kala7, Niyati8, Kala9, Vidya10, Raga11, Purusa12 Prakrti Tattva13,
Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing--Ears17 touch--Skin18, vision and color--Eyes19, tasting--Tongue20, smell--Nose21, speech-Larynx22, grasp-Hands23, ambulation--Feet24, evacuation--Feet25, procreation-Genitals26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31,  ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36.

 

 

 

Verse 28. The Nature of Karma Malam.

கன்மத்தின் இயல்பு

நண்ணியிடும் உரு அதனுக்கு ஏது ஆகி
நானா போகங்களாய் நாசோற் பத்தி
பண்ணிவரும் ஆதலால் அனாதி ஆகிப்
பலவாகி அணுக்கள் தோறும் படர்வது ஆகி
எண்ணிவரும் மனம்வாச கன்மத்தால் இயற்றும்
இயல்பினதாய் மதிகதமாய் இருபயனாம் பாவ
புண்ணியமாய்ப் புலர்காலை மாயை மேவிப்
பொருந்தும் இது கன்மமலம் புகலும் ஆறே. 28

Kanma Malam is the cause of the body that the souls get. Because of varied life Karmic experiences, it acts like a chain-link between death and life. It accompanies the soul in a subtle form. Thought, word and deed are formative of Kanma Malam. That is its nature. It clings to Buddhi. When it starts bearing fruits it gains two names: Merit and Demerit (பாபம்-புண்ணியம்).  When the body sustains death and undergoes involution, Kanma Malam subsides in MAyAi. These are mentioned in the Agamas.

Karma proceeds from beginningless time and so is called அநாதி. Kanma regenerates at death of the body. When you plant a seed, the seed "dies" as it were; the germ grows into a plant; more seeds come about; more seeds die to become plants. Karma bears fruits; they are eaten by the Karmic man; some seeds wait to germinate, and eventually bear fruits. More actions generate more seeds. This is known as பிரவாக அநாதி (PiravAka anAthi = The principle of uninterrupted succession giving a sense of unity.  Piravakam = flood. Karma has this kind of continuity. The seeds of past Karma 'die' and bear fruits, which when eaten the past Karma perishes. New deeds of love and hate make new seeds and the cycle goes on.

புலர்காலை மாயை மேவிப்பொருந்தும்  = These two deeds (இருவினை = பாபம்-புண்ணியம்) after death clings to MAyA and bear fruits in the next birth.

 

Karman = act, action, performance. Karma = that which results from action, bondage of action. Karam = hand. Most of the actions are done by hand; therefore what is done is Karman and the result is Karma.  Kara = a doer, doing. Karana = doing.

 

There are three Karmas (Sanchita, Kriyamana [Agami] and Prarabdha); there are three fruits (desirable good fruits, undesirable bad fruits and mixed fruits).

 

Sanchita has three kinds of seeds: Sattvic Shukla white seeds, Tamasic Krishna black seeds and Shukla-Krishna mixed seeds; these seeds give their respective fruits.

 

Prarabdha karma: set in motion; Sprouting; germinates and yields fruits according to the seeds.

Arabdha Karma: begun, started, initiated, sprouting.

An-arabdha Karma: not begun, not sprouting, seed.

Sanchita: Accumulated; stored dormant seeds = Silos or storehouse.

Kriyamana Karma (Agami): coming; being made; actively made

 

Tamil Sacred texts have the following information on karma.

 

There are three basic karmas:  

1. Prarabdha Karma, Nukarvinai,  (நுகர்வினை-- ஏன்றவினை--eating karma at present) Actively sprouting seed karma). Prarabdha Karma is eating of the fruits of Karma in this birth. 

2. Agami Karma, Eruvinai  (எருவினை--ஏறுவனை--coming, approaching, impending, harvested seed Karma). As the fruits of Prarabdha Karma are eaten in this birth, the embodied soul engages in acts of love and hate thus making Agamia Karma.

3. Sanchita karma, Tolvinai (தொல்வினை or பழவினை -- ancient karma; Storehouse seed karma, the silos). Sanchita is the aggregate of all Karmas of previous births  

Prarabdha, Agami and Sachita Karmas are Sanskrit terms.

Thought, Words and Deeds make Karma, which clings to Buddhi. At the time the Karma translates into good fruits it is நல்வினை--Nalvinai  or  Punniyam (புண்ணியம்); When Karma translates into bad fruits, it is தீவினை--ThIvina or PApam (பாபம்). These cause happiness and misery respectively.

Nukar (நுகர்) +Vinai (வினை) = Eat, consume + Karma; Eru =  (எரு) Impending; Tol = (தொல்) distant in the past.

     1. Prarabdha Karma is Nukarvinai in Tamil, meaning that the person eats the fruits of his Karma now.  2. Agami Karma is Eruvinai meaning impending Karma.     3. Sanchita Karma is Tolvinai or Pazavinai in Tamil meaning it involves distant deeds of former births.  Once all Malas and Karma are destroyed, there is no rebirth. Tamil saints are of the opinion that Diksai (தீட்சை) expunges Prarabdha and Sanchita Karmas and Guru's eye of wisdom expunges Agami Karma. Diksa Titcai or Diksai is initiation of a disciple into the mysteries of Saiva religion; it consists of three stages: Samaya-diksai, Viceta-diksai, and Nirvana-diksai (initiatory rites, second or middle step in initiation, which gives the disciple special privilege of making Puja to Siva, and Third and last step, which helps the disciple free himself from the bonds of existence and attain emancipation--Tamil Lexicon). As fire destroys cotton and reduces it into ashes, Diksai reduces all Malas into ashes and obtains liberation. Mantras destroy prarabdha karma and guarantees no rebirth, as fire roasts seeds and renders them unproductive.

Verse 29. Karma's path are three: Jati, Lifespan and Experience; the three miseries: Theogenous, Endogenous and Exogenous.

கன்மநெறி திரிவிதம் நற் சாதி ஆயுப் போகக்
கடன் அது எனவரும் மூன்றும் உயிர் ஒன்றில் கலத்தல்
தொன்மையது ஊழ் அல்லது உணவு ஆகா தானும்
தொடங்கு அடைவில் அடையாதே தோன்றம் மாறித்
தன்மைதரு தெய்விகம் முற்பெளதிகம் ஆன்மிகமாம்
தகையில் உறும் அசேதனதாலும் சாரும்
நன்மையொடு தீமைதரு சேதனனுக்கு இவண் உண்

நாடில் அதன் ஊழ்வினையாய் நணுகும் தானே. 29

Kanma-Neri is threefold: Good heredity, lifespan, and experience (நற்சாதி, ஆயுள், போகம்). When it time to pay the debt, soul unites with the three entities. Only when the deeds undergo maturation, they bear fruits. When the soul experiences the fruits, it is called Karma (ஊழ்). The soul does not experience the fruits at the time deeds are performed. God arranges in such ways that the embodied souls eat the fruits based on the nature and severity of the deeds. When Karma haunts the soul, the experiences are threefold: Adhi Daivikam, Adhi Anmikam, and Adhi Pautikam (ஆதி தெய்விகம், ஆதி ஆன்மிகம், ஆதி பௌதிகம் = Theogenous, Endogenous, and Exogenous miseries ). Acts of  Non-intelligent entities and intelligent beings afflict the embodied soul. When we enquire into good and bad fruits, experienced by the embodied soul, it becomes obvious that the fruits are related to the deeds from past births.

 

நற்சாதி ஆயுள் போகம்  =   Good heredity, Lifespan and Experience.  நற்சாதி =  நல் + சாதி = good  + class, caste, tribe.

Some commentators say that the natal caste of the person should not be assumed by this word. It is hot high caste or low caste. சாதி, according to them means one with good heredity or the one inclined to goodness. Heredity, environment and ancestry are determined by Karma. Saivites of repute declare that a person inclined to goodness is a servitor of Siva irrespective of caste (whether he or she is born in high or low caste). There are high-caste and low-caste servitors on one hand and high-caste and low-caste scoundrels on the other hand. Thus சாதி (Jati)  refers not to the natal caste of the person but to his servitor (அடியார்) status.

ஆயுள் Lifespan. In Hindu view, lifespan is determined at birth (more accurately at conception).

போகம்  Experience of the fruits of past Karma.

 

There are three miseries in the world

 

Adhidaivika (Theogenous Misery) karmic fruit originates from God and determines the heredity, ancestry, and environment of the eater of the fruit. The birth may be of high, average or low status with its fruits; the souls after departure may enter heaven or hell for pleasure or pain. Vedas pronounce the word of God. The violator goes to hell and suffers; the complier goes to heaven and enjoys bliss. The Lord dispenses fruits according the merit or demerit of one's karma; that is the will of God. Suffering in hell abolishes sins. Another source tells that Theogenous misery happens at conception and embryonic stage, at birth, and at death.

Adhiatmika Karma (Endogenous Misery) brings fruits from one's own body by way of disease, suffering, misery, old age and others. Another source tells that the miseries come from self, other people, animals....

Theogenous and Endogenous Miseries are both mental and physical.

Mental Miseries are அழுக்காறு, அவா, வெகுளி, கவலை (Envy, Desire, Anger, and Anxiety).

Physical Miseries are பிணி, காயம் (Disease, Injury).

Adhibhautica Karma (Exogenous Misery) means that the miseries proceed from the Great Elements: Rain, Wind, Earthquake, and Volcano.

 

Verse 30.

மேலைக்கு வருவினை ஏது என்னில் அங்கண்
விருப்புவெறுப்பு எனஅறி  அவ்விளைவும் எல்லாம்
மூலத்த வினைப்பயில்வாம்  என்னில் நாம்மேல்
முற்றி  அதன் பயன் உனக்கு முளைக்கும்  என்பர்
ஞாலத்து வினைகள் இருதிறன் ஆகும் புந்தி
நண்ணாத வினைநணுகும் வினைஎன  ஒன்று இரண்டாம்
ஏலத்தான் இதம்  அகிதமாம் இதனால் வழுவாது
எய்தியிடும் புண்ணிய பாவங்கள் என்றே. 30

The cause of future Karma is performance of deeds with like and dislike. The deeds are on account of Ahamkaram giving rise to Agamia Karma which is the cause of the next birth. The question is whether like and dislike are the fruits of previous Karma. The answer. The feeling of I and Mine gives the notion, 'I did the deed and the other did the deed to me' and remains as the germinal cause of next birth. There are two kinds of deeds: one of goodness and one of evil (இதம்  and அகிதம்). These deeds are also of two types: புத்திபூர்வம் and அபுத்திபூர்வம். They create Punniyam and PAvam ( புண்ணியம்  and பாவம் = Merit and sin) The fruits of these deeds occur without fail.

இதம் = That which is salutary, comfortable, acceptable, agreeable. அகிதம் = That which is unfit, unsuitable; Evil, harm

 

புத்திபூர்வம் = In full consciousness; conscientiously (Acts done in full consciousness) .அபுத்திபூர்வம் =  That which is unintentional (Acts done unintentionally).

Likes and dislikes during acts are of conscious and unintentional nature. That happiness and misery are the fruits of Karma is the right notion, while the nature of the world is to attribute acts to oneself or others. This attitude engenders Karma.

Intentional and unintentional acts are either salutary or harmful; the resulting fruits are served by God to the doer --the embodied soul-- to eat or experience.

 

Verse 31. No Exchanges, No refunds.

Karmic fruits have to be eaten and cannot be cancelled or exchanged one for another.

உற்றதொழில் நினைவுஉரையின் இருவினையும் உளவாம்
ஒன்று ஒன்றால் அழியாது ஊண் ஒழியாது உன்னில்
மற்ற அவற்றில் ஒருவினைக்கு ஓர் வினையால்வீடு
வைதிக சைவம் பகரும் மரபில் ஆற்றப்
பற்றியது கழியும் இது வினையால் ஏற்கும்
பான்மையுமாம் பண்ணாது பலிக்கும் முன்னம்
சொற்றரு நூலவழியில் வரில் மிகுதி சோரும்
சோராது அங்குஅது மேலைத் தொடர்ச்சி ஆமே. 31

The Karma of two deeds come about by mind, language and body in the form of thought, word and deed. One deed does not cancel out the other deed. (Good deed does not cancel out the bad deed.) Only eating the fruits of Karma will terminate the continuance of Karma. Someone says Vaidika Tradition believes in expiation of sin. It is tantamount to buying good fruits to destroy பாபம் (Demerit), if one uses Merit (புண்ணியம்) to destroy Demerit (பாபம்). Agamas declare that Expiation will mitigate or remove the severity or fierceness of sin but will not eliminate the Karma's fruits altogether. The residual fruits of Karmic deeds will haunt the soul in the next birth.

There appears to be more than one interpretation of this verse. Vaidika Saiva Treatises say that one can perform expiatory rites by himself or pay someone to do them for him. When a person (sinner) performs appropriate PirAyascittam--பிராயச்சித்தம்--according to canonical injunctions, there is mitigation of torment but the fault and culpability remain in books (the subtle soul for future resolution). பிராயச்சித்தம் pirāyaccittampra- ya-s-citta. Expiatory ceremony for past sins.

Chidambaranatha Muni Says the following. One good deed can cancel out another bad deed according to Agamas. With appropriate expiatory rites, absolution can be obtained.  It is like buying off sinful act with a meritorious act. Though one may not engage in remedial acts or propitiatory rites for averting evil fruits, unintentional acts of sin (அபுத்திபூர்வம்) are destined for absolution.

One commentator says that traditional expiatory rites expunge sin and obtain liberation.

Another commentator says, after Chariyai, Kiriyai and Yogam (சரியை, கிரியை  and யோகம்) are performed according to prescribed injunctions, the First and Foremost God Siva takes on the guise of a Spiritual Teacher (ஆசிரியன்) and confers Grace to the aspirant.

Another commentator says, a solemn vow of remedial measures for expiation of sin is taken by the aspirant and these remedial measures (பரிகாரம்) are designed to expunge the sins. The aspirant's wish is to reciprocally cancel out ( even by an infinitesimal amount) his monumental sins by the sesame-size good merits. He would be happy for it. This is not the case in the world of Karma and its fruits. The soul will experience the fruits of merits (புண்ணியப் பயன்) and the fruits of sin (பாவப் பயன்). That is a certainty.

These disparate interpretations are made by different commentators. That a good fruit (நல்வினைப் பயன்) will not cancel out a bad fruit (தீவினைப் பயன்) is the main thrust of two-deed equable and independent resolution (இருவினையொப்பு). A person has  7 meritorious deeds and 6 demeritorious deeds. That does not mean Seven minus Six should resolve the problem  to the positive side. The seven good fruits should be enjoyed along with six bad fruits, meaning that each one comes to zero independently to call it complete resolution of both acts. Nil Karma is the best Karma. .

Prelude to the descent of divine liberating wisdom into the soul is purification of the soul by removal of impurities (malaparipakam). The next step in the process is Iruvinaioppu (இருவினையொப்பு) which means two polar activities (merit and sin) come to zero sum status individually. The third step is Sattinipatham, descent of Sakti (Satti) or divine Grace into the purified soul cleansed of impurities and dualities of merit and sin.

The thrust of Saiva Siddhanta is that a good act will not cancel out a bad act. And yet Siva can expunge all Karma in one sweep and confer Grace to the ones who grasp and remain at His feet.

 

 

ஐம்மலம்

Verse 32.

மோகம்மிக உயிர்கள்தோறும் உடனாய் நிற்கம்
மூலஆணவம் ஒன்று முயங்கி நின்று
பாகம்மிக  உதவுதிரோ தாயி ஒன்று
பகர்மாயை ஒன்றுபடர் கன்மம் ஒன்று
தேகம்உறு கரணமொடு புவன போகச்
செயல் ஆரும் மாமாயைச் திரட்சி ஒன்று என்று
ஆகமலம் ஐந்து என்பர் ஐந்தும்  மாறாது
அருள் என்பது அரிது என்பர் அறிந்து ளோரே. 32

Anava Malam1 is the one that veils knowledge from and stands inseparably by the souls from beginningless time. TirodhAyi2 stands as one in union with the soul and helps maturation of the soul. Kanmam3 pervading the soul is one; MAya4 is one whose products are body, sense organs and world, collectively known as MAyEyam5. In all, there are five impurities, so they say.  The learned say that God awards Grace without the impurities undergoing destruction.

This verse refers to the five impurities (மலம்) in some detail. The poet lists the 1st Malam as Anava Malam, the cause of Great evil that veils knowledge and stands with the soul from beginningless time. The 2nd Malam is Tirodhana Malam which stands with the soul, causes confusion to the intelligence of the soul, and showers Grace on the soul after மலபரிபாகம் (MalaparipAkam = equable  resolution of two deeds of Karma to a null state). The 3rd Malam is Kanma Malam that pervades all different souls as good deed and evil deed (நல்வினை and தீவினை); Merit and sin (புண்ணியம் and பாபம்); and happiness and misery (இன்பம் and துன்பம்). The 4th Malam on his list is MAya Malam, which is by itself a reality shining like a light until dawn (of knowledge) and enlightening the soul. The 5th Malam is MAyEyam constituted by the body, sense organs and the world.

MAyA's products subside in MAyA itself; MAyA and its products have different functions in the affliction of the soul. Thus they are referred to by the author separately.

Tirodhana Sakti is an obscurant power holding the soul in bond, and  preventing knowledge from shining on the soul, until the soul undergoes maturation.

It is customary to list only three Malams: Anavam, Kanmam and MAyai. Tradition dictates that Tirodhanam and MAyEyam join with the first three to become a pentad.

In Tiruvasakam under the heading நீத்தல் விண்ணப்பத்தில் 29th verse refers to the five Malams in a poetic flair. O Father, The Inimitable,  I toss around in the whirlpool of five Malams as the churning pin whirls the yogurt.  (அப்பா, ஒப்பிலாதவனே மலங்கள் ஐந்தால் சுழல்வன் தயிரில் பொரு மத்து எனவே.)

அவத்தை இயல்பு =Nature of States.
1.கேவலாவத்தை = Kevala State

Verse 33. Soul is coeternal, coeval and coextensive with Anavam; that is Kevala state.

ஓங்கிவரும் பலவுயிர்கள் மூன்று அவத்தை பற்றி
உற்றிடும் கேவலம் சகலம் சுத்தம்என உணர்க
ஈங்குவரும் கலாதியொடு குறி உருவம் ஒன்றும்
இன்றிமலம் அன்றிஒன்று இல்லை எனும் இயல்பாம்
ஆங்கு அறிவை அறிவு அரியன் அறிகருவி அணையா
ஆதலினால் இருள்மருவு மலர்விழிபோல் அதுவாய்
நீங்கும்வகை இன்றி நித்த வியாபகமாய் அங்கண்

நிற்பது கேவலம் என்று நிகழ்த்தும் நூலே.33

The innumerable ascending souls remained in three states, which are Kevalam, Sakalam and Suddham (கேவலம், சகலம், சுத்தம்). Life on earth is Sakala Avattai. Kevala Avattai or state is that by which the soul exists in a desolate state without any connection to கலை, குறி, and உருவம்--Kalai, subtle body and form (உருவம் = corporeal body) but has Anava Malam as its companion. Though the soul is an intelligent entity, it does not know itself, and does not possess the sense organs to apprehend other objects. Though a man has wide-open eyes in pitch-darkness, darkness is the prevailing state. Such is the darkness of Anava Malam. Soul remains eternally in the grip of Anava Malam without the possibility of escape,  does not  have either birth or death in the incorporeal form and stays veiled completely by Anava Malam. The sacred texts call this Kevala Avattai.  Avattai = Avastha in Sanskrit = அவஸ்தை = அவத்தை = State. 

 

Kevalam, Sakalam and Suddham (கேவலம், சகலம், சுத்தம்) are also called IruL Nilai, MaruL Nilai, and AruL Nilai (இருள் நிலை, மருள் நிலை  and அருள் நிலை (Darkness, Confusion and Grace states). These three states are called Causal states. Kevala State is also called புலம்பு (pulampu = solitariness, loneliness).

The soul in Kevala state is incorporeal and does not even know that it is bound by Anava Malam. Soul exists in a nondual state with Anavam.

Though the eye is not imperfect, it cannot see in darkness. Since the soul is wrapped in a shroud of darkness. it has no ability to know itself.  The state of the soul, not endowed with body, sense organs and such things, is Kevala state. Without such organs of perception, the soul does not perceive or know external objects. The soul that is bound with Anavam does not have the ability to untie itself from the fetters of Anavam. Soul is coeternal, coeval and coextensive with Anavam; that is Kevala state.

 

Verse 34. Challenge posed by AikavAdhis: There is no such thing as Anava Malam. There are only MAyai and Kanmam.

ஐக்கியவாத மதமும் மறுப்பும் AikavAdha Saivism and refutation

இன்மைமலம் மாயைகன்மம் என்று இரண்டே இறைதான்
இலங்குபல உயிர்களும்முன் புரிந்த இருவினையின்
தன்மைகளால் எவர்களுக்குந் தனுகரணம் புவனம்
தந்திடும் இங்கு அதனாலே இருபயனும் சார்ந்து
கன்மம் எலாம் நேராக நேர் ஆதல் மருவக்
கடவுள் அருளால் எவையும் கழித்திடுவன் அதனால்
பின்மலம் ஆனவை அணுகா பெருகு ஒளிமுன்புஉளதே
பெற்றிடும் என் இத்திறம் என் பேசும் ஆறே.34

AikavAdhis argue that dark Malam or Anava Malam is not the one (not existent). There are MAyai and Kanma Malams. Appropriate to the good and bad Karma, God confers on the soul the body, the sense organs and the world. With these entities, the soul enjoys or suffers the good or evil of the past Karma. Then equable resolution of the two-deed Karma (இருவினையொப்பு)  takes place. By this, God expunges all Karma. After this, MAyai and Kanma Malam will not seize the soul. In this state, the soul shines in its great natural effulgent self, so say some. Is their statement appropriate.

The AikavAdhis (ஐக்கியவாதிகள்) argue that there is no such thing as Anava Malam and that there are only two Malams: MAyai and Kanma Malams, which contribute to the happiness and misery of of the embodied soul. Saiva Siddhanta asserts that all three Malams afflict the soul, giving in their wake happiness and miseries.

 

ஐக்கவாதசைவம்.

A šaiva sect which denies the Anavamala to the souls and declares that the souls attain their original pure state when they have gone through the round of births and got themselves rid of all karma, one of aka-p-pura-c-camayam.

 

Verse 35. Which came first: Palm Tree or Seed?

மலத்தின் உண்மை The truth about Malas.

மாயைமுதல்  எனவினையின் பான்மைமுதல் எனவே
மன்னுபனை விதைமரபின் மயங்கும்மலம் சுத்தற்கு
ஏயும்நெறி என்கொல் அதன் இயல்பு ஆயின் முத்தி
என்பத என் மற்றுஇவ நிற்க இரும்கலாதி உணர்வாய்
மேய பினர்த் தன்உருவம் விளங்காமை விளக்கும்
மிகும்உலகம் தனில் என்னில் இவைவிடுங்கால் உணர்வுள்
தோயும்நெறி இலதாதல் அறியாமைஎன நீ
சொல்லியது மலம் என்பர் துணிந்துளோரே.35

AikavAdha Saivites put forth this argument. When you say that MAyai Malam and Kanma Malam afflicted the erstwhile pure soul. The question is whether the first affliction is MAyai or Kanmam. Answer. It is like asking which came first: the Palm tree or Palm seed. This question runs for an answer without any direction (Circular Cause and Effect) or demarcation and causes confusion and delusion. Why did these two Malams afflict the pure soul? They did not afflict the soul in the middle. If you assert that they are the intrinsic natural state of the soul, nature is imperishable and thus the soul would not obtain release. Moreover, when Kalai or learning faculty comes to the soul, it can perceive external objects; that being so, why would not soul know itself? You say that MAyA inflicted non-perception to the soul. When Kalai leaves the soul, would not the soul be able to know itself? You advance the counterargument that ignorance does pose impediment to the soul. The said ignorance is Anava Malam, so say the learned.

Circular Cause and Effect: Assuming that there are only two Malams (MAyai and Kanmam), body and sense organs come into existence in accordance with Karma; that being so, Karma is the antecedent entity. To accumulate Karma, the soul needs the body, which is the product of MAyai; the MAyai is the antecedent entity. This being so, we enter into what is called Circular Cause and Effect.

Analogy. What came first: The Malams or Karma? What came first: Palm Tree or its Seed? There is no answer to this question. If the seed antecedes the Palm tree, where did the seed come from? If Palm tree antecedes the seed, where did the Palm Tree come from?

 

If the answer is that MAya and Kanma did not afflict the soul in the middle but are the nature of Karma, then one should know that Nature does not perish. If nature perishes, the objects themselves with that nature perish. The liberation of the soul from the release of the fetters will not take place; there is no need for a talk on  antecedence.

 

ஐக்கவாதசைவம்.

A šaiva sect which denies the Anavamala to the souls and declares that the souls attain their original pure state when they have gone through the round of births and got themselves rid of all karma, one of aka-p-pura-c-camayam.

 

Question and answer session with AikavAdhis. The author advances his explanation to refute the claim that the soul is afflicted only with MAya Malam and Kanma Malam, completely ignoring the roll of Anava Malam.  Karma is antecedent  to the body and sense organs. To resolve Karma, soul needs the body, which is the product of MAyai, which then is antecedent element. This is the dilemma of which came first the seed or the Palm tree (ThAla-Bija NiyAyam -தாலபீஜ நியாயம் in Sanskrit. . This is also called அறாவழக்கு (Endless Dispute).

தாலபீஜ நியாயம் = Palm-Seed argument example; Chicken or Egg argument. Which came first?

 

Verse 36. The truth about Anavam is discovered only after descent of Grace into the soul.

அன்னியம் ஆனவை உணர்த்தி அனன்னியமாய் நிறைந்த
அறிவுஅறியாமையினாலும் அருள்நிலவும் காலம்
தன்னில் அவனே யாவுமாய் நின்றதொன்மை
தாம் உணர்த லாலும் உயிர் தான்என ஒன்று இலதாய்
மன்னியிடும் மலம்மாயை கன்மங்கள் மாறி
வந்திடுமஇங்கு இதுவழுவாது ஆதலினால் மனத்தால்
உன்னரிய திருவருளை ஒழியமலம் உளது என்று
உணர்வு அரிதால் அதன்உண்மை தெரிவுஅரிதாம் உனக்கே.36

Anava Malam prevents realization of plenitudinous Grace in the soul and yet makes the impermanent external world different from the self known to the soul. By Grace of God, when the soul gains spiritual wisdom by maturation and shedding of the impurities, the soul realizes the Grace of God which remains non-different from the soul and exists as the Soul of the soul from beginningless time.  Until the manifest appearance of Grace in the soul, the resident Anava Malam prevents the soul from knowing its own existence. At the time of creation and destruction, the products of MAyA and Kanma respectively remain attached to and detached from the soul. And yet Anava Malam clings to the soul without displacement. Unless one receives and knows the essence of Grace which a mind cannot imagine, one cannot know that there is such a thing as Anava Malam. Unless Grace makes one to perceive and realize, it is hard to know the truth about Anavam.

Siva remains as the Soul of the soul in Kevala and Sakala states. When the soul attains Suddha state, it is possible to know and realize that God remained non-different from the soul.

In incorporeal Kevala state, the soul does know its own existence because Anavam veils soul's knowledge of the self. Anavam is the only Malam afflicting the soul in Kevala state. In Sakala state, all three Malams--Anavam, Kanmam and MAyai- afflict the soul. In the Suddha state, the three Malams leave the soul by the Grace of Siva; the soul now only realizes the fact that the soul was afflicted with Malams previously and that Grace of God obtained release of the soul from the Malams.

In Sakala state, the products of MAyai and Kanma seize the soul; when the body dies and the soul reverts back to Kevala state, MAyai and Kanma leave the soul but Anavam is a refractory resident in the soul; Anavam stays with the soul, until the time of liberation (வீடு பேறு அடையும் காலம் வரை).

 

Verse 37. Anavam keeps the soul in darkness, while MAyA sheds some light on the soul.

2. சகலாவத்தை = Sakala State
மலமும் மாயையும் முரனுவன = Malams and MAyA are contrary to each other.
நால்வகை வாக்குகள்

புகலும்மலம் ஒழித்தற்குக் கலாதிமுதல் மாயை
பொருந்தியிடும் அரன் அருளால் போதம் தீபம்
சகலம் எலாம் உடன் ஆய் வாறு போலத்
தரும் அருளை மலம் உயிர்கள் சாராமல் மறைக்கும்
இகல் இவரும் இவையஉணரில் இருள்வெளியாம் தன்மை
எய்தும் இகை தன்செய்தி இலங்கும் விந்து
பகர்வு அரிய உணர்வாகி ஒளியாய் உள்ளப்
பான்மையினால் ஒரு நாதம் படரும் தானே.37

By the Grace of God to remove Anava Malam, the products of Mayai such as Kalai abide in soul. Bowl, wick, oil, and flame are the constituents of a lamp and appear as one entity. Likewise Kalai and others abide in the soul. Under these conditions too, Anavam veils knowledge from the soul. Anavam is like darkness; MAyA Malam is like the light; thus, they are opposed to each other. In this state, from Bindu (விந்து) inenarrable realization and pervading Nadam (நாதம்) as Light, proportionate to Karma rise.

Siva removes Anavam in a gradual fashion. Siva gives products of MAyai to the soul for the express purpose of getting rid of Anavam and enlightening the soul. Anavam is like Darkness of darkness; MAyai is like Light. This light of MAyA is unlike the effulgent beams of sunlight but is like the hand-held lamp which just barely removes the darkness. Lamp is just not the flame alone but refers to the reservoir, the wick, the oil and the flame. Likewise the products of MAyai includes all the products of  Impure MAyai, Pure MAyai, and Pure-Impure Mayai.

MAyai like the flame enlightens the soul, while Anavam being darkness veils knowledge and prevents the soul from attaining the Grace of Siva. Once one knows the contrary nature,  one realizes the nature of these entities.

To support the theme in this verse, Sivagnana Siddhiar Verse 174 tells the following.

Anava Malam (and not Maya) veils Desire, Knowledge and Action. Since Anava Malam is intrinsic to the soul, Anavam becomes the quality of the soul. Ancient Maya generates Tattvas like KalA to destroy desire-born ignorance. So the two are different in that Maya is the Light and Anavam is Darkness.

Maya generates Tattvas like KalA to dissipate the darkness cast by the veiling power of Anava Malam and thus enlighten the soul. Thus Maya is Light and Anavam is Darkness.

Kalai and such Tattvas are awarded to the soul by Siva's Grace; Bindu Sakti arises from Nadam to inculcate Sound in the soul. This Vac is called Subtle Vak (சூக்கும வாக்கு),  or Subtle Sound. Sound here means the subtle sound that does not stir (Para Vac), visual sound , Middle sound and articulate speech, besides letters, alphabets, syllables, words, phrases, sentences, prose, poetry and other kinds of sound communications.

Verse 38. Pasyanti, Madhyam and VaikAri speech.

வந்து அடைந்து பின்னமாய் வன்னங்கள் தோற்றம்
வரும் அடைவு படஒடுக்கி மயில் அண்ட சலம்நேர்
சிந்தைதனில் உணர்வாகும் பைசந்தி உயிரில்
சேர்ந்துவரும் அவைமருவும் உருஎவையும் தெரித்து
முந்தியிடும் செவியில் உறா உன்உணர்வாய் ஓசை
முழங்கியிடும் மத்திமைதான் வைகரியில் உதானன்
பந்தம்உறும் உயிர் அணைந்து வந்தமொழி செவியின்
பால் அணைய நினைந்த பொருள் பகரும்தானே.38

NAdam is Suksma Vac1 abiding in the navel with letters remaining in un-intonated form. The egg of the peacock  reveals many colors in bright light but they disappear on breaking the egg; likewise, in soul's intellect (சிந்தை), Pasyanti Vac2 remains as thought, and Madhyama Vac3 as the sound of the letters associated with the vital air, yet inaudible to the ear. The fourth Vaikari Vac4 joins the UdAna Air, acquires articulate sound and becomes a meaningful sound and words to the ears.

Click this link for more information on Vac. Sabda or Sound

Suksma Vac is subtle sound; Pasyanti is thought sound; Madhyama is middle sound; and Vaikari is ear sound.  Other sources say that Madhyama sound is visual sound, which is visualized as colored letters, syllables etc by the Yogis, who can also hear these sound  by their subtle ears in the form bells, drums etc.  Its external manifestation is the body language of people and animals. When a dog bares its fangs, it is showing hostility and impending aggression; that is Madhyama Vac or Visual sound.

 

வாக்குகளால் சவிகற்ப உணர்வு உண்டாதலும் தத்துவங்களின் தொழிலும்

Verse 39. The Suddha Tattvas; Desire, ill and Knowledge; and the sounds (Vacs)

இத்தகைமை இறை அருளால் உயிர் அறியும் அறிவுக்கு
ஈடாக வாடாதே ஈர் இரண்டில் உரைத்த
வித்தைமுதல் ஐவரால் விளங்கும் ஞானம்
மேவியிடும் என  உரைப்பர் அசுத்த மாயை
வைத்தகலை தான்மூல மலம் சிறிதே நீக்கி
மருவும்வகை தெரிவிக்கும் வாயில்களின் பயனைப்
புத்திதர வித்தைஇடை நின்று அறிவை உயிர்க்குப்
பொருந்தியிடும் வகைபுணரும் புனிதசத்தபுணர்ந்தே.39

In this manner, by the Grace of God, the five Suddha Siva Tattvas, and the four established vacs, the knowledge of the intellect of the soul increases, so the learned say. The knowledge-veiling Anava Malam of the soul is revealed slightly by the Kalai and Sakti Tattvas. The soul through  the sense organs gains knowledge of the objects. With the help of Suddha Vidya Tattva, Vidya Tattva proceeding from Asuddha Tattva mediates between the soul and the objects and makes the soul gain knowledge of the objects. All these are under the aegis of Siva Tattva.

 

The five Suddha Siva Tattvas = Siva, Sakti, Sadasiva, Isvara and Suddha Vidya Tattvas.

The four Vacs or sounds: Subtle sound, Pasyanti sound, Madhyama sound and VaikAri sound.

Siva Tattva activizes all Suddha Tattvas, which activize the KalA Tattva (கலை) by which the soul gains knowledge.

Kriya Sakti (கிரியாசத்தி) activizes the Sakti Tattva, which awakens the Tattvas: KAlam, Niyati, and KalA (Time, Order and Learning). KalA (கலை) removes a little of the Anava Malam, so that the soul obtains some knowledge. This is like the removal of the white powder on the surface of the leaves. Jnana Sakti (ஞானசத்தி) activizes the Suddha Vidya Tattva, which activizes Vidya Tattva and confers knowledge to the soul.

Subtle sound abides in Siva Tattva; Pasyanti sound abides in Sakti Tattva; Middle sound abides in Sadasiva Tattva; Vaikari sound, the articulated sound abides in Suddha Vidya Tattva. The three Saktis, Desire, Knowledge and Action (Iccha, Jnana and Kriya Saktis) drive the respective presiding deities and thereby drive the Tattvas.

All the presiding deities and the Tattvas are driven by Siva Tattva.

 

Verse 40. Desire, Time and Order Tattvas explained.

பேசரிய அராகம்தன் கன்மத்துக்கு ஈடாய்ப்
பெற்றதனில் ஆசைதனைப் பெருகுவிக்கும் நியதி
தேசம்மிகும் அரசர்தரும் ஆணை செய்தி
செய்தவரைத் துய்ப்பிக்ககும் செய்கை போல
நேசம்உறும் தங்கன்மம் நிச்சயித்து நிறுத்தும்
நிகழ்காலம் கழிகாலம் எதிர்காலம் என்றே
ஓசைதரவரும் காலம் எல்லைபலம் புதுமை
உறுவிக்கும் இறைசக்தி உடனாய் நின்றே.40

Unutterable rare ArAga (அராகம் = RAga = Desire) Tattva is obtained proportional to Karma, desire keeps increasing.

As the king gives good subjects rewards and evil persons punishment. In like manner Niyati Tattva dispenses rewards and punishment according to the merits and demerits of the soul and limits the fruits to the deserving and prevents others eating the undeserved fruits. KAlam consisting of past, present and future dispensations எல்லை, பலம், புதுமை, meaning that KAlam or Time puts a time limitation for consuming the past fruits, the present time awards Karmic fruits at appropriate time, and the future time gives the unknown and yet deserved new fruits of Karma to the embodied soul. Siva's Sakti stands by the soul in the distribution and consumption of Karmic fruits.


7. Kaala: காலம் =Time: determines the duration of soul's experiences.
8. Niyati: நியதி = destiny which makes soul's experience correspond to the fruits of its own karma.
9. Kalaa: கலா = variable aptitude of the soul to spiritual knowledge.
10. Vidya: வித்தை = Soul's ability to discriminate.
11. Raaga: அராகம் = Soul's desire to experience the world.
12.Purusa: புருடன் = Sakalar class soul having all three malas, Maya, Anava, and Kanma .  mala = impurity

 

எல்லை, பலம், புதுமை = Limit, Fruit and Novelty;  fixed time limitation for past karmic fruits, Karmic fruits to be eaten now at the present time, New Karmic fruits for the future.

ArAgam is desire, which grows for ever without any limitation. The relinquisher knowing the nature of objects as invitation for acquisition, engages in controlling desire. Desire (ArAga Tattva) thus induces and augments desire causing accumulation of more Malams and Karma.

As one holds and owns the objects that he has, soul's ArAgam augments the desire to acquire what one does not have.

Niyati Tattva is akin to the chickens have come home to roost; what goes around, comes around; one good turn deserves another; tit for tat; and what you sow is what you reap. Whatever good or bad karma one does , it comes back to him as fruits in equal and just amount. It like the king giving proportional rewards for good deeds and fitting punishment for bad deeds.

Time is threefold: past, present and future. All three have demarcations from one to the next. Past makes it mandatory that he fruits of Karma of the past were eaten in the past; there is no going back. Present makes sure that the fruits of Karma of the present comes to the soul at the proper time for consumption. Future, concealed from the soul, provides for consumption of new fruits. Unmai Villakkam (உண்மை விளக்கம்) verse 20 says the following: எல்லை பலம் புதுமை எப்போதும் நிச்சயித்தல் in endorsing the above precept.

 

Verse 41. The five jackets that restrain the soul.

ஐவகையால் உறுபயன்கள் நுகரவரும் காலம்
அதுபுருட தத்துவம் என்று அறைந்திடுவர் அறிந்தோர்
மெய்வகைய கலாசுத்ததனில் இதற்கும் சுத்தி
மேவியிடும் வகைதானும் விரும்பிய நூல் விளம்பும்
செய்வகையின் தொடர்ச்சி இங்குத் தோற்றுவிக்கும் குணத்தின்
சேர்வுபுரி பிரகிருதி திரிகுணமாம் அவைதாம்
இவ்வகையில் சாத்துவித ராசத தாமதமாய்
இயம்புவர்கள் ஒன்று இரண்டு குணம் ஏற்க உடைத்தே.41

The learned say Puruta Tattvam (Purusha Tattva) is the soul that consumes the fruits proceeding from the afore-mentioned five Tattvas (KalA, Vidya, RAga, Niyati and KAla. By Saiva Agamas and KalA Suddhi, Purusha Tattva attains purity. Prakriti is the First Cause, and expands into three Gunas. The First Cause is also called Aviyaktam (Unmanifest). Guna Tattvas, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, transform into good and evil fruits causing happiness and misery. Each one of the Gunas take two more Gunas and in all there are nine Gunas.

Notes from Serpent Power by Woodroffe: Prakrti consists of the Gunas or modes of this natural principle which are called Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. The general action of Sakti is to veil or contract consciousness. Prakrti, in fact, is a Finitizing principle. It finitizes and makes form in the infinite formless Consciousness.  So do all the Gunas, But one does it less and another more. The first is Sattva-Guna the function of which, relative to the other Gunas, is to reveal consciousness. The greater the presence or power of Sattva-Guna, the greater the approach to the condition of Pure Consciousness. Similarly, the function of Tamas Guna is to suppress or veil consciousness. The function of Rajas Guna is to make active--that is, it works on Tamas to suppress Sattva, or on Sattva to suppress Tamas. The Devi, as in the form of Prakrti, is called Triguātmikā (who is composed of the three Gunas). All nature which issues from Her, the Great Cause (Mahā-kāraa-svarūpā), is also composed of the same Gunas in different states of relation.

These are the three elements of the Life Stress on the surface of pure Consciousness-namely, presentation (Sattva), movement (Rajas), and veiling  (Tamas), which are the three elements of creative evolution.

The object and the effect of evolution of the spirit, as it is of all Sadhana, is to develop Sattva-Guna. The lower the descent is made in the scale of nature the more Tamas Gua prevails, as in so-called "brute substance," which has been supposed to be altogether inert. The higher the ascent is made the more Sattva prevails. The truly Sāttvik man is a divine man, his temperament being called in the Tantras Divyabhāva. Through Sattva-gua passage is made to Sat, which is Cit or pure Consciousness, by the Siddha-yogi, who is identified with Pure Spirit.

Those in whom Rajas Gua is predominant, and who work that Guna to suppress Tamas, are Vira (hero), and the man in whom the Tamas Gua prevails is a Pasu (animal).

When stress is applied to Prakrti, forms come into being. When stress is removed or on relaxation in dissolution, forms disappear in formless Prakrti, which subsides back in or reenters Brahman Consciousness. Change is VikAra; the resultant changed object is Vikrti as the milk becomes curd. Vikrti is a reflection of Prakrti or modified Prakrti. Mind, Senses and Matter are the products of Prakrti, the Avidya Sakti. Prakrti Sakti produces: Causal Body, Subtle Body, and Gross Body, wherein Atma is contained. The Lord controls all beings from within. The body of the Lord is pure Sattva Guna (Suddha-sattva-guna-pradhāna). End Woodroffe.

 

Gunas, modes, attributes, or qualities do not manifest as long as they are in equilibrium, which is compared to the fragrance in the bud, meaning that the fragrance remains unrevealed.

கலை, வித்தை, ஆராகம், நியதி, காலம் (KalA, Vidya, RAga, Niyati, and KAlam = Learning, Knowledge, Desire, Order, and Time) are the five Kankucas (பஞ்ச கஞ்சுகம்) or the Five Jackets. In association with the five jackets, and becoming eligible to consume the fruits of Karma, the soul acquires the name of Purusha. There are five afflictions (பஞ்சகிலேசம்): (அவிச்சை, ஆங்காரம், அவா, ஆசை, கோபம் = Spiritual ignorance, Ego, Covetousness, Desire, Anger. Some others list the following: Distress, Pain, Anguish, Sorrow, and Grief.

KalA Suddhi (கலாசுத்தி) Kala Diksa is based on the Tattvas involved in Pravrtti and Nivrtti, evolution and involution of the soul. The Guru divides the body of the aspirant.  into five parts as described here.  Nivrtti Kala is between the feet and the knees, Pratistha Kala from the knees to navel, Vidya Kala from the navel to the neck, Santi Kala from the neck to the forehead, and Santyatita from the forehead to the top of the head. This progress from the feet to the head depicts the withdrawal or involution of the soul to a higher consciousness; the Sadhaka is born at the end of the journey amongst Yogins and Viras; all pasas (bonds) are destroyed.

Kalai is the energy of Siva that removes the bondage, takes the soul along the path to liberation, confers spiritual knowledge, removes all agitation and doubts and confers peace. This linear process, Siva applies, to the fully ripened souls, meaning that the souls have undergone Iruvinaioppu, Malaprapakam and Saktinipatam. The eventual step is Oddukam, involution into Siva. Primer in Saiva Siddhanta

1. Nivirrti Kala:  Sphere of action for the Energy of Siva which emancipates the soul from bondage. When the soul reaches the sphere of Bindu, Nivirrti Kala erases all doubts of the soul.

2. Pratista Kala: Sphere of action of the Energy of Siva, which lead the soul to the liberated state.

3. Vidya Kala: the Energy of Siva which gives the liberated souls knowledge through actual realization of seven kinds, viz., Kālam, Niyati, Kalai, vittai, arākam, purutan, māyai, one of panca-kalai.

Kālam, Time;  Niyati, destiny which makes soul's experience correspond to the fruits of its own karma; Order; Kalai, spiritual knowledge of the soul, needed for liberation; Vittai or Vidya, Soul's ability to discriminate; Arākam or Rāga, Soul's desire to experience the world (Ragam is desire, passion and love); Purusa or Purutam, Sakalar class soul; Māyai: the progenitor of Tattvas.

4. Sānti Kala: Sphere of action for the Energy of Siva which calms down all the turbulent elements in fully ripened souls, one of panca-kalai.

5. Sāntiyatita Kala: Sphere of action for the Energy of Siva which destroys all the turbulent elements in fully ripened souls, one of panca-kalai.

Kashmir Saivism and the KalAs have similar descriptions.

 

The human body and the Tattvas are interrelated. Just as Kundalini Devi ascends from the Muladhara Chakra to Sahasrara Chakra, the soul also rises along side up to Ajna Chakra from where the soul makes its own effort to go above. As the man ascends from the gross to the subtlest Siva Tattva, he has to give up all gross elements that make the body starting from the earth element and let the spirit alone rise to Siva Tattva. The soul rises through Nivritti KalA, Pratistha KalA, Vidya KalA, Santi KalA, and SAntAtItA KalA.

1) Nivritti KalA: The lowest Earth36 Element is between the feet and the knees. This is solid aspect of Bindu.

2) Pratistha KalA:  The second less gross element is Water (Jala Tattva) which is from the knees to navel. Water Element of the Bindu has 23 Tattvas: Prakrti Tattva13,  Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing--Ears17, touch--Skin18, vision and color--Eyes19 , tasting--Tongue or mouth20, smell--Nose21,  speech-Larynx22, grasp-Hands23, ambulation--Feet24, evacuation--Anus25, procreation-Genitals26,, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31,  ether32, air33, fire34, water35. 

 

 This is the liquid aspect of Bindu.

3) Vidya KalA: The third Fire element-Vidya KalA is  from the navel to the neck and has MāyA6,  Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11, Purusa12.  This is the fiery aspect of Bindu.

4) Santi KalA: The fourth SAnata-kalA-Air Tattva is from the neck to the forehead. It  has Sakti2,  Sadasiva3,  Isvara4,  Sadvidya5.  This is the calm aspect of Bindu.

5)  SAntAtItA KalA: The fifth, the last, the highest and the subtlest SAntAyAtItA KalA-Ether Tattva is Siva1. It is from the forehead to the top of the head. This transcends all the above aspects of Bindu, the evolution aspect of Bindu and the physical universe and is the subtlest of all.

 

Siva1, Sakti2, Sadasiva 3, Isvara4, Sadvidya5, MayA6, Kala7, Niyati8, Kala9, Vidya10, Raga11, Purusa12 Prakrti Tattva13,
Buddhi
14, Ahamkara15, Manas16,  hearing--Ears17, touch--Skin18, vision and color--Eyes19 , tasting--Tongue or mouth20, smell--Nose21,  speech-Larynx22, grasp-Hands23, ambulation--Feet24, evacuation--Anus25, procreation-Genitals26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30 , odor31,  ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36.

 

sivapp1.jpg

 

 


 

Verse 42. The Gunas, their polymorphism and behavior patterns.

அலகில்குணம் பிரகாசம் லகுதை வியாபிருதி
அடர்ச்சி மிகும் கௌரவம் அநியமம் இவை அடைவே
நிலவியிடும் மும்மூன்றும் உயிர் ஒன்றில் கலந்தே
நிற்கும் இவை நிறைபுலனின் பயன்  எவையும் கவரும்
குலவிவரு போகங்கள் இடமாய் மாறாக்
குறைவில் ஒளியாம் அலகில் புலனிடத்தின் ஒருமை
பலவகையும் உடையதாய்ப் பரன் அருளால் புந்தி
பஞ்சாசற் பாவகமும் பண்ணுவிக்கும் தானே 42
There is variability in the Gunas. Illumination and ease abide in Sattva Guna. Motion and unease abide in Rajas Guna. Arrogance and immorality abide in Tamas Guna. The soul is immersed in these nine qualities consisting of  six qualities as said earlier and Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Of these three Gunas, Tamas Guna induces the soul to be inclined to sense pleasures and indolence. Rajas Guna induces the soul to be inclined to motion and passion in the enjoyment of the senses. By Sattvika Guna, knowledge remains steadfast and undiminished in the soul. Buddhi Tattva by Grace of God becoming one with the senses manifests fifty modalities of behavior.

The three Gunas (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) remain dormant in the unmanifest state as if it is a dormant seed. Buddhi Tattva is  manifest polymorphism in Gunas, when the three Gunas manifests disequilibrium and proportional manifest variability in the three Gunas. Guna Tattva is nine-fold and Buddhi Tattva is (9 multiplied by 50,) 450 modalities. In reality there are many modalities or behavior patterns. 

Guna Tattva is in the inactive state or in perfect equilibrium in Mula Tattva or Prakirti. After the Gunas undergo disequilibrium they manifest their qualities.

When Sattva is ascendant, there is illumination and ease of thought, word and deed (Laku = இலகுதை). When Rajas is ascendant and Sattva and Tamas are descendant, there is motion and passion (வியாபிருதி), and tension and unease in thought, word and deed (அடர்ச்சி). When Tamas is ascendant and Sattva and Rajas are descendant, there is arrogance and immorality (கௌரவம்  and அடர்ச்சி).

 

Verse 43. Ahamkaram, Vital Airs, Chittam: Buddhi, Ahamkaram and Manas

ஆனதனு அதனில் உறும் அநிலனையும் இயக்கி
ஆங்காரம் நீங்காத அகந்தைக்கு வித்தாய்
யான்அலது பிறர் ஒருவர் எனைஒப்பார் புவியில்
இல்லைஎனும் இயல்பினதாய் இந்திரியம் புலன்கள்
தான்நுகரும் அளவில் அதில் முந்திஉறும் இச்சை
தான் உருவாய்ச் சங்கற்ப சதாகதியும் தந்து
மானதம் ஆனதுநிற்கும் சிந்தைநினைவு ஐயம்
வந்துதரும் மனம்ஒழிய வகுப்பு ஒணாதே. 43

Ahamkaaram (ஆங்காரம்) abides in the soul proportional to its Karma, activizes the Vital Airs, is of the nature, 'there is no one like me in the world' and indulges in the experience of sense organs. Ahamkaram is instrumental in transforming the mind into Desire and Determination and remains in motion or activity at all times. Cittam is of the nature of making comparisons and raising doubts. It is not possible to state that Cittam and Mind are not different from each other.

அநிலம்: Air or Vital Air.  Ahamkaram activizes the Vital Airs. Prana is life and life is breath. Prana is a gift of Atma to the physical body. The Saiva Siddhantists consider Prana as Sakti of Atma. Prana is subtle in its transcendent state, becomes immanent and manifest in an individual, and finds expression according to its target organ. It is like electricity which finds expression as movement in a fan, light in a florescent lamp, or heat in an electric stove. Prana is movement of air in the lungs, fire of digestion in the stomach and intestines, rhythmic contraction and relaxation in the heart, electrical impulses and thought in the brain and much more. Prana is Rta (the Egyptian Maat), the Cosmic law on a grand scale. 

 

Prāna is not mere breath; it is more. First, we should not consider prāna only as physiological respiration, exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. It is life, it is movement, it is being, it is nourishing, it is the primal force, and it is energy. Prāna energizes transformation of Ākāsa from an element to a substance in this world of evolution. Prāna encompasses all energies discovered and yet undiscovered: it is thought, it is motion, it is gravity, it is lightning, it is energy in the atom, it is the motion in the atoms, and it is the essence in everything. Any discovered or undiscovered energy in our body or universe is prāna; call it by any name―respiration, nerve conduction, thought, gravity, magnetism. This prāna energy is as primal as Tapas, OM, light and water, which were present at creation or projection of Prakriti. Akāsa is the primal stem substance and Prāna is the primal stem force. All forces originate from prāna and all forces subside in prāna.  Udana is the grandfather, Viyana is the father and Apana is the grandson of Udana.  (up breath, equal breath, down breath.)

VAyu Purana (Chapter 35) says VAyu (Air Element) enters the fetus and becomes part of the soul of the fetus. It is because of VAyu that the fetus develops. ApAna  remains in the lower part of the body; UdAna circulates in the upper part of the body; VyAna pervades the whole body; SamAna abides in the joints.

 

Prāna has fivefold actions: (Prana can be air or energy according to its context.)

(1)   Prana: The commonly known prāna is the air moving through the mouth and the nostrils into and out of the lungs (exchange of gases). The heart is headquarters for Prana

(2)   Samāna Prāna: Equalizing breath. The energy igntes the bodily fire and resides in the digestive system, the heart, and the circulatory system, the umbilicus and the joints.  Here prana is digestive function of the stomach and intestines, rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle, the flow of blood through circulatory system and the movements of the joints. Its headquarters is the Navel (its domain is abdomen).. Remember Manipura Chakra's headquarters is in the umbilicus.

(3)   Apāna Prāna: Downward breathing. It pulls against Prana. It resides in the throat, the back of the thoracic cage, intestinal canal, generative organs, and the legs. Apana remains in and modulates the excretory and generative organs. Apana's headquarters is anus --Muladhara Chakra of Kundalini. (Simply put, Apana is the air that passes as flatus, which consists of 64% Nitrogen, 19% Hydrogen, 14% carbon dioxide, 9% Methane, 1% oxygen, and some foul-smelling sulphides. The proportion of these gases is variable; hydrogen, methane, oxygen may be infinitesimal. There are some people who produce excessive amount of Methane or Hydrogen, both of which are flammable gases. It has been reported that the Methane and Hydrogen producers can produce flame in the operating room, when electrocautery is used during abdominal surgery.)

 (4)   Udāna Prāna: Ascending breath. This energy is resident in the heart, throat, palate, and skull and between the eyebrows.  Udana's headquarters is the throat--Visuddha Chakra of Kundalini.  Udāna is the breath in the throat rising upwards. It is the expiratory air.

(5)   Vyāna Prāna: Pervading breath or diffused breath. It is the vital air that circulates throughout the body or is diffused through the body. It is the oxygen that is carried by the blood through out the body. It is the son of Udana and the father of Apana Prana. It prevents body from disintegration and hold the body together.

This energy is resident everywhere, but concentrated in the circulatory system and sweat glands (sweating), and plays a role in the redistribution of biological fluids in the body. Vyana's headquarters is the whole body

        You may notice a correlation here between the centers or Chakras of Kundalini and the Pranas. Apana, Samana, Udana,  Prana, and Vyana represent body consciousness and not the Higher Consciousness present in Sahasrara Chakra. Above the Higher Consciousness is Pure Consciousness. The ascending breath residing at Visuddha chakra stops short of Ajna Chakra, the transitional zone between  body consciousness and Higher Consciousness, which is a dilute version of Pure Consciousness.      

NAga, KUrma, Krkara, Devadatta, Dhanamjaya form the pentad of minor Vayus manifesting in hiccup, blinking of eyes, digestion (appetite-maker), yawning and the prana of the corpse (that prana that does not leave the corpse). Woodroffe opines in modern terms that Prana is Appropriation, Apana is evacuation, Samana is Assimilation, Vyana is Distribution, and Udana is Utterance. Atma is the hypostasis and origin of Prana.

 

        Purusa is the command and control center for all these energies. Many of these functions and energies appear autonomous and some are under voluntary control.   

       There are five more Vayus or pranas of minor importance: Naga, Kurma, Krkara, Devadatta and Dhananjaya for hiccup, blinking of the eyes, appetite, yawning, and the prana of the dead. The last one implies that there is a resident prana even in a dead body.  These airs and energies originate from the heart with the Parmatma abiding in it.

Bhagavad-Gita:15.15:   I am seated in the hearts of all living beings. From Me come the memory, the knowledge, and the removal. I am also the knowable from the Vedas. I am the author of the Vedas and the knower of Vedas.

Dhanajaya is the air (oxygen and energy) used for nourishment of the body and appears to be the internal respiration of the cells: the oxygen moving into the cells from the capillaries.

Devadatta is the air (energy) that makes a person yawn which is an arousal mechanism for hypoxia. Yawning from boredom and inattention breaks the sleepiness and promotes attention by infusing the body with more oxygen.

Kurma is the air (energy) that stimulates peristaltic movements of the stomach and the nerve energy that moves the limbs.

    Krkara is the air that increases one's appetite.

    Naga is the air (energy) that facilitates opening of the eyes and mouth.

These Pranas are physiological events such as Appropriation and Utilization (Prana), Excretion (Apana), Assimilation (Samana), Distribution and Sustenance (Vyana), and Utterance and death (Udana) -- modified from Woodroffe.    

Chāndogya Upanishad Chapter 3 Section 13

Breath means energy flow in this instance: Control of the senses and the energy flow are the message here. In the following description of the heart, it is not the anatomical heart with gates, but the spiritual heart. Brahman is One, but manifests as five Brahman-persons, the doorkeepers of the fives gates of heaven in this instance, and resides in the heart with five openings or gates:

1. The eastern gate in the heart is Prāna the up breath, and the eye is the doorkeeper with the presiding deity, the sun.  

2. The southern gate is Vyāna, the diffuse breath (diffused throughout the body), and the doorkeeper is the ear with the presiding deity, the moon.

3. The western gate is Apāna, the down breath (Ventris Crepitus), and the doorkeeper is the speech with the presiding deity, Agni (fire).

4. The northern gate is Samāna, equalized breath, and the doorkeeper is the mind with the presiding deity rain.

5. The upper gate is Udāna, the out breath and doorkeeper is air with the presiding deity ether.   

 

If one controls the doorkeepers namely the eye, the ear, the speech, the mind, and the breath by meditation, access to Brahman in the spiritual heart is easy. According to Sankara, Brahman residing in the heart is a mediator in meditation, as image of the deity in the temple is a mediator. This is how idolatry gained acceptance in Hindu religion.

 

Prana, that dwells in the heart (Anahata Chakra) draws Apana dwelling in Muladhara Chakra: the up breath pulling the down breath, both being anchored to the body. When the breaths are in unison and ascend Susumna Nadi to Sahasrara  perfection in Pranayama is the result. Please note that the up breath and the down breath do not ascend the Susumna Nadi, but the energy created by the opposing forces passes up the Nadi.

மனம்: Mind, transforming into Desire, jumps from one desire to another desire and acts as the instrument for states like Will and Diversity (சங்கற்ப-விகற்ப உணர்வுகள்).

சித்தம்: Cittam raises doubts; mind being the slate, Cittam writes its doubts on the slate of mind, so Mind and Cittam cannot be differentiated or separated. Antakarana or the Inner Organ is fourfold: Mind, Buddhi, Ahamkaaram, and Cittam.  Mana's Vrtti is Cittam. Virutti = விருத்தி = Increase, growth, augmentation. Vrtti is like a wave. Mind is compared to a lake, Vrtti is like the thought waves on the surface of the lake. Thus Cittam is waves of the mind or thought waves.

A look at Antakarana from a different perspective.

Source 'Dancing with Siva' by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami of Hindu.org. Tamil words are provided by me.

Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, Chitta and Chaitanya = புத்தி14, ஆங்காரம்15, மனம்16, சித்தம், சைதன்யம்.

Antakarana is a five-fold Inner Organ consisting of  Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, Chitta and Chaitanya. Chitta is Consciousness or Mind-stuff. On the personal level, Chitta records mental impressions and experiences. Chitta is the seat of the conscious, subconscious and superconscious states, and of the threefold mental faculty, called Antakarana, consisting of Buddhi, Manas and Ahamkara. Buddhi14 is intellect, reason and logic endowed with intellectual or disciplined mind. Buddhi exercises discrimination (viveka = விவேகம்), voluntary restraint (Vairagya = வைராக்கியம்), cultivation of calmness (SAnti = சாந்தி), contentment (Santosha = சந்தோஷம்), and forbearance (Kshama சமம்). it is part of Manonmaya Kosa. Ahamkara15 is the I-maker or personal ego. it has the sense of 'I-ness, Me, Mine'. It has a sense of I and You, a sense of duality and separateness from others. It identifies with the body, plans for one's own happiness, broods over sorrow, and is bent on possessiveness. Manas16 is lower instinctive, undisciplined and empirical mind, seat of desire and governor of sensory and motor organs. Manas has desire, determination, doubt, faith, lack of faith, steadfastness, lack of steadfastness, shame, intellection and fear. Mind is part of Manonmaya Kosa.

Chaitanya is Spirit, consciousness, esp. Higher Consciousness. Supreme Being, SAksi Chaitanya (Witness Consciousness), Bhakti Chaitanya (Devotional consciousness), Sivachaitanya (Siva Consciousness).

Among these Manas is the lowest entity concerned with sensory and motor organs. It reports to next higher faculty Ahamkara, the one that looks everything in self-interest. Ahamkara reports to Buddhi with intellect, reason, logic, restraint.... All these three entities are seated or abide in Chitta, a chronicler of mental impressions and experiences. Chitta supersedes all other entities.

The 36 Tattvas and their relative positions.

Siva1, Sakti2,  Sadasiva3,  Isvara4,  Sadvidya5, MāyA6,  Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11, Purusa12 Prakrti Tattva13Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing17 tactile sense18, vision and color19, tasting20, smell21, speech22, grasp23, ambulation24, evacuation25, procreation26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31,  ether32, air33, fire34, water35 Earth36.

Verse 44. Sense organs and Motor Organs.

சொன்னமுறை செவிதுவக்கு நோக்கு நாக்குத்
துண்டம் இவை ஐந்திற்கும் தொகுவிடயம் ஆக
மன்னிய சத்தப்பரிச ரூபரச கந்தம்
மருவியிடும் இவை  அடைவே வாக்குப் பாதம்
பின்னர்வரு பாணிமிகு பாயுவினோடு உபத்தம்
பேசல் உறும் ஐந்திற்கும் பிறங்கு ஒலிகொள் வசனம்
முன்னரிய கமனதான  விசர்க்க  ஆநந்தம்
உற்றதொழில் பெற்றிடுவது உண்மை ஆமே.44

Apart from the Inner Organs mentioned before, the five External Organs, ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nose apprehend the five senses: sound, touch, Light, taste, and smell. Ears and the rest are the Jnanendriyas or Sense Organs. The other organs are Karmendriyas, mouth, legs, hands, anus and genitals doing the functions of speech, ambulation, grasp or giving, evacuation and sexual enjoyment.

Jnanendriyas (அறிவுப் பொறிகள் =  Sense Organs) stand helping Karmendriyas (தொழிற் பொறிகள் =  Motor Organs), while the Karmendriyas do not offer any help to the Jnanendriyas.

some authors say that Indriya does not refer to the organ. It refers to the intrinsic physiologic function of that organ (example, hearing by the ears). Mere anatomical ears do not indicate function of hearing. Indriya, according to them is not the physical ear but the hearing ear. By convention, ear generally means a hearing ear. Jnanendriyas or Sense Organs are the Body-Portals through which the soul-body gathers knowledge.

 

Verse 45. The Great elements: Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth.

முந்திய  ஐம்பூதங்கள் வான் ஆதி யாக
முயங்கியநற் செவி நாசி கண்ணும் மெய்ம் முறையால்
இந்தவயின்  நின்றுவரும் ஐம்புலனும் உயிர்தாம்
எய்தும்வகை தம்உருவினில் இலங்கியிடும் புறத்தும்
வந்து அடைய  இடம் கொடுக்கும் நிரந்தரமாய் வானும்
வாயுமிகச் சலித்து எவையும் திரட்டும் தீவெம்மை
தந்தவைசுட்டு ஒன்றுவிக்கும் நீர்குளிர்ந்து பதமே
தரும் உரத்துத் தரிக்கும்மிகு தரணி தானே. 45

Five Bhutas (five elements) abide in five organs and apprehend five senses. Agamas have assigned  the shape and the sign for each one of the five elements. Among the five elements, Ether is the place wherein subside all elements. Air moves, spreads widely and gathers (things). Fire makes heat, burns everything in its path and renders them into ash. Water makes everything cool and gentle. The Earth becomes hard and bears all things.

Ears apprehend sound and needs Ether for propagation. Touch is mediated via Air. Eyes needs Fire (Light) as the needed element for vision and form. Mouth needs water for apprehension of taste. Nose needs earth for the apprehension of smell.

 

Unmai Vilakkam (உண்மை விளக்கம்) says the following about Sense organs:

Verse 13.

வான் இடமாய் நின்று செவி மன்னும் ஒலியதனை;

ஈனமிகும் தோல் கால் இடமாக -- ஊனப்

பரிசம் தனை அறியும்; பார்வையின் கண் அங்கு

விரவி உருவம் காணும்.

Ether or Space is the medium for sound perception by the ear. Wind is the medium for the sense of touch by the skin. Fire is the medium for vision by the eyes.

Verse 14.

நன்றாக நீர் இடமா நா இரதம் தான் அறியும்;
பொன்றா மணம் மூக்கு  பூ இடமா – நின்று அறியும்
என்று ஓதும் அன்றே இறை ஆகமம்; இதனை
வென்றார் செனறார்  இன்ப வீடு--14

Tongue apprehends taste through the medium of water. The nose apprehends smell through the medium of earth. Agamas say the ones who transcend these organs attain the House of Bliss (இன்ப வீடு = heaven or Feet of Siva).

 

 

 

 

Verse 46. The Tattvas and the soul's death and re-birth.

தத்துவங்களின் வகையும் உயிர்கள் இறந்து பிறந்து வருமாறும்

இந்நிரையில் ஐந்துசுத்தம் ஏழ்சுத்தா சுத்தம்
எண்மூன்றும் அசுத்தம் எனும் இவைமுப்பத்து ஆறாம்
மன்னியதத்து வங்கள் இடை மயங்கிநெடும் துயர்தாம்
மருவும் உரு நிலை அழிய வரும்பொழுது வரியார்
பன்னகம் அண்டசம் கனவு படர்வகையே முன்னம்
பகரவரும் கலாதிநிலை பரவியசூக்குமம் ஆம்
தன் உருவில் அணைந்து பயன் அருந்தி அரன் அருளால்
தரையின் இடை வரும் என்று சாற்றும் நூலே. 46

This classification shows there are five Suddha Siva Tattvas, seven Suddha-Asuddha Vidya Tattvas, and twenty-four Asuddha Anma Tattvas; in all there are thirty-six Tattvas. Soul roils in confusion in the midst of all these Tattvas experiencing happiness and misery. When the experienced fruits of Karma are expunged, the soul is like the snake that comes out of its exfoliated skin. It is like the chick breaking out of the shell. It is like going from awakening to dream state. It is sundering the connection with the Gross Body and attaining other body states and having experienced happiness and misery in heaven and hell, by the Grace of God, the soul takes birth in this world again. So say the sacred texts.

The Suddha Tattvas activize the Tattvas generated by the Asuddha Anma Tattvas. The latter are Impure Tattvas because Prakriti (மூலதத்துவம்) generates these twenty-four Tattvas.

Suddham, Suddham-Asuddham and Asuddham (Purity, Purity-Impurity, and Impurity) belong to PrEraka KANdam, BhOga KANdam and POsayattiru KANdam (பிரேரக காண்டம், போக காண்டம், போசயத்திரு காண்டம்  =  Activizing Principle;  Enjoying, experiencing; and Promoter of  experience or enjoyment--BhOjayitri in SAnskrit)

 

PrErakam = பிரேரகம் = Activizing or Inducing principle.

BhOgam = போகம் = Enjoying or experiencing.

POsayattiru = போசயத்திரு = BhOjayitri in Sanskrit = Promoter of  experience or enjoyment.

KANdam = காண்டம் = Section of a book.

 

PrErakan the One who induces or Inducer. The Suddha Tattvas are all Deities who induce the soul to experience the Tattvas. They are Siva, Sakti, Sadasiva, Isvara and Suddha Vidya Tattvas (5).

BhOgam is enjoying or experiencing the Tattvas of the Pure and Impure Tattvas: Maya, Time, Destiny, Learning-Action, knowledge, desire, and Purusa (7)

POsayattiru is promoter or facilitator of experience: 24 Anma Tattvas. Prakrti Tattva13, Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing--Ears17 touch--Skin18, vision and color--Eyes19, tasting--Tongue20, smell--Nose21, speech-Larynx22, grasp-Hands23, ambulation--Feet24, evacuation--Feet25, procreation-Genitals26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31,  ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36.

The Subtle body or Sukshma Sarira (புரியட்ட காயம)  is made of five components: Sound27 , Touch28 , Form29, Taste30, Smell 31 (5 Tanmatras = தன்மாத்திரைகள்) plus Buddhi14, Ahamkaram15 and Manas16.   The is called Puriyatta rUpam or Puriyatta kAyam (புரியட்ட ரூபம் = புரியட்ட காயம்).

 

Another version says that Subtle body consists of 8 categories as detailed below: (5 Bhutas + 5 Tanmmatras + 5 Sense Organs + 5 Motor Organs + 5 Antakaranas + 3 Gunas + Mula Prakriti + Kalai. In all the Puriyattakam or Subtle body has 28 parts.

 

 

Puriyattakam (புரியட்டகம்)

The Five BhUtas (ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36), the five Tanmatras (sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31), five Jnanedriyas or sense organs (Hearing-ears17, touch-skin18, vision and color-eyes19, tasting-Tongue 20, smell-nose 21), five Karmendriyas (Speech-Larynx22, Grasp-Hands23, ambulation-feet24, evacuation-anus25, Procreation-Genitals 26), five Antakaranas (Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, Chitta and Chaitanya) plus three Gunas (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas)

Revised on Nov. 24, 2014 old name: sivapp3.jpg New name: sivapp3A.jpg

 

 

The author gives three analogies as to how the gross body leaves the soul after the soul roils in the midst of the Tattvas enjoying and suffering the sweet and bitter fruits of Karma. The snake analogy depicts that the soul changes to new body as a new snake slithers out of the shed skin of the old body. The egg analogy depicts that the soul moves out of one world and enters a new world. (The chick breaks out of its old world of the confining shell to a new world.)  The soul eats the fruits of good and bad Karma in Heaven or hell and then again finds its way into this world in an embodied form; this idea is illustrated by the analogy to moving to awake state from dream state.

 

Verse 47. Four kinds of birth and seven life-forms.

நால்வகைத் தோற்றம் முதலியன

தோற்றியிடும் அண்டசங்கள் சுவேதசங்கள் பாரில்
துதைந்துவரும் உற்பீசம் சராயுசங்கள் நான்கில்
உற்றமிகு தாபரங்கள் பத்தொன்பது என்றும்
ஊர்வ பதினைந்து அமரர் பதினொன் றொடு உலவா
மாற்றருநீர் உறைவனநற் பறவைகள் நாற்காலி
மன்னியிடும் பப்பத்து மானுடர் ஒன்பதின்மர்
ஏற்றிஒரு தொகை அதனில் இயம்புவர்கள் யோனி
எண்பத்து நான்கு நூறாயிரம் என்று எடுத்தே. 47

The soul upon appearing with a body in this world has four kinds of births: Andasam, SuvEthasam, UrpIsam, and SarAyusam (அண்டசம், சுவேதசம், உற்பீசம், சராயுசம் = Egg-born, Sweat-born, Seed-born, and Womb-born). They are of seven life-forms: Vegetable Kingdom, Reptiles, Deities, Aquatic animals, Birds, 4-legged animals and Humans; All these life-forms in aggregate number 8,400,000.

There are eight million four hundred thousand species of living creatures, divided into four classes: Andajas (அண்டசம்), egg-born; Svedajas (சுவேதசம்), sweat-born (insects and vermin); Udbhijjas (உற்பீசம்), seed-born; Jarayujas (சராயுசம்), the viviparous (Garuda Purana, 11.12.2-3). Svedajas (sweat or heat): These creatures are called sweat-born, because sweat indicates heat. The eggs laid by insects in the cavities of dead body come out as larvae in 12 to 24 hours if the dead body stays warm (from the high environmental temperature).  

3. சுத்தாவத்தை Suddha State (Liberated state of the soul)

Verse 48. Sakala state; Tirodhana Sakti transforms to allow Sattinipatam.

இனையபல பிறவிகளில் இறந்துபிறந்து அருளால்
இருவினைகள் புரிந்து அருந்தும் இதுசகலம் அகலா
முனம்மருவும் இருபயனும் ஒருகாலத்து அருந்த
முந்துநுகர் உந்துபயன் அந்தம்உற வந்த
வினையும் எதிர்வினையும் முடிவினை  உதவு பயனால்

நேராக நேர் ஆதல்மேவும் கான்முன்
சினமருவு திரோதாயி கருணை ஆகி
திருந்திய சத்திநிபாதம் திகழும் அன்றே. 48

Sakala State is by the Grace of Siva the embodied soul goes through many births and deaths, performs Karmic deeds and enjoys or suffers the fruits of such acts. Before the Sakala State comes to an end, the happiness and misery of twin-deeds are enjoyed or suffered at one time. The fruits of current deeds and future deeds are experienced and thus come to perish. Once all deeds and fruits come to an end, the erstwhile angry Tirodhana Sakti morphs into shining Sattinipatam of great compassion.

When the two-deed Karma is resolved and the soul is absolved of all deeds and consequences, it is called Iruvinaiyoppu  (இருவினையொப்பு = resolution of two deeds --Karma-- to a Null status).  Attrition of Anava Malam is Malaparipakam (மலபரிபாகம் = Stage of a soul when its three Malam meet with the causes of their removal); Sattinipatam (சத்திநிபாதம்) is descent of Sakti or Grace into the soul.

Tirodhana Sakti has two aspects: one is obscuration of Grace and the other is revealing of Grace. Tirodhana Sakti is a companion of the soul and helps it to attenuate Anava Malam. During the attenuation of Anava Malam, the soul experiences happiness, misery and confusion. When Anava Malam's ferocity attenuates and Malaparipakam takes place, Tirodhana Sakti  transforms into Grace-giving Sattinipatam and helps the soul attain Great Bliss of Liberation. Tradition explains this transformation with an analogy: when proper time comes, the sour mango turns into a sweet one.

Siva's power Tirodhana Sakti is by its nature not an angry entity.  It adopts and projects an angry image in order to make the soul mature by inflicting misery on the soul; once maturation comes to the soul, Tirodhana Sakti transforms into Grace-giving Sakti.

 

Verse 49. Four-fold Sattinipatam (சத்திநிபாதம்).

நாடிய சத்திநிபாதம் நாலு பாதம்
நண்ணும்வகை எண்ணரிய ஞான பாதம்
கூடுமவர் தமக்கு உணர்வாய் நின்ற ஞானக்
கூத்தன் ஒரு மூர்த்திகொடு குறுகி மோக
நீடிய கேவலசகல நிகழா வாறு
நிறுத்திமலம் அறுக்கும் அது நிலையார் சுத்தம்
கேடில் புகழ் தரும்சரியை கிரியா யோகக்
கேண்மையரேல் இவை உணர்த்தக் விளக்கும் நூலே. 49

Previously mentioned Sattinipatam is fourfold: Mantataram, Mantam, TIviram, TIvirataram (மந்ததரம், மந்தம், தீவிரம், தீவிரதரம்). The fourth kind TIvirataram entails hyperintense effort and prompts appearance in real life and form by Siva Himself as JnanakUtan ஞானக்கூத்தன்).  Siva removes all Malams, Kevala and Sakala Avasthas and keeps the soul in His Grace. This is known as eternal Suddha Avastha. If you ask who obtains this Suddha state, the answer is the ones who have performed the great and praise-worthy Chariyai, Kriyai, and Yogam would receive the unimaginable realization of Purity.

ஞானக்கூத்தன் = Šiva, as one who revels in wisdom.

சத்திநிபாதம் = Sattinipatam = Settling of the Divine Grace in the soul when it is ripe.

The descent of Divine Grace in the soul sluggish to superfast as listed below.

Mantataram. மந்ததரம்: Exceeding slowness, as of pace or of procedure. It is like setting fire to a moist trunk of plantain tree.

Mantam. மந்தம்: Tardiness: It is like lighting a raw firewood from a freshly felled tree.

TIviram. தீவிரம்: Swiftness. It is like lighting a dry firewood

TIvirataram.  தீவிரதரம்: Superfast; hyperintense. Also தீவிரதீவிரம். It is like lighting coal. Siva Himself appears to reveal wisdom and offer liberation to the aspirant. The results are superfast.

 

Verse 50.

முத்தி பேதங்கள்

அரிவையர்இன் புறும்முத்தி கந்தம் ஐந்தும்
அறும்முத்தி திரிகுணமும் அடங்கும் முத்தி
விரவுவினை கெடும்முத்தி மலம்போம் முத்தி
விக்கிரக நித்தமுத்தி விவேக முத்தி
பரவும் உயிர் கெடுமுத்தி சித்தமுத்தி
பாடாண முத்திஇவை பழிசேர் முத்தி
திரிமலமும் அகல உயிர் அருள்சேர் முத்தி
திகழ்முத்தி இதுமுத்தித் திறத்தது ஆமே. 50

LOkAyatars hold the view that the bliss of union with women is Mukti (Final Liberation). Cutting asunder the five Skandhas in Sauthiranthikar Buddhism is final liberation: Form, Sensation, Perception, Mental Formation, and Consciousness (உருவம், வேதனை, குறிப்பு, பாவனை, விஞ்ஞானம்). The Jains hold the view that Mukti is to transcend or destroy the three Gunas. Prabhakara Samayam holds the view that Mukti is to destroy Karma. Bhedhavadhis in Inner Religion hold the view that Mukti is to destroy Anava Malam completely. Siva Samayavadhis hold the view that the body does not perish in Mukti state. MayaVadis hold the view that attainment of Viveka Mukti by bonded body-bound soul is the final liberation. Follower of the doctrine of Bhāskara hold the view that Mukti is destruction of the soul. SivaSankarAnthaVadhis of Inner Religion hold the view that destruction of soul's Pasu Karanam and attainment of SivaKaranam constitute Mukti. PAtAnaVAdhis hold the view that Mukti happens when the soul comes to stay like a stone without any knowledge. All these ten precepts are false Muktis. The correct doctrine is that the soul obtains freedom from Anava, Kanmam, and MAyai, earns Grace and Supreme bliss and attains Mukti.

 

முத்தி = Muththi = Emancipation of the soul from bodily existence, final liberation.

கந்தம் = Kantham = The five constituent elements of being; The five constituent elements of consciousness.

Buddhist doctrine talks about five Aggregates (கந்தங்கள் or Skandhas in Sanskrit = Aggregates):  Form, Sensation, Perception, Mental Formation, and Consciousness (உருவம், வேதனை, குறிப்பு, பாவனை, விஞ்ஞானம்). The whole world of matter and beings are made of atoms, molecules and compounds (aggregates) there of.

RUpa = உருவம் = Form or Matter. The internal matter is the material body and the physical sense organs. The external form is the physical world.

Vedhanā வேதனை = Sensation = Feeling. Sensing an object engenders pleasant, unpleasant or neutral feeling.

Samjñā = குறிப்பு = Perception (Conception, Apperception, Cognition, Discrimination) is the faculty by which whether an object is recognized or not.

Samskāra = பாவனை = Mental formation, Volition. All kinds of mental habits, thoughts, ideas, opinions, compulsions, and decisions triggered by an object.

Vijñāna = விஞ்ஞானம் = Consciousness

                a) in the Nikayas = cognizance

                b) in the Abhidhamma = a series of rapidly changing interconnected discrete acts of cognizance.

                c) in Mahayana sources. the base that supports all experience.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skandha

சௌத்திராந்திகம் cauttirāntikam , n. < sautrāntika. A school of Buddhism which admits the authority of the Buddhist Sūtras only.        

That the souls roil alternately in the world of misery and happiness, depicts that life on earth is not a bed of roses. Total liberation is the aim of all religions, though they differ in explaining the nature of the soul, the nature of its bonds and the means of obtaining Final Bliss.

Saiva Siddhanta says that the soul obtains freedom from Anava, Kanmam, and MAyai, earns Grace and Supreme bliss and attains Mukti at the feet of Siva with Siva-Jnanam (சிவஞானம் = knowledge of God).

உண்மை அதிகாரம் Section on Truth.

Verse 51. The five states of the soul.

உண்மை அதிகாரம் இவ்வியலின் வகை Section on Truth

இங்கு இவை பொதுஇயல்பு என்பர்கள் இதன்மேல் ஆன்மாத்
தங்கிய அஞ்சு அவத்தை தன் உண்மை உணர்த்தும் தன்மை
பொங்கு ஒளி ஞான வாய்மை அதன் பயன் புனிதன் நாமம்
அங்கு அதில் அணைந்தோர் தன்மை அறைகுவன் அருளினாலே. 51

First fifty verses depict the nature of Siva, soul and fetters (pathi, Pasu and PAsam = பதி, பசு, பாசம்). The next section describes by the Grace of God, the five states of the soul, the effulgent Truth of Wisdom, its benefits, the nature of the five-syllables and the nature of the ones who embraced them.

There are nine chapters in this section.

 

Verse 52. The five states of the soul.

1. ஆன்மம் இயல்பு The nature of the soul.

செறிந்திடும் உடலுள் மன்னிச்சேர்புலன் வாயில்பற்றி
அறிந்து அதில் அழுந்தும் ஒன்றும் அறிந்திடா அறியும்தன்மை
பிறிந்து அடை அஞ்சு அவத்தை பெருகிய மலத்தால் பேணி
உறுந்தனி அதீதம் உண்மை உயிர்க்கு என உணர்த்தும் அன்றே. 52

Soul, according to its Karma, obtains and abides in the body and the sense organs, apprehends and experiences the world of objects. Though the soul apprehends the world through the Tattvas, it does not realize that fact. These Tattvas are not endowed with intelligence. Soul's apprehension diminishes as the soul separates itself from the senses. Thus, the soul engages in and disengages from five states: Awakening, Dream, Deep Sleep, Turiya, Turiyatita, (நனவு, கனவு, உறக்கம், பேருறக்கம், உயிர்ப்படங்கள்). This happens on account of Anavam. Siva-Agamas state that the true state of the soul is to remain in Turiyatita.

In Sanskrit, these five states are called  Sakkiram, Soppanam, Suzuththi, Thuriyam and TuriyAtitam (Jagrat, Svapna, Susupti, Turiya and Turiyatita.) They are collectively called KAriya Avattai or Avastha (காரிய அவத்தை).

Sivagnana Siddhiar in Verse 223 talks about the five states of the soul.

Verse 223. The five states of the soul. (According to Mular there are 9 states.)

சாக்கிரம் முப்பதைந்து நுதலினில்; கனவு தன்னில்

ஆக்கிய இருபத்தைந்து களத்தினில்; சுழுனை மூன்று

நீக்கிய இதயம் தன்னில் துரியத்தில் இரண்டு நாபி;

நோக்கிய துரியாதீதம் நுவலின் மூலத்தின் ஒன்றே. 223.

 

Sakkiram (wakefulness) has 35 functional instruments. The soul abides in Bhrumadya (between the eyebrows -நுதல்). Dream sleep state, wherein the soul abides in the neck, has 25 functional instruments. Deep sleep state, wherein the soul abides in the heart, has only three instruments. In Turiya state the soul abides in the navel and two instruments are functional. When the soul abides in Muladhara Chakra, only the soul is functional in Turiyatita state.

1) Wakefulness = Jagrat = சாக்கிரம்.( 35)  5 Sensory organs 5 Motor organs; 5 senses: sound27, touch28, form29, taste30, odor3 5 functions of the motor organs: speech22, grasp23, ambulation24, evacuation25, procreation26; 10 Airs: Prana, Apana, Samana, Udana,  Prana, Vyana, NAga, KUrma, Krkara, Devadatta, and Dhanamjaya; 4 Inner organs: Manas, Buddhi, Ahankara and Chitta (citta); 1 soul.

2) Dream Sleep = Svapna = கனவு....25 organs are functional

3) Deep Sleep =  Susupti =  சுழுத்தி = உறக்கம். Three organs functional: Citta, Prana and Soul.

4) Turiya = Turiya = பேருறக்கம் = துரியம்: Two functions are present: Prana and soul.

5) Turiya-atita = துரியாதீதம்.   One functional entity = soul.

 

Turiya-atita = துரியாதீதம். = The mūlātāram, into which the soul retires in its turiyātītam. The transcendent fifth state of the soul in which it is in the mulātāram, and is cognizant of aviccai (அவிச்சை or அவித்தை= Spiritual ignorance).

 

 

Five states of the soul: Waking state, Dream Sleep State, Deep Sleep State, Turiya State, Turiyatita state.

Instruments or organs: 35 organs....., 25 organs.............three organs.......,  Two organs, only one organ.

The soul abides in......: Forehead....., neck.....................,  heart..................,   Navel........., Muladhara Chakra. 

The Chakras..............: Ajna............, Visuddha..............,  Anahata.............,    Manipura.., Muladhara Chakra.

 

Turiyatita = State beyond the 4th. Being awake within the awake state (Jagrat in Sanskrit = சாக்கிரம் in Tamil = waking state), experiencing the other states (Svapna = Dream State = கனவு, and Susupti = Deep Sleep State = சுழுத்தி), and having trained the body and the breath, they attain Turiyatita (துரியாதீதம்).

Verse 53.

உருஉணர்வு இலாமையாலும் ஓர்ஒரு புலன்கள் ஆக
மருவிநின்று அறித லாலும் மனாதிகள் தம்மில் மன்னித்
தருபயன் நுகர்தலாலும் உயிர்சடம் ஆதலாலும்
அருவினை உடலுள் ஆவி அறிவினால் அறியும் அன்றே. 53

The body with form does not apprehend while asleep or upon death. Of the five sense organs, each one knows one function only and not that of the other(s). The soul receiving and apprehending sensory impulses remains separate and different from the organs. Manas, Buddhi, Ahamkaram and Cittam are incapable of knowing each other's knowledge or perception. The Vital Air that activizes the body is Jada (சடம்) or inert and therefore not the soul. Soul is the knowing entity by Grace of God as it comes to know that which is knowable and abides in the Karma-dependant body.

This verse debunks their doctrine of the proponents of External Religion that body is knowledge, the five senses are knowledge, the Inner Organ is knowledge and the Vital Air is knowledge. This verse debunks their doctrine.

உயிர்சடம் =  The Vital Air is inert. ஆவி  refers to the soul. The soul possesses limited knowledge. Unless the soul receives knowledge by the Grace of God, it is not capable of perception.
 

Verse 54.

அறிவு எனில் வாயில்வேண்டா அன்றுஎனில் அவைதாம் என்னை
அறிவவை உதவும் என்னில் அசேதனம் அவைதாம் எல்லாம்
அறிபவன் அறியும் தன்மை அருளுவன் என்னில் ஆன்மா
அறிவு இலது ஆகும் ஈசன் அசேதனத்து அளித்தி டானே. 54

If Anma (soul) were intellect to perceive all knowledge, it does not need the help of instruments or sense organs. If Anma were assumed as non-intellect, no need exists for Anma to possess sense organs. If the sense organs were assumed to give knowledge to the Anma, the organs, being inert, cannot confer knowledge to the soul. If God were to give knowledge to the soul through the intermediation of the sense organs, the assumption is that God uses inert sense organs to give knowledge to the inert soul. The question arises, why would not Isan (Siva) impart knowledge to the soul without the intermediation of the sense organs.

The faulty premises of External Religion

The advocates of External Religion are mired in controversy among themselves and wonder, assuming that soul exists, whether the soul is intellect or non-intellect. Siddhanta refutes their stand.

 

Verse 55.
அறிவினால் அறிந்தயாவும் அசத்தாதல் அறிதி என்றும்
அறிவினால் அறியொணாதேல் ஆவதொன்று இன்மைதொன்மை
அறிவுதான் ஒன்றை முந்தி அதுஅது ஆகக்காணும்
அறிவுகான் அசத்து மற்ற அது அறிவினுக்கு அறியொண்ணாதே.55

Whatever is knowable by the intellect of the soul in this world is Asat. Siva is not knowable by human intellect. If that is the case, of what use is God to the soul, if he is not knowable to the soul. What is perceivable by the intellect of the soul is that which is apprehended by the the sense organs. The objects perceived by the soul are non-eternal. One should know that the intellect of the soul does not perceive the eternal  Lord.

Manifest objects such as He, She, and it are of the nature of appearing and disappearing in time. Soul's sense-knowledge is called சுட்டறிவு, meaning that it is circumscribed knowledge (சுட்டறிவு = That kind of intellect by which it apprehends on object or entity in one timeframe. This is circumscribed knowledge. It is knowing an object by its genus, species and other parameters. It is direct knowledge of an object. It is sense-knowledge obtained from the perceiving senses: eyes, ears etc.) All worldly objects belong to this category and is made of parts (அவயவம்). If the living beings belong to higher class (உயர்திணை) they are called He and She. If they belong to lower class, animate or inanimate, they are called அஃறிணை.  Both classes are non-eternal.

(The Atma, the bound soul, is spirit because it knows; it knows things with the aid of the Karanas (organs), one by one; it tends towards one thing and then returns from it to take up another; this method of knowing is peculiar to Pasu and is called சுட்டறிவு, knowledge by attention as opposed to the Pure Intelligence-Sutta Chaitanya of the Pathi. --MR. R. S. SUBRAMANIAM)

உயர்திணை = , n. < உயர்¹- +. 1. High caste, noble family; மேற்குலம். உயர்திணை யூமன்போல (குறுந். 224). 2. (Gram.) Nouns denoting personal class of beings, including men, gods.

அஃறிணை= , n. < அல் + தனை. Inferior class of beings, whether animate or inanimate, neuter, opp. to உயர்திணை; உயர்திணை யல்லாத சாதி. (நன். 261.)

in Saiva Siddhanta, Asat is like the letters written on water and the happenings in a dream; they appear as if they are eternal, but vanish quickly. All worldly objects have no manifestation in their Causal unmanifest form. In their manifest form, these objects are subject to elucidation. When they come to destruction, they subside in their cause. In Saiva Siddhanta, Pati, Pasu and PAsam are eternal. Asat refers to gross objects of the world.

To think of non-eternal things as eternal is Pul-larivu (புல்லறிவு = Ignorance, little knowledge).

Verse 247 in Sivagnana Siddhiar says the following.

Verse 247. Siva who is different and non-different from, and illuminating to the soul, is not knowable by the soul's intellect.

அன்னியம் லாமையானும் அறிவினுள் நிற்ற லானும் 
உன்னிய ல்லாம் உள்நின் றுணர்த்துவன் ஆதலானும் 
என்னது  யான் என்று தும் இரும் செருக்கு அறுத்தலானும் 
தன்றிவு தனால் காணும் தகைமையன் அல்லன்; ஈசன். 247

Siva is one (non-different) with the soul, different from the soul, abides with the soul and its knowledge and enlightens the soul. Siva severs the egoistic arrogance, I and Mine; He is not knowable by the soul's intellect.

Siva by His nature does lend Himself for categorization and analysis in terms of  knower, knowable object and knowledge.

 

Verse 56. The three entities (Pati, Pasu, PAsam) and their apprehension of Asat.

எவ் அறிவு அசத்து அறிந்தது எனில் உயிர் அறியாது ஈசன்
அவ்வறிவு அறியான் அல்லது அசேதனம் அறியாது ஆவி
செவ்விய கருவி கூடித் தெரிவுறாது அருளில் சேரா
ஒவ்இரு வகையது என்னில்  ஒளியிருள் ஒருங்கு உறாவே. 56

Which intellect apprehends Asat? Soul does not perceive Asat on its own accord. Isan (Siva) perceives all in toto. Therefore, God is not subject to circumscribed knowledge (limited by time and space). PAsam (Fetter) is AsEthanam (அசேதனம் = insentient non-intelligent entity) and Jada (inert) and therefore is not capable of perceiving Asat. Can all three entities (Pati, Pasu, PAsam = God, soul, fetters) by collaboration apprehend Asat? Soul and fetter together do not apprehend because fetter is non-intelligent. Can God and soul together apprehend Asat? God does not join or collaborate with soul in bondage. God and fetter are like Light and darkness, which therefore do not stay together simultaneously.

The three entities do not apprehend Asat individually; neither two in combination apprehend Asat.

 

Verse 57.

சத்து இது என்று அசத்துதான் அறியாது அசத்தைத்
சத்தது அறிந்து அகலவேண்டா அசத்து இது சத்திஇது என்று ஓர்
சத்துஇருள் ஒளி அலாக்கண் தன்மையதாம் அசத்தைச்
சத்துடன் நின்று நீக்கும் தன்மையால் சதசத்து ஆமே. 57

The idea that this is Sat,  Asat does not perceive. Sat (God) knowing Asat does not have to leave or abandon it.  Knowing that Asat is this and Sat is this and having the potential to obtain benefits by leaving Asat and joining Sat,  the soul is neither Sat nor Asat, but Sat-Asat. It is like the nature of the eye, that knows what darkness and Light are and yet remains separate from both.  Likewise soul is Sat-Asat.

Asat is non-intelligent; therefore, it has no ability to know Sat. By nature God exists separate and different from PAsam, He does not have to leave Asat. PAsam (fetter) does not have the ability to seize and afflict God. Thus the soul, different from God and Pasam, must abandon Asat and join Sat to gain benefits.

As analogy, Umapathi points to darkness, Light, and the eye.  Sat is like the Light; Asat is like darkness; the eyes gain vision with the light; the eyes lose sight in darkness. Sat is God; by joining Sat, the soul gains Spiritual knowledge. With help from Siva of the Radiant effulgence of Supreme Knowledge, soul, the repository of useless secular knowledge (சிற்றறிவு) can gain the great fruits of liberation, as depicted in Sivagnana Siddhiar Verse 233.

Verse 233. Souls receive enlightenment from Siva in order to perceive.

அறிந்திடும் ஆன்மா -- ஒன்றை ஒன்றினால் அறிவதானும்,

அறிந்தவை மறந்தலானும் அறிவிக்க அறிதலானும்

அறிந்திடும் தன்மையும்தான் அறியாமையானும் தானே

அறிந்திடும் அறிவன் அன்றாம்; அறிவிக்க அறிவன் அன்றே.  233.

Soul is the perceiver. One sense organ perceives one sense. What is perceived may be forgotten. Soul cannot perceive all by itself (without the sense organ). Soul has the nature of perceiving. Soul does not have the ability to know itself. The souls come to perceive because of enlightenment from the knowing God.

This is Sivanar's answer to objection by the Sankhya followers. Eye can see and yet it needs light to see. Still yet it needs the optic nerve to convey the images. Still further it needs the brain to interpret what the eye sees. Eye cannot see itself or by itself. Likewise soul can perceive the sensations only because of enlightenment form the knowing God.

 

Verse 58. God and soul are non-dual; soul needs God for Light of Wisdom.

கண்ணொளி விளக்கு அளித்தும் காட்டிடும் என்னில் முன்னம்
கண்ணொளி ஒன்றும் இன்றாம் விளக்கொளி கலந்து அற்றைக்
கண்ணொளி அகல நின்றே கண்டிடும் வேறு காணா
கண்ணொளி விளக்கின் சோதி கலந்திடும் கருத்து ஒன்று அன்றே. 58

If the assumption is that the lamp offers light to the eye, it presupposes that the eyes do not have any light. That is wrong. Remaining far away from the perceived object, the eyes perceive the lighted object. In other words, the man's eyes remaining in pitch darkness do perceive lighted objects far away from his eyes. Therefore, the eyes have intrinsic light in them, though the light of the eyes cannot perceive an object on their own accord without the light of the lamp cast on the object. When the light of the eyes and the light of the lamp combine, they are not one entity but two different entities.

This analogy brings forth the point that the soul by itself (like the eye) does have intrinsic (native) intellect. When the eyes associate with the light or the darkness, they gain sight or lose sight respectively. Likewise when the soul associates with God, it gains Divine Bliss (பேரின்பம்). When the soul associates with Malam, it gains spiritual ignorance.

Without the light of the lamp, the eyes do not see. Without the Grace of God, the soul gropes in darkness of ignorance.

When the light of the eye together with the light of the lamp sees an object, they are not one entity but two entities. Likewise, God the Soul of the soul helps the individual soul apprehend; they are not Advaitam (அத்துவிதம் = non-dual). The eyes (soul) sees lighted objects only, while the lamp (God) lights up and shows all objects.

 

Verse 59. Soul being Sat-Asat is like a crystal taking the color of the proximate object.

ஓர் இடத்து இருத்தல் மாய உருநிறைந்திடுதல் ஒன்றாம்
பேர் இடத்து உறைதல் தானே பிறங்கு அறிவாகி நிற்றல்
சோர்வுடைச் சடம்நிகழ்த்தல் எனும்இவை சொல்லார் நல்லோர்
ஓர்விடத்து உணரும் உண்மை  ஒளிதரும் உபலமபோலும். 59

Some say that the soul, remaining in one place, perceives by pervading the whole body, the product of MAyA. Some say that the soul pervades all like God and perceives. Both are inapplicable. Others say that the soul stands as a form of intellect. The sense organs  carry out their functions in its presence. This premise is faulty.  Others say that the soul has native ability to apprehend; still others say that the soul does not need to be told, instructed or guided. This again is a faulty premise. Others say that Manas and other organs confer knowledge to the soul, which is non-intelligent without Manas etc. Again a faulty premise. The virtuous ones who attained realization in Saiva Siddhanta by exploring the nature of the soul's apprehension, say that the soul is of the nature of a crystal, which shows many colors of the juxtaposed object.

The supposition that Anma or soul remains as a dewdrop in the spiritual heart means that the body does not have a wellspring of intellect. If the soul were considered to remain a limited object in space (in a circumscribed ambit), it follows that the soul has a form, does not possess intellect, and is liable to destruction. All these are faulty propositions.

Some others say that the soul perceives by pervading the whole body. That means the soul grows with the body or shrinks when the body loses weight or loses a limb. This makes it hard to explain the acquiring of five states by  the soul: awakening, dream sleep, deep sleep, Turiya and Turiyatita. It is hared to explain the inability of the five senses to simultaneously apprehend the objects.  Faulty premises and analogies: The elephant's soul is big and the ant's soul is small.

The premise that the soul is all-pervasive and all-knowing is faulty, because it takes birth in an embodied form and perishes; it has five states of existence in the phenomenal world; the soul in its body apprehends the senses one by one and not all at the same time.

If the soul were assumed to be of the Form of Intellect, the question arises why the organs do not function despite the fact that life in the body exists.

It is a faulty premise that the soul has native knowledge and does not need education. Knowledge does not arrive and abide in the soul without the help of senses and the Inner Organ (உட்பொருள்).

Others say that soul is non-intelligent, and that mind and other entities inculcate knowledge into the soul. Mind and such instruments are Jada (inert), which never at any time impart knowledge. Non-intelligent matter does not induce knowledge in non-intelligent entity.

According to Saiva Siddhanta, the soul gains knowledge upon instruction, impartation, education, demonstration, training.... Soul comes to know upon instruction. Soul is Sat-Asat (சதசத்து = சத்து-அசத்து), capable of knowing or learning both Sat and Asat. It is of the nature of taking on the color and qualities of its proximate entity as is the case of the crystal.

 

Verse 60. Five states of the soul.

2. அஞ்சவத்தை இயல்பு nature of five states of the soul

எண்ண  ஒன்று இலாது அதீதம் எய்திய துரியத்து ஒன்று
நண்ணிடும் சுழுத்தி தன்னில் நயந்துளது ஒன்று பின்னும்
அண்ணிடும் கனவு தன்னில் ஆறேழாம் சாக்கிரத்தில்
கண்  உறும் அஞ்சு ஆறாய கருவிகள் காணும் தானே. 60

In Turiyatita (துரியதீதம்) state, the soul has no organ or instrument to count (as abiding with it). When the soul attains Turiya (துரியம்) state, only Vital Air abides in it; thus this state sports only two entities. Leaving the Turiya state and arriving at Deep Sleep State (Susupti = சுழித்தி), Cittam joins the Vital Air. Leaving the Deep Sleep state and arriving at Dream Sleep state (கனவு), twenty-two Tattvas join the Cittam and Vital Air. In Awake State (Jagrat = நனவு) five sense organs and five motor organs join the twenty-five Tattvas.

 

1) Turiya-atita = துரியாதீதம்.   End of 4th State. One functional entity = soul.  (Total is one)

Turiya-atita = துரியாதீதம். = The mūlātāram, into which the soul retires in its turiyātītam. The transcendent fifth state of the soul in which it is in the mulātāram, and is cognizant of aviccai (அவிச்சை or அவித்தை= Spiritual ignorance).

 

2) Turiya = Turiya = பேருறக்கம் = துரியம்:  4th State. Two functions are present: Soul and Prana. (In all 2 Entities)

 

3) Deep Sleep =  Susupti =  சுழுத்தி = உறக்கம்  Three organs functional: Soul, Citta, and Prana. (3 entites)

 

4) Dream Sleep = Svapna = கனவு.... 25 organs are functional (25). Soul, Citta, and Prana. Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16. sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31 Voice22, grasp23, ambulation24, evacuation25, procreation26  (9 Airs): Apana, Samana, Udana, Vyana, NAga, KUrma, Krkara, Devadatta, and Dhanamjaya   (25 entities)

 

5) Wakefulness = Jagrat = சாக்கிரம்.  ( 35) Soul, Citta, and Prana.  Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16.  hearing17 touch18, Seeing19, tasting20, and smell21;  Ears, Skin, Eyes, Tongue, and Nose; Voice22, grasp23, ambulation24, evacuation25, procreation26; sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31  (9 Airs): Apana, Samana, Udana, Vyana, NAga, KUrma, Krkara, Devadatta, and Dhanamjaya  (35 entities)

 

Siva1, Sakti2,  Sadasiva3,  Isvara4,  Sadvidya5, MāyA6,  Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11, Purusa12 Prakrti Tattva13,  Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing17 tactile sense18, vision and color19, tasting20, smell21, speech22, grasp23, ambulation24, evacuation25, procreation26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30, odor31,  ether32, air33, fire34, water35 Earth36

 

Five states of the soul: Waking state, Dream Sleep State, Deep Sleep State, Turiya State, Turiyatita state.

Instruments or organs: 35 organs....., 25 organs.............three organs.......,  Two organs, only one organ.

The soul abides in......: Forehead....., neck.....................,  heart..................,   Navel........., Muladhara Chakra. 

The Chakras..............: Ajna............, Visuddha..............,  Anahata.............,    Manipura.., Muladhara Chakra.

 

Turiyatita = State beyond the 4th.  Being awake within the awake state (Jagrat in Sanskrit = சாக்கிரம் in Tamil = waking state), experiencing the other states (Svapna = Dream State = கனவு and  Susupti = Deep Sleep State = உறக்கம், and having trained the body and the breath, they attain Turiyatita (துரியதீதம்).

 

Verse 61. Caused Avasthas.

இவ்வகை அவத்தை தன்னில் எய்திடும் கரணம் எல்லாம்
மெய்வகை இடத்தில் உற்று மேவுமா கண்டு மிக்க
பொய்வகைப் பவம் அற்றப்புரிந்திடில் அருளாலால் ஆங்கே
ஐவகை அவத்தை உய்க்கும் அறிவினால் அறிந்து கொள்ளே.61

In these five Caused Avasthas (அவத்தைகள்), the senses or Tattvas have variable participation by addition, subtraction, abidance, and withdrawal. They remain in various parts of the body producing differing states. Birth and death are the anomalies of the soul, which God by His Grace removes by devising the five states of existence for the soul. Thus one should know by the said knowledge

There are three Causal Avasthas (காரணம்) and five Caused Avasthas (காரியம்). The Caused Avasthas are Jagrat, Svapna, Susupti, Turiya and Turiyatita as described above. In all there 15 Avasthas. The soul engages in many acts and moves in many levels. It ascends to higher state like Turiyatita, it descends to Jagrat. The soul acquires senses and Tattvas in one state and sheds them in another state. Caused Sakala State and Caused Suddha state are mentioned here. Descent and abidance in the lowest Avastha (சாக்கிரம்) is the cause for rebirth; ascent to highest (துரியதீதம்) Avastha means removal of cause for rebirth.

In Verse 60, the author talked about the Lower Avastha (கீழாலவத்தை). In this verse 61, he talks about Mid-Jagrat Avastha (மத்திய சாக்கிராவத்த) and Suddha Avastha in Sakala state.

 

Verse 62. The soul in Suddha Jagrat Turiyatitam state.

நீக்கம் இல் அதீதம் மாசுநிறைந்த கேவலமாம் நீர்மை
சாக்கிரம் கலாதி சேர்ந்த சகலமாம் தன்மயாகும்

நீக்கமில் இரண்டும் கூடாது ஒழிய  ஓர் நிலையில் நீடும்
சாக்கர அதீதம் சுத்தத் தகைமையது ஆகும் தானே.62

Turiyatitam remains firm (in Muladhara Chakra). Kevala State is replete with stain (of Anavam). Caused Jagrat Avastha's nature is to join with and separate from the cohorts of Kala Tattva. Separating from these two-fold Kevalam and Sakalam, combining with the Grace of God and abiding in Suddha state, the soul stands in Suddha Avastha's Jagrat Turiyatitam.

Turiyatitam is the nature of the Caused Kevala Avastha as the products of MAyA leave the soul, which, veiled by Anavam, remains in Muladhara Chakra.

 

Verse 63. The soul needs 11 instruments or Tattvas for perception; the instruments are inert on their own accord without the soul.

மருவிய பொறியல் ஒன்று மாபூதம் ஐந்தில் ஒன்றும்
கருவிகள் நான்கும் நீங்காக் கலாதிகள் ஐந்தும்கூடி
ஒருபுலன் நுகரும் இந்த   ஒழுங்கு ஒழிந்து உயிரும் ஒன்றைத்
தெரிவுறாது அவன்  ஒழிந்து அத்திரள்களும் செயல் இலாவே.63

When the soul perceive objects, one of five senses; one of five elements; four Antahkaranas Manas, Buddhi, Ahamkaram, Cittam; and five inseparable Vidya Tattvas like KalA join together and help the soul perceive and experience the world of objects. The soul does not deviate from this established order when it perceives objects. The assemblage of senses and Tattvas is not capable of function when it dissociates from the soul.

The Vidya Tattvas Kāla7, Niyati8, Kalā9, Vidya10, Rāga11 are called inseparable KalAs (நீங்காக் கலாதிகள் = inseparable entities) of the soul. These eleven instruments of the soul are essential for perception and knowledge of the soul and are not capable of perception by themselves without association with the soul.

 

Verse 64.

தனக்கு என அறிவு இலாதான் தான்இவை அறிந்து சாரான்
தனக்கு அறிவு இலாத வாயில் தான் அறியாது சார
தனக்கு என அறிவு இலாதான் தத்துவ வன்ன ரூபன்
தனககு என அறிவானால் இச்சகலமும் நுகரும் தானே.64

Soul does not have omniscient Intellect (meaning that it has only limited knowledge (சிற்றறிவு). The soul does not knowingly and spontaneously join the Tattvas, which being the portal of knowledge for the soul remain forever inert; thus, the Tattvas do not join the soul knowingly and spontaneously. (The soul is of no native intelligence and of the color of form of five Tattvas.) The soul, intrinsically non-intelligent, is of the nature of a crystal which sports the five colors of its proximate object. Siva of the nature of native omniscient intelligence, which functions without external instructions, has the power of the Knower and Experiencer of the world and is the supporter of the soul.

சிற்றறிவு = Unsound, imperfect knowledge or understanding; புல்லறிவு. 2. Limited knowledge; சுருங்கிய அறிவு. Limited knowledge of the soul as acquired by the senses.

 

அவிகாரவாதம் சிவாத்துவிதம் என்பவற்றை மறுத்தல்

Verse 65. Siva does not perceive on behalf of the soul. Eternally, Siva is the teacher and the soul is the pupil.

கண்டு உணர் புலன்கள் காணும் கருத்தினால் ஒருத்தன் ஞானம்
கொண்டு உளம் அறியும் என்னில் கொள்பவன் முதலி ஆகும்
மண்டிய உணர்வு உயிர்க்கா மன்னி நின்று அறியும் என்னில்
உண்டிட வேண்டு வானுக்கு ஒருவன் வேறு உண்டல் ஆமே.65

The soul gains knowledge by perception and experiencing of objects by senses of sight, hearing, tasting, eating, smelling... If one were to hold the view that the soul perceives with the help of Siva's Intellect, it leads to a false premise that the soul becomes the primary perceiver. In other words, the false premise is that Siva's Great Intellect becomes the instrument of the soul which is the master and wielder of Siva's Intellect. That is not so. If Siva were to perceive on behalf of the soul, it is as if a (first) person eats to appease the hunger of another man (second person). That is not right either.

Soul of limited intellect learns only when taught by Siva of plenitudinous Intellect. Soul of limited intellect (சிற்றறிவு) perceives objects through senses as Siva of Omniscience (முற்றறிவு) instructs, informs, educates, explains....The debunked false premise is that the soul with limited intelligence utilizes the Supreme Plenitudinous Intellect of Siva and that Siva perceives on behalf of the unintelligent soul.

சிற்றறிவு ciṟṟaṟivu , n. < id. + அறிவு. 1. Unsound, imperfect knowledge or understanding; புல்லறிவு. 2. Limited knowledge; சுருங்கிய அறிவு. றுகு_ciṟṟaṟuku"> சிற்றறுகு ciṟṟaṟuku

 

 

Verse 66. Irul, Porul, Marul, Arul, and Terul = இருள், பொருள், மருள், அருள், தெருள்

இருள் நனி இரவி தான்வந்து இரித்தலும் இரவில் எண்ணும்
பொருள் நிலை கண்டு மாந்தர் பொருந்திடு மாறு போல
மருள் நிலை எங்கும் நீங்க மகிழ்ந்து உயிர் தன்னுள் மன்னும்
அருளையும் ஒழிய ஞாலத்து அறிந்தவாறு அறியும் அன்றே.66

Irul, Porul, Marul, Arul, and Terul = இருள், பொருள், மருள், அருள், தெருள் = Darkness, Objects, Confusion and delusion, Grace, and Divine Knowledge. Siva removes the darkness of Anavam, reveals objects, extirpates confusion and delusion of the souls, confers Grace on the soul and is the repository of Divine Knowledge.

Night brings inactivity. As the sun rises, the objects become visible; people go about doing their work; they do not think of the sun and its help. Instead of thinking that it is because of the sun, darkness dissipated and objects are made visible, they arrogate to themselves all their daytime accomplishments.  In like manner Siva gives Grace to the soul to remove the veil of darkness of Anavam, so that the soul perceives and experience the world by means of the senses. Forgetting the Grace of Siva, the embodied souls think they are the doers.

The sun by illuminating the world of object does not undergo any transformation. Likewise, Siva activizes the soul and the world without undergoing any transformation.

 

Verse 67.

அறிந்திடும் மனாதி வாயில் ஆனவை அவன் தனாலே
அறிந்திடும் என்றும் ஒன்றும் அறிந்திடா அவைபோல் யாவும்
அறிந்திடும் அறியும் தன்மை அறிந்திட கன்மத்தொன்மை
அறிந்து அவை நுகருமாறும் அருளுவன் அமலன் தானே.67

Soul perceives with the help of Anatakaranas like Mind, and the organs such as Body, Mouth, Eyes, Nose, and Ears. These Tattvas do not know that they perceive because of the soul. They do not perceive themselves. Likewise, the soul, both in bonded and liberated state (கட்டு நிலை, முத்தி நிலை), perceives because of Siva, though the soul does not realize this fact. Siva brings together the soul and the fruits of Karma in accordance with the past Karma so that the soul experiences the fruits. That God is Amalan the Pure One. (Malas or impurities do not afflict God = Amalan.)

 

Sivagnana Siddhiar in his verse 231 says the following.

Verse 231. Omniscient and all-pervasive Siva is the knower and activizer of the soul.

பொறி, புலன் கரணம் எல்லாம் புருடனால், அறிந்து ஆன்மாவை

அறிதரா அவையே போல, ஆன்மாக்கள் அனைத்தும் எங்கும்

செறிதரும் சிவந்தனாலே அறிந்திடும்; சிவனைக்காணா

அறிதரும் சிவனே எல்லாம் அறிந்து அறிவித்தும் நிற்பன். 231

Motor, sensory and inner organs apprehend with the help of Purutan or the soul, though these organs do not by themselves perceive the activizing soul. All the souls perceive the world on account of the all-pervasive Siva. And yet the soul does not perceive the soul-activizing principle that is Siva. Omniscient Siva who confers knowledge to and stands by the souls.

 

4. ஞான வாய்மை

Verse 68. By Chariyai, Kriyai and Tapas, one attains Grace of His sacred Feet.

காட்டிடும் கரணம் ஒன்றும் இல்லையேல் காண் ஒணாதாம்
நாட்டிய  இவற்றால் ஞானம் நணுகவும் ஒண்ணா முன்னம்
ஈட்டிய தவத்தனாலே இறை அருள் உருவாய் வந்து
கூட்டிடும் இவற்றை நீக்கிக் குரைகழல் குறுகும் ஆறே.68
The soul cannot perceive if not for the senses. The soul in association with the senses cannot approach and apprehend the Supreme Reality. Because of the Tapas (austerity) of the past life, Siva appears in the form of Grace, remove the attached senses and confers Grace for the soul to attain His sacred Feet.

The soul without senses and instruments of the body is in Kevala state (incorporeal). With the acquisition of the body, organs and instruments, the soul perceives the world of objects; that is Sakala state; in this state, the soul does not perceive the Supreme Reality.  How are we to perceive God? By austerity. That state is Suddha State. Because of Austerity in the past life, God assumes the form of Grace, and Guru and takes the soul to His sacred Feet. The austerity consists of Chariya, Kriyai and Yogam.

 

Verse 69. Siva Jnanam superior to Pasu Jnanam and PAsa Jnanam.

பல்நிறம் கவரும் தொன்மைப் படிகநீடு ஒளியும் பன்மை
மன்  இலங்கு இயல்பும் தந்த வளர் ஒளி போல வையம்
தன்னகம் பயிலும் நற்சிற் சடங்களின் தன்மை தாவா
நன்னலம் பெற நிறைந்த ஞானமே ஞானம் என்பர். 69

Crystal is of the nature of capturing the many colors of the proximate object and shows off its own color too. These two aspects of crystal's nature happens when it is immersed in the light of the sun. Likewise, the soul should shed the two aspects of the nature of the learning Cit and the Acit, rise above these two, and acquire the goodness of plenitudinous Wisdom, which is the Wisdom Par Excellence.

 

Crystal is colorless. It acquires red color of the rose proximate to it. Sun is necessary for the crystal to shine and show the color of the proximate rose. Siva Jnanam is necessary for the soul to show its own nature and the nature of proximate PAsam (fetter). The good nature of Pasu Jnanam is native to the soul. PAsam is inert and offers the knowledge of PAsam. PAsam is the proximate cause of the color of the soul-crystal. Pati Jnanam is superior to PAsa Jnanam and Pasu Jnanam. Pati Jnanam is Siva Jnanam, the Wisdom of all wisdoms and superior to all other wisdoms.

 

Sun Light is Siva Jnanam, the Supreme Wisdom of Siva. Cit is the good Pasu Jnanam, the knowledge acquired by the soul through the senses.  There is the proximate fetter--PAsa Jnanam. PAsa Jnanam is actually a misnomer. PAsam is fetter or bondage. What kind of knowledge can an inert object have?  Since Pasam is considered in the context of the Most Excellent Pati Jnanam and good Pasu Jnanam, PAsam received the complementary appendage, Jnanam.

The Crystal by itself is pure and stainless; its native quality is refraction.  The proximate adjunct colors and stains it. Likewise removing the Proximate PAsa Jnanam and the good native Pasu Jnanam, and acquiring Siva Jnanam are essential for liberation.

 

Crystal: two qualities = native refraction and showing the color of the proximate object, rose.

Soul: two qualities = native Pasu Jnanam and the coloring Pasa Jnanam.

 

Verse 70. MAyA and Karma cause confusion and darkness to the soul; the soul without them gets Grace.

மாயைமா மாயை மாயா வரும் இரு வினையின் வாய்மை
ஆயஆர் உயிரில் மேவும் மருள் எனில் இருளாய் நிற்கும்
மாயைமா மாய  மாயா வரும் இருவினையின் வாய்மை
ஆயஆர் உயிரில் மேவும் அருள் எனில்  ஒளியாய் நிற்கும்.70

MAyai comes to the soul according to the Karma and causes confusion and envelopes the soul as Darkness. When the soul sheds Karma and MAyA, Grace descends on the soul, which shines as effulgence.

MAyai, its products and the fruits of Karma will conform to the state of the soul. When the soul acquires the name of bound Pasu, MAyai and the rest stand as the Malam (impurity) of the soul. When the soul sheds the Malams and acquires Grace, the MAyA sheds what is called Malam and stands as the effulgent Grace.

 

Soul + (MAyA+ Karma) = Soul in Marul and Irul (மருள் = confusion; இருள் = Darkness).

Soul - (MAyA + Karma) + (Arul) = Effulgent soul. (அருள் = Grace).

 

 Verse 71. Self-Realization, Divine Grace, Soul's native intelligence are the Wisdom's benefits.

தேசுற மருவும் ஆன்ம தெரிசனம் ஆன்ம சுத்தி
ஆசிலா ஆன்ம லாபம் ஆகமூன்று ஆகும்மூன்றும்
பாசம் அது அகல ஞானம் பற்றல் தான் பணியை நீத்தல்
ஏசில் நெயத்து அழுந்தல் எனும் இவற்று அடங்கும் அன்றே.71

Jnanam's benefits are three: Anma Dharisanam, Anma Suddhi, Anma Lapam.  Anma Dharisanam is eradication of PAsam and acquisition of Supreme Jnanam by the soul. Anma Suddhi is relinquishment of its deeds and ego and taking the path of God. Anma Lapam is to immerse oneself in SivapOkam.

JnAnam = ஞானம் = Spiritual wisdom or knowledge.  Anma Dharisanam = ஆன்மதரிசனம் = Soul's perception of itself, self-realization; ஆன்மாவின் நிலையை அறிகை. A spiritual experience of the soul. Anma Suddhi = ஆன்மசுத்தி = Soul's realizing Divine grace as its mainstay. Anma Lapam = ஆன்மலாபம் = soul in which, when freed from corruption, it discovers that its form is intelligence. SivapOkam = சிவபோகம் = Spiritual experience of the soul in which it merges its individuality in Šiva, the Supreme Being.

தசகாரியம் taca-kāriyam : cutti, āmarūpam, āmataricaam, āma- cutti, civarūpam, civataricaam, civayōkam, civapōkam; தத்துவரூபம், தத்துவதரிசனம், தத்துவ சுத்தி, ஆன்மரூபம், ஆன்மதரிசனம், ஆன்மசுத்தி, சிவ ரூபம், சிவதரிசனம், சிவயோகம், சிவபோகம் என்ற ஆன்மாநுபவ நிலைகள். 2. The three Šaiva Siddhānta treatises by Ampalavāa-tēcikar.

 

Verse 72. ஆன்மதரிசனம் = Self-realization of the soul.

1. ஆன்ம தரிசனம் Self-realization.

தன் அறிவு அதனால் ஏதும் தனக்கு அறிவு இல்லை யேனும்
தன் அறிவு வாக எல்லாம் தனித்தனி பயன் அருந்தும்
தன்னறிவு அறியும் தன்மை தன்னாலே தனை அறிந்தால்
தன்னையும் தானே காணும் தான் அனது ஆகிநின்றே.72

Soul by its native intelligence cannot apprehend objects, though the soul, through the intermediation of sense organs can experience the fruits. When the soul attains the nature to know itself, the soul will perceive itself.

When does the soul get the intellect to know itself? Once the soul attains maturity by knowing that the senses and organs are inert, that they are different and separate from the soul, and that the guiding light of the soul is Grace of Siva, the soul acquires Gnosis. This is known as Anma Dharisanam or Self-realization (ஆன்மதரிசனம்) of the soul.

 

Verse 73. Anma Suddhi and Suddha Jnanam.

தத்துவம் ஆன வற்றின் தன்மைகள் உளுணரும் காலை
உய்த்து உனைந்திட உதிப்பது ஒளிவளர் ஞானம் ஆகும்
அத்தன்மை அறிவும் ஆறும் அகன்றிட  அதுவாய் ஆன்மா
சுத்தமாம் சுத்த ஞானத்து ஒருமுதல் தோன்றும் அன்றே.73

When apprehending the nature of Anma Tattvas, there dawns effulgent Wisdom (Knowledge obtained by study, observation or research). Anma Suddhi (Purification of the soul, by realization of Divine Grace) takes place when the soul loses its natural state of apprehension and self-consciousness; now the Suddha Jnanam dawns on the soul.

The one who knows the soul is JnAtha (ஞாதா); soul's limited knowledge is Jnanam (ஞானம்); Siva-realization is JnEyam (ஞேயம்).

ஞாதா = Wise person. That which ought to be known.

ஞேயம் = God, as the chief objective of knowledge. Objects of knowledge, things to be known, perceived, experienced.

 

Verse 74.

உறைதரும் உணர்வும் அன்றி அதன்முதல் உள்ளது என்று இங்கு
அறைவது  என் என்னில் அண்ணல் அருள் எனும் அதுவே அன்றி
நிறை ஒளி முதல் அது அன்றி நின்றிடா நிமலன்  ஆகும்
இறைவன் முதல் அவன் தன் இலங்கு அருள் சத்தி ஆமே.74

Soul knows itself as different and separate from the Tattvas. That perception of the soul is conferred by Grace of Siva. That being so why should one hold the view that the gnosis has a hypostasis? Grace of Annal  (Siva) being Gnosis is a Guna, which does not stand on its own. There is a owner of Grace or Guna. That Reality is Sivam.  This Supreme Being is eternal and Ninmalan (of no impurity). Therefore God is the First One, whose brilliant Grace is Sakti.

Grace abides in Siva. Siva and Grace are One. Siva and Sakti are One. Siva and Grace do not stand apart. Sun and light are one. they do not stand apart.

Sivagnana Siddhiar verse 239 depicts the above theme.

Verse 239. Siva is Sakti; Sakti is Siva. He gives Grace by destroying illusion as the sun drives out the darkness.

Siva is Sakti; Sakti is Siva. Terul Siva confers Arul by destroying Marul as the sun drives out Irul.

அருளது சத்தி ஆகும், அரன்தனக்கு; அருளை இன்றித்

தெருள்சிவம் இல்லை; அந்த சிவம் இன்றிச் சத்தி இல்லை;

மருளினை அருளினால் வாட்டி மன் உயிர்க்கு அளிப்பன் -- கண்கட்கு

இருளினை ஒளியால் ஓட்டும் இரவியப் போல --ஈசன்.  239.

Grace is Sakti. That is the Nature of Siva: giving Grace. Without Grace, there is no Siva's wisdom (தெருள்சிவம்).  Without Siva, there is no Sakti. As the sun drives out the darkness for the eyes to see, He destroys Marul (மருள் = confused vision or illusion) by Grace (அருள்)  which He confers to the soul.

I cannot fail to notice the alliteration: Irul, Marul, Terul and Arul (இருள், மருள், தெருள், அருள் = Darkness, Illusion, Wisdom, and Grace). Darkness and Illusion are the afflictions of the soul which cast a veil around the soul. Wisdom and Grace of Siva lifts this obscurant veil and lets the Light of Wisdom of Siva touch and enlighten the soul.

The sun removes the external darkness; likewise the veil of darkness by the impurities are destroyed by the Light of Wisdom of Siva.

 

Verse 75.

சுத்தமாம் சத்தி ஞானச் சுடராகும் சிவம் ஒழிந்து அச்
சத்திதான் இன்றாம் முன்னைத் தகவு இலா மலங்கள் வாட்டி
அத்தனை அருளும் எங்கும் அடைந்திடும் இருள் அகற்றி
வைத்திடும் இரவி காட்டும் வளர்  ஒளி போல் மகிழ்ந்தே.75

Sakti is Pure Light of Wisdom or Gnosis. There is no Sakti without Sivam. Sakti scorches the worthless Malams. It drives out the darkness of Malams. Sakti's Grace pervades everywhere. Sakti-Grace confers happiness as the rising effulgence of the Light of the sun.

Sakti is the power of Siva. Sivam and Sakti are one. They are not different (அபின்னம்). The Malams are worthless (தகவு இலா) because they cause affliction of the soul besides enveloping the soul with nescience.

Siva removes the internal darkness of the soul. By scorching the Malams, Siva prevents return of the Malams into the soul.

 

Verse 76. SivasamavAdhis wish to act like Siva, which is not a virtuous wish.

புகல் அரும் அசத்தர் தம்பால் பொருந்திய  அலகையே போல்
அகிலமும் உணரும் ஈசன் அருள் உயிர் மேவ லாலே
சகலமும் நிகழ வேண்டும் தலைவன் ஐந்தொழிலும் தானே
இகல அற  இயற்றல் வேண்டும் என்றது நன்றி இன்றே.76

We see demoniacal people lose their intellect and roam around acting and behaving like demons. people who attained the Grace of omniscient Siva act like the demonic people and want to be as omniscient about the world as Siva is and also acquire the power of five functions of Siva. That is not a virtuous wish.

SivasamavAdhis are of the view expressed above.

 

Verse 77. The lesser soul cannot perform the five functions of Siva, though infused with the Grace of Siva, Will, Knowledge and Action.

இன்றுநோக்கு உரை நடக்கும் இயல்பு இலோற்கு இனைய வாய்ந்து
நின்றதோர் அலகை நேர்ந்தால் நிகழ்வ து என் அதுபோல் உள்ளது
ஒன்றிய உணர்வு தம்பால் உள்ளது நிகழ்த்தும் ஈசன்
தன் தொழில் நடத்தும் மேனி தனக்குஎனக் கொண்டு தானே.77

If a demon seizes the one with blindness, muteness, and lameness, what will happen to the person? Still he would not be able to see, talk or walk, because the deficiency for such acts preexists in the person; therefore, the deficiencies would not leave him. Siva's Grace abiding in the soul, does impart intelligence in accordance with Will, Knowledge and Action; the soul would not gain anything more than these. The soul (though it acquired Will, Knowledge and Action through the Grace of Siva) will not be able to perform the five functions of Siva with the Grace-body.

The soul as a deficient and defective entity compared to omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, plenitudinous Supreme Reality, is not capable of performing the five functions (Creation, Preservation, Destruction, Obscuration and Grace) of the Lord, though the soul is infused with Sivaness or Sivahood. 

 

Verse 78. Suddha State is described.

இந்நிலை தன்னில் மன்னி எய்திடும் கலாதி போதம்
தன் அளவு அறிந்து நிற்கும் தகவுஇலா மலங்கள் நீத்த
அந்நிலை கரணம் ஆகா வகை அதில் அறிவு அடங்கி
மன்னிட வியாபி யாய வான்பயன் தோன்றம் அன்றே78

The soul in Sakala state acquires whatever limited and circumscribed knowledge coming from Tattvas like KalA. When the soul jettisons the worthless Malams, it acquires Grace from Siva; that state is Suddha State, wherein the soul does not hold any Karanas. The soul abides inside Grace and subsequently unlimited pervasive knowledge and Divine Bliss shine.

Unless Egoim subsides, the cycle of Karma does not end. Unless Karma drops off the soul, the senses hold the sway over the soul. To eradicate Karma, it is essential to desist from work that accrues  Karma and perform work in the service of God.

வான்பயன் =  The fruits of Supreme Divine Bliss (பேரின்பம்), enjoyed by the soul in association with Grace and in the liberated state.

 

Verse 79.

அடைபவர் சிவமே ஆகும் அதுவன்றித் தோன்றும் என்ற
கடன் அது என் என்னில் முன்னம் கண்டிடார் தம்மைப் பின்னும்
தொடர்வு அரும் அருளினாலும் தோன்றுமா காணார் ஆயின்
உடையவன் அடிசேர் ஞானம் உணர்தல் இன்று அணைதல் இன்றே.79

The perfected soul should become Sivam, at the end of the path to Sivam. One may question as to whether there is any other alternative. The soul before attainment of Grace was in a state of not knowing itself. Before the onset of Grace, the soul did not possess self-cognition. After the induction of Grace into the soul, which severs connection with the preceding state, the soul attains self-cognition and yet neither realizes nor embraces Gnosis.

In the state of Mukti (முத்தி), the soul has self-cognition and knowledge of Grace and attains the bliss of liberation. If the soul does not possess self-cognition and does not know its own true nature, how could the soul cognize Grace? If the soul does not have self-cognition, there is no way soul realizes the Siva-Jnanam.

What is the meaning of Sayujyam (சாயுச்சியம்), (condition in which the soul becomes absorbed in god-head, the highest state), when there is neither an aspirant nor an attainment?

 

Verse 80. Transcending Kevala and Sakala states, soul acquires Cirparam and becomes one with Tharparam.

பொற்புறு கருவி யாவும் புணராமே அறிவிலாமல்
சொற்பெறும் ஆதீதம் வந்து தோன்றாமே தோன்றி நின்ற
சிற்பரம் அதனால் உள்ளச் செயல் அறுததிட  உதிக்கும்
தற்பரம் ஆகி நிற்றல் சாக்கிராதீதம் தானே.80

In Kevala state, the soul has not experienced the sense instruments. The soul remained ignorant in Kevala state and in Sakala state. Going beyond and transcending the two states of Kevalam and Sakalam, Ci-Param (சிற்பரம்) dawns. With the advent of Ci-Param, the soul relinquishes its work and becomes one with Thaparam (தற்பரம்); Sakira AthItham dawns.

 

Kevala Avastha is the incorporeal state wherein there is no body and thus there is no experiencing by the senses. When the soul becomes corporeal with endowment of body, organs and senses, it leaves the Kevala state and goes into Sakala State. It is like the incorporeal soul leaving the dark tunnel of Kevala state and entering into the light of Sakala state in a corporeal form. In the incorporeal Kevala state the soul was bound and gagged by Anavam; in the Sakala state, it acquired a body, instruments and organs to experience the world of objects. Anavam is still the tormentor of the soul in Sakala state. The dim light of Sakala state is far better than the dingy darkness of Kevala state. Going beyond Kevalam and Sakalam, CiParam dawns on the soul. SAkirA-tItam is transcending Kevala and Sakala states and remaining in transcendent state within Jagrat or waking state.

 

சிற்பரம் = Siva-Jnanam. Wisdom of Siva. Knowledge-Truth.

தற்பரம் = Supreme Being.

சாக்கிரம் = Waking state in which the soul is in the forehead with all its faculties active

சாக்கிராதீதம் = சாக்கிரத்திற்றுரியாதீதம் =  Turiyatitam in waking state. = Condition of the soul while in waking state, in which breathing is suspended and consciousness is utterly lost, as when a person is stunned by a sudden shock.

 

In the awake state, there are 6 subdivisions as listed below.

 

Sakiram1--Sakiram in Sakiram2--Soppanam in Sakiram3 --Suziththi in Sakiram4--Turiyam in Sakiram5 --Turiyatitam in Sakiram6.  = Awake state1--Awake in Awake state2--Dream in awake state3 -- Deep sleep in Awake state4--Turiyam in awake state5 --Turiyatitam in awake state6.

 

Sakiram1 Sakiram in Sakiram2 Soppanam in Sakiram Suziththi in Sakiram4 Turiyam in Sakiram5 Turiyatitam in Sakiram6
Awake state1 Awake in Awake state2 Dream in awake state3 Deep sleep in Awake state4 Turiyam in awake state5 Turiyatitam in awake state6

 

Tamil Lexicon and dsal.uchicago.edu.

சாக்கிரம1 cākkiram , jāgrat. (Phil.) Waking state in which the soul is in the forehead with all its faculties active.

சாக்கிரத்திற்சாக்கிரம்2  (Šaiva.) Condition of the soul while in waking state, in which all its powers are in full play, as when a person is alert and wide awake; ஆன்மா தத்துவதாத்துவிகங் களோடு கூடி விடயங்களை அனுபவிக்கும் அவசரம். (ஞானா. கட். 30.)

சாக்கிரத்திற்சொப்பனம3 (Šaiva.) Condition of the soul while in waking state, in which breathing and consciousness exist and the mental powers are dreamily active, as when a person has vague thoughts and memories; ஆன்மா சித்தத் துடனும் பிராணாதி வாயுவுடனுங்கூடி அறிவுணர்ச்சி முதலியன தெளிவின்றி நிகழும் அவசரம். (ஞானா. கட். 30.)

சாக்கிரத்திற்சுழுத்தி4 (Šaiva.) Condition of the soul while in waking state, in which breathing and consciousness are not lost but the mental powers are not roused to full activity, as when a person loses thought and memory; ஆன்மா சித் தத்துடனும் பிராணவாயுவுடனுங்கூடி அறிவுணர்ச்சி முதலியன அடங்கி நிற்கும் அவசரம். (ஞானா. கட். 30.)

சாக்கிரத்திற்றுரியம்5 (Šaiva.) Condition of the soul while in waking state, in which consciousness is lost and breathing is low, as when a person is half stunned by a sudden shock; ஆன்மா சித்த மழிந்து பிராணவாயு சிறிதே இயங்கி நிற்கும் அவசரம். (ஞானா. கட். 30.)

சாக்கிரத்திற்றுரீயாதீதம6 = சாக்கிரத்திலதீதம்  (Šaiva.) Condition of the soul while in waking state, in which breathing is suspended and consciousness is utterly lost, as when a person is stunned by a sudden shock; ஆன்மா விடயங்களை யனுபவிக்கிறவேளையில் பிராணவாயுவும் இயங்காமல் ஒன்றையும் அறியாமல் மூர்ச்சித்து மயங்கி நிற்கும் அவசரம். (ஞானா. கட். 29.)

Verse 81. Give up egoism and desire for action; and subside in Siva-Jnanam.

ஒடுங்கிடா கரணம் தாமே ஒடுங்குமாறு உணர்ந்து ஒடுக்க
ஒடுங்கிடும் என்னில் நின்றது ஒடுங்கிடா கரணம் எல்லாம்
ஒடுங்கிட ஒடுங்க உள்ள உணர்வுதான் ஒழியும் வேறாய்

ஒடுங்கிடில் அன்றி மற்ற  உண்மையை உணராணாதே. 81

The sense instruments are of the nature bent on experiencing the world of objects. Some hold the view that if one controls them consciously, the senses would not run amuck. Controlling the senses by conscious intent is not possible. The truth is that the soul will revert back to Kevala state, once the senses are controlled with the resultant loss of knowledge. Subsidence in Siva's Supreme Divine Bliss without reversal to Kevala state and abiding in it without egoism is noteworthy. This Truth is not realizable to the one not subsiding in Siva-Jnanam.

 

When one considers controlling the senses, one becomes conscious that he is the controlling agent and thus egoism comes into play. Egoism defeats the purpose of suppression of the senses.

If in truth the senses are controlled, the import is that the soul attained the Kevala State, which is deprived of Desire, Knowledge and Action; the soul lays in Kevala state in the form of ignorance. God by His compassion gave the soul a body, organs and senses in order to inculcate some knowledge in the soul.  To let the soul revert back to Kevala state is not progress but regress.

How are we to prevent the senses from interacting with the world of objects? For that to happen the senses should transcend the Kevala and Sakala states, immerse in Sivaness, abrogate egoism and thus reach a state of suspension of action.

 

Verse 82. Utter humility of egoless soul guarantees cessation of birth.

பற்றிடும் கருவி யாவும் படர்ந்து உணர்வு அளிக்கும் காலை
உற்று அறிந்திடுவது ஒன்றின் உணர்வினின் உண்மை ஆகும்
மற்றது பகல்விளக்கின் மாய்ந்திட வருவ து உண்டேல்
பெற்றிடும் அதனை மாயப் பிறப்பினை அறுக்க லாமே.82

The soul gains knowledge with the outreaching external senses. That is limited circumscribed knowledge, known as EkadEsa knowledge. The light in the lamp remains in its dim state under the high-noon sun; thus the soul's knowledge remains dim in the presence of the Great Effulgence of Siva's wisdom; When the soul attains the state of egoless humility in the presence of effulgent Siva that is the recipe for cutting asunder the MAyA birth of the soul in corporeal form.

 

சுட்டறிவு = That kind of intellect by which it apprehends on object or entity in one timeframe. This is circumscribed knowledge. It is knowing an object by its genus, species and other parameters. It is direct knowledge of an object obtained with the aid of the external senses: eyes, ears.... It is the knowledge of the soul obtained by the senses as opposed the intrinsic pure knowledge of the Soul (அறிவிக்குமறிவு). It is opposed to Sutta Chaitanya (Pure Intelligence) of Pathi (Siva).

ஏகதேசி = EkadEsi = That which is found only within a limited area; a delimited object.  GuNa = குண = Attribute. GuNi = குணி = Object, possessing attributes.

ஏகதேசி = EkadEsi = That which is found only within a limited area; a delimited objectஏகாதேசம் =  ēka-tēcam Contextual meaning is Asuddha Tattva or Impure Tattvas.  That which is inferior; One side; Small degree; Rareness, scarceness = ஏக தேசமாக அங்கே அது கிடைக்கும். ; Anomaly, difference; Blunder, mistake, discrepancy, inconsistency; Unevenness = சம மின்மை. இந்த நிலம் ஏகதேசமாயிருக்கிறது.; Abuse = நிந்தை = reproach  அவன் என்னை ஏகதேசமாகப் பேசினான்.; That which is inferior, low in rank or character = நிந்தை. அவன் என்னை ஏகதேசமாகப் பேசினான்.

 

Knowledge derived by MAyA-begotten senses and organs are subject to limitation (EkAdesam); that is like the light in the lamp. The dim light of the lamp neither dies nor loses its speck of light and yet announces its egoistic validity in the presence of limitless radiant splendor of the sun.  The immersion of the egoless soul in the effulgent splendor of Sivapprakasam (Siva's Brilliance) is the road to Divine Bliss.

 

Pasu Jnanam is limited knowledge, circumscribed knowledge, a knowledge limited in time and space. It is EkAdesam, one-place knowledge.  It is like the light of the lamp confined to a limited area in space, place, and time. Siva Jnanam is முற்றறிவு, வியாபக அறிவு, and பதி ஞானம் (Plenitudinous Knowledge, Pervasive Knowledge, and Pati Jnanam). Siva Jnanam is High-noon Splendor.

Tirumantram Verse 121:

வித்தைக் கெடுத்து வியாக்கிரத் தேமிகச்

சுத்தத் துரியம் பிறந்து துடக்கற்ற

ஒத்துப் புலன் உயிர் ஒன்றாய் உடம்போடு

செத்திட்டிருப்பர் சிவயோகி யார்களே. 121.

V121: Having destroyed the seed of rebirth, and becoming dead to the world of senses, body, and life, the Sivayogis, although living nominally, attain to Turiya state of consciousness. (Sivayogis attain Jivan Mukti, liberation while alive.)

 

Verse 83. Guru comes to a soul when the soul is ripe.

முந்திய ஒருமை யாலே மொழிந்தவை கேட்டல் கேட்டல்
சிந்தனை செய்தல் உண்மை தெளிந்திடல் அது தானாக
வந்தவாறு எய்தல் நிட்டை மருவுதல் என்று நான்காம்
இந்தவாறு உடைந்தோர் முத்தி எய்திய இயல்பினோரே. 83

On account of the previous meritorious acts, one stands focused; a Guru comes along to teach the nature of the three entities and the Truth. Hearing the Truth from the Guru. Hearing from the Guru is the first; deliberation of what is heard from the Guru is second; knowing the Truth from what is heard is the third; attaining oneness with the Supreme Reality in meditation is the fourth: these are the ways of attaining Mukti. The ones who abide in these will obtain Mukti.

Siddhanta does not approve of Tapas of privation such as self-inflicted physical punishment as in flagellation, body piercing; subjecting the body to starvation; lying on hot slabs of granite; immersion of the body in ice-cold waters; standing for long periods in cold waters. Saiva Siddhanta recommends stepwise fourfold path: Chariyai, Kiriya, Yogam and Jnanam. To the ones who became mature in the previous birth, Siva will appear as Guru.

 

Verse 84. Pati Jnanam is superior to Pasu and PAsa Jnanam and comes to the soul by the Grace of Siva.

பாசமா ஞானத் தாலும் படர்பசு ஞானத் தாலும்
ஈசனை உணர ஒண்ணாது இறை அருள் ஞானம் நண்ணித்
தேசுறும் அதனால் முன்னைச் சிற்றறிவு ஒழிந்து சேர்ந்து
நேசமோடு உயர் பரத்து நிற்பது ஞான நிட்டை.84

By PAsa Jnanam and Pasu Jnanam, one would not be able to realize Siva. One should seek Siva's Arul Jnanam. By the Grace of Sakti, erstwhile limited knowledge leaves and the Jnana Nittai comes in its place.

Pati Jnanam comes only by Grace of Siva. Jnana Nittai is the state of Turiyatitam mentioned elsewhere.

 

Verse 85.

விளம்பிய வகையில் நிட்டை மேவிடல் அரிதேல் முன்னம்
அளந்து அறிவு அளித்து அவற்றின் அளவும் மற்று அவற்றினாலே
உளம்கொளும் தனையும் உள்ள படியும் உற்று உணர்ந்து செவ்வே
தளர்ந்திடாது உவப்ப மற்ற அத் தன்மையது  ஆகும் தானே. 85

Jnana Nittai is that which has been described. Attainment is difficult. The soul has to evaluate and understand the world of objects by the Tattvas at the disposal of the soul. One should know the limitations of these objects and abandon them. One should abandon the fruits that come from such objects. One should realize that God is the hypostasis of all that exists. One should realize the nature of His Grace, develop abiding love for Him, and take hold of His sacred Feet. If one follows this course, Jnana Nittain will be a reality.

 

Verse 86. Clinging to the Feet of Siva to the exclusion of Meditation is the best way to attain Him.

பாவிக்கில் மனாதி வேண்டும் பயன் இலை கரணம் நீத்துப்
பாவிப்பன் என்னில் என்ன பழுது உள பாவகத்தால்
பாவிக்க ஒண்ணான் என்று பாவிப்பன் என்னில் நீஎன்
பாவிக்க வேண்டா ஆண்ட பரன் அருள் பற்றி னோர்க்கே.86

For meditation, mind and the rest are necessary. Meditation without Karanam is not useful. The soul without Karanam will revert back to Kevala Avastha. That is a blemish. If God were beyond the reach of meditation, the sentiment of meditation does not leave you. That endeavor will not falter. The ones who cling to the Sacred Feet of Siva, do not need to meditate with the help of Guru's initiation.

 

1) God is beyond all Karanas or senses and instruments. Saying that one could meditate on God with Manas is a faulty proposition. What is the other means? 2) Could one meditate without the need of Karanam?  Soul without Karanam is reverting back to Kevala state. Ignorance is the hallmark of the soul in Kevala state. In Sakala state with Karanam in place, the soul obtains limited knowledge. 3) The third proposition is that one could meditate on God beyond meditation. That is presumptuous and puts one's ego ahead of God.

The ones who cling to the Sacred Feet of Siva, do not need to meditate with the help of Guru's initiation.

here is what Sivanar says about meditation and clinging to the Sacred Feet of Siva.

 Verse 246. True meditation is knowing the Supreme Siva by abiding in His Grace in an undifferentiated state.

பாவிப்பது ன்னின் பாவம்; பாவகம் கடக்கின் பாவம்

பாவிக்கும் துநான் ன்னின் பாவகம்; பாவம் கெட்டுப்

பாவிப்பது ன்னின் பாவம் பாவனை இறந்து நின்று

பாவிக்கப் படுவதாகும் -- பரம்பரன் அருளினாலே. 246

By BhAva (meditation) one gains direct knowledge of an object with the help of mind and other instruments. Thus it is subject to destruction and therefore serves no useful purpose. BhAva without the participation of mind etc. refers to soul in Kevala state and serves no useful purpose.  Leaving aside these two, meditation is impossible and of no avail.  If one says that he is reaching an unattainable object by meditation, it is of no avail. True meditation is knowing the Supreme Siva by abiding in His Grace in an undifferentiated state.

The Yoga proponents say that Siva is realizable by the path of Yogic meditation, the concept of which is debunked.

 

பரமுத்தியின் இயல்பு: The nature of Supreme Salvation

Verse 87. Obtaining non-dual state with Siva is liberation.

ஒன்று இரண்டு ஆகி ஒன்றின் ஒருமையாம் இருமை ஆகி
ஒன்றில் ஒன்று அழியும் ஒன்றாது என்னில் ஒன்று ஆகா தீயில்
ஒன்று இறிரும்பு உறழின் அன்றாம் உயிரின் ஐந்தொழிலும் வேண்டும்
ஒன்றி நின்று உணரும் உண்மைக்கு உவமை ஆணவத் தொடு ஒன்றே.87

In this verse, Umapathi Sivanar answers the question whether the Supreme Reality and the soul are one or different. 1) If one becomes two, then the two must be of identical nature. Since it is not so, this opinion is invalid. 2) If the soul and God are considered as distinct and different from beginningless time and become one identity in Mukti, it is obvious that the soul in liberation undergoes dissolution. This idea also is invalid. 3) In Mukti state, the soul does not merge with Sivam. If Sivam and the soul stand apart and separate as two entities, Mukti state does not amount to any use and thus final Bliss of Liberation does not exist. This idea also is invalid. 4) The iron bit cast in the fire becomes fire itself; the parallel is the soul joining Sivam becomes Sivam Itself; the premise here is that the hot iron has the power of Fire itself; this is not the case. Considering  that notion in the same strain, the soul is not capable of performing the five functions of Siva even in the liberated state. Thus this idea also in invalid. How are we to find an analogy to explain that the soul and Siva stand as one. The analogy is as follows. From beginningless time, the soul, associated with Anava Malam, neither perishes, nor stands apart from Anavam, nor abandons it but abides in Kevala state.

The essential elements of this piece are from the commentary in his book by S.S. Mani, Sivapprakaasam

1) Proposition 1. One Supreme Reality appears as two entities: ParamAnmA and JivAnmA (பரமான்மா and  சீவான்மா = Siva and soul). The soul roils in Samsara taking birth and sustaining death in a cyclical fashion, experiencing happiness and misery, seeking Upadesam from Gurus, and knowing that Sivam and Jivam (Siva and soul) are one; with the dawn of such wisdom, the soul merges with Sivam and becomes one.  This idea is refuted by Umapathi Sivanar. If one substance becomes two, the resulting two must have the same qualities. (Consider two daughter cells emerging from a parent cell; both of them have the same qualities.) Parmatma's Guna is nowhere found in Jivatma. Thus it is inapplicable. When Jivatma (soul) attains Mukti, there is a possibility that it will slip into Samsara and thus takes birth in the corporeal form in the world; that stain on Jivatma refutes this theory, which is called EkAnma vAdham (ஏகான்ம வாதம).

2) Proposition 2. Soul is separate and different and so is Siva. They remain so from beginningless time. The soul in Mukti or liberation becomes one with Sivam. In Mukti, the soul merges with Sivam, loses its distinct individual identity and thus undergoes, as it were, destruction or absorption. Where is the beneficiary of salvation? Thus there is no benefit. There is no giver or donor; there is no recipient. Therefore, Mukti state is a useless proposition. This is the doctrine of AikiyaVAdha Saivar --ஐக்கியவாத சைவர்.

3) Proposition 3. ParamAnmA and JivAnmA (Siva and soul). Discount the proposition that Jivatma becomes one with Paramatma in Mukti state and thus disappears. Why should we not accept the proposition that the two remain as two for all times?  The answer. This proposition is invalid. The soul in bondage and Siva in Supreme Bliss are the two entities. In the state of liberation. these two entities remain separate and thus liberation as a word and entity does not carry any meaning at all. That the Soul comes to abide in Siva and enjoys uninterrupted Bliss is what Liberation is. Absent liberation, liberation's beneficiary, fruits and benefits  meaning and donor Siva evaporate into thin air. This faulty proposition is the doctrine of Siva SamaVAdhis- சிவ சமவவாதிகள்.

4) Proposition 4. The iron in the fiery forge gets the redness and heat and becomes the fire itself. The soul in the state of union with Sivam becomes Sivam. The iron obtains the nature of fire; in that state there is existence of fire and that of iron. This proposition is not valid either. The hot iron does not perform the function of the fire. Fire imparts heat; iron takes the heat. Iron does not have the native power to yield heat or fire. Following this strain of thought, Siva the First in the Universe or the Supreme Reality performs the five function on behalf of the soul. The soul never ever gets the power of performing the five functions. The assumption that the soul has the power (upon union with Siva) to perform the five functions, takes away the essential quality of Siva as the First and Foremost Supreme Being in this universe. That God is One, there is no one equal to Him, He is second to none, and His Supremacy is unchallengeable comes under a cloud of denial. This doctrine of SivaSankirAntha Vadham --சிவசங்கிராந்த வாதம் is unacceptable.

After refuting these doctrines, Umapathi Sivanar delights us with an analogy to support Saiva Siddhanta philosophy. The soul remains one with Anavam; the soul does not perish or is not absorbed in Anavam, and does not split off from Anavam. In Kevala state, the soul and Anavam exist non-different from each other so much so there is an appearance of soul becoming Anavam, and Anavam becoming the soul, though there is no vitiation of the nature of each entity. In Kevala state, soul's association with Anavam is ignominious. In Mukti state (liberated state), soul's oneness with Siva is the ultima Thule and the highest of all states. In Kevala state the association of the soul with Anavam is analogous to the soul in association with Sivam in Suddha state. That analogy is the most appropriate.

S.S. Mani reminds us of ThAyumAnavar's verse that echoes the same sentiment.

ஆணவத்தோடு அத்துவிதம் ஆனபடி மெயஞ்ஞானத்

தாணுவினோடு அத்துவிதம் சாரும் நாள் எந்நாளோ.

The soul was non-dual with Anavam in Kevala state. What day would that be when the soul will become non-dual with Siva with True Supreme Wisdom. .

 

பாச நீக்கம்

Verse 88. With onset of Siva Jnanam, Anavam does not die; its power dies and yet it lives on.

அழிந்திடும் பாசம் என்னில் நித்தம் என்று உரைத்தல் வேண்டா
அழிந்திடாது என்னின் ஞானம் அடைவது கருதல் வேண்டா
அழிந்திடும் சத்தி நித்தம் அழிந்திடா ஒளியின் முன்னர்
அழிந்திடும் இருளும் நாசம் அடைந்திடா மிடைந்திடாவே.88

If PAsam were to come to a destruction, one should not say it is eternal. If you were to say that it is imperishable, do not consider attaining Spiritual Wisdom. Its power dies, but its existence is eternal. Darkness dies before light and yet its existence does not perish.

The author explains as to whether Anavam in the state of union of the soul with Sivam comes to destruction or not. If Anavam were to perish, the doctrine of Saiva Siddhanta on Pati, Pasu, and PAsam as beginningless entities will be subject to refutation. If Anavam were assumed as imperishable at all times, it would be impossible to conjecture that Siva's Grace descends on the soul and Spiritual Wisdom dawns on the soul. Then, which one perishes?  What perishes is the power of Anavam which veils the soul from its own intellect. Anavam Malam's existence does not perish. The darkness that fleets from the effulgent sun neither comes to destruction, nor remains in mesh with the light. In like manner, Anava Malam does not stand before Sivam.

 

வினை நீக்கம் Removal of Karma.

Verse 89. All three Karmas come to destruction.

எல்லையில் பிறவி நல்கும் இருவினை எரிசேர் வித்தின்
ஒல்லையில் அகலும் ஏன்ற உடல்பழ வினையது ஊட்டும்
தொல்லையில் வருதல் போலத் தோன்று இரு வினையது உண்டேல்
அல் ஒளி புரையும் ஞானத் தழலுற அழிந்து போமே.89

The two-deed Sanchita Karma that subjects the soul to innumerable births will roast like seeds set on blaze. Prarabdha Karma that bears fruits in this birth will vanish with the death of the body. As the soul accumulates AgAmiya Karma concomitant with the soul's experiencing of the present sprouting Prarabdha Karma, AgAmiya Karma will perish with the fire of Spiritual Wisdom.

Verse 88 tells us how Anava Malam had its power decimated. Now this verse tells us as to how Karma's seeds are roasted (எரிசேர் வித்து) and destroyed by the fire of Wisdom. The roasted seeds have the appearance of unroasted seeds but are not capable of germination. There are three kinds of Karmas: Sanchita Karma, Prarabdha Karma and AgAmiya Karma.

 

6. புனித நாமம் Pure Name.  Namsivaya.

Verse 90. Namasivaya, the foremost among Mantras.

பந்தம் ஆனவை அறுத்துப் பவுதிகம் உழலும் எல்லைச்
சந்தியாது ஒழியாது இங்குத் தன்மைபோல் வினையும் சாரும்
அந்தம் ஆதிகள் இலாத  ஐஞ்சு எழுத் அருளினாலே
வந்தவாறு உரைசெய்வாரை வாதியா பேதியாவே.90

After three Malams are eradicated, the soul-body made of five elements and organs roils in this world for a limited time. Because of the association with the Malams and the world of objects in the past, the subtle body if the soul carries the Samskaras and Vasanas, which haunt the soul. To prevent the associated consequences attacking the soul, one should chant Guru-prescribed five-syllable Manta which is full of grace and has no beginning or end . There is no obstruction or frustration of such persons. Such persons will not suffer afflictions from the Malams.

Please go to OM NAMASIVAYA.

Though Jnana meditation is accomplished, the connection with the body and the world of the Sadhaka is not severed. Asafoetida  even after its removal leaves a smell in the vessel. Likewise, the soul though divested of the body carries the fragrance (Vasanas) from the past deeds or Karma.

Chanting of Mantras MANTRA is salubrious. Of all mantras, Namasivaya, the five-syllable Manta as prescribed by the Guru, offers protection and sustenance to the chanter and meditator .

 

Verse 91. Namayasiva: explanation of Mantra.

திருவெழுதது ஐந்தில் ஆன்மா திரோதம் மாசு அருள் சிவம்சூழ்
தரநடு நின்றது ஒன்றாம் தன்மையும்  தொன்மை யாகி
வரும்மந மிகுதி யாலே வாசியில் ஆசை இன்றிக்
கருவழிச் சுழலு மாறும் காதலார்க்கு ஓதலாமே.91

Of the five syllables, Yakaram (ய = Ya) marking the soul stands in the middle (நமசிவா = Na Ma Ya Si Vā). Na of Tirodhna Sakti, and Ma of Malams stand at the beginning. Si of Siva and Vā of Grace stand at the end of the Mantra. Prayer is offered by keeping Si Vā in the front, Ya in the middle Na Ma in the end. This traditional practice comes from antiquity. If one stresses on Ma Na in worship, there is less desire for Vā Si and the soul roils in birth and death. Shedding Malams, disliking birth and immensely liking Sivam, instructions for proper order of chanting the five-syllable mantra can be offered (by the Guru).

Please go to OM NAMASIVAYA.

The ones who are world-centric are deep in Obscuration and Malam; the ones who are Siva-centric are deep in Sivam and Grace. The world-centric people chant 5-syllable Mantra with the lead provided by Obscuration and Malam (Na Ma Ya Si Vā). The Siva-centric people chant the five-syllable Mantra with the lead provided by Siva and Grace (Si Vā Ya Na Ma).

Na Ma Ya Si Vā

In the above Mantra, obscuration and impurities are the burdensome front load (Na Ma) on the soul Ya, Siva and Grace Si Vā come once the soul is divested of the front load of Na Ma.

Na Ma Ya Si Vā:  Strike Na and Ma (obscuration and impurities). This is what you want. At this juncture the soul Ya moves and sits between Si Vā (Siva and Bliss) and the new configuration is Si Ya  Vā. This is bliss; this is liberation.

Na = Tirodhana Sakti or Obscurant Siva Sakti (திரோதன சத்தி).  (சத்தி= சக்தி)

Ma = Malas or impurities

Si = Siva

Vā = Grace

Ya  = soul

Kēvala state is dream-sleep state of the soul Ya before birth.

Sakala state is awake state, life of the embodied soul on earth (Na Ma Ya).

Suddha state is deep-sleep state, merger with Siva (Si Vā Ya---> Si Ya Vā ); Na Ma left the soul.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verse 92. The Greatness of five-syllable Mantra, Sivayanama.

ஆசறு திரோத ம் மேவாது அகலுமா சிவ முன்னாக
ஓசைகொள் அதனில் நம்மேல் ஒழித்து அருள் ஓங்கும் மீள
வாசியை அருளும் மாயா மற்றுஅது பற்றா உற்று அங்கு
ஈசனில் ஏகம் ஆகும் இதுதிரு எழுத்தின் ஈடே.92

To remove Anavam and Tirodhanam (Na, Ma) and to keep Sikaram and Vakaram (Si Vā) in the front, chant Si Vā Ya Na Ma. By this, Tirodhana of Nakaram (Na) and Malam of Makaram (Ma) will be destroyed. If one adheres to Arul's Vakaram-Vā , he will obtain Sivam of Sikaram-Si. If you hold on to it, you will attain Advaitam (அத்துவைதம் = non-duality = oneness) with Sivan. This is the Greatness of the sacred five syllables.

 

7. அணைந்தோர் தன்மை The Nature of the Jivan Muktas.

Verse 93. Who are the Jivan Muktas?

தீங்குறு மாயை சேரா வகைவினை திரிவதத்தால்

நீங்கிட நீங்கா மூல நிறை இருள் இரிய நேயத்து
ஓங்கு உணர்வு அகத்து அடங்கி உளத்துள் இன்பு ஒடுங்க நேரே
தூங்குவர் தாங்கி ஏகத் தொன்மையில் துகள் இலோரே.93

There are three Karmas and three ways for removal to prevent the evil MAyai that causes rebirth. One should abide in loving effulgent Siva's intellect to remove the darkness of  refractory Anavam that fills the soul. For Siva's wisdom to flourish without egoism, they will remain without engaging in action. These are the faultless SivaJnAnis.

The Jivan Muktas are the one who deservedly obtained  Siva Jnanam and  enjoy Divine Bliss uninterruptedly while they are living.  Jivan Mukti ( Corporeal Liberation) in Saiva Siddhanta is the Divine Bliss one obtains while living in this phenomenal world and not after death. Videha Mukti (Incorporeal Liberation) is the belief in Vaishnava tradition--that is getting Divine Bliss after death.

Rebirth is abrogated only after Karma is eradicated completely. Sancitam, PrArabdham, AgAmiyam (சஞ்சிதம், பிராரத்தம், ஆகாமியம் = தொல்வினை, நுகர்வினை, ஏறுவினை)are past, present and future Karmas of three kinds.

The three ways the Karma is removed are knowledge of the self, knowledge of Karma and Knowledge of the foremost God. Karma may not be eradicated by the first three and the last one will help. சரியை கிரியை யோகம் ஞானம் = கேட்டல், சிந்தித்தல், தெளிதல், சிவஞானயோகம் = பத்தியோகம், கர்மயோகம், ராஜயோகம், சிவஞானயோகம்.

 

These are the color-coded equivalent terms. Chariyai = சரியை Kriyai = கிரியை YOgam = யோகம் JnAnam = ஞானம்
கேட்டல் சிந்தித்தல் யோகம் நிட்டைக் கூடுதல்
புத்தியோகம் கர்மயோகம் ராஜயோகம் சிவஞானயோகம்
Buddhi-YOgam Karma-YOgam RAja-YOgam Siva-JnAna-YOgam

 

Once Karma is removed, pitch-dark Anavam scoots in fear on account of onset of Siva Jnanam; subsequently Divine Bliss dawns in consciousness; The ones with no egoism with above qualities are called அணைந்தோர்-- the ones who embraced Siva in this world or Jivan Muktas. These are the one who severed the dust of Anavam (துகள் dust = = atom = here it means Anavam). In love they abide in Sivam in a non-dual state.

 

Verse 94. Jivan Muktas do not observe 13 codes of conduct.

குறிப்பிடம் காலம் திக்கு ஆசனம் கொள்கை குலம் குணம்சீர்
சிறப்புறு விரதம் சீலம் தபம்செபம் தியானம் எல்லாம்
மறுத்து அற ஒழிதல் செய்தல் மருவிடா மன்னு செய்தி
உறக்கு உரு பவர்போல் வாய்மை ஒழிந்தவை ஒழிந்து போமே.94

Appointed Place, Time, Direction, Seat, Opinion, Family, Attributes, Wealth, Vow, Virtue, Tapas or Austerity, Recitation of Mantras, Meditation are the 13 righteous deeds, the Jiva Muktas neither reject nor embrace. As the umbrella held by the hand slide and falls off the hand of the sleeper, all the worldly injunctions slide away from the Jivan Muktas. Spiritual Wisdom is the only one that will never abandon them.

The thirteen codes of conduct are prescribed to the ones who still harbor the Vasanas or fragrance from past life. The Jiva Muktas do not adhere to these codes of conduct neither with wont nor dislike. All these conduct codes leave them.

 

Verse 95. Three kinds of people.

அகம்புறம் என்று இரண்டால் அர்ச்சனை புரியும் இந்தச்
சகம்தனில் இரண்டும் இன்றித் தமோமயம் ஆகி எல்லாம்
நிகழ்ந்திட மகிழ்ந்து வாழும் நீர்மையோர் போல ஞானம்
திகழ்ந்து அகம் புறம் எனாத செம்மையார் நன்மை யாரே.95

In this world, people worship God in two ways: internal worship and external worship. These people think about God and attain Him. The others do not even think of worshipping God. They live in this world happily in the form of ignorance. The others who perform neither internal or external worship, attain spiritual wisdom and remain in the nature of Sivam both internally and externally.

There are three kinds of people in this world: Prakruthar, Vainayikar, and SAmusittar--பிராகிருதர், வைநயிகர், சாமுசித்தர். 1) Prakrutar do not consider anything other than eating, clothing and sleeping. They do not have mental oscillations, because they do not realize they are suffering from spiritual ignorance. 2) Vainayikar is the one with Vinayam--விநயம், meaning reverence. These people feel that mundane life in the world is not fulfilling. They are desirous of seeking spiritual wisdom. They seek such wisdom from books, Chariyai, Kriyai, Yogam and Jnanam. For these people, the spiritual books are written and taught. They follow internal and external worship. 3) SAmusittars are the perfected souls from austerities in the previous life. The are eligible for Grace from Siva. They do not need any books, gurus or initiation.

பிராகிருதர் = pirākirutar , n. < id. 1. Those who think that the phenomenal world is the ultimate reality;

விநயம் = vinayam , n. < vi-naya. 1. Obeisance; reverence;

சாமுசித்தர் = SAmusittars: Devotee of šiva with inborn enlightenment owing to the influence of his meritorious deeds in previous births.

 

ஞானத்தில் யோகம்

Verse 96. The Siva spiritualist is the repository of Jnanam.

அண்டம் மேவிட அனைத்தும் அண்டம் மேவிக்
கொண்டல் போல் எவையும் ஞானம் குறைவு இலா நிறைதலாலே
கண்டதோர் பொருளை அந்தக் கருத்தினால் காணில் தானே
அண்ட நாயகனார் மேனி ஆனதேல் ஐயம் இன்றே.96

Ether (அண்டம்) one of the five Great Elements and the progenitor of the elements contains within it the five elements; yet at the same time Ether is the component part of each one of the five elements. Likewise, the Siva Spiritualist is the plenitudinous repository of Siva Jnanam and therein, shines well. Though his actions are outbound, Siva is his soul and he is the sacred body of Lord of the world. There is no doubt that such devotees attain Bliss of liberation.

 

ஞானத்திற் கிரியை

Verse 97. Spiritual Worship.

மண்முதல் கரணம் எல்லா மறு அசத்து ஆக்கி ஞானக்
கண்ணினில் ஊன்றி அந்தக் கருத்தினால் எவையும் நோக்கி
எண்ணி அஞ்சு எழுத்தும் மாறி இறைநிறைவு உணர்ந்து போற்றல்
புண்ணியன் தனக்கு ஞான பூசையாய்ப் புகலும் அன்றே.97

 Agamas state the following: Earth and the Tattvas are Asat and different from the soul. The Tattvas given to the soul do not become active without God. The soul realizes that Siva is the hypostasis of of all that exists. Considering all these in the mind, the soul holds the sacred five-syllabled Manta high with realization of plenitudinous Lord, praises the Punniyan (புண்ணியன் = God as Holy Being) performs worship with five kinds of Suddhi (சுத்தி).

 

ஞான பூசை =Worship appropriate to Jnana. There are five kinds of Purification. One purification is the annihilation of the mind and performance of Jnana Puja (ஞானப் பூசை = Spiritual worship).

Five Suddhis: பஞ்சசுத்தி pañca-cutti = (Šaiva.) The five kinds of purification in mental worship, viz., pūtacutti, ānmacutti, tiraviya- cutti, mantiracutti, ilinkacutti; மானசபூசையில் பூதசுத்தி ஆன்மசுத்தி திரவியசுத்தி மந்திரசுத்தி இலிங்க சுத்தி என்ற ஐவகைச் சுத்தக்கிரியை. (சி. சி. 8, 20, நிரம்ப.).

பூதசுத்தி pūta-cutti.  bhūtaānma-cutti; அன்று செய்த பாவங்களை நீக்குவதாகிய ஆன்மசுத்தி யின் அங்கம்.  One limb of Anma Suddhi which expunges the past Karma.

ஆன்மசுத்தி ānma-cuttiātmantaca- kāriyam, q.v.; தசகாரியத்தொன்று. 2. (Šaiva.) Soul's realizing Divine grace as its mainstay, one of pañca-cutti, q.v.; பஞ்சசுத்தியுள் ஒன்று. 3. (Tantra.) Purification of the self of the worshipper consisting of proper bathing, pūta- cutti, pirānāyāmam, and various forms of niyācam; தாந்திரிக பஞ்சசுத்தியுள் ஒன்று.

திரவியசுத்தி tiraviya-cutti  (Šaiva.) Seeing things in the light of Divine grace, suppressing one's self and interpreting all experiences which are fruit of karma as acts of Divine grace, one of pañca-cutti, q. v.;

மந்திரசுத்தி mantira-cutti , (Šaiva.) Ceremonial purification by sprinkling water consecrated by mantra, one of pañca- cutti,

இலிங்க சுத்தி Ilinga cutti, (Saiva) Euology of Siva with realization of plenitudinous Siva.

ஞானத்திற் சரியை

Verse 98. Siva-Jnanis and celestials worship Siva.

தொண்டர்கள் இடத்தும் வானோர் தொழுந்திரு மேனி தானும்
அண்டரும் கண்டிலாத அண்ணலே என வணங்கி
வெண்தர ளங்கள் சிந்த விழிமொழி குழற மெய்யே
கண்டு கொண்டு இருப்பர் ஞானக் கடல் அமுது அருந்தனோரே.9

Siva, worshipped by servitors of Siva and the celestials, has the effulgent sacred body of Linga. Siva is Annal (அண்ணல் = Great God), rarely seen even by the celestials, who worship Him shedding tears of white pearls, prattle with love having seen God as Reality (மெய்ப்பொருள்) and taste the ambrosia from the ocean of Wisdom. The Siva-Jnanis, thus, worship Siva uninterruptedly.

Worship consists of Guru-Lingam-Sangamam--குரு லிங்கம் சங்கமம். A class of Vīrašaivas, Lingayat known as Sangamar (சங்கமர்) along with the servitors (தொண்டர்) worship Siva Lingam and wear a pendant of Siva Lingam around their neck.

Sivanar in his verse 325 states the following. From Siddhiar

Verse 325/328. Siva manifests in many ways to His servitors.

திருக்கோயில் ள்ருக்கும் திருமேனி தன்னைச்

சிவன் எனவே கண்டவர்க்குச் சிவன் உறைவன் அங்கே

உருக்கோலி மந்திரத்தால் எனநினையும் அவர்க்கும்

உளன் எங்கும் இலன் இங்கும் உளன் என்பார்க்கும்

விருப்பாய வடிவாகி இந்தனத்தின் எரிபோல்

மந்திரத்தின் வந்துதித்து மிகும் சுரபிக்கு ங்கும்

உருக்காண  ஒண்ணாத பால்முலைப்பால் விம்மி

ஒழுகுவது போல்  வெளிப்பட்டு அருளுவன்  அன் பர்க்கே.  325 (XII.4)

For the devotees who see Siva in the Sacred Icons in the Sacred Temples, Siva resides there. For the ones who think of Siva with Mantras; and for the ones who say that Siva exists here, there and everywhere, Siva manifests in the desirable form. He appears like the fire in the churning fire-sticks; He appears in the Mantras. Like the Surabhi, whose milk remains hidden throughout the body, yet appears in the udder of the cow and drips as letdown, God will manifest Himself and confer Grace to His loving Anpar (அன்பர் = Siva-Jnanis)

The way of Chariyai. The ones who worship the sacred icons in the sacred temples as Siva Himself will receive Grace without Siva appearing in person. The ways of Kiriyai and Yogam. The ones who worship  and meditate on Siva lingam and other icons with the Mantras and the ones who hold the heart and mind as the sacred Temple of Siva and worship His forms as Omnipresent form receive Grace from Siva. He appears in the desirable form as the fire emits from the churning of the fire-sticks and as milk comes upon milking. For these three kinds of worshippers and true servitors, Siva appears as the unseen milk pervading the whole body of the cow appears in the udder of the cow. Sivanar stresses that temple worship is essential for all. Translation from Tamil commentary by S.S. Mani.

Verse 322/328. The liberated souls are endowed with Siva-Jnanam.  From Siddhiar

செங்கமலத் தாள் இணைகள் சேரல் ஒட்டாத்

திரிமலங்கள் அறுத்து ஈசன் நேசரொடும் செறிந்திட்டு

அங்கு அவர்தம் திருவேடம் ஆலயங்கள் எல்லாம்

அரன் எனவே தொழுது இறைஞ்சி ஆடிப் பாடி

எங்குமியாம் ஒருவர்க்கும் எளியோம் அல்லோம்

யாவர்க்கும் மேலானோம் என்று இறுமாப்பு ய்தி

திங்கள் முடியார் அடியார் அடியோம் என்று

திரிந்திடுவர்  -- சிவஞானச் செய்தி  உடையோரே.  322   (XII.1)

By severing the three Malams that prevent the soul from joining the red lotus-feet of Siva; by associating closely with the Siva devotees; by worshipping the servitors of Siva, their sacred accouterments (sacraments) and the temples as if they are Siva Himself; by singing and dancing for joy; by sporting exultation, claiming superiority above all and declaring they are not feeble or second to none; they roam around saying that they are servitors of the servitors of Siva with moon on His head. They are really the ones endowed with Siva-Jnanam.

ThiruvEdam = திருவேடம் = Sacred dress and emblems of Šiva and his devotees, as sacred ashes, beads....Sacred accouterments of the servitors of Siva.

 

Verse 99. The Thrust of the treatise.

நூற்கருத்து (முடிவு)

நிலவு உலகாயத ஆதி நிகழ் சிவாத்துவித அந்தத்துக்
குலவினர் அளவு அளாவாக் கொள்கையது ஆகிவேதத்
தலைதரு பொருளய் இன்பாய்த் தாவில் சற்காரியத்தாய்
மலைவு அறும் உணர்வால் பெத்த முத்திகள் மதித்தாம் அன்றே.99

This treatise depicts 1) the doctrines of the followers of prevalent religions from the Materialist (உலகாயதம்) to the Internal Saiva religion, SivAththuvitham (சிவாத்துவிதம்); 2) the superiority of Saiva Siddhanta, which gives realization as stated in Vedantas and Divine Bliss; and stands as the virtuous path of Sar-kAriyam (சற்காரியம்); 3) removal of  confusion; 4) all these constructs on the state of bondage and salvation in detail in this treatise.

Please refer to commentary on Verse 7 for explanations of Internal and External Religions.

உலகாயதம் =  உலோகாயதம் ulōkāyatam , n. < lōkāyata. Materialism; சார்வாகமதம்

சிவாத்துவிதம் = சிவாத்துவிதசைவம் civāttuvita-caivam , n. < Šivādvaitaaka-c-camayam, q. v.; Internal Religion withi Saivism, which depicts that Siva is the Nimitta Karana (Efficient Cause) and the First Cause of the world. அகச்சமயம் ஆறனுள் நிமித்தகாரணனாகிய இறைவனே உலகிற்கு முதற்காரண மும் ஆவன் என்று கூறம் சைவசமயபேதம். (சி. போ. பா. 7, 1, பக். 337.)

Saiva Siddhanta has taken all the doctrines of all religions, elucidated them in great detail, rejected that which controvert the primacy of Siva, and devoted itself in explaining the dependence of the soul to Siva and its incorporeal and corporeal states, the eternality of Pati, Pasu and PAsam, the eradication of PAsam and Anavam, the maturation of the soul ready to shed Malams and receive Grace,  the redeeming power of Grace from Siva, the adherence to Agamas and Vedantas, the primacy of the Virtuous Path of Saiva Siddhanta, removal of confusion caused by other religions, and the surefire recipe for liberation and attaining the Sacred Feet of Siva.

Saiva Siddhanta is the essence of Fruits of Vedas; all other rejects are the residuum or refuse (கோது) not fit for taking man to liberation. Its basic premise, on which the construct of Saiva Siddhanta was built, is the solid foundation of SarkAriya Vadham

 

Verse 100.

திருவருள் கொடுத்து மற்றுஇச் சிவப்பிரகாச நன்னூல்
விரிவது தெளியும் ஆற்றால் விளம்பிய ஏது நோக்கிப்
பெருகிய உவமநான்கின் பெற்றியில் நிறுவிப் பின்முன்
தரும்மலவு ஒழியக் கொள்வோன் தன்மையில் சாற்றல் ஆமே.100

Conferring Grace, explicating Sivapprakasam in great detail and with clarity by three Hetus and four analogies, and establishing the tenets, one can teach a student of the nature devoid of confusion.

The teaching is directed to the ones who have learnt Chariyai, Kriyai and Yogam, and who are ready to attain resolution of Karma, removal of Malams, descent of Grace on to the soul. This treatise is taught to the deserving students --who have the power to learn without confusion-  in great detail and with clarity, explicating the doctrines by three reasons and the four analogies.

Four analogies are mentioned elsewhere.

Verse 16. Reason, Nature, Effect and Non-perception. (Sivagnana Siddhiar)

ஏது மூன்று ஆம் இயல்பு காரியத்தோடு அநுப லத்தி இவை,
ஓதன் இயல்பு மாமரத்தைக் காட்டல் உறுகா ரியம் புகைதன்,
ஆதயாய அனல்காட்டல் ஆகும் அநுப லத்தியது,
சீத மின்மை பனியின்மை காட்டல் போலும் செப்பிடினே. 16

Reasoning (Hetu) is three-fold: Own Nature, Effect, Non-Perception. Nature is to point out and identify an object as to what it is by its word. Effect or Result is to point out the cause of an object: upon seeing smoke, make a point that Fire is present. Non-Perception is realizing the non-existence of an object by knowing the non-existence of the example cited.

Three-fold Hetu

ஏது = Hetu in Sanskrit  = Reasoning; Statement of reason, the second member of an Indian syllogism; middle term.

Hetu or  ஏது is of three kinds: இயல்பு (Own nature or Inherent Quality), காரியம் (Effect, Result. subject ), and அனுலத்தி (non-perception).

1) Inherent Quality (இயல்பு = iyalpu) is apprehending an object by the connotive power of the word.

2) Effect (காரியம் = KAriyam). Upon seeing the rising smoke in a distant hill, pointing out the presence of the causal Fire, for the smoke to rise. KAriya Hetu is apprehension of Smoke as the effect (KAriyam) from the Causal Fire (காரணம் = Cause).

3) non-perception Inference= அனுலத்தி = Anupalaththi = Anupalabdhi in Sanskrit:=  non-perception, non-recognition) is apprehending the non-existence of an object based on the non-existence in the example cited. Inference of the absence of one thing from the absence of something else. Example: Knowing the non-existence of horned rabbit.

opposite of upalabdhi  ( உபலத்தி) as listed below.  

(a‹upalatti-y-„tu = Inference of the absence of one thing from the absence of something else.)

Brilliant Perception: உபலத்தி = விளங்குதல்  obtainment,  acquisition, gaining understanding, clear and brilliant perception. Example: It is not winter because it is not cold.

Apprehension of absence of cause on account of absence of effect and on account of absence of cause, the absence of effect comes under the purview of non-perception (Anupalaththi = Anupalabdhi).

In other words: Apprehension of lack of effect proceeding from lack of cause and lack of cause leading to lack of effect subsides in non-perception.

Objective reasoning  (¸காரிய ஏது) is that the object Smoke makes you realize that Fire is present. Non-Perception (Anupalabdhi = அனுபலத்தி ) is having the sensation of Negation.  Knowing absence of effect based on absence of Cause and absence of Cause based on the absence of effect constitutes Anupalabdhi (அனுபலத்தி ). S.S. Mani gives this example:  'Now there is no Cold on account of no Snow.' The inverse is: 'Now there is no Snow on account of no Cold.'  That is Anupalabdhi.

Four Analogies: வினை, பயன், மெய், உரு (Action, benefit, body, form).

Analogies are made in terms of  Action, Benefit, Body, and Form.

புலிக்கொற்றன் =  Tiger among men = Action Analogy

மழைக்கை = charitable as the rain = Benefit Analogy

துடியிடை = Waist like the one in the hour-glass = body analogy

பவளவாய் = mouth with coral color = body part analogy

 

End Sivapprakasam