Bhagavad-Gita:Chapters in Sanskrit
(All 18 chapters in Sanskrit, Transliteration, and Translation.)
Bhagavadgita in English
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Author: Vasugupta (860-925 CE)
Commentary in Sanskrit: Ksemaraja
Reference: English Translation: Jaideva Singh
Reference: Monier Williams Dictionary
Verses in Sanskrit font, Word for word translation, Superscription, Flowcharts, Diagrams, Commentary: Krishnaraj
A note: Sanskrit words are polysemous (many disparate meanings) based on the context, author, region, sect.... Expect surprises.
Here is an example in English.
Man by name Bob Crane at the controls of a TV crane was shooting pictures of many crouping cranes perched on the tower crane basking in the sun at the construction site on Crane Neck Blvd in the town of Crane, as the people were craning their necks to catch a glimpse.
Spandakarikas = Verses on Divine Creative Pulsation.
Spandakarika means Verses on Pulsation. Verses on Creative Divine Pulsation.
This piece is notes taken from Spanda-Karika by Vasugupta, Commentary by Ksemaraja, and English translation by Jaideva Singh; The Karikas or verses are brought to public attention by Kallata (9th century AD, 2nd and 3rd quarters), the disciple of Vasugupta. The commentary has three sections: 1st section, Svarupa Spanda (= essential nature of Spanda) with 25 verses; the second section, Sahaja-Vidya (= knowledge of Siva Consciousness) with 7 verses --V26-V32; 3rd section, VibhUti-Spanda (= Supranormal powers) with 20 verses --33 to 52). The Sanskrit commentary on the verses was written by Ksemaraja (10-11the century). Svarupa = own form of the one Reality. Ultimate or irreducible nature.
Spanda is to throb, quiver, pulsate with life. It is the Divine Creative Pulsation. Spanda is something of a movement and yet not exactly so. Siva Consciousness is immovable and yet it appears to move in its manifestation. It is static and yet appears dynamic. It is Vimarsa or Self-awareness. It is His knowledge and Activity. It connotes SvAtantrya or Absolute Freedom. Jaideva Singh says that Vimarsa, Parasakti, Svatantrya, Aisvarya, Kartrtva, Sphratta, SAra, Hrdaya, and Spanda are synonyms. Spanda is the Will Power of Siva (= Iccha Sakti).
Unmesa and Nimesa are Spanda Sakti of Siva. Unmesa is opening of eyelids and emergence and Nimesa is closing of eyes and submergence. They are the essential nature of Siva and also of the embodied soul (we, the people). These Saktis are simultaneously occurring in Siva and never run out from expenditure. Siva performs functions: Creation; maintenance; absorption; Obscuration; and Anugraha (Grace).
Udyoga (Creativity), AvabhAsana (maintenance), CarvanA (Absorption), VilApana (AnAkhya = transcendence beyond description by words) are listed.
Panegyric to Drgdevi, Goddess the embodiment of Jnana or Knowledge.
Devi is the effulgence of I-Consciousness; She is the essence of all letters. She is Jnana. She is the embodiment of all Tattvas from Siva down to Earth. I-Consciousness is the Mantra--Aham ParAmarsa. Aham or I-Consciousness has all the letters from 'a' to 'h'. Devi is the origin of letters, as She is the origin of the universe and beings. Siva's Saktis (powers) are generally assigned the gender of the female.
Svatantrya Sakti (Spanda) the absolute Freedom of the Divine manifests Jnana Sakti (Knowledge Power), Iccha Sakti (the Will power) and Kriya Sakti (Action Power). Spanda is Drg Devi with Divine vision.
Section 1: AtmavyApti = Realization of Self as Siva.
Verse 1.1. Siva's Spanda Sakti is the cause and dissolution of the world and the origin of all Saktis.
यस्योन्मेषनिमेषाभ्यां जगतः प्रलयोदयौ |
तं शक्तिचक्रविभवप्रभवं शङ्करं स्तुमः||
yasyonmeṣanimeṣābhyāṃ jagataḥ pralayodayau|
taṃ śakticakravibhavaprabhavaṃ śaṅkaraṃ stumaḥ|| 01
यस्य1 उन्मेष2 निमेषा3 अभ्यां4 जगतः5 प्रलय6 उदयौ7
तं8 शक्तिचक्र9 विभव10 प्रभवं11 शङ्करं12 स्तुमः13
yasya1 unmesa2 nimeṣa3 abhyāṃ4 jagataḥ5 pralaya6 udayau7
taṃ8 śakticakra9 vibhava10 prabhavaṃ11 śaṅkaraṃ12 stumaḥ13
स्तुमः13 = stumaḥ = we praise; तं8 = Taṃ = Him; śaṅkaraṃ12 = śankaraṃ = Śaṅkara = Lord Siva; [who is] प्रभवं11 = prabhavaṃ = the cause; [of] विभव10 = vibhava = power; [of] शक्तिचक्र9 = śakticakra = Wheel of Power = twelve divinities*; यस्य1 = Yasya = whose; उन्मेष2 = unmesa = opening of eyes--expansion; [and] निमेषा3 = nimeṣa = closing of eyes--absorption; abhyāṃ4 = abhyāṃ = with them, with those two; [result] udayau7 = udayau = creation, appearance, manifestation, rising; [and] प्रलय6 = pralaya = dissolution; [of] जगतः5 = jagataḥ = the whole world.
1.1. We praise Siva by whose two modes, expansion and contraction (emergence and submergence), the world appears and disappears because of the causal agency of the wheel of power (12 divinities). -Krishnaraj
śakticakra9 = Power-wheel = Wheel of Power = twelve divinities* = Sṛṣti Kālī = Creative power; Rakta Kālī = Sthiti = maintenance; Sthitināśa Kālī = saṃhāra = absorption, destruction; Yama Kālī = anākhyā = indefinable, unknowable; saṃhāra Kālī = object (we the people and matter) non-different from Subject; MṛtyuKālī = Engulfer of Saṃhāra Kālī; BhadraKālī = Creator of different objects and dissolution of the same in Her; Mārṭāṇḍa Kālī = Mārṭāṇḍa (sun = 12 Indriyas light up objects like the sun = 10 organs plus Manas and Buddhi) ; ParamārakaKālī = Creator of man with limitation of Paśu or āṇava mala ; Kālāgnirūdra Kālī = Inductor of assimilation of limited man into Her universal Self; Mahākāla Kālī = Facilitator of dissolution of individual 'I' into universal Perfect Supreme'I' ; Mahābhairava-ghora-caṇḍaKālī = Akula stage wherein the subject, object, means of knowledge, knowledge--Pramātā, Pramāṇa and Prameya- become one with the Supreme I-Consciousness.
Copyright: Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
We praise Sankara whose opening and closing of eyes results in creation and dissolution of the world and who is the origin of all Saktis.
Descending Sakti of Siva means Display of Creation (unmesa = opening of eyes or world emergence) which is coeval and simultaneous with Nimesa (Closing of eyes or concealment = submergence of Consciousness) of His essential nature. Likewise Ascending Sakti of Siva is emergence of compactness of Consciousness (Unmesa or opening of eyes = emergence of compactness of Consciousness) which is coeval and simultaneous with dissolution of the universe (Nimesa or closing of eyes or submergence of the universe). As you see, Unmesa and Nimesa are simultaneous events. There is no loss or gain here; it is just ascension and descension of Consciousness and the Universe. What is Nimesa for Consciousness is Unmesa for the universe and Vice Versa. It is the swing of the pendulum or the seesaw. It is an amplitude up and down; It is a wave. As Consciousness sinks, universe floats; as universe sinks, Consciousness rises. Actually there is no ascent or no descent of anything. It is Spanda; it is Pulsation. He is Acala (= immobile). Spanda or pulsation or slight movement or vibration is metaphorical and not literal.
Verse 1.2. Siva and the World being one, nothing can veil Him.
यत्र स्थितमिदं सर्वं कार्यं यस्माच्च निर्गतम् ।
तस्यानावृतरूपत्वान्न निरोधोऽस्ति कुत्रचित् ।।
Yatra sthitam idaṃ sarvaṃ kāryaṃ yasmācca nirgataṃ|
Tasyānāvṛtarūpatvān na nirodho' sti kutracit|| 02
यत्र1 स्थितम2 इटं3 सर्वं4 कार्यं5 यस्मात्6 च7 निर्गतम्8
तस्य9 अनावृत10 रूपत्वात्11 न12 निरोधः13 अस्ति14 कुत्रचित्15 --Krishnara
Yatra1 sthitam2 idaṃ3 sarvaṃ4 kāryaṃ5 yasmāt6 ca7 nirgataṃ8
Tasya9 anāvṛta10 rūpatvāt11 na12 nirodhaḥ13 asti14 kutracit15 --Krishnaraj
Yatra1 = From Whom; sthitam2 = (it) rests, resting in a state of expansion or manifestation of objects; idaṃ3 = this; sarvaṃ4 = all, everything; kāryaṃ5 = product, world--subject, object and knowledge etc; yasmāt6 = from whom; ca7 = even; nirgataṃ8 = came forth;Tasya9 = Him, His; anāvṛta10 = unobstructed, open, not covered; rūpatvāt11 = because of His form; asti14= there is; na12 = no; nirodhaḥ13 = obstruction; kutracit15 = anywhere.--Krishnaraj
yasmāt6 = from whom; idaṃ3 = this; sarvaṃ4 = all, everything; kāryaṃ5 = product, world--subject, object and knowledge etc; nirgataṃ8 = came forth; ca7 = and; Yatra1 = in Whom; sthitam2 = (it) rests, resting in a state of expansion or manifestation of objects; Tasya9 = Him, His; [Nature is] anāvṛta10 = unobstructed, open, not covered. rūpatvāt11 = Because of His form; asti14 = there is; na12 = no; nirodhaḥ13 = obstruction; kutracit15 = anywhere.--Krishnaraj.
1.2. Because of Form or Nature of Siva, from whom all came and in whom all rests, He remains unobstructed and there is no obstruction to be seen anywhere.--
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Inasmuch as nothing can veil His Nature, there cannot be His obstruction anywhere in whom all this world rests and from whom it has come forth. -Jaideva Singh.
The world made of Subject (pramAtA), Prameya (object) and PramAna (means of Knowledge) according to Spanda Principle exists in Siva. It is like the city reflected in the mirror. The mirror and the reflection are mirror. Likewise Siva and the world are Siva. Siva and the world are one unit and are not two separate units. That being so, nothing can veil Him.
Man by his constitution inveterately believes in an objective existence beyond and independent of himself. And there is such objectivity as long as, being embodied Spirit (Jivatma) , his consciousness is veiled or contracted by Maya. But in the ultimate basis of experience, which is the Supreme Spirit (Paramatma), the divergence has gone, for in it lie, in undifferentiated mass, experiencer (Pramata = Subject), experience (PramAna ), and the experienced (Prameya) . When, however, we speak of Cit as Feeling-Consciousness we must remember that what we know and observe as such is only a limited changing manifestation of Cit, which is in itself the infinite changeless principle, which is the background of all experience. Woodroffe, The Serpent Power, page 29.
Verse 1.3. Spanda Principle is immutable.
जाग्रदादिविभेदेऽपि तदभिन्ने प्रसर्पति ।
निवर्तते निजान्नैव स्वभावादुपलब्धृतः ।।
Jāgradādivibhede'Pi tadabhinne Prasarpati|
Nivartate nijānnaiva svabhāvādupalabdhṛtaḥ|| 1.03
जाग्रत्1 आदि2 विभेदे3 अपि4 तत्5 अभिन्ने6 प्रसर्पति7
निवर्तते8 निजत्9 न10 एव11 स्वभावात्12 उपलब्धृतः13 1.3
अपि4 = api = even; विभेदे3 = vibhede = in various; [states such as] जाग्रत्1 = jāgrat = wakefulness ; आदि2 = ādi = and so on; अभिन्ने6 = abhinne = not different; [from] तत्5 = tat = that (Spanda); [Spanda] प्रसर्पति7 = prasarpati = flows; [and] न10 एव11 = na eva = does not certainly; निवर्तते8 = Nivartate = flee, depart; [from its] निजात्9 = nijāt = own; स्वभावात्12 = svabhāvāt = essential nature; उपलब्धृतः13 = upalabdhṛtaḥ = as the perceiver (Experient ).
1.3. The Spanda Principle remains the same in states like wakefulness and so on, continues to flow and does not deviate from its own essential nature as the Perceiver.
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Even though different states like waking etc. occur in which, however, that Spanda Principle remains identically the same, that Spanda Principle never departs from its own nature as the identical Experient (in all differing states. -Jaideva Singh.
The Experient is one who experiences the world and does not undergo any change in himself during waking, dream sleep and deep sleep. In his consciousness, there is neither transformation (Parinama) nor illusory appearance (Vivarta). Spanda Principle exhibits SvAtanrya (Total Freedom) of Siva in these states. The Yogi becomes one with Siva during all three states, as he realizes his identity with Siva.
I am happy, I am miserable, I am attached --these and other cognitions have their being evidently in another in which the states of happiness, misery etc. are strung together. --Jaideva Singh.
Knowing that changing states like pleasure, pain... belong to the Puryastaka i.e. the psychological or the empirical self, one should establish oneself in his essential Self, which is the real Experient, which is the nature of Siva. --Jaideva Singh.
Puryastaka = the City of group of eight: the five Tanmatras, Buddhi, Ahamkara and Manas; the subtle body.
Verse 1.5. Siva is metempirical Self beyond thought constructs and human experiences.
न दुःखं न सुखं यत्र न ग्राह्यं ग्राहकं न च ।
न चास्ति मूढभावोऽपि तदस्ति परमार्थतः 1.05
Na duḥkhaṃ na sukhaṃ yatra na grāhyaṃ grāhakaṃ na ca|
Na cāsti mūḍhabhāvo' pi tadasti paramārthataḥ|| 1.05
न1 दुःखं2 न3 सुखं4 यत्र5 न6 ग्राह्यं7 ग्राहकं8 न9 च10 ।
न11 चास्ति12 मूढभावोऽपि13 तदस्ति14 परमार्थतः15 1.05
यत्र5 = yatra = wherein; [there is] न1 = na = neither; दुःखं2 = duḥkhaṃ = unhappiness; न3 = na = nor; सुखं4 = sukhaṃ = happiness; न6 = na = nor; ग्राह्यं7 grāhyaṃ = object; न9 च10 = na ca = nor; ग्राहकं8 = grāhakaṃ = subject. मूढभावः14 = mūḍhabhāvaḥ = insentient state, insentience; न11 च12 = does not; अपि15 api = even; अस्ति13 = asti = exist -- तत्16 = tat = that; स्ति17 = asti = is; परमार्थतः18 = paramārthataḥ = in the highest sense [the Spanda]. 1.05.
1.05. The Highest Principle (Spanda) is free of unhappiness, happiness, object, subject or insentience.
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Wherein nether pain, nor pleasure, nor object, nor subject exists, nor wherein does even insentiency (insentience) exist--that, in the highest sense, is that Spanda Principle. --Jaideva Singh.
The experience of internal states like pain and pleasure, nor external states , nor the subject (the experient) are not the highest reality. Psychological experiences and psychological subject are not the Highest Reality.
Siva is untouched and unaffected by these experiences. Pleasure and pain are not His nature. They are evanescent and evaporate instantly. What is eternal is the Self. These psychological experiences are external to the Self; they proceed from thought constructs. But the Self is beyond thought-constructs (Vikalpa). Pleasure and pain cannot be the nature of the Self. The subject here is MAyIya PramAta, the individual soul or the empirical subject afflicted by MAyA, and not the metempirical (beyond or outside the field of experience) Self. This metempirical Self: is It a void, a negation, or an insentient stone? It is the metempirical Reality whose essential form is Spanda-Sakti. He always remains an eternal Subject and not an object. The empirical self who realizes this is not subject to misfortunes of life.
Verse 1.6 and 1.7. The insentient senses are not the seer but the unseen Spanda Principle or the Self is the real Seer.
यतः करणवर्गोऽयं विमूढोऽमूढवत्स्वयम्।
Yataḥ karana-vargo 'yaṁ vimūḍho 'mūḍhavat svayam|
Sahāntareṇa cakreṇa pravṛtti-sthiti-saṃhṛtiḥ||1.06
Labhate tatprayatnena parīksyaṁ tattvam ādarāt|
Yataḥ svatantratā tasya sarvatreyam akṛtrimā|| 1.07
यतः1 करण2 वर्गः3 अयं4 विमूढः5 अमूढ6 वत्7 स्वयम्8 |
सह9 अन्तरेण10 चक्रेण11 प्रवृत्ति12 स्थिति13 संहृतीः14 || 1.06
लभते15 तत्16 प्रयत्नेन17 परीक्ष्यं18 तत्त्वम्19 आदरात्20 |
यतः21 स्वतन्त्रता22 तस्य23 सर्वत्र24 इयम25 अकृत्रिमा26 || 1.07
तत्16 = tat = That; तत्त्वम्19 = tattvam = basic principle; परीक्ष्यं18 = parīksyaṁ = should be examined or explored; प्रयत्नेन17 = prayatnena = with great care; [and] आदरात्20 = ādarāt = reverence, respect; यतः01 = yataḥ = by which; अयं4 = ayam = this; वर्गः3 = varga = group; [of] करण2 = karaṇa = senses; [though] विमूढः5 = vimūḍhaḥ = insentient; [acts] वत्7 = vat = like; अमूढ6 = amūḍha = the sentient; स्वयम्8 = svayam = by itself; [and] सह9 = saha = together; अन्तरेण10 = antareṇa = with inner; चक्रेण11 = cakreṇa = circle of saktis of senses; लभते15 = labhate = attains; प्रवृत्ति12 = pravṛtti = forward motion [directed to sense objects]; स्थिति13 = sthiti = feeling attached to them; [and] संहृतीः14 = saṁhṛtīḥ = withdrawing from them; यतः21 = yataḥ = by which; इयम25 = iyam = this; अकृत्रिमा26 = akṛtrimā = natural; स्वतन्त्रता22 = svatantratā = freedom; तस्य23 = tasya = of It; [abides] सर्वत्र24 = sarvatra = everywhere.
That principle should be explored with great care and respect by which this group of senses though insentient acts like the sentient by itself and together with the inner circle of Saktis of the senses attains propulsion feeling attached to the sense objects and withdrawing from them by which this natural freedom of IT abides everywhere. (1.6 & 1.7)
The real Seer is the unseen Spanda and not the insentient senses.
Copyright© Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
That principle should be examined with great care and reverence by which this group of senses, though insentient, acts as sentient force by itself, and along with the inner group of senses, goes towards objects, takes pleasure in their maintenance, and withdraws unto itself, because this natural freedom of it prevails everywhere. 06 & 07. -Jaideva Singh.
The senses apprehend the objects of perception (Pravrtti), maintain the process of apprehension (Sthiti), and eventually subside in themselves (Samhrti). The senses are not endowed with innate power of perception, which resides elsewhere. That perceiving principle should be identified with reverence, which is the Spanda Principle, Siva Himself and one's own Self. This Self, though not visible to the perceiver, is the perceiving principle of all that is seen and experienced.
This Seer of all that is seen is like the eye, which though not seen is the seer. The Self is the Seer, which is not an object of sight like a jar.
Verse 1.8. Surrender your will and desire and become one with Spanda.
नही1 इच्छा2 नोदनस्य3 अयं4 प्रेरकत्वेन5 वर्तते6
अपि7 तु8 आत्म9 बल10 स्पर्शात्11 पुरुषः12 तत्13 समः14 भवेत्15 ॥1.08॥
अयं4 = ayam = This (corporeal soul); नही1 = nahī = cannot; प्रेरकत्वेन5 वर्तते6 = prerakatvena vartate = propel, set in motion, urge, drive; नोदनस्य3 = nodanasya = the goad; [of] इच्छा2 = icchā = desire; अपि7 तु8 = api tu = but; स्पर्शात्11 = sparśāt = coming into contact; [with] बल10 = bala = power; [of] आत्म9 = ātma = the Self; [that] पुरुषः12 = person; भवेत्15 = bhavet = becomes; समः14 = samaḥ = equal; [to] तत्13 = tat = That; ॥1.08॥ Krishnaraj.
This corporeal soul cannot propel the goad of desire; but contact with the power of the Great Self, this said person becomes equal to THAT (which is of the nature of Spanda). --Krishnaraj
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The empirical individual cannot drive the goad of desire. But by coming into contact with the power of the Self, he becomes equal to that principle. 08.--Jaideva Singh.
The embodied soul is of the false belief that he drives the senses by his will power. His desire is not driven by its power. Siva or Spanda Principle, the repository of Knowledge and Activity (Jnana and Kriya), is the driving force behind desire and the knowledge. The only way to acquire the power of Spanda, Siva or Self is to surrender will and desire to the Divine. It is making the human will and desire subside in Spanda. When Citta empties all its will and desire to the Will of Spanda, the individual attains fulfillment. This surrender assures coming in touch with Spanda and becoming one with It.
Verse 1.9. Once the impurities are expunged, the highest state appears.
यदा क्षोभः प्रलीयेत तदा स्यात्परमं पदम् ।।1-09
Nijāśuddhyāsamarthasya kartavyeṣv abhilāṣiṇaḥ|
yadā kṣobhaḥ praIīyeta tadā syāt paramaṃ padam|| 1.09.
निज1 अशुद्धया2 असमर्थस्य3 कर्तव्येषु4 अभिलाषिणः5
यदा6 क्षोभः7 प्रलीयेत8 तदा9 स्यात्10 परमं11 पदम्12
यदा6 = yada = when; क्षोभः7 = kṣobhaḥ = agitation, disturbance; [of the limited person] असमर्थस्य3 = asamarthasya = who is incompetent or incapacitated; [because of] निज1 = Nija = his own; अशुद्धया2 = aśuddhyā = impurity; [and] अभिलाषिणः5 = abhilāṣiṇaḥ = who desires; कर्तव्येषु4 = kartavyeṣu = to perform actions; प्रलीयेत8 = disappear, dissolve, perish; तदा9 = tadā = then; परमं11 = paramaṃ = Supreme; पदम्12 = padam = state, situation; स्यात्10 = syāt = arises, appears, occurs.
When a person's agitation and incapacity due to his impurity and desire for actions disappear, then the Supreme state appears (in him). --Krishnaraj.
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When the perturbation of that empirical individual who is incapacitated by his own impurity and is attached to actions, disappears, then the highest state appears. Jaideva Singh.
When the Self or the Supreme Consciousness descends in a cascade fashion to the last insentient entity the Earth, two processes work hand in hand so much so that the embodied being forgets his organic relationship with the Self because of Anava Malam and acquires subtle and gross bodies from MAyiya Malam. Once the empirical being is embodied, he performs acts which earn him Karma Malam. These three Malams keep man in bondage. This is Ksobha or perturbation of the individual self, wherein there is Self-forgetfulness. Once the Perturbation dissolves or is expunged, Self-recollection displaces Self-forgetfulness and the individual self becomes one with Spanda or the Self. A limited person is the embodied soul which is burdened with Kancucas, Malams, actions, and forgetfulness of his connection with the Great Self.
Kala7,Niyati8, Kala9, Vidya10, Raga11, Purusa12. A soul becomes Purusa when it is burdened with limitations or Kancukas, Kala7,Niyati8, Kala9, Vidya10, Raga11. TATTVAS-36
Kancukas definition: Forms of Sakti, whereby the natural perfections of Consciousness are limited. Thus from all-knowing it becomes little-knowing; from being almighty, it becomes a little-doer, etc. The term Saṁcosa expresses the same idea. --Serpent Power page 39 by Woodroffe.
Tattvas are the building blocks of the universe and beings. They proceed from Siva. It starts with Divine Supreme Consciousness in its first dimension, descends to human consciousness with its Kancukas or limitations in its second dimension, acquires all material needs of the body, mind, and soul in its third dimension. The realization of the First dimension of Universal experience and Transcendental Unity is available only to liberated souls (Vijnanakalars). Second dimension is available to all limited beings (We the people) and souls as individual experience. The third dimension makes provision for existence of the corporeal soul in the phenomenal world by providing ego, mind, intellect, sensory and motor organs and material for life existence and maintenance.
Verse 1.10. When limited knowledge and activity cease to exist, a flash of cognition and activity enlightens him.
तदास्याकृत्रिमो धर्मो ज्ञत्वकर्तृत्वलक्षणः।
यतस्तदेप्सितं सर्वं जानाति च करोति च ।। 1.10
Tadāsyākṛtrimo dharmo jñatvakartṛtvalakṣaṇaḥ|
yatas tadepsitaṃ sarvaṃ jānāti ca karoti ca|| 1.10
तदा1 अस्य2 अकृत्रिमः3 धर्मः4 ज्ञत्व5 कर्तृत्व6 लक्षणः7 ।
यतः8 तदा9 ईप्सितं10 सर्वं11 जानाति12 च13 करोति14 च15 ।। 1.10
तदा1 =Tadā = then, at that time; अस्य2 = asya = his; अकृत्रिमः3 = akṛtrimaḥ = innate; धर्मः4 = dharmaḥ = nature; लक्षणः7 = lakṣaṇaḥ = a characteristic, special quality; [defined] ज्ञत्व5 = jñatva = by cognition, knowledge; [and] कर्तृत्व6 = kartṛtva = by action; [and] यतः8 = yataḥ = by which; तदा9 = tadā = at that time, then; [he] जानाति12 = jānāti = knows; च13 च15 = and; करोति14 = karoti = performs; सर्वं11 sarvaṃ = all; ईप्सितं10 = īpsitaṃ = that is desired.
च13 च15 = and = Jaideva Singh suggests that the double च indicates simultaneity of both Knowledge and action.
1.10. Then shines his innate nature, the characteristic defined by knowledge and action, by which he knows and performs all that is wished for.
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Then will flash forth his innate nature characterized by cognition and activity, by which he (the experient) then knows and does all that is desired (by him). Jaideva Singh.
The ownership of knowledge and activity of the embodied soul or empirical individual is not innate but borrowed from Spanda. Besides, they are limited and contracted in a human being as they trickle down from Spanda. When this impediment or inability ceasesto exist, his knowledge and activity are equal to those of Spanda.
Verse 1.11. A flash of Spanda restores the pristine nature of the individual self.
tam1 adhiṣṭhātṛ2 bhāvena3 svabhāvam4 avalokayan5
smayamāna6 iva7 āste8 yah9 tasya10 iyam11 ku12 sṛtiḥ13 kutaḥ14 1.11
कुतः14 = kutaḥ = How; [could] इयं11 = iyam = this; कु12 = ku = degraded; सृतिः13 = sṛtiḥ = path [of metempsychosis]; तस्य10 [be] = tasya = his; यः9 = yah = who; आस्ते8 = āste= remains; स्मयमानः6 = smayamāna = in amazement; इव7 = iva = as if; [he is] अवलोकयन्5 = avalokayan = observing; तम1 = tam = That; स्वभावम4 = svabhāvam = nature [Spanda]; भावेन3 = bhāvena = as; [IT] अधिष्ठातृ2 = adhiṣṭhātṛ = presides over [all activities of life].
1.11. How could this degraded path of life and death be his , as he witnesses in amazement Spanda which presides [beings and matter]?
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How can this accursed way of life and death be his (any longer) who stands struck with amazement as he observes that nature (viz. Spanda) which presides over all activities of life (as I)? Jaideva Singh.
Life of impediment is that of the empirical self, who forgot his connection with Spanda. When the Yogi gets a flash of Spanda Principle, the empirical self vanishes.
Verse 1.12 & 1.13. Experient, Self, Spanda or Siva is a thread that runs through all experiences and even Void.
नाभावो भाव्यतामेति न च तत्रास्त्यमूढता|
nābhāvo bhāvyatāmeti na ca
न1 अभाव:2 भाव्यताम3 एति4 न5 च6 तत्र7 अस्ति8 अमूढता9|
यत:10 अभियोग11 संस्पर्शात्12 तद्13 आसीत्14 ईति15 निश्चय16|| 1.12
na1 abhāvaḥ2 bhāvyatām3 eti4 na5 ca6 tatra7 asti8 amūḍhatā9
yataḥ10 abhiyoga11 saṁsparśāt12 tad13 āsit14 iti15 niścayaḥ16 1.12
अभाव:2 = abhāvaḥ = [mere] non-existence; न1 = na = cannot; एति4 = eti = be; [an object of] भाव्यताम3 = bhāvyatām = contemplation; च6 = ca = and; न5 = na = nor; [can it be told] अस्ति8 = asti = there is; अमूढता9 = amūḍhatā = no stupefaction; तत्र7 = tatra = in that [state]; यत:10 = yataḥ = because; संस्पर्शात्12 = saṁsparśāt = by getting in touch; [with] अभियोग11 = abhiyoga = [the person who emerged from Abhiyoga and is able to declare his experience] ; ईति15 = iti = it is; निश्चय16 = niścayaḥ = a certainty; तद्13 = tad = that -- experience of stupefaction; आसीत्14 = āsit = existed. ||1.12||
Non-existence cannot be an object of contemplation nor it be told there is no stupefaction in that state, because the experient of abhiyoga declares that certainty of experience of stupefaction existed. 1.12
अतस्तत्कृत्रिमं ज्ञेयं सौषुप्तपदवत्सदा|
अत:1 तत्2 कृत्रिमं3 ज्ञेयं4 सौषुप्त5 पद6 वत्7 सदा8
न9 तु10 एवं11 स्मर्यमाणत्वं12 तत्13 तत्त्वं14 प्रतिपद्यते15
अत:1 = ataḥ = Hence; तत्2 = tat = that; कृत्रिमं3 = kṛtrimaṃ = artificial; ज्ञेयं4 = jñeyaṃ = object of knowledge; [is] सदा8 = sadā = always; वत्7 = vat = like; पद6 = pada = a state; [of] सौषुप्त5 = sauṣupta = deep sleep; तु10 = tu = but; तत्13 = tat = that; तत्त्वं14 = tattvaṃ = principle [of Spanda]; एवं11 = evam = thus; न9 = na = is not; प्रतिपद्यते15 = pratipadyate = attained; स्मर्यमाणत्वं12 = smaryamāṇatvaṃ = as the state of recollection or memory of the past.
That artificial object of knowledge is always like a state of deep sleep. But the principle of Spanda is not attained as the state of recollection. 1.13
Mere non-existence cannot be an object of contemplation, nor can it be said there is no stupefaction in that state, because on account of the application of backward reference, it is certain that it (i.e. the experience of stupefaction) was there (in that state).
Hence that artificial object of knowledge is always like sound sleep. It is not in this manner i.e. as a state of recollection that the Spanda-Principle is known. --Jaideva Singh.
Madhyamikas assert that the Ultimate Reality is Sunya or Void, which is characterized by non-existence of the knower, the knowledge and the known (Subject, object and Knowledge or means of knowledge). They claim they experience Void in SamAdhi, wherein there is no consciousness of I or This (Aham and Idam = I and This = Subject and object) and no link between the two. How are we to know what they experienced was such Void?
Ksemaraja gives the counterargument against Void. Complete non-experience of object is nothing less than stupor as in sleep. The Madhyamikas explore their memory in Samadhi backwards from the waking state. Stupor is a temporary state of the mind. Void is not the quality of Spanda or the Reality.
How can one recollect experience of Void in Samadhi, where there is no experient or subject, and where there is no Spanda, Siva or the Experient? Void is an experience; but Madhyamikas, being the subject and experient, were not there in Void to experience it. How can one experience Spanda when one is in stupor? The Experient, the Self, Spanda, or Siva is Subject and can never become an object of experience. The Experient runs like a thread through all experiences and also of Void; without Experient, even experience of Void is not possible.
Verses 1.14, 1.15, & 1.16. In Meditation on Void, the object disappears and the cessation of Divine Subject is delusion.
अवस्थायुगलं चात्र कार्यकर्तृत्वशब्दितम्।
शब्दितम्6 = śabditam = It is said; [there are] युगलं2 = yugalaṁ = two; अवस्था1 = avasthā = states; च3 अत्र4 = ca atra = herein [of the Spanda principle]; [:] कार्यकर्तृत्व5 = kāryakartṛtva = deed and doer state. तत्र9 = tatra = of these [two]; कार्यता7 = kāryatā = deed; क्षयिणी8 = kṣayiṇī = is perishable; पुनर12 = punar = but; कर्तृत्वं10 = kartṛtvaṃ = doer; [is] अक्षयम्13 = akṣayaṃ = imperishable. ||1.14||
It is said there are two states of the Spanda Priniciple: the deed and the doer. Of these two, the deed is perishable and the doer is imperishable. The Doer = Subject, Siva-Spanda principle; the deed = manifestation as external objects. 1.14
कार्योन्मुखः प्रयत्नो यः केवलं सोऽत्र लुप्यते।
कार्य1 उन्मुखः2 प्रयत्नः3 यः4 केवलं5 सः6 अत्र7 लुप्यते8
तस्मिन् लुप्ते9 विलुप्तः10 अस्मी11 इति12 अबुधः13 प्रतिपद्यते14 ॥1.15॥
kārya unmukhaḥ prayatnaḥ yaḥ
saḥ atra lupyate|
केवलं5 = kevalaṃ = only; सः6 = saḥ = that; प्रयत्नः3 = prayatnaḥ = effort; यः4 = yaḥ = which; उन्मुखः2 = unmukhaḥ = is directed to; कार्य1 = kārya = deed [object]; अत्र7 = atra = herein; लुप्यते8 = lupyate = disappears. [When that effort] तस्मिन् लुप्ते9 = tasmin lupte = in that has disappeared; अबुधः13 = abudhaḥ = a fool; प्रतिपद्यते14 = pratipadyate = think; अस्मी11 = asmi = I have; विलुप्तः10 = viluptaḥ = disappeared; इति12 = iti = thus. ॥1.15॥
Only the effort directed towards the object disappears, which makes the fool think, 'I have disappeared too.' 1.15
न तु योऽन्तर्मुखो
न1 तु2 यः3 अन्तर्मुखः4 भावः5 सर्वज्ञत्व6 गुण7 आस्पदम्8
तस्य9 लोपः10 कदाचित्11 स्यात्12 अन्यस्य13 अनुपलम्भनात्14
स्यात्12 = syāt = there is; न1 तु2 = na tu = never; -- कदाचित्11 = kadācit = not at any time; -- लोपः10 = lopaḥ = disappearance; तस्य9 = tasya = of its; अन्तर्मुखः4 = antarmukhaḥ = inner; भावः5 = bhāvaḥ = nature; यः3 = yaḥ = which; [is] आस्पदम्8 = āspadam = the abode; [of] गुण7 = guṇa = attribute, quality; [of] सर्वज्ञत्व6 = sarvajñatva = omniscience; अनुपलम्भनात्14 = anupalambhanāt = in case of non-perception; अन्यस्य13 = anyasya = of the other-object.
There is never at any time a loss of its inner nature which is omniscience in case of non-perception of the object. (Subject never disappears though the object may disappear. Subject is Siva-Spanda and the object is the universe.) 1.16
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Of this Spanda principle, two states are spoken about, viz., of the doer or the subject and the deed or the object. Of these two, the deed or the object is subject to decay but the doer or the subject is imperishable. 1.14 --Jaideva Singh.
In the Samadhi of void, only the effort which is directed towards objectivity disappears. It is only a fool who, on the disappearance of that effort, thinks 'I have ceased to be'. 1.15 --Jaideva Singh.
There can never be the disappearance of that inner nature which is the abode of the attribute of omniscience in the event of the non-perception of anything objective. 1.16. --Jaideva Singh.
Spanda Principle is two-fold: Divine Subject Experient (Spanda, Self or Siva) and object. Divine Subject is not susceptible to decay, while the object (Siva's manifestation, the universe and beings) is liable to decay and change. Madhyamika asserts that both the Subject and object disappear in Void. The counter argument is that the Divine Subject can never disappear or be absent. In meditation on the Void, the object disappears and it is not a proof that the Divine Subject also disappears.
In meditation on the Void, there is cessation of activities of inner and outer instruments (senses and inner organ), disappearance of Divine Subject (Spanda) is delusion.
Verse 1.17. The Prabuddha and Suprabuddha are partial
and complete experients of Spanda.
सुप्रबुद्धस्य10 = suprabuddhasya = For the fully enlightened; स्यात्9 = syāt = there will be; नित्यं8 = nityaṃ = always; सततं3 = satataṃ = continuously; उपलब्धिः2 = upalabdhiḥ = perception; तस्य1 = tasya = of That-- the Self-Spanda; अव्यभिचारिणी6 = avyabhicāriṇī = without any break; [during] त्रि4 = tri = three; पद5 = pada = states; तु14 = tu = but; परस्य13 = parasya = to others --the unelightened; तद11 = tad = that [perception is present at; आदि12 = ādi = the beginning; [and] अन्ते13 = ante = the end [of each state of awakning, dream sleep and deep sleep].
For the fully enlightened, perception of the Self [Spanda] is continuous in all three states, but for the unenlightened, perception is present only at the beginning and the end of each state. 1.17
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The fully enlightened has, always and incessantly, the undeviating knowledge of the Self in all the three states; the other one (viz. the partially enlightened) has it only at the beginning and end of each state. Jaideva Singh
This verse speaks of Prabuddha and Suprabuddha experients. The experients are of three kinds:
1) Aprabuddhah: We the people are completely ignorant of spiritual reality.
2) Prabuddha: The Partially enlightened Yogi has experience of Spanda (divine state) in the beginning and end of waking, dream sleep and deep sleep. He does not have Spanda experience in the middle of these states. All teachings are directed towards this kind of Yogi.
3) Suprabuddha: He is the human experient who has full awareness of Spanda in all three states. He needs no instructions; he is enlightened, mature and perfected.
Verse 1.18. Spanda power appears as Knowledge and
Knowable in awake and dream sleep and as consciousness
in Deep sleep, and other states (Turya and Turyatita states).
ज्ञानज्ञेयस्वरूपिण्याशक्त्या परमया युतः।
विभुः9 = vibhuḥ = The all-pervading; [Lord] [possessing] परमया5 paramayā = supreme; शक्त्या4 śaktyā = power; स्वरूपिण्या3 = svarūpiṇyā = in the form of; ज्ञान1 = jñāna = knowledge; [and] ज्ञेय2 = jñeya = knowable; युतः6 =yutaḥ = in combination; भाति10 = bhāti = lights up; द्वये8 = dvaye = the two; पद7 = pada = states. तु13 = tu = but; तद्11 = tad = that [Lord]; अन्यत्र12 = anyatra = in other states; [is only] चित्-मयः14 = cit-mayaḥ = plenitudinous mass of consciousness. ||1.18||
The all-pervasive Lord with Supreme power in the form of Jnana and Jneya lights up the two states (awake and dream sleep states). But that Lord in other states is a mass of Consciousness. 1.18.
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The all-pervading lord, possessed of the supreme power in the form of knowledge and knowable (object of knowledge), appears in the two states of waking and dream as knowledge and objects of knowledge, and in the other than these two only as consciousness. Jaideva Singh.
The accomplished Yogi experiences Spanda principle in the beginning, middle and end of waking and dream sleep states as said above. Spanda Principle presents to the Yogi as knowledge and the object of Knowledge (Jnana and Jneya). The Yogi experiences Spanda as Sadasiva and Isvara experience Spanda in the sense that the Jnana and Jneya are fully integral with his body and I-Consciousness. In the Deep Sleep state, there is no object for perception, so Spanda exists as consciousness (Cinmaya) in the Yogi.
Verse 1.19.The Yogi immerses himself in generic Spanda without opposition to particular Spanda form.
स्पन्द निष्यन्दाः सामान्य स्पन्द संश्रयात्
Emanations of Spanda, beginning with Gunas gain their own existence by resorting to generic Spanda and does not come in the way of the one with realization of his essential nature. 1.19
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The particular emanations of Spanda which begin with the Gunas and which acquire their existence by having recourse to generic Spanda can never stand in the way of the one who has realized his essential nature. Jaideva Singh.
Spanda are of two aspects: sāmānya and Viśeṣa. sāmānya Spanda (General) is the general power of Cit or Consciousness, while Viśeṣa Spanda (particular) is manifestation of Spanda in particular aspects like Sattva, Rajas, Tamas... or objective experiences like pleasure.... Māyā is the origin of Prakriti or matter which has the qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas upon manifestation in the universe as objects. Spanda manifests souls, matter down to earth, senses, the body, all human experiences and all objects in the world. All these originate in Spanda, live or exist by Spanda and to which they return. This universe of objective realities is His limbs; man is His limited manifestation with Sattva, Rajas and Tamas (Virtue, motion and dulness). Universal Consciousness has three powers Jnana, Kriya and MAyA in the form of Sadasiva, īvara, and Suddha Vidya.
Here is another way of explaining this. Spanda has two parts: sāmānya and Viśeṣa (general and particular or specific). Spanda sāmānya refers to Consciousness and Viśeṣa is the particularized manifestation such as the Tattvas, which in some cases have no resemblance to Consciousness as in Asuddha Tattvas. All these are vibrations, whether they belong to Consciousness or other Tattvas (insentient unconscious matter). Since they all originated from Siva, they are all forms of Spanda. This is the view of perfected Yogi, who is not confused because of sāmānya and Viśeṣa .. The Yogis who realized the Spanda Principle are able to drive the Prana up the Susumna Nadi and ultimately merge with the Ether of Consciousness. Kundalini Power.
Sakti Tattva is not mentioned in these powers which are the sole possessions of Sadasiva for Jnana, Isvara for Kriya and MAyA of Suddha Vidya. In Pratyabhijnahrdayam, Ksemaraja assigns Iccha Sakti (Will Power) to Sadasiva, Jnana to īśvara and Kriya to Suddha Viya.
Verse 1.20. Vamesvari takes the enlightened ones higher and keeps the unawakened ones in the lower realms.
तु2 = tu = but; एते3 = ete = these; [emanations of Spanda] उद्यताः7 = udyatāḥ = work diligently and incessantly; स्थगन6 = sthagana = concealing; स्व4 = sva = their; स्थिति5 = sthiti = nature; [and push] अप्रबुद्ध-धियः1 = aprabuddha-dhiyaḥ = the people with unawakened intellect; पातयन्ति8 = pātayanti = take a fall; [into] घोरे10 = ghore = a terrible; वर्त्मनि12 = vartmani = path; [of] संसार11 = saṃsāra = transmigration; [which is] दुरुत्तारे9 = duruttāre = difficult to get out of; ||1.20||
But these emanations of Spanda work diligently concealing their nature and lead people with unawakened intellect into a terrible transmigratory path, from which it is difficult to get out. 1.20.
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These Gunas however, intent on veiling their real nature push the people of unawakened intellect into the terrible ocean of transmigratory existence from which it is difficult to pull them out. Jaideva Singh.
Spanda power is Divine Sakti. The Ghoratari Saktis by nature are lower Saktis who push down the souls, attached to sense objects. The Supreme Sakti, Vamesvari Sakti is the cause of Khecari, Gocari, Dikcari and Bhucari Saktis who take the fully awakened souls to a higher stage and push down the unawakened souls to lower paths.
Verse 1.21. Spanda Sakti graces the ones who are alert and aware of the Spanda Sakti.
अतः सततमुद्युक्तः स्पन्दतत्त्वविविक्तये।
अतः1 = ataḥ = Hence; [one should] सततम्2 = satatam= constantly; उद्युक्तः3 = udyuktaḥ = be engaged; विविक्तये6 = viviktaye = in discerning; स्पन्द4 = Spanda= Spanda; तत्त्व5 = tattva= Tattva (principle); [such a person] अधिगच्छति12 = adhigacchati = attains; निजं9 = nijaṃ = his own; [essential] भावम10 = bhāvam = nature; [as Spanda]; अचिरेण11 = acireṇa = very soon; एव8 = eva = even in; जाग्रत्7 = jāgrat = wakefulness. ||1.21||
Hence one should be constantly engaged in discerning Spanda principle; such a person attains his own essential nature as Spanda soon even in wakefulness. 1.21.
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Therefore, one should be always on the alert for the discernment of the Spanda principle. Such a person attains his essential state (as Spanda) even in the waking condition in short time. Jaideva Singh
The ones dwelling in the Divine attain transformation of the mind by the inner force so much so they acquire Spanda Sakti.
Verse 1.22. Emotional states can make the awakened ones to realize Spanda.
अतिक्रुद्धः प्रहृष्टो वा किं करोमीति वा मृशन्।
स्पन्दः13 = spandaḥ = Spanda; प्रतिष्ठितः14 = pratiṣṭhitaḥ = is firmly established; तत्र12 = tatra = in that; पदं10 = padaṃ = state; यत्9 = yat = which; [a person] गच्छेत्11 = gacchet = attains; [when he is] अतिक्रुद्धः1 = atikruddhaḥ = very angry; वा3 = vā = or; प्रहृष्2 = prahṛṣṭaḥ = filled with joy; वा5 = vā = or; मृशन्6 = mṛśan = reflecting; किं4A करोमि4B इति4C = kim karomi iti = what to do; वा8 = vā = or; धावन्7 = dhāvan = running [for life]||1.22||
The Spanda is firmly established in a person is in the state when he is very angry, filled with joy, reflecting what to do or running [for life]. 1.22.
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In that state is the Spanda Principle firmly established to which a person is reduced when he is greatly exasperated or overjoyed, or is in impasse reflecting what to do, or is running for life. Jaideva Singh.
Thought waves and emotions prevent us from grasping the inner Reality or Spanda Principle, which we can realize when the mind comes to placid state. Yogis meditate to bring mind to a tranquil state, which makes one ready to receive vibrations of Spanda Principle. The emotional states in the awakened ones serve as means for realization of the Spanda Principle, if they make him introverted and realize his I-Consciousness.
| Verses 1.23, 1.24, 1.25. Three breaths Prana, Apana and
Susumna merge and rise beyond Brahmarandhra to ether of Universal Consciousness,
which stupefies the imperfect Yogi and not the perfected one.
यामवस्थां समालम्ब्य यदयं मम वक्ष्यति।
समालम्ब्य3 = samālambya = taking firm hold; याम्1 = yām = of that; अवस्थां2 = avasthāṁ = state [Spanda]; [the enlightened Yogi] तिष्ठति14 = tiṣṭhati = remains; [firm] सङ्कल्प्य13 = saṅkalpya = with the resolution: यद्4 = yad = whatever; अयं5 = ayaṁ = this; [Spanda] वक्ष्यति7 = vakṣyati = tells; मम6 = mama = me; तद्8 = tad = that; अहम्11 = aham = I; इति12 = iti = thus; करिष्ये10 = kariṣye = will do; अवश्यं9 = avaśyaṁ = certainly. ||1.23||
Taking firm hold of Spanda, the enlightened Yogi remains firm with the resolution: "Whatever Spanda tells me, I will do it certainly." 1.23.
आश्रित्य2 = āśritya = taking shelter or resting ; ताम्1 = tām = in that [Spanda]; उभौ7 = ubhau = both; चन्द्र5 = candra = Moon [= apāna = Inhalation]; [and] सूर्यौ6 = sūryau = sun [= prāṇá = Exhalation]; अपि8 = api = even; [and going up] ऊर्ध्व3 = ūrdhva = the upper; मार्गेण4 = mārgeṇa = path; [undergo] अस्तम्11 इतह्12 = astam itah = dissolution or merger; अध्वनि10 = adhvani = in their course; सौषुम्ने9 = sauṣumne = of Suṣumna; [and later] हित्वा13 = hitvā = give up; गोचरम्15 = gocaram = the sphere [of the body and] ब्रह्माण्ड14 = brahmāṇḍa = Brahma's egg. ||1.24||
Taking shelter in Spanda the in-breath and out-breath go up their path, dissolve during their ascent in Susumna Nadi and later abandon the realm of Brahmanda together with Brahmarandhra. 1.24.
Brahmāṇḍa is macrocosmic egg, while the body equivalent is the microcosm. The two breaths going up the Ida and Pingala Nadis join the Susumna Nadi and go through the Brahmarandhra (anterior fontanel area) and dissolve in the Ether Consciousness (which is transcending of the body and the dissolution of objective reality in Cit Ambaram --Ether Consciousness).
तदा1 = tadā = Then; शशि5 = śaśi = apāna (lit. Moon); [and]; भास्करे6 = bhāskare = Prāna ( bhāskare = making light = Sun = Prāna); प्रलीन4 = pralīna = dissolve; तस्मिन्2 = tasmin = in that; महाव्योम्नि3 = mahā3A = great; + vyomni3B = Ether. [For the unenlightened Yogi it is] वत्9 = vat = like; पद8 = pada = the state; सौषुप्त7 = sauṣupta = of deep sleep; [He] मूढः10 = mūḍhaḥ = stupefied. [The Yogi who is] अनावृतः13 = anāvṛtaḥ = not covered or enveloped [by the shroud of stupefaction] ; स्यात्12 = syāt = remains; प्रबुद्धः11 = prabuddhaḥ = the enlightened [and abides in the Ether of Universal Consciousness. ||1.25||
Apana and Prana breaths dissolve in the Great Ether of Universal Consciousness; for the unenlightened Yogi it is like stupefaction during deep sleep. The Yogi without the shroud of ignorance remains enlightened and abides in the Ether of Universal Consciousness. 1.25.
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Taking firm hold of that (ie. Spanda) this awakened Yogi remains firm with the resolution " I will surely carry out whatever it will tell me." Resting on the experience of that Spanda, both PrAna (SUrya = Sun) and ApAna (Candra = Moon) get merged in the Susumna and by the upward path of Susumna they rise up to the great Ether of Universal Consciousness by abandoning the sphere of the body together with the Brahmarandhra and are completely dissolved it. There the unenlightened Yogi by considering that state a kind of deep sleep remains stupefied, while the one who is not covered with the darkness of infatuation is established in that Ether of Universal Consciousness and abides as fully enlightened. 23, 24, 25. Jaideva Singh.
When the Yogi realizes the Spanda Principle, Prana and Apana merge with Susumna and rise up the Susumna Nadi beyond Brahmarandhra and merge with the Universal Consciousness. The fully realized Yogi is not carried away and astray by that experience, while the imperfect Yogi, not alert, is stupefied by that experience.
Section Two. Sahajavidyodaya = the rise of Pure Knowledge. Siva VyApti = Realization of the Universe as Siva.
Verses 2.1 and 2.2. The surrogate gods and Mantras (sacred Formulae) dissolve in Spanda once their functions are accomplished.
तदाक्रम्य बलं मन्त्राः सर्वज्ञबलशालिनः।
आक्रम्य2 = ākramya = seizing; तद1 = tad = that [Spanda's]; बलं3 = balam = strength; मन्त्राः4 = mantrāḥ = the dieties; [who are of] शालिनः7 = śālinaḥ = plenitudinous; बल6 = bala = power; [of] सर्वज्ञ5 = sarvajña = omniscience; प्रवर्तन्ते8 = pravartante = proceed; [to carry out] अधिकाराय9 = adhikārāya = the functions; इव11 = iva = like [those of]; करणानी10 = karaṇāni = the assigned functions [Sristi, sthiti, samhara, tirodhana, Anugraha]; [of] देहिनाम्12 = dehinām = embodied souls||2.1||
Seizing Spanda's strength, the gods with plenitudinous power of omniscience proceed to carry out the assigned functions of the limited embodied souls. 2.1
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Panchakrityas (five functions) delegated to
|Sristi = Creation||Sthiti = Maintenance||Samhara = Destruction||Tirobhava = Obscuration||Anugraha = Grace|
तत्रैव सम्प्रलीयन्ते शान्तरूपा निरञ्जनाः।
Tatraiva sampralīyante śāntarūpā nirañjanāḥ|
Sahārādhakacittena tenaite śivadharmiṇaḥ||2.2||
तत्र1 एव2 संप्रलीयन्ते3 शान्तरूपाः4 निरञ्जनाः5
सह6 आराधक7 चिततेन8 तेन9 एते10 शिव12 धर्मिणः13
तत्र1 एव2 = tatra eva = then and there [the deities] ; निरञ्जनाः5 = nirañjanāḥ = who have fulfilled their duties; शान्तरूपाः4 = śāntarūpāḥ = have ceased; [and] संप्रलीयन्ते3 = sampralīyante = merged completely; सह6 = Saha = together; चिततेन8 = cittena = with the mind; [of] आराधक7 = ārādhaka = the worshippers; तेन9 = tena = Therefore; एते10 = ete = these [deities]; धर्मिणः13 = dharmiṇaḥ = are of the nature of; शिव12 = śiva = Siva.||2.2||
These deities who have accomplished their duties, cease to exist and merge completely [with Spanda] together with the mind of the worshippers. Therefore these deities are of the nature of Siva. 2.2
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Resorting to the power (of Spanda Tattva), the divinities, Mantra etc. together with the sacred formulae which serve as their indicators, being endowed with the power of omniscience proceed to carry out their assigned functions towards the embodied ones just as the senses of the embodied ones by resorting to the power of Spanda proceed to carry out their (specific) function 2.1 --Jaideva Singh
Freed of all limitations of office after having performed their assigned duties (niranjanah), their denotation as particular deities having ceased (Sanarupah) they get dissolved together with the mind of their devotees in that very Spanda Principle. Hence they are of the nature of Siva. 2.2.--Jaideva Singh
Mantra = gods who rose from Spanda Principle and who have the Vacah Sakti (expressive Mantra Saktis): AnantabhattAraka abiding in Suddha Vidya, VyomavyApins, Mahesvara, Mantramahesvara.... Pravartante adhikArAya dehinAm = The gods perform the Panchakritya functions: Manifestation, Maintenance, Withdrawal, Veiling and Grace in connection with the limited souls. The articulated mantras spring from the substratum of Spanda. The articulated mantras are infused with I-Consciousness of Spanda. (2.1)
The Supreme Lord takes on the subjective roles of Siva, Mantramahesvara, Mantresvara, Mantra, Vijnanakala, Pralyakala and Sakala; appropriate objects for each of the above-said subjects in the act of descent and concealment of His inner nature; and graduated suppression of the preceding entity in the generation of the succeeding entity, though the former serves as the progenitor of the latter. Simply put, there is a gradual and graduated dumbing-down process with each step-down entity as compared to the previous entity. The Supreme Absolute Freedom (Svatantrya) ratchets down to a limited being in Sakalar class soul. When there is descent from Svatantrya to limited faculty, there is ascent of the flesh (Unmesa) descent of the spirit (Nimesa). Thus it is a simultaneous Unmesa and Nimesa. Siva descends from supreme consciousness to insentient Earth Tattva. Unitary Siva expands and augments to multiplicity in the universe. It is not really a descent or ascent; it is simply Spanda, a pulsation, whereby there is flashing and fading (subsidence) as seen in the firefly.
Once the surrogate gods have performed the said functions such as conferring Grace, the gods and the articulated mantras (Sacred Formulae) become quiescent and dissolve in Spanda Principle. The liberated devotee's limited knowledge dissolves into the Supreme Knowledge of Spanda and transforms into higher Consciousness.
Verse 2.3 and 2.4. The limited individual self on account of identifying with everything in the universe, he becomes one with Siva.
यस्मात्सर्वमयो जीवः सर्वभावसमुद्भवात्।
यस्मात्1 = yasmāt = because; जीवः4 = jīvaḥ = individual self; [is] मयः3 = mayaḥ = identical with; शर्व2 = sarva = all; सर्व-भाव-समुद्भवात्5= sarva-bhāva-samudbhavāt = since all living entities arise; [from] तत्6 = tat = That; [and] शंवेदनरूपेण7 = saṃvedanarūpeṇa = because [he has] knowledge; [He has] प्रतिपत्तितः9 = pratipattitaḥ = perception; तादात्म्य8 = tādātmya = of identity; [with all beings]. ||2.3||
Since the individual self is identical with all, since all living entities arise from Him and because He possesses knowledge of all, He has the perception of identity with all beings.
तस्माच्छब्दार्थचिन्तासु न सावस्था न या शिवः।
tasmācchabdārthacintāsu na sāvasthā na yā śivaḥ|
तस्मात्1 = tasmāt = therefore; न5 = na = there is no; सा6 अवस्था7 = sā avasthā = state; या9 = yā = which; न8 = na = is not; शिवः10 = śivaḥ = Siva; [either in] शब्दा2 = śabda = word; अर्थ3 = artha = object; [or] चिन्तास4 = cintāsu = thought. भोक्तत11 = bhokta = The experient; एव12 = eva = himself; सदा15 = sadā = always; [and] सर्वत्र16 = sarvatra = everywhere; संस्थितः17 = saṁsthitaḥ = abides; भावेन14 = bhāvena = in the form; भोग्य13 = bhogya = of the experienced. ||2.4||
There is no state which is not Siva, either in word, object or thought. The Experiencer at all times and in all places abides in the objects experienced. 2.4.
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Since the limited individual Self is identical with the whole universe, inasmuch as all entities arise from him, and because of the knowledge of all subjects, he has the feeling of identity with them all, hence whether in the word, object or thought, there is no state which is not Siva. It is the experient himself who, always and everywhere, abides in the form of the experienced i.e. it is the Divine himself who is essential Experient, and it is he who abides in the form of the universe as His field of experience. Jaideva Singh.
The individual soul is identical with the Total Reality. It is by the Knowledge that he knows all and thus establishes his identity with the Highest Principle and Visvasakti, the Universal Power. He identifies with all manifestation and thus with Siva. His identification thus erases the difference between the experient and the experienced.
Verse 2.5. The Yogi who identifies with the whole universe is united with the Divine and thinks that the universe is a play by the Divine. Such Yogi is liberated while alive.
इति वा यस्य संवित्तिः क्रीडात्वेनाखिलं जगत्।
इति1 वा2 = iti vā = Or; सः8 = saḥ = he; यस्य3 = yasya = who has this; संवित्तिः4 = saṁvittiḥ = energy full of knowledge or realization; सततं10 = satataṁ = is perpetually; युक्तः11 = yuktaḥ = united; [with the Divine] पश्यन्9 = paśyan = sees; अखिलं6 = akhilaṁ = the entire; जगत्7 = jagat = world; क्रीडात्वेना5 = krīḍātvenā = as [divine] play [of the Self identical with Siva] --Jaideva Singh; [and is] जीवन्मुक्तः12 = jīvanmuktaḥ = the liberated, though corporeal; न13 = na = there is no; संशयः14 = saṁśayaḥ = doubt [about his liberation while alive]. ||2.5||
Or he, who has this energy full of knowledge or realization is perpetually united with the divine, sees the entire world as divine play of the Self identical with Siva and is liberated while living in the body; there is no doubt about it.
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Or he, who has this realization (viz. identity with his Self with the whole universe), being constantly united with the Divine, views the entire world as the play (of the Self identical with Siva) and is liberated while alive. There is no doubt about this. Jaideva Singh.
Realization is finding identity with the universe, which is one with Siva. Such realization guarantees no future birth for the Yogi. The Yogi knows the universe is the result of Unmesa (evolution) and its withdrawal is the result of Nimesa (involution). Unmesa also means unfoldment of spiritual consciousness, which is the nature of Spanda. Nimesa is the inner activity of Spanda by which the object (universe) is merged with Subject (the Divine).
Verse 2.6 and 2.7. Realization is ambrosia leading to liberation and identity with Siva.
अयमेवोदयस्तस्य ध्येयस्य ध्यायिचेतसि।
उदयः तस्य ध्येयस्य ध्यायि
The translation is according to Jaideva singh.
एव2 = eva = Only; अयम1 = ayam = this; [is] उदयः3 = udayaḥ = the manifestation; [of] तस्य4 ध्येयस्य5 = tasya dhyeyasya = of the object of meditation; ध्यायि6 चेतसि7 = dhyāyi cetasi = in the mind of the meditator; = yā = that; साधकस्य11 इच्छतः10 = sādhakasya icchataḥ = the aspirant with resolute will; तदात्मता8 समापत्तिः9 या12 = tadātmatā samāpattiḥ yā = has the realization of his [identity with Siva].||2.6||
Only this is the manifestation of the object of meditation in the mind of the meditator that the aspirant with resolute will has the realization of his identity with that (object of meditation). --Jaideva Singh
इयम1 = iyam = This; एव2 = eva = alone; [is] प्राप्तिः4 = prāptiḥ = attainment; [of] अमृत3 = amṛta = nectar (of immortality). अयम्5 = ayam = This; एव6 = eva = alone; [is] ग्रहः8 = grahaḥ = realization; आत्मनः7 = ātmanaḥ = of the Self. च12 = ca = And; इयं9 = iyaṁ = this; दीक्षा11 = dīkṣā = initiation; [of] निर्वाण10 = nirvāṇa = salvation; दायिनी16 = dāyinī = grants; सत्14 = sat = real; भाव15 = bhāva = state; [of] शिव13 = śiva = Siva.॥2.7॥
This alone is attainment of the nectar of immortality. This alone is realization of the Self. And this initiation of salvation grants real state of Siva. 12.7.
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This only is the manifestation of the object of meditation in the meditator's mind that the aspirant with the resolute will has the realization of his identity with that (object of meditation). 2.6 Jaideva Singh.
This alone is the acquisition of ambrosia leading to immortality; this alone is the realization of the Self; this alone is the initiation of liberation leading to identity with Siva. 2.7 Jaideva Singh.
The first section is on Atmavyapti meaning Realization Self as Siva; second section is on Siva-vyapti meaning Realization of the Universe as Siva. From the Yogic viewpoint, Atmavyapti is emphasis is on Nimilana-Samadhi (inward meditative condition in which the individual consciousness gets absorbed into the Universal Consciousness). Siva-Vyapti is emphasis on Unmilana- Samadhi (realization that the universe is materialization of the bliss of Siva). In Atmavyapti, there is realization of pervasion of the individual soul with Siva Consciousness. In Sivavyapti, there is realization of pervasion of the universe with Siva Consciousness. The purpose of meditation with mantra is to invoke the deity so He or She manifests Himself or Herself to the devotee. Realization of the identity of aspirant with Siva is by itself manifestation of Siva to the seeker, besides realization being the ambrosia, which gives permanent relief from the round of birth and rebirth.
Diksa is a tedious ceremony of initiation. The realization of identity with Siva by itself is Diksa ( Di + ksa = Giving + destroying). Diksa gives realization and destroys impurities. The result is Nirvana or liberation.
Section 3. VibhUti Spanda
3.1 and 3.2. Yogi's awakened powers are acquired by entry of the Divine in the body of the Yogi.
यथेच्छाभ्यर्थितो धाता जाग्रतोऽर्थान् हृदि स्थितान्।
As the supporter of the world, when entreated, fullfils all desires and objects abiding in the heart of embodied yogi, who is awake after cauisng the rise of the moon and the sun.
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तथा1 अपि3 = tathā api = so also; स्वप्ने2 = svapne = in dream; स्थित11 = sthitah = by appearing/abiding; मध्ये10 = madhye = in middle channel [Susumna Nadi]; [He] अवश्यं12 = avaśyaṁ = surely; प्रकाशयेत्13 = prakāśayet = manifests/reveals; नित्यं8 = nityaṁ = always; स्फुटतरं9 = sphuṭataraṁ = very distinctly; [his] अभीष्टा4 = abhīṣṭa = desired; अर्थान्5 = arthān = objects; [to the Yogi who] अनतिक्रमात्7 = anatikramāt = never desists; [from] प्रणयस्य6 = praṇayasya = bowing salutation.||3.2||
He appears in the dream in the central Susumna Nadi and manifests distinctly the desired objects to the Yogi who never desists from bowing salutation. 3.2
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As the sustainer of this universe (Siva) when eagerly entreated with desire accomplishes all the desires abiding in the heart of the embodied Yogi who is awake after causing the rise of the sun and the moon. 3.1 -Jaideva Singh
So also in dream, by appearing in the central Nadi (madhye), does He surely reveal always and more vividly his desired objects to him who never desists from his zealous prayer. 3.2 -Jaideva Singh
Here there is description of powers of Yogi. The embodied Yogi upon waking by his knowledge and action (Jnana = Bindu; Kriya = Nada Bindu and Nada represent Prana and Apana breaths) can create agitation in the mind of others, dissipation of knowledge in others, block the knowledge in others, and transfer knowledge from one to another. Yogi does this by causing the rise of the Moon and the Sun, (Jnanasakti and Kriyasakti = knowledge and action power). The entry of the Divine in the body of the Yogi can facilitate these powers. In Deep Sleep, Goddess reveals herself to the Yogi. If the Yogi meditates on His Pranasakti in Dvadasanta, he dreams at will whatever he wants to dream. Siva appears in the Susumna Nadi of the Yogi.
What is Jagrat for us is Pindastha for the Yogi.
Rising of the moon and sun is symbolism. Soma or the moon is ApAna Sakti and inhalation breath; Surya or sun is Prana Sakti and exhalation breath.
Upaya = means. Bindu = Undifferentiated Sakti compacted to a point ready to create. Bindu is the Singularity of the Black Hole. Nada = the first movement of Siva Sakti in creation. PrAna = Expiratory vital air; Exhalation. ApAna = Inhalation; the air that goes down to anus. Anava Upaya = AnavopAya = Yoga in which the aspirant uses his senses, Prana, and manas for Self-realization or Spanda. SAkta Upaya = SaktopAya = Contemplation of oneself as Siva or the Supreme I-Consciousness. SAmbhava Upaya = SAmbavopAya = Sudden advent of Siva-Consciousness without thought-construct. Anu Upaya = AnupAya = Spontaneous realization of Spanda without any special effort. PrakAsa = Light = Siva Principle of Self-revelation; The Divine Light of Consciousness that reveals everything. Vimarsa = Knowledge and Action power of Siva in the form of Sakti which unfolds the Universe.
Verse 3.3. Yogi experiences what he wills in dream and awake state.
अन्यथा तु स्वतन्त्रा स्यात्सृष्टिस्तद्धर्मकत्वतः।
अन्यथा1 त2 स्वतन्त्रा3 स्यात्4 सृष्टिः5 तट्6 धर्मकत्वतः7
= anyathā tu = otherwise;
= sṛṣṭiḥ = the creative power;
= tad = according to its;
= dharmakatvataḥ = characteristics;
= syāt = is;
svatantrā = free;
[in manifesting all sorts of things, usual and unusual to the Yogi];
= dvaye = in both;
= pada = states;
= jāgrat = wakefulness;
= svapna = dream;
= eva = as;
laukikasya = in the case of ordinary people; ॥3.3॥
Otherwise, the Creative Power of the Divine according to its characteristics, is free in manifesting always of things (usual and unusual) (to the Yogi also) both in waking and dream states as in the case of common people of the world. 3.3 Jaideva Singh
The Yogi by his prayer and devotion to the Divine and by establishment in the Divine, he sees what he desires to see both in waking and dream sleep states. Common people have no control over experiences in these two states. If the Yogi slips, he becomes of the nature of common people without the special qualities.
Verse 3.4 and 3.5. The Spanda Power resorted to by Yogi confers on him unusual powers.
यथा ह्यर्थोऽस्फुटो दृष्टः सावधानोऽपि चेतसि।
yathā hi arthaḥ asphuṭaḥ
dṛṣṭaḥ sāvadhāne api cetasi|
यथा1 हि2 अर्थः2 अस्फुटं3 दृष्टः4 स अवधाने5 अपि6 चेतसि7।
भूयः8 स्फुटतरं9 भाति10 स्व11 बल12 उद्योग13 भावितः14॥3.4॥
हि2 = hi = indeed; यथा1= yathā = as; अर्थः3 = arthaḥ = an object; अपि7 = api = although; [receiving attention of] चेतसि8 = cetasi = the mind; स अवधाने6 = sa avadhāne = very carefully; दृष्टः5 = dṛṣṭaḥ = is perceived; अस्फुटं4 = asphuṭaḥ = indistinctly; [at the first glance] [and] भाति11 = bhāti = manifests; स्फुटतरं10 = sphuṭataram = more distinctly; भूयः9 = bhūyaḥ = again; भावितः15 = bhāvitaḥ = when observed or beheld; उद्योग14 udyoga = with acuity; स्व12 = sva = of one's own; बल13 = balaḥ = power. 3.4
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तथा यत्परमार्थेन येन यत्र यथा स्थितम्।
tathā yat paramārthena yena yatra yathā
तथा1 = tathā = so; आक्रम्य11 = ākramya = having seized; बलम्10 = balam = power of Spanda; यत्2 = yat = whatever thing; परमार्थेन3 = paramārthena = actually; स्थितम्7 = sthitam = exists; येन4 = yena = in any form; यत्र5 = yatra = in any place or time; यथा6 = yathā = in whichever state; तत्8 = tat = that thing; न12 चिरात्13= na cirāt = becomes at once (soon); सम्प्रवर्तते14 = saṃpravartate = manifest तथा9 = tathā = in that very way. ||3.5||
Having acquired the power of Spanda, that thing, whatever it may be, existing in actuality in any form, place, time, and state, becomes manifest very soon in that way to the Yogi.3.5
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Indeed just as a thing which, in spite of all the attentiveness of the mind, is perceived indistinctly at first, appears more distinctly, later, when observed with the strenuous exercise of one's power. 3.4. Jaideva Singh.
So when the yogi resorts to the power (of Spanda), then whatever thing (yat) actually (parmaArthena) exists in whichever form (yena) in whichever place or time (yatra) in which ever state (yathA) that thing (tat) becomes at once (na cirAt) manifest in that very way (tathA). Jaideva Singh.
Verse 3.6. The Yogi by resorting to the power of Spanda does extraordinary things.
दुर्बलोऽपि तदाक्रम्य यतः कार्ये प्रवर्तते।
अपि2 = api = even; दुर्बलः1 = durbalaḥ = a weakling; आक्रम्य4 = ākramya = by seizing; तद3 = tad = that (Spanda); प्रवर्तते7 pravartate = acts (accomplishes); कार्ये6 = kārye = the work that need to be done; यतः5 = yataḥ = by Spanda (by which). च10 = ca = And; तथा11 = tathā = similarly; यः12 = yaḥ = he who; [is] अतिबुभुक्षितः13 = ati-bubhukṣitaḥ = very hungry आछादयेत्8 = ācchādayed = conceals (overcomes); [his] बुभुक्षां9 bubhukṣāṁ = hunger.॥3.6॥
Even a weakling seizes the Spanda power to accomplish the task on hand. Similarly a very hungry man overcomes his hunger. 3.6.
Copyright © Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Just as a feeble person also by resorting to the power (of Spanda) succeeds in doing what has to be done, even so one who is exceedingly hungry overcomes hunger. Jaideva Singh.
A sage can overcome his biological needs like hunger, thirst... by virtue of his Spanda power.
Verse 3.7. As Spanda pervades the body and soul, the Yogi thus immersed in Spanda has omniscience and omnipotence.
AnenAdhisthite dehe yathA sarvajnatAdayah|
TathA svAtmany adhisthAnAt sarvatraivam bhavisyati|| 3.7
Just as all knowability, etc. in respect of the body occurs when it is pervaded by the Spanda principle, even so when the Yogi is established in his essential Self, he will have omniscience etc. everywhere.
Spanda Principle is the essential Self, immanent in everyone. When Spanda pervades the body and he remains established in Spiritual Consciousness and withdraws his senses as the tortoise does, omniscience and omnipotence of Siva come natural to the Yogi. (VikAsa-Sankosa) = Withdrawal of the senses and turning attention to Inner Reality.
Verse 3.8 The Yogi shorn of depression of ignorance shines.
GlAnir vilunthikA dehe tasyAscAjnAnatah srtih|
Tadunmesa-viluptam cet kutah sA syAd ahetuka|| 3.8
Just as a plunderer carries away the valuables of the house, even so depression saps away the vitality of the body. This depression proceeds from ignorance. If that ignorance disappears by Unmesa, how can that depression last in the absence of its cause? 3.8 Jaideva Singh
The plunderer is depression from spiritual ignorance, which depletes the wealth of Consciousness, brings about penury in the form of limitation and precipitates non-recognition of Consciousness-Bliss. Removal of depression results in wellbeing of the body and healthy spiritual consciousness; it is like the shining molten gold shorn of dross. The great Yogi shorn of depression shines, though he remains in the body (Jivan Mukti = corporeal liberation). Good and evil deeds are the coverings and the body enveloping the soul. Once the soul is shorn of these deeds, it attains liberation. When the dross is removed and the Yogi is immersed in Spanda power, his body shines like gold without wrinkles, grey hair, senility.... "When the Yogi transcends his empirical self, he attains metempirical Self and real happiness." Ignorance is cidānadaghanasva-svarūpa-apratyabhijñāna (= non-recognition of one's essential nature which is a compact mass of consciousness-bliss. -- Ksemaraja
Verse 3.9. Universal Consciousness is experienced introspectively.
EkacintAprasaktasya yatah syAdaparodayah|
Unmesah sa tu vijneyah svayam tam upalaksayet|| 3.9
That should be known as Unmesa whence the rise of another thought takes place in the mind of a man who is already engaged in one thought, one should experience it introspectively for oneself. Jaideva Singh.
When the mind is deeply immersed in one thought, the mind is one-pointed and does not indulge in another thought. it is at this juncture that the metempirical Self reveals itself. The Self cannot be an object of the mind or thought; it is not. The Self is the I or Aham, it is the Eternal I-Consciousness, irrevocable, immutable, and absolute. Why it is not an object? Objects are mutable and non-eternal. The Yogi becomes one with the I-Consciousness and is part and parcel of Aham. If the Self is considered and treated like an object, the aspirant will fail and not find it.
The connector between two thoughts is Consciousness and is called Unmesa or opening of eyes. It is opening of Universal Consciousness or the Self. One should find the Universal Consciousness introspectively, as the Yogi does.
Verse 3.10. Occult powers of the Yogi are an impediment to Realization of the Self or Spanda Principle.
Ato vindur ato nAdo rUpam asmAd ato rasah|
Pravartante'cirenaiva ksobhakatvena dehinah|| 3.10
From this (Unmesa) appear (supernormal) light, (supernormal) sound, (supernormal) form, (supernormal) taste, in a short time, to the Yogi who has not yet done away with the identification of the Self with the body, which, however, are only disturbing factor (in the full realization of the Spanda Principle). Jaideva Singh.
The Yogi experiences or perceives supernormal spontaneous extrasensory feelings of light, sound, form and taste without the appropriate objects. All these perceptions indicate the Yogi still identifies the Self with the causal, gross and the subtle bodies and has not risen above psychophysical sphere of existence. These extrasensory perceptions and occult powers give a temporary satisfaction and are hard to give up but are an impediment for further progress: Realization of the essential Self or the Spanda Principle.
Verse 3.11. The accomplished Yogi sees unity of Spanda in diversity of the universe of objects.
Didrksayeva sarvArthAn yadA vyApyAvatisthate|
TadA kim bahunoktena svayameva avabhotsyate|| 3.11
When the Yogi wishing to see all objects abides in that state pervading them all, i.e. infusing them all with the light of his consciousness, then what is the use of saying much, he will experience for himself (the splendor of that vision). Jaideva Singh.
The accomplished Yogi in his extrasensory perception sees all objects from earth Tattva to Siva Tattva as an expression of the Self or Spanda Principle; the delusion of diversity disappears; all including himself and the objects abide in the unity of Universal Consciousness. "The Yogi now finds Siva within and without."
Verse 3.12. The Universe of beings and objects are manifestation of and identical with the Light of Consciousness.
Prabuddhah sarvadA tisthej jnAnenAlokya gocaram|
EkatrAropayet sarvam tato anyena na pIdyate|| 3.12
Observing all objective phenomena by knowledge, i.e, by external perception, one should always remain awake, and should deposit everything in one place i.e. see everything as identical with Spanda which is our own essential Self. Thus, he is never troubled by another. -Jaideva Singh.
The Yogi should be in accord with the Spanda Principle in all states of his existence like waking, dreaming, deep sleep....He should regard all objects as identical with and as manifestation of the light of Consciousness. There is nothing in the universe that is different from the Self.
Verse 3.13. Kancukas scrimp the embodied soul.
SabdarAsi-samutthasya saktivargasya bhogyatAm|
kalAvilupta-vibhavo gatah san sa pasuh smrtah||
Being deprived of his glory by KalA, he (the individual) becomes a victim of the group of Powers arising from the multitude of words, and thus he is known as the bound one (Pasu). Jaideva Singh
The Pasus (we the people) are bound souls, burdened with Malams (impurities) and Kancukas, restraints on our limited physical being.
The Kancukas burdening and limiting a human being (Purusa) are as follows.
The five Kancukas: the
restraining jackets on Purusa, the embodied soul, we the people.
KalA = Aptitude. Vidya = discriminating pure knowledge. RAga = Desire. KAla = Time. Niyati = Destiny, Fate.
1) KalA: Sarvakartrtva, the all-doership of Siva (omnipotence of Siva) is reduced to Kincitkartrtva or limited efficacy
in the embodied soul or the empirical individual.
2) Vidya: SArvajnatva or omniscience of Siva is reduced to parviscience, limited knowledge.
3) RAga: PUrnatva of Siva, fullness of Siva is reduced to inability to fulfill all desires. Having desires all the time.
4. KAla: Nityatva of Siva, Eternity of Siva, is reduced to limitation of time. Here today, gone tomorrow.
5. Niyati: VyApakatva (all-pervasiveness of Siva) or Svatantrya (absolute Freedom of Siva)
is curtailed with regards to space and cause. (Physical, mental, psychical limitations)
The I-Consciousness of Siva have the following synonyms: Para the Highest; Matsyodari, the Fish-bellied; MahAsatta: The Highest Being; SphurattA: The Glimmer of Light; Urmi: Wave, the Great Manifestation; SAra: The Quintessence of Existence; Hrdaya: The Heart the Creative Center; Bhairavi: The Sakti of Bharaiva; Devi Goddess; Sikha-- the Flame; Spanda, that which throbs.
Vowels take origin from Visuddha Chakra.
Ka--Kha--Ga--Gha--Ṅa--Ca--Cha--Ja--Jha--Ña--Ṭa--Ṭha. take origin in Anahata Chakra.
Ḍa--Ḍha--Ṇa--Ta--Tha--Da--Dha--Na--Pa--Pha take origin in Manipura Chakra.
Ba--Bha--Ma--Ya--Ra--La take origin in Svadhisthana Chakra.
Va--Ś--Ṣ--S take origin in Muladhara Chakra.
Ha--Ksa: h--] take origin in Ajna Chakra.
The letters produce matter as depicted in the following tables. the Reflections of Saktis
|Sakti short name||Sakti Long name||Function||corresponding letter|
|IS||Iccha Sakti||Will||'i' & 'ii'|
|JS||Jnana Sakti||Knowledge:||'u & 'uu'|
The universe is not
created but a reflection of Siva's Svatantrya (Total Absolute Freedom) The
Universe is a reflection of the 5 energies, CS, AS, IS, JS, KS.
1st Reflection: 5 Mahabhutas
2nd Reflection: 5 Tanmatras
3rd Reflection: 5 Kamendriyas
4th Reflection: 5 Jnendriyas
5th Reflection: all else.
Yogesvari, Brahmi, Mahesvari, Kaumari, Vaisnavi, VArAhi, Aindri, & Camunda are the presiding deities of the letters.
1) A-Varga = A series of vowels: Yogisvari or Mahalakshmi.
with upperdot: Brahmi. Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether are the
products of the letters.
Cit Sakti ('a'= Anuttara) and Ananda Sakti (='aa' -- ā ) produced the vowel letters.
Reflections of KS, JS, IS, AS, and CS are the five above produced elements in order.
: Mahesvari: Smell, Taste, Form, Touch, Sound are the products.
Five Tanmatras, the consonants from Ca to Na~ are produced by Iccha Sakti, the Letters 'I', 'II'.
Reflections of KS, JS, IS, AS, and CS are the respective Tanmatras.
4) Ta Varga with
Ṭ ṭ and
with underdot (Ṇ--ṇ)
produced the Karmendriyas (Motor organs)
Ṭa--Ṭha--Ḍa--Ḍha--Ṇa: Kaumari. Produced by Ri RII which are Anasrita Siva
Reflections KS, JS, IS, AS, and CS are the letters in order, concerned with
Sexual function, Excretion, Locomotion, Grasp and Speech respectively.
5) Ta Varga: (Vaisnavi)
Ta--Tha--Da--Dha--Na: produced the sensor
Reflections of KS, JS, IS, AS, and CS are dominant in ears, eyes, skin, tongue, & nose.
6) Pa Varga:
Reflections of KS, JS, IS, AS, & CS are Manas, Buddhi, Ahamkara, Prakrti, and Purusa
associated with letters as above respectively.
7) Y Varga:
Ya--Ra--La--Va: Aindri or Indrani
KAla & KalA corresponds to Ya; Vidya to Ra; RAga & Niyati to La; MAyA to Va.
8) Sa Varga:
upstroke; Ṣ with
Ha; Ksa: Camunda
Aham/Idam = Śa with upstroke and Suddha Vidya; Idam/Aham = Ṣa with underdot and Isvara Tattva;
Aham/Idam = Sa and Sadasiva; Aham = Ha and Sakti Tattva;
These letters and Tattvas are created by Siva, being the swelling or expansion of the heat of
9) Ksa Varga: Yogesvari.
Vowels: Seed Letters :
Siva creates 16 Rudras from Bija or Vowels of A-Varga
1. Amrta 2. Amrtapurna 3. Amrtabha 4. Amrtadrava 5. Amrtaugha 6. Amrtormi 7. Amrtasyandana 8. Amrtanga 9. Amrtavapu
10.Amrtoggara 11. Amrtasya 12. Amrtatanu 13. Amrtasecana 14. Amrtamurti 15. Amrtesa 16. Sarvamradhara.
Consonants: Siva creates
34 Rudras from Consonants.
1. Jaya 2. Vijaya 3. Jayanta 4. Aparajita 5. Sujaya 6. Jayaruda 7. Jayakirti 8. Jayavaha 9. Jayamurti 10. jayotsaha 11. jayada 12. Jayavardhana 13. Bala 14. Atibala 15. Balabhadra 16. Balaprada 17. Balavaha 18. Balavan 19. Baladata 20. Balesvara
21. Nandana 22. Sarvatobhadra 23. Bhadramurti 24. Sivaprada 25. Sumanah 26. Sprhana 27. Durga 28. Bhadrakala
29. Manonuga 30. Kausika 31. KAla 32. Visvesa 33. Susiva 34. Kopa.
Corresponding Rudranis (Female) are created and their names end with the ā.
Example: Jayā is the consort of Jaya.
|Sakti short name||Sakti Long name|
Cit Sakti = CS = Consciousness represented by letter 'a' for anuttara.
Ananda Sakti = AS = Bliss represented by letter 'aa' .
Iccha Sakti (= IS) represented by letters i ii, which create the letter 'e'.
CS & AS contact 'e' and create letter 'ai' .
CS & AS contact JS ('u & 'uu') and create letter 'o'. a+u = o; aa+uu = o
CS & AS contact letter 'o' and create 'au'. (a+aa)+o = au.
e, ai, o, au represent 4 states of Kriya Sakti, the energy of action by Lord Siva.
1) 1st State of KS--e-- is asphuta KS, not vivid.
2) 2nd State of KS--ai-- is sphuta KS, vivid.
3) 3rd State of KS--o-- is sphutatara KS, more vivid.
4) 4th State of KS--au-- is sphutatama KS, most vivid.
The Universe is reflected in His total energy of action. The 4th is the culmination represented by 'au'.
Siva's nature has not moved though the universe has been created in His Self. This state is anusvara, represented by 'm'.
The reflection of the universe takes place in two cups, 2 points of the colon (:), Visarga. The two points (h) are Siva Bindu and Sakti Bindu; the upper dot is Siva Bindu and the lower dot is Sakti Bindu. Vowels a to h are Siva Tattva.
The rest made of 35 Consonantal letters are 35 Tattvas, generated by Sakti Tattva.
The 5 Saktis: CS-AS-IS-JS-KS. Each one has one dominant and thus there are 25 energies, being the 25 Tattvas from Purusa12 to Earth36 as depicted below.
Buddhi14, Ahamkara15, Manas16, hearing--Ears17, touch--Skin18, vision and color--Eyes19 , tasting--Tongue or mouth20, smell--Nose21, speech-Larynx22, grasp-Hands23, ambulation--Feet24, evacuation--Anus25, procreation-Genitals26, sound27, palpation28, form29, taste30 , odor31, ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36.
universe is not created but a reflection of Siva's Svatantrya (Total Absolute
Freedom) In CS, AS, IS, JS, KS. The Universe
is a reflection of the 5 energies. We the people are reflections of Siva. Reflection has no substance, while Siva has substance. We and the universe are a mirage, so to say.
1st Reflection: 5 Mahabhutas
2nd Reflection: 5 Tanmatras
3rd Reflection: 5 Kamendriyas
4th Reflection: 5 Jnendriyas
5th Reflection: all else.
Verse 3.14. Thought waves in the mind lake wash away the Bliss of Brahman.
ParAmrtarasApAyas tasya yah pratyayodbhavah|
TenAsvatantratAm eti sa ca tanmAtragocarah|| 3.14
The rise, in the bound soul, of all sorts of ideas marks the disappearance of the bliss of supreme immortality. On account of this, he loses his independence. The appearance of the ideas has its sphere in sense-objects. Jaideva Singh.
The thought waves in the mind lake pertaining to objects wash away the Bliss of the Supreme.
Verse 3.15. Obstructionist forces of words and objects conceal the Supreme.
SvarUpAvarane cAsya saktayah satatotthitAh|
Yatah sabdAnuvedhena na vinA pratyayodbhavah|| 3.15
Brahmi and other Powers are ever in readiness to conceal his real nature, for without the association of words, ideas cannot arise.
Thoughts and ideas are anchored in objects and entailed pleasure. Thoughts and words take a person to the outer world of happenings and thus do not dwell within in the Self. Words and objects are subject to conditions leading to corporeal experience and yet the Self is unconditioned Subject giving spiritual experience. Once the aspirant moves away from the conditioned world of objects, he is free to obtain awareness and vision of the unconditioned Self.
Verse 3.16. Obstructionist forces give bondage. Realizing one's own reality brings success.
Seyam kriyAtmikA saktih sivasya pasuvartinI|
BandhayitrI svamArgasthA jnAtA siddhyupapAdikA||
That afore-mentioned operative power of Siva existing in the bound soul is a source of bondage; the same when realized as residing in him as the way of approach to one's own essential reality brings about success (i.e, the achievement of liberation). Jaideva Singh.
One's real nature is identical with Siva. She is Spanda Power, the Kriya Sakti. (All Saktis are denoted as female.) She brings forth the universe and its multiplicity. According to English translation by Jaideva Singh of commentary by Ksemaraja, "She exists in Siva who has assumed the role of a bound soul. She besprinkles this bound soul who is identified with prana and puryastaka with a drop of I-Consciousness which makes him an agent or doer. (We are all Mini-Sivas.) Reduced to this state, he does not recognize his real nature which is veiled by her and gets involved in misery of seizing and relinquishing. Thus she becomes a source of bondage. When the Yogi recognizes this operative power, she brings about the highest achievement full of Supreme Bliss."
Yogi upon entering the state of Sakti feels the non-difference between Sakti and Siva and obtains the state of Siva. Sakti is the door of entry into the sphere of Sivahood. The Yogi regards the entire universe of objects as an aspect of his own Self, which in its nature is Siva; Sakti brings about that attitude in the Yogi.
Verse 3.17 & 3.18. The Subtle Body, the repository of desires and soul, should be purified to prevent transmigration of the soul.
puryastakena samruddhastaduttham pratyayodbhavam|| 3.17
Bhunkte paravaso bhogam tadbhavAvAt samsared atah|
Samsrti-pralayasyAsya kAranam sampracaksmahe|| 3.18.
Besieged by Puryastaka which rises from Tanmatras and exists in mind, I-feeling, and the determinative faculty, he (the bound soul) becomes subservient and undergoes experiences that arise from it in the form of ideas about certain objects and pleasure or pain that accrues from them. Owing to the continuance of the Puryastaka, he (the bound soul) leads transmigratory existence. We are therefore going to explain what causes the extirpation of this transmigratory existence. Jaideva Singh.
MAyA Sakti vitiates the pure and pristine Jnana Sakti and Kriya Sakti man and renders them limited in power of knowledge and action. Thoughts, words, actions and experiences occurring serially enslave man to objects of pleasure. Apart from the Gross body, man has causal and subtle body (Puryastaka), which consists of Tanmatras, Buddhi, Manas, and Ahamkara. Impression of thoughts, desires, interests and experiences reposes in Puryastaka, which is the seat of the soul after death and the transmigratory apparatus. For the fulfillment of desires from previous life, man takes birth with suitable environment, heredity and ancestry. Our present life is the expression of Puryastaka from past life and the future birth and life are the expression of Puryastaka of the present life. Ksemaraja says that transmigration of the soul can be brought to an end by expunging the impurities of the Puryastaka.
Verse 3.19. By embracing Spanda principle one can overcome Puryastaka and the Saktis and become one with Spanda.
YadA tvekatra samrUdhas tadA tasya layodayau|
Niyacchan bhoktrtAm eti tatascakresvaro bhavet||
When, however, he is firmly rooted in that Supreme Spanda Principle, then bringing the emergence and dissolution of Puryastaka entirely under his control, he becomes the real enjoyer and thenceforth the Lord of the collective whole of Saktis. Jaideva Singh.
If man is firmly rooted in Spanda Principle, the I-Consciousness of Siva, he becomes identical with it and attains the ability to control the emergence and dissolution of Puryastaka, the transmigratory subtle body. By exoteric and esoteric worship and meditation the aspirant can absorb all the Tattvas from Earth Tattva up to Siva Tattva as in Kundalini Yoga, experience recognition of Spanda, elevate himself to the level of the Experient, become the Lord of all the Saktis and attain corporeal liberation (Jivan Mukta) in this life itself.
Section 4. Guru and Spanda
Verse 4.1. Guru's Words are Ambrosial. Guru-Sakti is the boat that ferries the soul over the ocean to Sivahood.
VAnde vicitrArthapadAm citrAm tAm gurubhAratIm|| 4.1
I pay homage to that wonderful speech of my Guru which is like a boat for crossing the fathomless ocean of doubt and is full of words which yield wonderful meaning (in the case of the Guru). Jaideva Singh.
I offer my reverential prayer to Spanda in the form of ParA VAk the Supreme Divine I-Consciousness which is full of wonderful transcendental bliss, and which acts like a boat in crossing the fathomless ocean of doubt regarding my essential nature (in the case of Spanda in the form of ParAvAk). Jaideva Singh.
Sakti is the Door through one gains entry to Siva and Sivahood. I offer homage to Sakti who is present in ParA, Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikari aspects of Sabda Sabda or Sound. She is the boat to cross the fathomless ocean of doubt, which is euphemism for the impassability and impossibility of crossing the ocean of I-Consciousness. She successfully navigates and takes the soul to Siva.
Verse 4.2. The Cave of the Heart is Prakasa-Vimarsa, the flashing Consciousness that leads all to Spanda Sakti.
labdhvApy alabhyam etaj jnAnadhanam hrdguhAntakrtanihitch|
Vasugutavac chivAya hi bhavati sadA sarvalokasya|| 4.2
As on the attainment of this treasure of knowledge which is difficult of attainment, and on its being well preserved in the cave of the heart, it has been for the good of Vasugupta, so also on the attainment of this treasure of knowledge difficult of attainment and on its being well preserved in the cave of the heart, it would always be for the good of all.
This knowledge is hard to come by. Vasugupta on instructions by Siva Himself in his dream obtained this knowledge on a tablet of rock. The Heart is Prakasa, Light or Consciousness. Vimarsa is the mirror or the awareness of Consciousness. Prakasa-Vimarsa is the cave of the Heart, whose entrance leads to Reality. Vasugupta abides in the cave of the Heart. This knowledge is for the good of Vasugupta and thus is good for everyone else without exception.
Ksemaraja's Concluding Remarks.
I, Ksemaraja, have given conclusive explanation with the help of the splendid detailed exposition of my teacher. All glory to this Supreme Pulsation (Spanda) of consciousness which is the abode of flashing, unparalleled delight, whose majority of path extends to far-reaching areas from the earth up to Siva, which is variegated by the display of various states of creation, maintenance and withdrawal and of whose extension this universe is just a minute particle.
This is the work of Ksemaraja who has received instruction from Abhinavagupta, the great devotee of the great Lord, the grand pupil of the author of Isvarapratyabhijna. Translation by Jaideva Singh.