Bhagavadgita Pages, Chapters 1 to 18
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The above file has all 18 chapters of Bhagavadgita in Sanskrit, Transliteration, colorized words for easy identification, word 4 word translation, superscription of words, rearrangement of words in a readable form in English. This is the best you can get on the internet in one file. This file is free for download.
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa says, children playing with dolls leave them and run to their mother saying "Mother, Mother" as soon as she shows up in their play room. In like manner, once you see your Divine Mother, you will not find any pleasure in the material world of wealth, fame and honor, throw them all aside and run to Her. Adapted from Sayings of Ramakrishna, page 25-26.
Students from the West believe that Goddess worship was prevalent in India among the Non-Aryan (Dravidian) inhabitants before (the so-called unsubstantiated) Aryan invasion. The Dravidian kings were the defenders of their faith, while the Brahmanas of the Aryan stock practiced and advanced their faith. These two faiths came together and formed the robust Sanatana Dharma (the proper name for Hinduism). The Aryan strain has its roots in Vedas; asceticism is the stronghold of the Dravidian strain, as depicted by the Ascetic Siva. Over centuries, there was an interaction between these two strains with jubilant ascent of one faith over the other alternately until the Aryan faith based on Vedas subsumed the Dravidian faith. Now to be called Sanatana Dharma, all Hindu precepts have roots in Vedas. Vedas are the means to realize God; if there are no Vedas, there is no way man can have the feel and apprehension of the God. The Aryans introduced Sanskrit, which became the pan-Indian language by third century C.E. The Aryans by that time took the faith of Goddess worship of the Dravidians, which became the universal practice among all. Mother Goddess worship is uniquely Dravidian and indigenous to India, before the (disputed) Aryan invasion. At present, the prevailing opinion-theory is that there is no evidence of Aryan invasion of Indus Valley. Indo-Aryans were native to Northwest India. The Sumerian goddesses came later. SUMERIAN AND HINDU GODS and GODDESSES.
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa undertook to attain perfection of Mother worship under the guidance of Bhairavi Brahmani, a Brahmana woman in 1861. He mastered the spiritual practices of Sakta Cult. This is the beginning of great respect he developed for woman whom he considered as the representation of divine Mother on earth. In 1864, Ramakrishna learnt Nirvikalpa Samadhi from an itinerant monk Totapuri; in 1866 he learnt Sufi practice from a Sufi ascetic Govinda; later he meditated on Christ. By 1872, he was immersed in Sodasi Puja, when he worshipped his wife, who came of age, as the prototype of the mother Deity. His self discipline was such he regarded his own wife as the manifestation of Divine Mother and never entertained any physical or carnal desires towards his wife. He performed all the necessary rituals due to a Goddess as a virgin and a woman. The strength of conviction is such that he regarded all women, noble and fallen, as the representative of Mother Goddess. Later he transformed from being a Sadhaka to a Guru when he realized that he has the maturity and knowledge to lead men in the spiritual path. Ordinary men go through Pasu bhava and Vira Bhava and very few attain Divya bhava.
Sattva Guna = Virtuous quality. Rajas Guna = Activity; Tamas Guna = Darkness, sloth and slumber.
Woodroffe: Consciousness, however, assumes the role of Prakrti---that is, creative power--when evolving the universe. So substance consists of the Gunas or modes of this natural principle which are called Sattva, Rajas, Tamas. The general action of Sakti is to veil or contract consciousness. Prakrti, in fact, is a finitising principle. To all seeming, it finitises and makes form in the infinite formless Consciousness. So do all the Gunas. But one does it less and another more. The first is Sattva-guna the function of which, relative to the other Gunas, is to reveal consciousness. The greater the presence or 'power of Sattva-guna, the greater the approach to the condition of Pure Consciousness. Similarly, the function of Tamas Guna is to suppress or veil consciousness. The function of Rajas Guna is to make active--that is, it works on Tamas to suppress Sattva, or on Sattva to suppress Tamas.
The object and the effect of evolution, as it is of all Sadhana, is to develop Sattva-guna, The Gunas always co-exist in everything, but variously predominate. The lower the descent is made in the scale of nature the more Tamas Guna prevails, as in so-called "brute substance," which has been supposed to be altogether inert. The higher the ascent is made the more Sattva prevails. The truly Sattvik man is a divine man, his temperament being called in the Tantras Divyabhava. Through Sattva-guna passage is made to Sat, which is Cit or pure Consciousness, by the Siddha-yogi, who is identified with Pure Spirit. Those in whom Rajas Guna is predominant, and who work that Guna to suppress Tamas, are Vira (hero), and the man in whom the Tamas Guna prevails is a Pasu (animal).--Woodroffe. page 52-53 The Serpent Power.
We can confidently say that Ramakrishna attained Divya Bhava without going through Pasu and Vira Bhava. For details go to TANTRA. His ego came to a naught and RKP regarded the Mother Goddess as the cause of that attainment. With ego demanding appreciation and accolades, one cannot become a Guru. He chose his disciples by observation, interaction and yogic skills. Critical and probing disciples enjoyed back and forth with the Master. The Guru-Disciple relationship was not the formal one as told many times in the ancient sacred texts.
| Excerpt from English Translation of Tripura
Rahasya by SWAMI SRI RAMANANANDA SARASWATHI (Munagala
The Goddess, the Repository of Discriminating Knowledge.
53. Want of judgment is certain death, yet many are in its clutches. Success attends proper deliberation, till eventually the end is without doubt accomplished.
54. Indeliberateness (unthinking haste) is the ever-present weakness of the Daityas (non-gods) and Yatudhanas (Asuras and Rakshasas = non-gods and evil-spirits); deliberation is the characteristic of the Devas (Gods), and therefore they are always happy.
55. Owing to their discrimination they depend on Vishnu and inevitably conquer their enemies. Investigation is the seed capable of sprouting and flourishing into the gigantic tree of happiness.
56. A deliberating man always shines over others, Brahma is great because of deliberation; Vishnu is worshipped because of it. (And yet they suffered on account of lack of deliberate thinking.)
57-58. The Great Lord Siva is omniscient for the same reason. Rama, though the most intelligent of men, came to disaster for want of judgment, before attempting to capture
the golden deer; later with due deliberation, he spanned the ocean, crossed over to Lanka, the island of the Rakshasa brood, and conquered it.
[Note: The reference is to the Ramayana. Ravana, the arch enemy of Rama, induced one of his lieutenants to assume the shape of a golden deer and entice Rama away from his hermitage, so that Ravana could forcibly carry away Sita, who would thus be left unprotected. The ruse succeeded; and later the great battle ensued, in which Ravana and others were killed and Sita was recovered. Thus did Rama vindicate himself.]
59. You must have heard how Brahma, also becoming on an occasion infatuated, acted rashly like a fool and consequently paid the penalty with one of his five heads.
[Note: Brahma originally had five heads. He and Vishnu were once contesting each other’s superiority. Just then a huge column of light appeared in front of them
and they wondered what it was. They agreed that he who found either end of the column earlier would be the greater of the two. Vishnu became a boar and sought the bottom;
Brahma became a swan and flew up towards the top. Vishnu returned disappointed. Brahma at the point of despair came across a falling screwpine flower. He stopped
its descent and asked from where it was coming. All that it knew was that it was falling from space and nothing more. Brahma persuaded it to bear false witness and claimed
superiority over his rival. Siva was enraged, snipped off that head which spoke the lie, and declared himself as the column of light.]
60. Unthinkingly, Mahadeva conferred a boon on the Asura and was immediately obliged to flee in terror for fear of being reduced to ashes.
[Note: There was once an Asura by name Bhasma. He did penance and pleased Siva who appeared before him and asked him what he wanted. Bhasma desired that
his mere touch should reduce any object to ashes. Siva conferred the boon; Bhasma wanted to test it on him (Siva); Siva took to flight. In order to save him from that predicament, Vishnu appeared as a voluptuous damsel before the pursuing Asura and enticed him. He became amorous and made advances to her. She asked him to go to a spring in front of them and rub himself with water, before embracing her. He was taken in. On his hand touching his body, he fell down, a heap of ashes.]
61. On one occasion, Hari, having killed the wife of Bhrigu, became the victim of a terrible curse and suffered untold miseries.
62. Similarly have other Devas, Asuras, Rakshasas,men and animals become miserable by want of judgement.
63. On the other hand, great and valiant are the heroes, O Bhargava, whom judgment ever befriends. Eternal homage to them.
64. Common people, becoming foolishly involved with regard to their sense of action, are perplexed at every turn; if, on the other hand, they think and then act, they will be free from all misery.
65. The world has been in the coils of ignorance from time immemorial; how can there be discernment so long as ignorance lasts?
66-68. Can the sweet waters of dew collect in tropical sandy deserts which are already scorched by heat? Similarly, can the refreshing touch of discernment be sought in the
red-hot flue over the furnace of long-burning ignorance? Discernment is, however, gained by proper methods, the most effective of which is also the best of all, and that is
the supreme grace of the Goddess who inheres as the Heart Lotus in every one. Who has ever accomplished any good purpose without Her grace?
69. Investigation is the Sun for chasing away the dense darkness of indolence. It is generated by the worship of God with devotion.
70. When the Supreme Devi is well pleased with the worship of the devotee, She turns into vichara in him and shines as the blazing Sun in the expanse of his Heart.
[Note: Devi: Goddess.Vichara (विचार): Discrimination, investigation, deliberation, judgment. Devi is there in ignorance, in worship, in vichara and later, like fat in the milk, the curds and the churned butter, successively.]
71-72. Therefore that
Tripura, the Supreme Force, the Being of all beings, the blessed, the highest,
the one consciousness of Siva, who abides as the Self of self, should be
worshipped sincerely, exactly as taught by the Guru. The forerunner of such
worship is devotion and praiseworthy earnestness.
73-76. The antecedent cause of these is again said to be the learning of the
Mahatmya. Therefore O Parasurama, the Mahatmya was first revealed to
you; having heard it, you have now progressed well. Vichara is the only
way to attain the highest Good. I was indeed anxious about you; and there is
very good reason for such anxiety until the mind turns
towards vichara from the overpowering disease of ignorance, just as one
is anxious about a patient who is delirious, until one sees that his health
shows signs of a favourable turn. 77. If once vichara takes root, the highest good has, for
all practical purposes, been reached in this life. As long as vichara is
absent from a human being, the most desirable form of birth, so long is the tree
of life barren and therefore useless. The only useful fruit of life is
vichara (विचार). 79-81. The man without discrimination is like a frog in a well;
just as the frog in a well does not know anything either of good or of bad and
so dies in his ignorance in the well itself, in the same way men, vainly born in
73-76. The antecedent cause of these is again said to be the learning of the Mahatmya. Therefore O Parasurama, the Mahatmya was first revealed to you; having heard it, you have now progressed well. Vichara is the only way to attain the highest Good. I was indeed anxious about you; and there is very good reason for such anxiety until the mind turns towards vichara from the overpowering disease of ignorance, just as one is anxious about a patient who is delirious, until one sees that his health shows signs of a favourable turn.
77. If once vichara takes root, the highest good has, for all practical purposes, been reached in this life. As long as vichara is absent from a human being, the most desirable form of birth, so long is the tree of life barren and therefore useless. The only useful fruit of life is vichara (विचार).
79-81. The man without discrimination is like a frog in a well; just as the frog in a well does not know anything either of good or of bad and so dies in his ignorance in the well itself, in the same way men, vainly born inBrahmanda,2 do not know either good or bad regarding themselves and are born only to die in ignorance.
2Brahmanda: Egg of Brahma (i.e., the universe)
82. Confounding dispassion (vairagya) with misery, and the pleasures of the world with happiness (sukha), a man suffers in the cycle of births and deaths, while powerful ignorance prevails.
83-84. Even though afflicted by misery, he does not cease further indulgence in those causes antecedent to it (namely, wealth, etc.); just as a jackass pursues a she-ass even if kicked a hundred times by her, so also is it with the man and the world. But you, O Parasurama, by discriminating have transcended misery.
Thus ends the Second Chapter in Tripura Rahasya
Students of Hinduism regard the Sanctum Sanctorum as the Womb of the universe and the passage that exits from the Sanctum is analogous to birth passage. The whole universe proceeds from the Womb and passage. This is especially true in the portrayal of Mother Goddess.
The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Volume 6 [ Page : 115 ] NOTES TAKEN DOWN IN MADRAS, 1892-93
Educate your women first and leave them to themselves; then they will tell you what reforms are necessary for them. In matters concerning them, who are you? Swami Vivekananda 1892-93 Madras/Chennai
The above depicts the Mother Goddess as the origin of all living things and matter.
Sakta is a follower of Sakti Dharma, Monism; a believer in Mother Goddess; of unsectarian principles; a practitioner of equal treatment of women, Sudras, and the so-called lower classes; accords honor to women; welcomes qualified women as Gurus; and plays the role of an egalitarian teacher of Sadhana which helps men and women achieve their potential without regard to their birth status.
Sakta (Shaakta, Saakta) is derived from Shak meaning "to be able or competent." Sakti (Shakti) is power, ability, energy. This energy is generally considered as personification in the form of Consort of Siva (and Vishnu and others) and worshipped by Shaakta (Sakta). There are many Sakti goddesses: Brahmani, Indrani, Kartiki, Mahesvari, Narasinhi, Pradhana, Raudri, Vaishnavi, Varahi. Vishnu's Saktis are many: Lakshmi, Daya, Dhriti, Kanti, Kirtti, Kriya, Medha, Pushta, Santi, Tushti. There are many Saktis of Siva and Rudra: Durga or Gauri, Ardha-Kesi, Dhirgha-Gona, Dhirga-Jivah, Go-Mukhi, Gunodari, Javala-Mukhi, Lolakshi, Kundodari, Samali, Sudirga-Mukhi, Ulaka-Mukhi, Vartulakshi, Vikrita-Mukhi, Viraja. Sarasvati, the goddess of arts, is regarded as the Sakti of both Vishnu and Rudra-Siva
Sita, Consort of Rama is also considered as Bhagavati (the female version of Bhagavan.) Vayu Purana states that the female Sakti of Rudra is twofold: one half white (Asita) and the other half black (Sita). They became many; those of white were of mild nature: Lakshmi, Sarasvati, Gauri, Uma; those of black became fierce: Durga and Kali. Each Sakti symbolizes and personifies a dominant quality or attribute: Daya = grace, mercy, compassion. Sakta doctrine has roots in Vedas: Devi Sukta (praise of Devi or goddess) in Rg Veda, Sarasvati Sukta in Veda, and Lakshmi Sukta in Yajur Veda.
Bhaga: Gracious Lord, dispenser, female organ, pudendum mulliebre, vulva, the perineum of males.
(Saktas say that Avatars of Vishnu originated from Mahavidyas; Kali became Krishna; Chinnamasta became Narasimha. But the Avatars of Vishnu are male and differ very much in their association with other gods and men, appearance, objective, and activity. The Mahavidyas originated from Sati as a reactive hostile force in ten forms all at once, surrounded and terrorized Siva (according to His perception.) The morphing of Sati into ten forms (Mahavidyas) was precipitated by the refusal of Siva to allow Sati to go to her father Daksa's celebrated Yagna (sacrifice). For details go to MAHAVIDYAS
There is another version of Saktis. Brahma needs knowledge to create this universe and therefore, he has Sarasvati as his Sakti; Vishnu needs Lakshmi as his Sakti for the prosperity and maintenance of the world; Siva needs Uma as his Sakti for dissolution.
Sakta doctrine teaches that everyone has in him or her a vast untapped Sakti (energy) in the form of qualities or attributes, both good and bad, and that one should develop only good qualities and sublimate undesirable ones. These Saktis are integral with Consciousness, body and mind. Agamas or Tantric Sastras, as revealed by God and special to Saivism, Vaishnavism, Saktism and Jainism, are the manuals to follow for achieving Sadhana (spiritual accomplishment, perfection); it trains the body, mind and soul towards that goal. Among its teachings are Chariya, Kriya, Yoga, and Jnana. Chariya is worshipping of God-in-form (Idol or image) in the temple. Chariya's recommendations are external worship (exoteric) suitable to the ordinary devotees, and not confined to a chosen few. Kriya is worshipping of Siva with rites and ceremonies (esoteric rituals and practices) recommended in Agamas. Yoga is mental worship of Siva in His subtle forms. Jnana is realization of God as a transcendent formless entity. Generally Chariya involves certain external acts : home worship, temple worship, pilgrimage, incense, sacraments, bell, waving of lights, ritual gestures (Mudras), idols, Novenas, Sandhya Worship--morning, noon, and evening (Angelus) , meditation (Dhyana), Kavachas (miters and Scapulars), rosary, Virata (religious vow). If this reminds you of Catholic Church, you are right. Virgin Mary is the Mother of Avatara, Jesus Christ; the Saktas believe in Mother Goddess; to a sakta, she is Saham: "She I am." Hamsa = "I am She." Researchers are of the view that Christianity adopted and adapted these imported Tantric rites.
The Angelic Salutation, Hail Mary, or Ave Maria (Latin) is a traditional biblical Catholic prayer asking for the intercession of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Hail Mary is used within the Catholic Church, and it forms the basis of the Rosary. The prayer is also used by some Anglicans as well as by many other groups within the Western Catholic tradition of Christianity. A somewhat different form of the prayer that omits the explicit request for intercession is used in the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches and other groups of Eastern Christianity. Some Protestant denominations, such as Lutherans, also make use of some form of the prayer. Most of the text of the Hail Mary can be found within the Gospel of Luke.In English:
Virgin, rejoice, (or: Rejoice, O Virgin Theotokos)
Angelus: A devotional exercise commemorating the mystery of the Incarnation, consisting of versicles and responses, and the Angelic Salutation three times repeated, said by Roman Catholics, at morning, noon, and sunset, at the sound of a bell rung for that purpose. explanation from OED.
a devotion in memory of the Annunciation. Also called AnÆgelus bellÅ. the bell tolled in the morning, at noon, and in the evening to indicate the time when the Angelus is to be recited.
Annunciation: (often cap.) the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary of her conception of Christ.
Compare morning, noon and sunset worship with Sandhyavandanam of Hindus.
Miter: the official headdress of a bishop in the Western Church, in its modern form a tall cap with a top deeply cleft crosswise, the outline of the front and back resembling that of a pointed arch. RHD
Scapular: A short cloak covering the shoulders; prescribed by the Rule of St. Benedict to be worn by monks when engaged in manual labour, and adopted by certain religious orders as a part of their ordinary costume. OED.
Agama = Acquisition of knowledge, science. Saiva Agamas glorify Siva and form the basis of Saiva Siddhanta philosophy. Vaishnava Agamas glorify Vishnu and Sakta Agamas, the mother goddess. There are many things common with Vedas but Agamas derive authority from their respective Gods, Siva and Vishnu, and Mother Goddess.
Agamas are egalitarian, intellectual, yogic, exoteric and esoteric Manual of Philosophy, Means and Realization, covering all possible devotional, inclinational and intellectual bent. Transmission of Tantras (Agamas and Nigamas) from Guru to Sisya was witnessed, approved and blessed by Vasudeva (Krishna). It is called Agama because it emanated from the mouth of Sambhu (Siva) and went to Girija; it is called Nigama, because it emanated from the mouth of Girija (Parvati, daughter of Mountain, Himavat) and went to Girisa (the Lord of the mountain, Siva). Âgata = come from (mouth of Siva). Gâta = going into (ears of Girija, Uma or Parvati). Abhi-mata = longed for, approved (by Vasudeva or Vishnu). Âgata + Gâta + Abhi-mata = Âgama. Agama is acronym for Agata Gata Abhimata. Nigama = Ni + ga + ma = Nirgata + gata + sammata = go out (of the mouth of Girija, Uma or Parvati) + going into (Siva) + being of the same opinion, agreed to, approved by Vasudeva)
There are other explanations of the Agama: Â for Pasa (bond), Ga for Pasu (individual soul or cow), Ma for Pati (the Lord). Pasa, Pasu and Pati form the triangle in Saiva Siddhanta philosophy, whereby the Lord, upon alleviation of bonds, takes the Pasu into his fold. Â for Sivajnana, Ga for Moksa, and Ma for Mala eradication offer another explanation, the last of which leads to Sivajnana of the soul ending in bliss.
Tantras delve into subjects as follows: The Supreme Spirit; creation; maintenance and dissolution of the universe; origin of gods and their worship, of men and beings; the other worlds including heaven and hells; the seven centers in the body; the four stages of man (asrama); laws and dharma; sacraments; Mantra, Yantra, Mudra, and Sadhana; external and internal purification, worship of Devatas, panchattatvas; consecration of temples, lakes, wells, houses etc; temple rites and rituals; glorification of Tirthas (holy sites); duties and privileges of kings; Japam, Vratam, magic, meditation and yoga; and law, medicine, and science. Is there anything that is not covered by Agama and Nigama?
Agama and Nigama are the two arms of Siva and Sakti, by which they raise the children (sadhakas, devotees) so that the latter can pick the fruits from the Vedic tree of wisdom and liberation.
Saiva Agamas "came down" from the mouth of Siva (all five faces). They were revealed by Siva to Devi (Gauri, Uma or Parvati) and his son Kartikeya. That is the Guru-pupil transmission of wisdom. The pupils (Devi and Kartikeya) took their turn and assumed the role of Guru and answered the questions of Siva; that is Nigama, conclusion. Agama and Nigama are compared to two wings of the bird, Paramatma, who is the indweller in all beings. Its beak is Pranava or Om; its wings are Nigama and Agama; Siva and Sakti are its two feet; the Tribindus are its three eyes. The third eye is the eye of wisdom in the middle of the forehead. Tribindus: Karana bindu, Karya Bindu, Nada and Bija = Siva, Siva-sakti, and Sakti = Para, Suksma and Sthula = Supreme, Subtle and Gross.
Vedas of Brahmanic schools were prohibited reading and hearing in the olden days for non-Brahmanas and women; but Agamas had no restrictions: they were available for servants, maids, women, Sudras and anyone who wanted to hear or read. There are 28 Agamas and 108 Upagamas (minor). The Saktas have 77 Saktagamas. They are called Sadhana Shastras: anyone can seek happiness (Bliss) by following Agamic prescriptions. The Tantra Sastra have three parts: Sadhana, Siddhi and Darshana. There are no hypotheticals, arguments, vacillations and conflicts. Agamas came down from Siva who is above all these mundane inefficiencies. He is the Speaker, the Authority, the Yogin of yogins, and with that introduction, which is audaciously presumptuous on my part, where is the need to argue? Siva's presentment of Agamas is egalitarian, intellectual, and yogic in its outlook. Will is the motivator; Agamas provide the rest: Sadhana, the means; Dharshana, the philosophy; and Siddhi, the realization, which is of course dependent on one's effort. Agamas are inclusive of Mantras, Tantras and Yantras.
Tantras do not assume any prescriptive authority; it encourages aspirants to come and take a look; if you like it, practice it ; if you do not like it, it respects your decision.
Agamas are of two types: Sadaagama (Sadagama) and Asadaagama (Asadagama) are the good and bad Agamas. Bad agamas are the distortions and perversions (of good Agamas), practiced by Rajasic and Tamasic people. Rajas = passion; Tamas = dark, malignant, ignorant; Sattva = goodness, virtue, magnanimity. Sattva is white, Rajas is red, and Tamas is black.
The Five M's, known as Pancha Makaaras (Pancha Makaras)
The Five Ma's (म) are the five words beginning with Sanskrit letter "Ma = म." These notorious five caused a lot of controversy: Madya (wine), Mamsa (meat), Matsya (Fish), Mudra (grains) and Mithuna (sexual union). For the modern man, these five acts within the confines of marriage are normal. Actually, these acts are actively encouraged for one reason or another: mental health, cardiac health (meat not recommended). On superficial examination, it appears that these five acts are sins of the flesh for the spiritually enlightened individuals in certain population sections of India. But in the west, this is the norm. Most of the epicures are guilty of these five acts, if you call the acts guilt. In the ordinary sense, there is no law against these five acts and they are not prosecutable offenses. So what is the problem? Man is drawn to these five in a natural way. In Buddhist icons and sacred texts, depiction of Mithuna or sexual union carries an illustrative import: Enlightenment or Nirvana cannot be attained by wisdom or compassion (right action) alone, but by a combination of both. This union of male compassion and female wisdom produces Nirvana. Saktas believe that proper performance of Mithuna leads an aspirant from the physical to the spiritual awareness. Let us say sexual bliss measures one unit. Spiritual bliss measures a zillion units. The perfected Yogis have no way of expressing the spiritual bliss except in terms of sexual bliss, which a human understands. The main aim of Tantra is take a Pasu to Vira to Divya bhava. That is taking the animal man (Pasu) wont to sexual proclivities (the 5M's) to a hero (Vira) wont to prescribed ritual Mithuna and later to a Divya (god man) who transcends Pasu and Vira bhavas. This is where the five M's come in.
Bhagavatam (Canto 11, Chapter 5, Verses 11-13) states the following: 11) Man is naturally inclined towards enjoyment of sexual pleasure, flesh and wine. No rules enjoin them to indulge in them. A certain check is provided over these tendencies (by the Sastra) by permitting sexual commerce with one's wedded wife, meat-eating at the end of animal sacrifice, drinking of wine during SautrAmani sacrifice; the intention is to turn man away from them. 12) They do not understand the pure essence of their religion. Only the smelling of wine is sanctioned and animal sacrifice is allowed for the adoration of the deities and it is not permissible to kill them for meat. 13) Those who are ignorant of this Dharma and, though wicked and haughty, account themselves virtuous kill animals without any feeling of remorse or fear of punishment, and are devoured by those very animals in their next birth. Translation from Sanskrit by C.L.Goswami Shastri.
Tantra says that purification of soul begins by
accepting the existence of these desires. Once they are accepted and practiced
within the social norms, one by one they must be transmuted or sublimated and
eventually eliminated from one's life, if one wants union with the Supreme. Only
a pure being without malas or impurities can merge with the Supreme. Nada
(thrill) enjoyed by sexual union is the counterpart of beatitude or Bliss. One
needs to supplant the sexual pleasure with spiritual Bliss. By
sublimating and conserving sexual energy, it is said that the vital fluid rises
to Sahasrara, becomes Soma, the nectar of immortality and spreads through the
lymphatic system eventually finding its way to the brain where it becomes Ojas
and Tejas (Vigor and splendor), which are essential for obtaining
Superconsciousness. This ascent of conserved energy is called Urdhvaretas.
The message is orgasm is for the flesh,
beatitude is for the spirit; between the two, beatitude is superior. Physical
union is a weak emulation of union of Siva and Sakti. In terms of
Kundalini Chakras and practices, this is the ascent of Prana (breath, energy,
spirit) from the testicles through the Ida and Pingala Nadis (left and right
channels) to the level of the head and their confluence into Susumna Nadi and
further ascent to Sahasrara Chakra.
The message is orgasm is for the flesh, beatitude is for the spirit; between the two, beatitude is superior. Physical union is a weak emulation of union of Siva and Sakti. In terms of Kundalini Chakras and practices, this is the ascent of Prana (breath, energy, spirit) from the testicles through the Ida and Pingala Nadis (left and right channels) to the level of the head and their confluence into Susumna Nadi and further ascent to Sahasrara Chakra.
Sri Ramakrishna Pramahamsa says that sexual bliss is nothing compared to the bliss in the realization of God. In ecstasy, resulting from love of God, all the pores in the skin and the roots of the hair act like sexual organs and in every pore the sadhaka enjoys immense happiness of union with Higher Atman.
Another view on Urdhvaretās:
Vital fluid, according to Hindu belief, exists
in a subtle state throughout the body. Sukra = White, Silver, Vital fluid,
Essence, Semen. When sexual urge finds expression, the subtle substance gathers
at the gonads and prostate and assumes a gross form. To rise to the level of
Urdhvaretas is to prevent emission and facilitate reabsorption into the body of
the stored seeds for in the perfected one it remains subtle for ever with disuse
atrophy of the gonads and involution of phallus -- signs of Urdhvaretas. Because
of the subtle nature of Sukra and its pervasion throughout the chaste body in
Urdhvaretas and lack of it in the gonadal and prostatic fluid, he smells like a
lotus. On the other hand, ordinary mortals (we men; "I see the retort coming:
Speak for yourself") smell like goats for obvious
reasons. (The blame is squarely on the sex hormones and pheromones causing the smell.) In
perfected ones, the seminal energy rises to become the nectar (Amrta) of Siva
Sakti, according to Tantric Texts. The magnetic power
of pheromones is so powerful that a dog can sense a bitch emanating pheromones
more than a mile away. I am reminded of a lawsuit wherein the female owner of
the bitch blamed the owner of the dog which ran around loose, jumped over the fence and impregnated her bitch right in the sight of the long eyes
under her knitted eyebrows. The dog followed its nose to the bitch and the rest
is history. She blamed the defendant for not keeping the dog tied down and
letting the dog loose. Obviously the dog was a mutt; otherwise the complaint
would not have found its way to and poked its nose in the court.
Another view on Urdhvaretās: Vital fluid, according to Hindu belief, exists in a subtle state throughout the body. Sukra = White, Silver, Vital fluid, Essence, Semen. When sexual urge finds expression, the subtle substance gathers at the gonads and prostate and assumes a gross form. To rise to the level of Urdhvaretas is to prevent emission and facilitate reabsorption into the body of the stored seeds for in the perfected one it remains subtle for ever with disuse atrophy of the gonads and involution of phallus -- signs of Urdhvaretas. Because of the subtle nature of Sukra and its pervasion throughout the chaste body in Urdhvaretas and lack of it in the gonadal and prostatic fluid, he smells like a lotus. On the other hand, ordinary mortals (we men; "I see the retort coming: Speak for yourself") smell like goats for obvious reasons. (The blame is squarely on the sex hormones and pheromones causing the smell.) In perfected ones, the seminal energy rises to become the nectar (Amrta) of Siva Sakti, according to Tantric Texts.
The magnetic power of pheromones is so powerful that a dog can sense a bitch emanating pheromones more than a mile away. I am reminded of a lawsuit wherein the female owner of the bitch blamed the owner of the dog which
ran around loose, jumped over the fence and
impregnated her bitch right in the sight of the long eyes under her knitted eyebrows. The dog followed its nose to the bitch and the rest is history. She blamed the defendant for not keeping the dog tied down and letting the dog loose. Obviously the dog was a mutt; otherwise the complaint would not have found its way to and poked its nose in the court.
It is the Tantric view that what you see in your body exists out there (cosmos). Sadhana is the expression of desire to go back home.
There are three types of
people: Pasu (animal), Vira
(hero), and Divya (Divine) according to
Bhaava (nature, temperament and character); their
practice (Acara--Ācāra) respectively are Pasvacara, Viracara and Divyacara.
(Pasvācāra, Vīrācāra, Divyācāra.) The latter two are competent to practice
mental worship without outer ceremonial ritual worship.
Tantra states, the highest state is to see Brahman in all things; the
middle state is meditation; the lower state is uttering hymn and japa (external worship
as opposed to internal mental worship); the lowest state is external worship.
Everyone starts with external worship like learning the alphabet and some
graduate to Viracara and out of the latter, some graduate to Divyacara. It is
all a question of depth of spiritual development and knowledge of the
individual. The lower knowledge is Vidya and the higher knowledge is Mahavidya
under the guidance of a Guru. The Pasu is an external worshipper of limited
knowledge. The Vira and Divya devotees have taken mental worship with meditation
and Divya concentrates on Jnana (spiritual knowledge), Yoga and Samadhi. Diya has the most disciplined approach to Devi
(goddess), who is Mantra and Yantra. In Christian tradition, the Pasu belongs to
Tantra states, the highest state is to see Brahman in all things; the middle state is meditation; the lower state is uttering hymn and japa (external worship as opposed to internal mental worship); the lowest state is external worship. Everyone starts with external worship like learning the alphabet and some graduate to Viracara and out of the latter, some graduate to Divyacara. It is all a question of depth of spiritual development and knowledge of the individual. The lower knowledge is Vidya and the higher knowledge is Mahavidya (great knowledge) under the guidance of a Guru. The Pasu is an external worshipper of limited knowledge. The Vira and Divya devotees have taken mental worship with meditation and Divya concentrates
on Jnana (spiritual knowledge), Yoga and Samadhi. Diya has the most disciplined approach to Devi (goddess), who is Mantra and Yantra. In Christian tradition, the Pasu belongs to the flock.
Pasu is one who is afflicted with Paasam (pāsam) which is a bond or a noose; he is tethered to a post of Samsara by ropes of three malas or impurities; philosophically, it is an obstruction to obtaining release or liberation. Saiva Siddhanta lists three tethers or malas, Karma, Maya and Anava. Kularnava Tantra enumerates eight bonds: Bhaya (fear), Daya (pity), Ghrina (contempt, disgust), Kula (family), Lajja (shame, embarrassment), Moha (delusion), Shīla (nature, conduct), and Varna (caste); this is only a short list, a larger list basically expands on this eight-braid bond; they are like ropes within braided ropes. Pasu is a man of the world full of ignorance and darkness, not wont to the ways of Tattva Jnani or Yogi. Pasu is divided again into three types: Sakalars (Anava, Maya, and Karma Malas), Pralayakalars, (Anava and Karma Malas), and Vijnanakalars (only Anava Mala). The last one is more advanced and attains liberation once Anava Mala is shed. Sakalars are tied down with three ropes; Pralayakalars with two ropes; Vijnanakalars with one rope.
Pasu has the following behavioral stigmata:
1) He is averse to Mantra, Yantra and Tantra. To him, Mantras are mere letters, alphabets, phrases with no meaning, vibrations or sacredness. He does not recite Mantras and disbelieves Tantric rites.
2) He does not profess any faith in a Guru
3) He regards images, Saligramas, Vigrahas as mere objects without any holiness. Saligramas = naturally occurring holy river stones. Vigraha = divine statue.
4) He does not perform Sandhyavandanam, worship at morning, noon and evening.
5) He does not conform to Tantric precepts with regards to wine, grain, meat, fish, and sexual union.
6) He does not follow acaaram (Sastric dictates or injunctions).
Go to the following files for more details
Tantra Three Tirumantiram
The Saktas take great pleasure in telling the story of Mahesvari, the Mother Goddess; Narada Muni, the son of Brahma, pried out of Siva as to whom He worships. Narada Muni asked Vishnu the same question and was directed to Siva for answer. Siva answered: We (Brahma, Vishnu and Siva) worship Mahesvari, who is pure and eternal; she is Mulaprakrti (root matter) and Brahman; We all worship her. All three are the sons of Mother Goddess. Insert: Mother Goddess with sons, Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. Credit: exoticindia.com. There are millions of Brahmas, Vishnus and Mahesvaras in many universes (Brahmandas = Eggs of Brahma or universes); they all worship Mahesvari. In this Brahmanda, we three are the creator, preserver and destroyer respectively. She is formless and assumes our body forms as play activity. She delegates the work to us but she is our Goddess. She incarnates as Sati, the daughter of Daksa and the Consort of Siva, and another time as Uma, the daughter of Himalayas and the consort of Siva; She, in her partial manifestation, descends as Lakshmi, Consort of Vishnu, as Sarasvati, (Gayatri), and Savitri, the consorts of Brahma. She creates universe as Sat (Being, True, permanent), Asat (nonbeing, untrue, impermanent), Jada (inert, material), and Caitanya (Consciousness empowering life) and maintains them all with her Sakti made of gunas. At the end of kalpa, she destroys the universe. Brahma rests on the lotus flower coming from the navel of Vishnu, who again rests on a bed of snake; thus they have base to support them. Devi does not have an external support; she supports Brahma, Vishnu and Siva; without her sakti, they cannot create, maintain or destroy the universe. Vishnu admits to Brahma that at dissolution he goes into Yoganidra (Conscious sleep) as ordained by the Mother Goddess after dissolution. Vishnu can awaken from Yoganidra to maintain the universe, once the Devi sets in motion the creative process through her surrogate Brahma.
Before creation, there was no sun, moon, and stars, and no day or night. There were no directions, sound, touch, taste, vision or smell. There was no Tejas (Light). Only Brahman (and Prakrti = root substance in its subtle state), who is Being, Consciousness, and Bliss, existed. Ananadamayi, in her will to create, made Prakrti assume a form. That form was Devi, black as collyrium. She had four arms and fiery eyes. Her hair was disheveled. She was seated on a lion and created a Purusa, Mahakala with three gunas, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Mahakala had no consciousness. Mahasakti expressed her Will to Mahakala (Mula purusa) to create three gods with Rajas, Sattva and Tamas; thus, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara were created by Great Time (MahaKAla). There was no creation by Brahma yet. Devi divided Mulapurusa into two parts: Jiva and Parapurusa. Prakrti by her Will divided herself into three entities or Saktis: Maya, Vidya and Parama. Maya deludes the Jivas (we the people)and puts Samsara (life on earth) in place for the Jivas; Parama is the Consciousness; Vidya, made of pure spiritual knowledge, has the ability to lead the Jivas out of birth and rebirth. Deluded by Maya, Jiva does not see Vidya. Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesvara become subject to Parama and Maya. Vidya entity divides herself into five forms: Ganga, Durga, Savitri, Lakshmi, and Sarasvati.
According to Tantras and Saktas, Devi (Mother Goddess, Jagadamba, Mahavidya, Mahamaya, Bhagavati Durga, Supreme Brahman, Paramesvari) is the Mother of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara and all living entities and the cause of the material world. Because of grace of the Mother Goddess, Siva was able to drink poison and live and Vishnu was able to defeat the Daityas, Madhu and Kaitabha. Brahman and Sakti are one and the same; Sakti is the manifest Brahman. The six Sivas (devatas) residing in six Chakras are inert if separated from Sive (Mother Goddess). She manifested as Light to Vyasa; that Light had the brilliance of a thousand suns and the beauty of ten million moons. She wore celestial perfumes, brilliant garments and jewels, carried weapons in thousand arms, and sat on a lion. She also sits on a corpse appearing with four arms and having a complexion of dark cloud. She makes appearance with two, four, ten, eighteen and hundred arms on different occasions. Her manifestations are many. She appears as Vishnu with Lakshmi on his left, Krishna with Radhika on his left, Brahma with Sarasvati on his left, and Siva with Gauri on his left. All these forms she took to erase the doubt from Vyasa's mind; she was truly a Goddess of many forms. Standing on thousand-petalled lotus, she showed Vyasa, a great Muni, the Purana, Mahabhagavata, full of sublime letters. Goddess is the origin of Sanskrit letters and by extension letters of all languages.
Sakti Tattva is twofold: Mayasakti and Citasakti; Mayasakti is the stuff of Samsara, while Citasakti is Purusa and Prakrti from which come Brahma, Vishnu, Siva and all living beings, and matter. They are conscious and inert elements. She is Avikrti, Prakrti and Vikrti: Changeless matter, matter, and changed matter; She is also Being, Consciousness, and Bliss (Sat-Cit-Ananda). The saktas take pain to explain that Purusa and Prakrti (Consciousness and matter) of Samkhya philosophy are one and the same integrated unit and not two separate entities.
Maya consists of three gunas; Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Avidyam (ignorance) is maya with dominance of Rajas and Tamas, while dominance of Sattva in maya is Vidya, present in Yogis and gods (Brahman included in this category), and Turiya sakti is Mahavidya, pure Bliss. Mahavidya = Great wisdom = Exalted Science = Pure Bliss. Plural = Mahavidyas = personification of the ten female Saktis of Siva.
Mahavidyas are 10 in number; there are gradations as follows.
|Kali and Tara||Sodasi, Bhuvanesvari, Bhairavi, Chinamasta, Dumavati,||Bagala, Matangi, and Kamala|
In Syama Rahasya, all 10 are included in Mahavidyas.
Devi is Mahamaya having two contextual meanings with reference to the Maya aspect and Brahman aspect. In Maya aspect She is the Great Maya, none greater than her; in Brahman aspect, she is the Great possessor of the Great Maya. Analogy of silkworm is used to explain these aspects of Instrumental and material cause of beings and universe. The silkworm is the instrumental and material cause of the silk (thread) cocoon: the will to make silk and the ability to spin silk from its body. Devi willed to create this world of beings and matter; Maya is the material that makes moving and non-moving things. Will is Brahman and Maya is material. (Silkworm female moth lays 200 to 500 eggs of the size of a pin head on mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and anchors the eggs with glue. The egg hatches next spring and the larva (0.25 inch or 6.4 mm) consumes leaf many times its size and in six weeks it is about 3 inches long (76 mm). The larva evacuates its alimentary tract and shrinks in size. It spins an outer shell called floss and later a continuous thread of silk of 2000 to 3000 feet around its shrinking self over five to eight days. It enters the chrysalis stage for about two to three weeks, after which the adult silk moth emerges, lays its eggs and dies. One ounce amounts to 20 to 40 thousand eggs. One ounce of eggs will yield 100 pounds of cocoons or 9 lbs of raw silk; one pound of cocoons yield 15 to 20 pounds of mulberry leaves. Another ref. says that about 6000 worms are necessary to make 1KG of raw silk. Now silkworms are bred to produce fine silk. Killing the pupae is the first step followed by reeling or filature for silk fibers. These fibers, up to 50 in number, are twisted to produce silk filaments, two or three of which are twisted to make a strand, ready for weaving.
(Silk is extensively used in Hindu temples for clothing the deities. That is a lot of dead worms. Does anybody feel for the worms? On one hand Ahimsa (noninjury) is preached, and on the other hand worms had to die to make clothing for the idols and people. Does it not sound like exploitive abortion, a kind we never thought about? Commercially reared silkworm pupae are killed by dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge, or by piercing them with a needle, allowing the whole cocoon to be unraveled as one continuous thread. This permits a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk. --Wikipedia. A beautiful silkworm moth is dead before birth. I am just thinking aloud, though I respect and revere tradition, custom and practice.)
At human level, the soul is compared to the larva trapped in its own cocoon of five body sheaths: the food sheath, the vital-air sheath, the mental sheath, the intellectual sheath, and the bliss sheath. The soul has to break out of these sheaths to achieve Bliss or release from Samsara. The body with nine openings is considered as a floating vessel in the sea of Samsara. The vessel is flooded with sea water through the holes and is about to sink in the sea of Samsara. The Sakta begs Devi to rescue him from drowning. You are Mahavidya; my Vidya is no Vidya at all; it is actually Avidya. Mahavidya = Great or Supreme knowledge; Avidya = lack of spiritual knowledge. Avidya makes man forget Mahamayi (Mahavidya, Mahasakti) and concentrate on samsaric entities like family, work and matter.
Devi is the essence in everything and
everybody. “She is all things to all beings, the animate, and the
inanimate.” She is Brahman, meaning that she pervades in everything, animate or
inanimate, virtue and evil, good and bad, like and dislike, charity and stealth,
punyam and papam, heaven and hell, creation and destruction, waking and sleep,
Atma and mind, Prana and senses, atoms and molecules, consciousness and
unconsciousness, bondage and liberation, fighting and reconciliation, prosperity
and poverty, reverence and irreverence, intelligence and stupidity, Vidya and
Avidya, pride and shame, and error and rectitude. She possesses all
attributes. She is the stealth in the thief; She is the love between lovers; She
is the enmity between foes; She is the sacred knowledge in yogis; She is the
knowledge in the punditahs. (She is the compassion and the forgiveness in Jesus
Christ; and She is the holiness in Ramana Maha Rishi and Ramakrishna Parmahamsa.)
She is the death and the regeneration in Siva; She is the terror in Mahā Kali
(Durga). She is the dharma (duty and righteousness) in Rama and Yuddhistra; She
is the valor in Arjuna. She is the heat in the fire. She is the dominant quality
in anything or anybody in this universe, yet She transcends all these qualities
and is never stained or affected by them. She is like the sun radiating heat and
light, yet not affected by its qualities.
I am the fraud of the gambler; of the splendid, I
am the splendor; I am victory; I am the resolve (of the resolute); I am the
absolute virtue of the virtuous. (10.36)
Unlike Samkhya philosophy where physical saktis such as hunger, thirst, memory, intellect, wakefulness, sleep, and sattvika, Tamasic, and Rajasic Gunas are unconscious elements, Tantra sastras regard them as conscious elements. Since Devi exists as a conscious element in sleep (Devi as hypostasis of everything), sleep is one element of consciousness. Light in the moon, stars, sun and fire; motion in the air; smell in the earth; coolness and taste in water; and heat in fire are conscious elements. Devi is Consciousness; her substance is consciousness; all her emanations are consciousness. Objects and their gunas have incapacity to manifest fully Devi's Consciousness. It is like the blue glass that modifies the sunlight passing through it. The emerging light is still sunlight; the sun, the rays, and the filter are one and the same thing, manifestation of Devi.
She is Brahman at the root; she is Maya in the trunk; she is the manifest world in the flower; she is liberation in the fruit. She is Brahman, Isvara, Maya and Avidya; in her four aspects, she is the Supreme unmanifest Self, she is the manifest goddess in Isvari, she is the Maya-substance of the material world, and she is the spiritual ignorance (Avidya) in man. She is birth, she is death, she is play, She is Vidya, she is Avidya, and she is bliss. She is the cause of bonds and also Pasu-pāsa Vimocini, Liberatrix of the Pasu from bondage, as told by Woodroffe.
Devi Bhagavata extols Devi, Siva Purana extols Siva, Vishnu Purana extols Vishnu. They are all one and the same Isvara with Brahman as the hypostasis.
Prakriti, in Tantra, is equated to Sakti; Consciousness without Sakti has no value; thus Prakrti Brahmani creates, while Brahma is a ghost or dead person (Preta), Vaishnavi maintains, while Vishnu is Preta, and Rudrani destroys, while Siva is Preta. Prakrti is Sakti and all devatas are powerless dead bodies without sakti. Devi's many aspects are Brahman, Isvari, Parama, Maya, Vidya, and Avidya; the terminal five elements proceed from Brahman; that being so, all elements are of equal importance. Parma is consciousness; Maya is the material cause of the universe; Vidya is spiritual knowledge; Avidya is spiritual ignorance. Param cannot be superior to Maya for Consciousness cannot by itself without Mayasakti or Mayaprakrti can function. Mayaprakriti was delegated to a secondary status in Samkhya doctrine, while Mayaprakrti is elevated to a position of sustaining the devatas in Tantric doctrine. (The Saktas seem to say that a toaster will not toast a slice of bread if there is no sakti or power.) The Saktas contend that these saktis proceed from Atma. What proceeds from Atma is Atma; that is monistic view, cause and effect are one and the same; cause is the mother of effect. What is in the effect is in the cause; what is in the cause is in the effect; therefore, cause and effect are one and the same. What is not in the cause or effect cannot be be in the effect or cause. Sakti in seed shows as tree; Sakti that does not exist in the tree cannot exist in the seed. All manifest saktis in the world are in Atma.
"There is no difference between Sakti and the possessor of Sakti." Devi says: I am Brahman, Maya, and Witness, free from all defects. I have two parts; Sacchidananda-Prakrti and Maya-prakrti, the latter is the Parama Sakti of Isvari. During Pralaya (dissolution), Maya exists in me (Isvari) as an integral element in a state of equilibrium. During creation, this Maya, due to past Karma of jivas, becomes active and manifest. Mayasakti, looking inward, is Maya and looking outward is Avidya. Tamas was the origin of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas at the time of creation; the three gunas gave rise to Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara. Rajas is the dominant guna in Brahma, Sattva in Vishnu and Tamas in Mahesvara. Brahmanda, the egg of Brahman (phenomenal world), is a manifestation of Avidya in Tamas. Brahma is my Sthula Sarira (gross body); Vishnu is my Linga Sarira (subtle body); Rudra is my Karana Sarira (Causal Body); I am Turiya Caitanya (4th state of Consciousness; the others are wakefullness, dream sleep and deep sleep). I pervade all beings and matter and abide in equilibrium. Beyond all these aspects, I am Parabrahman without attributes. I am Saguna Brahman with attributes; I am Isvara with Maya. As Isvara, I send Jivas into this world according to their karma.
I delegate Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesvara to do my bidding: creation, maintenance, and destruction. As Creator, I am Rajasic; as Sustainer, I am sattvic; as Withdrawer, I am Tamasic. My creative power is volition, my preservative power is action, and my destructive power is cognition. The sun rises, the wind blows, cloud (Indra) rains, and death visits (jivas) out fear of me. You thrive and triumph because of me; you are all puppets in my hand. I act on my Will and your karma; one day I give victory to Devas (gods), another day I give victory to Asuras (demons). ( Someone compared the Devas and Asuras to Democrats and Republicans-- the doers and obstructors -- Feb 2010.) Submerge your pride, sacrifice all your actions to me and I will give you refuge. Isvari and Sakti are one and the same, like the moon and its moonlight. Atma is Consciousness; Sakti makes unconscious organs act conscious. Sakti pervades the universe and therefore it is Atma.
Atma, body, mind, and senses:
Atma is the occupant of a carriage; the ten senses are the horses; the driver is the mind; and the carriage is the body. Atma, driver and horses are the conscious elements; the carriage, though unconscious, appears conscious because it moves along with others. The occupant is conscious and independent, and controls all other elements in this setup. The driver is dependent and conscious and controls the horses and the carriage. The horse is dependent and conscious and draws the carriage, which is dependent and unconscious. Atma is the great sakti residing in the carriage of the body and tells the mind to direct and control the ten senses. The body moves because of the senses. The mind and the senses are conscious because of the Consciousness of Atma. The body drawn by the senses appears conscious; the body obeys the senses; the senses obey the mind; the mind obeys Atma. Atma gives freedom to the mind to move the body and control the senses; it does not tell what the destination is and what road to take; they are left to the mind. If mind takes the rough road drawn by the senses, the mind and the body suffer, but Atma remains free of worry, likes or dislikes. The reins controlling the horses are Sama and Dama, equanimity and self-restraint. If the mind is unable to use Sama and Dama to control the senses, the five pieces of wood (the five elements of the body = Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth) and their joints fall apart during the journey. The mind can look up to Atma (Devi) and take directions to Point Bliss and get a release from Samsara. We are the five elements because the chemicals in the body come from earth and so on and so forth.
Siva and Sakti are considered as one unit like a grain of gram with two halves (cotyledons) covered by its sheath, which is Maya. The two halves of the grain or kernel are soft and represent Satchitananda and Tejas (brilliance); the hard and colored outer shell represents the discordant and disparate gunas of Maya. The three units of whole gram, the two halves and the sheath represent Brahman consisting of Siva-Sakti and Maya. Siva is the efficient cause, while Sakti is the instrumental cause of this universe and beings. (Strictly speaking, according to Vedas, Brahman is without attributes, not even Maya. When Brahman transforms into Isvara, the latter is endowed with Exomaya. I coined the word Exomaya to define Maya's qualities. Exomaya exudes from Isvara and is like the exotoxin of the bacterium, which affects the host and not the bacterium; in similar manner, Isvara producing Exomaya is immune from and not subject to it, but Jiva soaked in Exomaya is subject to and afflicted by it. Elsewhere Maya is compared to poison sac in snake; the poison does not affect the snake but the victim. Exomaya targets Jiva. Maya is not only the father of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas which affect all things and beings, but also the instrumental cause of the universe and beings. Maya works like an enzyme also in that it takes one stem substance, and (makes) manifests universe in myriad forms. Enzyme acts on substrate to produce a substance with different qualities; Maya has the same function in the production of myriad substances of the universe from one basic stem substance.) A Brahma Tattva Jnani can see through Maya and see Brahman as One, and not two parts. Brahmandas (Eggs of Brahma, universes and Jivas) emerge from the effulgent feet of Devi as sparks pop, snap, crackle, and shoot from the Great Fire. Isvara, gods and Jivas emerge from her as her instruments; Sakti assumes male forms in the creative process as a play activity. Tantra sastras are of the view that Purusa part of Siva-Sakti is chronicler and purveyor of karma, while Sakti part provides liberation from karmic bonds. When Pralaya (literally deluge; destruction; end) sweeps the universe, residual Karma remains in a latent and non-reactive form in Brahman-Devi who goes into state of bliss during the resting phase between creations, and upon launching a round of creation of universe and beings, Karma germinates like a seed and puts the individual soul in appropriate body, environment, heredity and ancestry for the latter to expend the residual Prarabdha Karma in the world of Samsara. Devi enjoys Supreme Bliss in the resting phase between creations; she keeps the creative male purusa Sakti (Mahakala) firmly under her feet, celebrates bliss of liberation by letting her hair down, and hands up; She exudes comfort and reassurance to her samsara-weary children, dispensing liberation and bliss.
Father is the Creator of and Mother is the Liberator from the world of miseries. Androgynous Siva-Sakti (Chennai Museum) has the right half for male and left half for female; the former is the creative Purusa Sakti, while the latter is the liberating sakti; Purusa is Daksina (right) and Sakti is Vama (left). As long as the androgynous form endures, Sakti and Siva are in balance, Samsara (life on earth) plays its havoc on Jiva (we the people) and liberation is in abeyance. When the Sadhaka by his intense Sadhana (spiritual effort) awakens the liberating left side and renders it more powerful than the creative Purusa right side, Devi in her new-found power gleefully encroaches on the right side, fills it with her liberating power, and confers liberation to Jiva. This transformation earns her the name Daksina Kali, the liberator and savior of the three worlds. The androgynous form is fully transformed into Sakti form, until a round of creation comes into force and the androgynous form makes a comeback. This Daksina form is a reversal of Isvari to its neutral form, Brahman, who is free of gunas, creative, preservative and destructive qualities. Daksina-Brahma form transforms into Isvara with Maya and gunas and a galaxy of gods, goddesses, men and beings, and matter issue forth from her. All gods and goddesses are equal in the eye of Devi; any sectarian attempts to claim superiority of one god or goddess over another is against Saktitattva. A good Sadhaka is one who recognizes that Adhisakti (Adyasakti, primordial ancient Sakti) encompasses Vishnu, Siva, Surya, and Ganesa Saktis. Bhagavan speaks of himself as written in Tantra Sastra, " Brahman, Sakti, and Mahesvara: these three are one and the same; the only difference among them is that Brahman is neuter, Sakti is feminine, and Mahesvara is masculine. In the highest consideration, all are same, but the descriptive words are different." Actor portraying a character has no direct connection with that character; in like manner Bhagavan has no connection with the form he portrays. But that portrayal of a form has meaning to the Jiva (we the people, the audience, the spectator). Siva and Sakti assume the gender-specific forms to please the Sadhaka; once the Sadhaka attains siddhi meditating on these forms, Nirguna neuter Brahman reveals itself to the Sadhaka. Sadhaka may want to image her in his mind in the form of Durga, Kali, Krishna, Lakshmi, Radha, Rama, Siva, Sita, Tara, Vishnu, father, mother, or Guru; A Vaishnava needs to exercise no compulsion to consider Devi as Vishnu and Sakta needs no compulsion to consider Devi as Sakti. When we delve deep into meditation and enter the realm of Citsakti, all differences in form and gender evaporate and Kalisakti, Sivasakti, Krishnasakti, and all other saktis lose their individual identity and merge into one sakti because of sloshing waves in the ocean of citsakti. Mahasakti forms the hypostasis of all five forms, Siva, Vishnu, Durga, Ganesa and Surya and offers liberation. He who realizes that unity in five forms knows Sakti tattva.
Devi gives Brahma Rajas guna and its offspring Sakti of Will for creation, Sattva Guna and Sakti action to Vishnu for maintenance, and Tamasa Guna and Sakti of knowledge to Mahesvara for destruction. These three Saktis personify as Brahmani, Vaishnavi and Mahesvari exhibiting Brahmamaya, Vishnumaya and Sivamaya. She is generally known as Vishnumaya because between creation and destruction there is a long period of maintenance.
As the infant has no say in conception and birth, the Jiva has no say in creation and destruction; it is the Will of Devi that has the full say in these events. Jiva does not have the wherewithal to prevent Brahma from exercising his Rajas Guna, meaning that birth is not preventable by worshipping Brahmasakti or Brahmamaya. Once a Jiva takes a bodily form in the world, it is subject to Vishnusakti or Vishnumaya. The Jiva can develop Sattva guna by engaging in worship of Vishnu, sadhana and Bajana. This is the reason why Vishnu and Krishna figure very big in this world and other worlds too. Once this stage passes, the Jiva qualifies to worship Siva Sakti, which brings relief from Samsara. Devi Sakti has a large presence in its Vishnu aspect.
She is Brahmamayi.
Brahmarupini = Brahmamayi = Brahman's + own form = one who is Brahman. Brahmamaya is different from Brahmamayi. Brahmamaya is form of Brahma. Brahmamayi is Brahman's own form. Brahman is neuter and ontologically higher than male Brahma. All gods, goddesses, Danavas, Ghandarvas, Kinnaras, Yaksas, Raksasas, man, animal, birds, bees, insects (and microbes), and universe of the mobile and immobile are sakti in substance. Ramanuja expresses the same idea.
Vaishnavas sometimes say that Radhika is the handmaid of Krishna, meaning that Radhika is worshipped with food remnants used in Krishna worship. It is not true. According to Devi Bhagavata, in Goloka, Radhika is worshipped by Krishna and other gods. The left side of Radhika gave rise to Mahalakshmi, who presides over wealth. Brahman is both Radhika and Krishna, the former is the mother and the latter is the father of the universe. When a male child is named, the sastric convention is that Radhika is the first part of the name: Radhikakrishna or Radhakrishna; the mother's glory is always higher than that of the father because the mother carries and nourishes the child in the womb. The contribution of the mother is greater than that of the father in the body of Jiva; the gestation lasts for 10 months and ten days; her thoughts, feelings, moods, deeds, humors, and body fluids have an impact in shaping the body and mind of the child. From birth up to five years of age, the mother nourishes the child with her milk; child's debt to his mother runs in the "veins, arteries, bones, marrow, vital airs, body, senses, mind, and every atom and molecule in his body." Father's contribution is procreation, ten samskaras, education, and maintenance, which could easily be done by a surrogate father figure. (Yes, I know, we can have a surrogate mother whose womb can be implanted with a fertilized ovum from an unrelated woman and man.) Death of mother has greater impact on the child than that of the father. Such is the greatness of mother and Mother Goddess Radhika of a thousand names. Her greatness is such that Krishna paints her feet and touched the dust on the ground in his act of kissing her feet. Other example of compound (hyphenated) names starting with Sakti are Gauri-Sankara, Lakshmi-Narayana, Uma-Shankar and Uma-Mahesvara.
Black God and White Goddess
= Brahman of no color, shape, form or gender
O Mother you are Tattvamayi. You are Radha, the love of Krishna who adores you. You adore him; that is your lila, O Lilamayi. (Lila = play). Please appear in three bends in the grove of Krishna's heart with your companions and render your body one with that of Syama-Krishna. You charm the mind of Krishna and your devotees; my heart is a dark forest, please illumine it with your beauty for me to behold. Krishna is of dark body, you are fair; O Gauri, stand with him in a dark body of yours, so that I remove the idea in my mind of difference between the fair body of yours and dark body of Krishna. Gauri = name of Radha and also the consort of Siva. (Krishna is black God, Krishna and Syama meaning black; his color is that of blue-black clouds. His Consort, Radha is fair (wheat complexion or white). Three bends = Tribhanga = three bends at neck, trunk and legs
My notes: The poet or Siddha wants his God and Goddess to be of same color, so that there is harmony between them visually and they appear homochromous in Yugala aspect. Yugala = pair, double. I coined the word: homochromous (= same color).
The trees sprout, grow and die in the forest, the lightning appears and disappears in the clouds, bubbles form and disappear in water; in like manner Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesvara and other Devas are born of beginningless and eternal body of Kalika and at the time of Pralaya, they disappear in Her. Kalika is the primordial Sakti; Brahma, Janardhana, and Sambhu are born of a fragment of Kalika. Rivers running into the ocean lose their identity; in like manner, all gods, and beings lose their identity when they merge and disappear in her at dissolution.
Devi says: I am Radha in Goloka, Kamala in Vaikuntha, Savitri and Sarasvati in Brahmaloka, Parvati in Kailasa, Janaki (Sita) in Mithila, Rukmini in Dvaraka, Draupadi in Hastinapura, Sandhya, Gayatri, Mother of Vedas, Pusa and Aparajita among flowers, and bael leaf among leaves. I am worshipped by Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara. Where there is Sakti, I am there.
Sankaracharya's (788-820 CE) male chauvinism and his change of heart, mind and spirit.
Sankaracharya, propounder of Monistic theory and devotee of Siva was in Kasi. He was seized by Saktas who argued on the greatness of Mother Goddess and Sakti. Sankara beat them all by his arguments; Saktas were heart broken because the arguments were apparently sound and came from the mouth of Sankara, who was a realized soul and knower of Brahmavidya. This debate over the superiority of Siva over Sakti went on for days to the delight of Saivites and to the consternation of Saktas; Sankara won it every time.
He was once lying with his head towards the south and feet towards the north in utter physical exhaustion on a narrow path. He saw a girl come towards him asking him to move his legs, so that she could pass him to fetch water from Ganges.
Sankara said, "O Mother, go on, jump over my legs if you want. I am not moving. I am too tired to move my legs." (It is common to address a female of any age as mother as a mark of respect.)
The girl refused to jump over his body or legs and said, " O Brahmana, I cannot jump over a body of a Brahmana. Please move your legs."
Sankara said, "You, silly ignorant girl. There is no harm in jumping over me. Ignorance separates people as Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra. Everyone and everything is Brahman (God). Jump over me and you will not incur any sin. I am too tired to move my legs."
The girl said, "I will move your tired legs and pass by."
Sankara retorted, " You do what you want."
The girl lifted his legs, and made enough room to pass by.
The girl came back to Sankara who asked for water to quench his thirst.
The girl said with a smile, " You are so near the water, go and get it yourself."
Sankara, obviously irritated by the girl, said, "I told you many times that I am too weak to get up."
The girl then rolled her eyes and uttered in a voice that shook the sky: "Sankara, you ignored Sakti. You said Sakti did not exist, didn't you?" ( Sakti is the power of Siva, depicted as His consort. Siva is Sava (dead) without Sakti.)
Sankara was shaken by the tone and the meaning of the words. He shut his eyes and opened them to find waves of light in her eyes equal to a thousand suns and moons. He ran to hold her feet in reverence and seek refuge. The Light and the girl disappeared. Disappearance of the Light shattered him; his Brahmajnana was shaken to its foundation; his pride was in tatters. He ran to the temple of Annapurna, crying "Mother." His conviction about Siva being superior to Sive ( Sakti) was fundamentally shaken. Siva is Sava (dead) without Sakti (power). Sankara sang hymns in honor of Mother Goddess, Sakti. This was sport of Devi, and Sankara was an important participant. If one sees Sakti in every one and everything, she is within your reach.
There are five Devatas for worship: Brahma, Vishnu,
Siva, Sakti, and Surya. (Ganesa replaced
Brahma.) Brahma worship was abandoned by Narada's
and Siva's curse; Ganesa, son of Siva and an Avatara of Vishnu has taken his place
of honor and worship. Gayatri Mantra has five attributes
appended to Deva: Pervader of the universe (Vibhu), creator, Deva of worship,
Deva at play, Inspirer of intelligence.
It is difficult to hold in mind all six tattvas at the same time. Devi forms the representative core of all six tattvas and worshipping her is equal to worshipping all six tattvas. In the same vein, it is difficult to worship at the same time a pantheon of five gods: Siva, Sakti, Surya, Vishnu, and Ganesa. One Devata becomes the centerpiece, Ishtadevata, with a circle of other four devatas. The initiation may be into all five Devatas or one Ishtadevata. Mahanirvana Tantra states that in Kali yuga, the wise should worship Devas according to Agamic rules. The Sadaka (Brahmana, Ksatriya, and Vaishya) is initiated by the Guru in Vaidik Gayatri Mantra and later in Tantric Mantra of Ishtadevata. A Sudra is initiated in Tantric Mantra alone. Initiation in Vaidik Gayatri is done according to Tantric tradition.
Guru is essential in initiation. He teaches the initiate Mantra, Yantra, Mudra, and Sadhana; external and internal purification, worship of Devatas, panchattatvas. The very fact that the initiate has come to this stage of spiritual advancement means that he has performed a goodly amount of Punyam (meritorious acts) in previous births. This qualifies him to receive Mantra (Srividya Mantra in case of Tripurasundari, TPS) instructions in a proper ritual. The Guru presents the initiate the specific Yantra of the goddess (Sri Chakra Yantra in case of TPS). Mantra is the sound-body of a god or goddess; Yantra depicts the sound-body in a diagram; just imagine Mantra is the computer code while Yantra is the computer electronic circuit board.
Sequence of events in worship and prayer
Sanctification by Mantra "acupressure"
Sanctification by deifying body parts
Pujari, the surrogate of Goddess (or Siva)
Consecration of sacraments, vessels and worship site
Water for ritual ablution of feet of the deity
Water for Acamana (Sipping while uttering certain mantras a little water three times from the palm of the right hand.)
Worshipping the conch with flowers
Offering Panchagavya (five products of the cow: milk, yogurt, butter, urine and cow dung.)
Worship of pots and water, bull, door,
Worship of Ganesa, the dispenser and remover of obstacles, and other gods.
Bathing of the Goddess, (Linga or Ishta-devata)
External purification precedes internal purification and consists of reducing the body in to its constituent elements: earth, water, air, ether, fire. All elements undergo purification at the instance of the priest by transporting the elements mentally to a center 12 thumbs above the crown. This center is Dvadasanta (Dvādasānta). The baser elements occupy the lower part of the body and the highest element the top of the face: Earth from foot to knees; water from knees to navel; fire from navel to throat; wind from throat to mouth; ether from mouth to the crown. Sadasiva's faces represent each element and his body also has elemental configuration as described earlier. This rule can be applied to any Deva or Devi. When purification of the priest's body elements takes place, he is no more of the body but of the spirit; merges with the radiance of Siva or Goddess; receives out of body of experience, hovers 12 thumbs above the crown; looks at himself; dries his body with air, and incinerates it with fire. Fire purifies everything. (Initiation of a pupil by a Diksa is similar and described in another article.)
Once purification takes place, the priest or sakta sanctifies his body by affixing mantras on various parts of the body. By means of digital pressure, he infuses the body parts with divine energy by chanting mantra (OM) in a geographic progression from his arms, elbows, wrists, stomach, thighs, ankles, mouth to his feet. The priest or the Sakta now has a divine body pervaded by gods and Mantras. The priest becomes the god (Siva) or goddess for the time being. Siva, in case of Saiva priest, affirms the notion that the purified, sanctified and mantra-infused divine priest is Siva himself, though he may not have russet matted hair, the crescent moon, the third eye in the forehead, or the divine spouse on his left side.
Once these steps are taken, Siva or Ishta Devasta is invited as a welcome divine guest to abide in the sanctified place; ritual continues with offering of water to Siva to wash, cleanse and refresh his feet and mouth. Flowers and incense are offered and water is sprinkled on objects and his body to further purify them.
In case of Goddess, she is beseeched to sit on the lotus of the heart, to drink the divine nectar from the inverted thousand-petalled lotus of Sahasrara Chakra, use water to wash her feet and mouth, and wear ether as her clothing. Sakta offers incense, light, food, bell, fan and whisk, and flowers.
Mantra is the soul of Yantra; worship in Yantra pleases the Goddess. The vibrations from mantra gather on the surface of Yantra; gain momentum and bounce off; go to the specific god; receive his or her power, blessings, and grace; come back and deposit them on the chanter. Yantra restrains, regulates, modulates, subdues, and sublimates all miseries born of desire, anger, hate, greed, love and other entities. Worship without Yantra brings curse from the Deity. While worshipping the Deities, the deity-specific Mantra and Yantra with all the attendant rituals and paraphernalia (Tantra) should be brought into play, guaranteeing the proper respect and reverence to the deity; invoking one deity and worshipping another bring the wrath of both offended deities. The Inner power (Antahsakti) is brought to the full force in worship with all its rituals. All this is done under instructions from the Guru.
Mother Goddess is Parabrahman, and Sabdabrahmani in her manifest form. Sabdabramani is (Sound herself) the source of sound, letters, words, hymns, language, meaning and communication. She is Akshara (indestructible) and Akshara (letters). Mahakala (Great Time) of Siva-Sakti was dancing on the Daitya Ghora, who was born from the union of Siva and Sakti.
Maha-kala = Great Time. Kala = Time, to cal-culate.
Eulogy of mother Goddess: Conflicts and transcendence.
Though She is endowed with all Gunas, She is the confluence of all saktis in the Universe and transcends all Gunas. She induces fear in and battles Asuras, Danavas and Daityas, though she dispels fear in Bhaktas. Though she, in the form of Parvati, is the consort of Siva, She is the Mother of the gods (Brahma, Vishnu and Siva) in her Higher Form. She is the beloved Parvati, the Daughter of the Mountain (Himavat), though she is the Brahman who is SAtChitAnanda (Being, Consciousness, Bliss). Her youth is eternal (Sodasi, 16 years of age), though She is the Mother of the Grandfather (Brahma) of the three worlds. She is beyond Sabdabrahman (sound, speech) and mind. She is omnipresent. She sides with and enforces Dharma, though she is above Dharma and Adharma. She is the resident of all seven seas (of milk, water, ghee, honey, salt water, and sugar-cane juice).
She wipes fear from the hearts of her devotees, though she sends fear to the enemies in battle; She is the sweetheart of Siva though she is also the Mother of the Holy Triad; She is the dear daughter of Himavat and Mena, though she is the Brahman who is SatChitAnanda (Being, Consciousness, Bliss); She is of eternal youth, though she is the Mother of the Grandfather, Brahma, the creator of the world; She is beyond speech and words, though she is omnipresent; She upholds Dharma, though she transcends Dharma and Adharma; She is the enemy of the Daityas, though she is the Mother of all beings; She is the Emancipator of the Danavas, though She is also their annihilator; She dwells in the Milk Ocean though she moves in all the seven seas; She is the resident in the house of Chintamani, though She is above names and forms. She is the wish-giving Kalpa creeper; She is the eternal giver of four fruits of life: Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa (Religious virtue, wealth, desire, and liberation). She sits on the jeweled throne, though ash and jewel are the same to her. Though She lies on Preta (mfn, dead person, Sava Siva), She is the Adhara (support) of the limitless universe. (Her Sakti is necessary to give life to inert Siva. Siva without Sakti is considered Preta (dead person). Sakti without Siva is considered unconsciousness. She quickens [animates, enlivens and enspirits] all that she touches.) She is blacker than black clouds, though she gives light to the suns, moons, the stars of all the infinite universes. (Ancient India thought, out in the deep space and beyond there are universes like ours and Kali is the Mother of all those universes.) She is like a heap of collyrium, though she is full of Jyothi (Light). She is dark, though she dispels darkness of the soul (ignorance), lights up the heart of her devotees and grants SatChitAnanda.
In her form of fury, she sports a garland of fifty heads, though she is Dhvani. The fifty letters of the Sanskrit alphabet form the garland of heads (skulls) in Mahakali. She is the causal source of Sabda or sound and speech; she absorbs them back into herself at Maha Pralaya. Sabda Brahman or Sound Brahman is the manifest Brahman of sounds in all breathing creatures. Sabda finds expression in various creatures according to the level and sophistication of Sound Consciousness of Sabda Brahman in each species. When creation takes place, it is said that Viparita Maithuna (reversed coition) of Mahakali and Mahakala (Sakti and Siva) takes place, and Bindu or seed is deposited in Prakrti resulting in the birth of Kundali Goddess in the nature and form of letters (Aksara). Kundalini acquires three gunas one by one, Sattva first, Rajas next and Tamas last. If it were not for these gunas, Iccha, Jnana and Kriya Saktis will not be immanent in the goddess. When Sattva (goodness and virtue) enters her, she is called Cit-Sakti ; the condition results in Paramaka-avastha (Excellent dwelling or house). When Sattva and Rajas (motion and passion) enter her, she is called Dhvani (Sound); the condition is called Aksara-avastha (sound house). When Sattva, Rajas and Tamas enters her, she is called Nada (sound); the condition is Avyakta-avastha, unmanifest dwelling. When Sattva (Jnana) is dominant , she is half Moon (Ardhendu). When Tamas abounds in Nada, she is an obstructor (Nirodika). When both Sattva and Rajas are equal, (Jnana and Iccha saktis, wisdom and will), she is Bindu. When Tamas enters her, the Lord or Goddess (Sakti) appears ready to create (Kriya sakti). At human level, Jnana, Ichha and Kriya (wisdom, will and action) are linear in that order; with Isvara, it is Ichha, Jnana and Kriya, linear in that order. The Great Will (Iccha Sakti) wells up in Isvara or Isvari; the Lord knows (Jnana Sakti) what he or she wants to create; he or she acts on it (Kriya). In men, a prior knowledge preconditions the will to act. Jnana sakti is intrinsic in Siva sakti.
She is above Time and Death. She lives in the cremation grounds though she owns the whole universe.
Siva's Consort goes by many names depending on her association. As the Consort of Siva, She is Bhavāni; as the Mother of the world, She is Ambikā or Jaganmātā; as the daughter of Daksa and Virini, She is Uma; as the daughter of Himavat, She is Pārvati; as the repository of powers of gods, She is Durga in Her warrior status; She is Sakti with Siva; She is Kali with Siva; As Sati, She was the daughter of Daksa; She is the ten Mahavidyas.
As the personified energy of the gods Vishnu, Brahma, and Rudra, representing the three qualities Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, the Goddess is called 'Triguna' , the One possessed of three qualities. As the personified energy of Siva, who is the Supreme Being, devoid of attributes she is called Nirguna.
She is the Mother Goddess of Vishnu, Brahma and Rudra, the synthetic form of three qualities responsible for creation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe. Motilal Banarsidass publishers, Siva Purana Translation by Prof. Shastri.
Here is flowchart depicting Siva and Sakti.
Notes from Serpent Power by Woodroffe on Mother Goddess:
The Jñānārṇava Tantra (XXI. 10) says that "antah" implies secret and subtle, for the Atma, fine like an atom, is within everything. This is the bird Hamsah which disports in the Lake of Ignorance. On dissolution, when it is SamhararUpi, Atma is revealed. The Mother is the Antaryamin of the Devatas (gods) also, such as the five Śivas, Brahmā, etc., for She is ParabrahmĀnandarūpā, ParaprakaŚarūpā, Sadrūpā and Cidrūpā and thus directs them (TriŚati, II. 47).
"Now to the other methods of Śākta worship; the Kaulas worship the Kuṇḍalinī without rousing her from
her sleep1 in the Mūlādhāra, which is called Kula; and hence Kaulas (Sans. Ku = earth, Pṛthivī; so Mūlādhāra ).
1A statement by the same author at p. 75 is in apparent contradiction with this. He there says, citing Lakṣmīdhara; The Kaulas who worship Kuṇḍalinī in the Mūlādhāra have no other aim than awakening it from its sleep. When this is done, they think that they have attained their object, and there they stop. In their own words, the Kaulas have Nirvāṇa always near at hand. Woodroffe Serpent Power-- page 250
| Here is what Sri
Chandrasekharendra Saraswati Swamy
(May 20, 1894 – January 8, 1994)
says about Mother Goddess worship.
Deivaththin Kural (Part One
தெய்வத்தின் குரல் ( முதல் பாகம்)
Translation from Tamil to English: By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
"எனக்கு முக்கியம் அம்பாள் "
Deities are Avatars.
Ambal is important to me.
Ambal is the Consort of Siva.
Dearth of essentials should not be a factor at home. It is not enough that clothes and body are not dirty. The soul should become free of impurities. The only path for this is meditation and surrender at the lotus feet of Ambal, the Consort of Paramesvara and Parasakti, the manifest form of Sakti. If we were to meditate on Ambal's Lotus feet, the impurities will disappear, there will be no more shortage and we will be perfect. It is Her sacred play that we took birth as Jivas with needs and impurities. She redeems us and makes us pure and perfect: That is Her work.
The religions exist so we do not die like cattle, we die with tranquility and blissful joy, and we do not take birth again in this world. There is no need for a separate religion other than meditation of Ambal. She confers joyous bliss, perfection, completeness, and fulfillment.
If any of us attains fulfillment by meditating on Ambal, our religion grows. If you were to meditate on Ambal, it is better than listening to my religious discourse because it gives Atma Kshepam (soul welfare) and world welfare (Loka Kshepam). That will give fulfillment and perfection more than these words. I discovered this truth as I sat down for the talk. As I proceed to talk, I am becoming more and more pure. I talk on religious topics with the hope at least one soul will find fulfillment and uplift.
The conclusion of religious thought is to eradicate the deficiencies and obtain fulfillment. Our religion lays emphasis on observation of rites and rituals and attainment of one’s fulfillment. For that accomplishment, we should supplicate to Her and obtain Shakti and Buddhi.
Our deficiencies become apparent, when we attempt to meditate on Her and are unable to focus our thoughts on Her. It is good in a way. We implore Her to remove those deficiencies. Whenever deficiencies appear in me, I appeal to Ambal and pray to Her that at least in the future they would not appear.
If I were to have faults (and no fealties to Ambal), it is a mere put-on my part to offer religious instructions to others. If I were to have gained Ambal's Anugraha (grace and mercy) and attained fulfillment, there is no need for me to utter words of religious discourse. Without exhaling one word, Anugraha Sakti will confer Jnana to others. Therefore, in these two states, religious talk is unnecessary. Atma Sānti (peace and tranquillity of the soul) would come to me in abundance if I were to concentrate my time on meditation instead talking. If I were to use my talk time in meditation, my deficiencies will leave me. The reason for my talk is my desire that someone in the audience will feel the inducement (urge) and engage in self-experimentation and meditation upon Ambal to obtain self-fulfillment. Propaganda does not help spread and grow religion and Atmanubhavam (soul-realization). Propaganda and discourse offer brief peace, which we appreciate in this present world without peace. My speech gives an interim peace and tranquility to you. If I were not to talk to you (in this place and at this time), you will suffer misery and disappointment.
More importantly, we have to make this into an enduring peace by meditating on the lotus feet of Ambal.
No harm will come to our religion from other religions or atheism. Failure or slackness in religiousobservances will result in harm. When the body is weak, disease strikes it. If our religious observances slacken, conversion and atheism are the diseases to strike us.
It is sufficient to do observances without let and meditate on the lotus feet of Ambal. No one will get or face any difficulties. We have the wherewithal for these. There is no need to do big things or good works. We should attempt to desist from doing wrong things. Whenever we do wrong things, we should pray to Ambal, perform Atma-Suddhi (soul purification = ஆத்மசுத்தி) by Ambal's Grace, gain fulfillment stepwise and do serve our religion. We can offer welfare to the world, since our religion has public weal as its main thrust.
Moksa or liberation, the goal of all religions, is to know by experience the Supreme Truth, which Vedanta calls Brahmam.
By worshiping Jnana form of Ambal with Brahmam's Citsakti, Her Grace as the Truth and Jnana will descend to us.
Having given us many kinds of comforts and conveniences, she offers knowledge and liberation as the final grace. Her Grace and Mercy (அனுக்கிரகம் = aṉu-k-kirakam) release us from worldly bondage and take us to Moksa. Sastras and Stotras tell us that because we worship Ambal, Ajñānam leaves us, Jnana pervades us, and we attain liberation. We know several Jñānis becoming Parama-Jñānis (Supreme sages) by devotion to Ambal.
ஞானி ñāṉi. jñānin. Wise person, sage, philosopher, person of sublime religious knowledge
What we have to do in the beginning is meditation on the lotus feet of Ambal; even a little meditation helps us know its essence and flavor. We will begin to understand that there is nothing having the ability to confer us peace and tranquility other than meditation at the lotus feet (சரணாரவிந்த தியானம் = saranara-vindha tiyāṉam) of Ambal. After death, we can obtain immortality and permanent knowledge.
Before we attempt to preach, it is enough to desist from doing wrong things. Her lotus-feet are the refuge. Meditation is the device inside us that easily removes the deficiencies. You must meditate on Her to obtain soul welfare and universal welfare. No one will have any suffering. The whole world will enjoy supreme welfare.