Bhagavad-Gita: 18 Chapters in Sanskrit
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This article is dedicated to Tamil Scholar, Prof. Dr. Kamil Vaclav Zvelebil
The Tamil cultural tradition is independent, not derived, not imitative; it is pre-Sanskritic, and from this point of view Tamil alone stands apart when compared with all other major languages and literatures of India. There exist in India only two great specific and independent classical and historically attested cultures - the Sanskritic culture and the Tamil culture. Tamil literature is the only Indian literature which is both classical and modern; while it shares antiquity with much of Sanskrit literature and is as classical, in the best sense of the word, as e.g. the ancient Greek poetry, it continues to be vigorously living modern writing of our days. 'Tamil, one of the two classical languages of India, is the only language of contemporary India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past.'..." The philosophical system of Saiva Sidhdhantha, a system, which may be ranked among the most perfect and cleverest systems of human thought--Prof. Dr. Kamil Vaclav Zvelebil
September 17, 1927 - January 17, 2009
Saiva Siddhanta is the Ultima Thule for the soul, after a long arduous journey in other religions.
Saiva Siddhanta holds the view that God has created many religions, each one of which is an exact fit for and compatible with the degree of maturity of the individual soul. Having experienced embodied life in each one of the external and internal
religions, becoming mature in that religion and transcending all the internal controversies in that religion, the soul eventually will arrive at the just tenets of Saiva Siddhanta. After its arrival, the soul will acquire Jnana (Spiritual Wisdom) and attain liberation. In this context, other Hindu sects also belong to the external religions. The Internal Religions are Saiva Sects of which Saiva Siddhanta is the nucleus.
Every religion considers itself as the sole soul-savior excluding all other religions. Some consider it as a narrow parochial view. Saiva Siddhanta is the only religion that accepts all religions. It does not denigrate other religions and accepts their tenets on their intrinsic value and worth.
Whom are we to believe when every religious leader claims he is the path to Abba, அப்பன் or Father in Heaven? Here is what Jesus Christ says.
John 14:6 (Bible New International Version) 14.6Jesus answered, "I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
The father in heaven = Abba (APPAN = அப்பன் in Tamil.)
We have to assume that Siva of Saivism and Father of the Christian faith are one and the same; different religions call Him by different names.
Hindus believe that Siva in Kailas, Vishnu in Paramapadam or Vaikuntam, Father in heaven, and other Gods are different names for one God. God, all religions, paths (spokes), and people form a wheel, the hub of which is God by many names. The people whirl around in the rim becoming dizzy at hearing many religious touts (missionaries and zealots of other religions) declare that they will take them to the hub of God along the spoke of their chosen path. These narrow-minded touts with tunnel vision are hell-bent that they own God, don't seem to know and don't want to know that the wheel has many spokes and thus many paths to the hub of God. God, I am sure, is not in the sole possession of one people, one tout, one zealot, one religion.... God owns us and not vice versa.
Siva's Five Functions, His five Dynamic Powers, His trilateral relationship with the individual soul, the nature of the impurities of the soul, the workings of Siva-Sakti-Maya in the unfolding of the universe.
Siva's Five Functions, His five Dynamic Powers, His trilateral relationship with the individual soul, the nature of the impurities of the soul, the workings of Siva-Sakti-Maya in the unfolding of the universe...
Notes: Prabhavali: look at the arch of flame. There should be only 21 flames; there are too many.
Lord Nataraja: Angam = அங்கம் = Main body or body as a whole; Pratyāngam: பிரத்தியங்கம் = limbs, component parts of the body (Prati = reflection); Sāngam: All the limbs; here it includes Siva's trident, snake, Abhaya mudra, fire. Upāngam: minor limbs, accouterments: here it includes his clothing, ornaments, flower garland. All four Angams are infused with Grace.
Note the U on the forehead. In Chidambaram, Lord Nataraja sports three horizontal ash stripes on his forehead.
Right posterior hand holding the drum is the origin of Nāda (Sound), AUM and letters and language. Nāda is harbinger of creation. Planted right foot depicts concealing of Grace.
Concealing of Grace: It is a difficult concept that may worry and unnerve non-Saivites. It is like the professor of mathematics concealing his knowledge of higher mathematics and letting his preschooler son struggle with simple additions and subtractions. Siva veils the spiritual knowledge until the soul gets rid of its impurities. That is comparable to the professor of higher mathematics concealing his knowledge to his five year old son or daughter. Once his son reaches certain proficiency, the higher knowledge is imparted to him. Once the soul is pure, the spiritual knowledge or Grace descends into the soul (SaktiNipatham / saththinipAtam--சத்திநிபாதம்.
The soul is laden with Anava Mala, the I-factor in Kevala state before birth and Sakala state during life. It must be removed before the soul can become one with Siva, because Siva is pure and stainless. To remove this impurity one needs detergent, which comes in the form of Maya Mala. The question is why Siva Sakti uses Maya Mala to shed some light on the soul and also partially remove Anava Mala. Why does Siva Sakti use one Mala (Maya) to remove another Mala (Anava)? The argument goes as follows: Washerman uses soap or detergent (compared to Maya Mala) to remove a more ingrained dirt (compared to Anava Mala) from the clothes. Thus by partial cleansing, Maya prepares the soul ingrained with Anava Mala for greater purification by Siva Sakti. (Remember the washer man beats the clothes on a flat slab of stone to remove the dirt along with the detergent.) In modern parlance, the soul in Sakala state attends the school of hard knocks in this phenomenal world; hard knocks of daily living mature and "ripen" the Malas, which when completely ripened, fall off and the soul goes to the next state, Suddha Avastha (pure state). The soul goes through spiritual evolution of this kind over many human births and this progress is proportional to the attenuation of Anava Mala (ஆணவமலம்) which, when expunged with the Grace of God, results in liberation.
(Malas, impurities) are like the plaque blocking the arteries of the heart; for the Grace to flow into the soul, the plaque of Malas has to be removed.)
Eradication of Anava Mala is complete abandoning of I, Mine, I-ness, and My-ness (அகங்காரம், மமகாரம்), which coincide with the descent of wisdom into the soul. (As indicated in the diagram and flowchart, Anava Mala dupes the ensconced soul into thinking it is finite like the body.) This stage (eradication of Malas), called MalaParipākam, strikes the death knell of three Malas and sets the stage for IruVinaiyOppu, SattiNipātham, and liberation to enjoy Siva's bliss.
Malaparipākam--மலபரிபாகம்: stage of the soul when its three Malams (impurities) meet with the causes of their removal. (Causes = agents = detergents)
Iru-Vinai-y-Oppu-- இருவினையொப்பு = (State of the soul in which it takes an attitude of perfect equanimity towards meritorious and sinful deeds. (My note: the term actually means two actions coming to an agreement. As you may note, merit and sin do not come to an agreement; the only way each will come to an agreement with the other is for each to come to a naught or become non-reactive and inert. Merit and sin make the fabric of karma which demands reward for merit and punishment for sin. Reward and punishment are dispensations given to the embodied soul on this earth: that is fettering of the soul. For the soul to go unfettered and enjoy eternal freedom is avoiding actions which carry a load of positive or negative merit.
சத்திநிபாதம் = Sattinipātham = Sakti-nipātham = Setting of the Divine Grace in the soul, when it is ripe.
Definitions are according to Tamil Lexicon, Madras University.
Prelude to the descent of divine liberating wisdom into the soul is purification of the soul by removal of impurities (malaparipakam). The next step in the process is Iruvinaioppu which means two polar activities (merit and sin) come to zero sum status individually. The third step is Sattinipatham, descent of Sakti (Satti) or divine Grace into the purified soul cleansed of impurities and dualities of merit and sin.
Wendy Doniger says the following on page 14, The Origin of Evil in Hindu Mythology. Notes December 5, 2012
"Karma solves the problem by blaming evil on itself. One's present experience is the direct result of action, good and bad, accumulated in past lives and fixed to the trans-migrating soul. Karma is a thing that can be transferred to one person from another, whittled away by good deeds performed in the present life, but never entirely destroyed; it is outward visible sign of past invisible deeds. The hypothesis of karma violates the hypothesis of omnipotence and thus bypasses rather than resolves to Theodicy."
Monistic Ramana Maharishi says, "Your sin is yours and not Siva's." That means it cannot be transferred. Sin cannot be whittled away by good deeds. The good and bad deeds must be experienced individually and should come to be a zero-sum status individually; that is Iruvinaioppu. The bad deeds cannot be balanced by good deeds.
Indra committed a murder of a Brahmana, ran to a woman and begged her to take half the blame which she did. This may be what Wendy is referring to.
A person has to eat 7 sweet fruits of Merits and 6 bitter fruits of Sin so that the Merit and Demerit come to Zero Sum.
primer4.gif replaces primer3.gif
Reason is the basic premise in Saiva Siddhanta (Well-established conclusion, settled opinion or doctrine, received or admitted truth, end of perfection.) Agamas are the fountainhead of Saiva Siddhanta, which depends on means of knowledge (pramana): Pratyaksha, Anumana, and Sabda. Pratyaksha is perception by the senses and direct experience; Anumāna is inference; Sabda (sound) is verbal authority or revelation of Agamas. The soul is the repository of knowledge received by these means.
Saiva Siddhanta encourages each individual to explore, and find the truth, which may come down cloaked with authority or present anew; old is not necessarily good and new is not necessarily bad; content is the determining factor in accepting it, after diligent enquiry. Truth may not have many voices but is the only choice, one should make. Truth does not come with a label; one should exercise Pratyaksha, Anumana and Sabda; the former two are individual effort and the last one is scriptural authority, which is open for enquiry. Scriptures are called Sound (and also Smirti, that which is remembered) because they were transmitted from memory by oral tradition, before they were committed to text.
Saiva Siddhanta is of the belief that the individual soul maintains its individuality even after liberation, lives in close proximity to Siva and does not merge with Siva. This stand is opposed to Sankara's nondualism.
Kashmir Saivism is of the belief that Siva dances, pervades, vibrates, and pulsates in the individual souls, matter and universe. All is Siva. Spandex is a long-chain elastic Polymer that can expand and contract. Likewise, Spanda in Sanskrit is quickening, quivering, vibration, throbbing, expansion and contraction.... Spanda Sakti consisting of Unmesa and Nimesa is Sakti of Siva. Nimesa = closing of eyes; Unmesa = opening of eyes. Opening of eyes is centrifugal force of creation; closing of eyes is the centripetal journey of soul to Siva. Though they appear as sequential elements, they are concurrent in Siva. This is a divine energy; it appears to be spent by Siva and or Sakti and yet it does not diminish. Spanda is pulsation, quivering, motion, quickening in the womb…. The universe emerges from Spanda power of Siva. Siva on one hand and souls and universe on the other hand are one. Take a chocolate candy, hard outside and gooey inside. The exterior shell and the gooey inside are the same though they may appear different. Sivasakti and the universe are same. Spanda power has its hypostasis in Siva and manifests the 36 Tattvas TATTVAS-36, which are the building blocks of the universe and beings. The world is the stage (proving ground) for the Spanda Energy of vibration according to Kashmir Saivism; the same is called in South India the Dance of Siva on the Cosmic Stage; the Lord dances in all elements; all his acts are dance, pulsation, vibration or orbital motion down to subatomic particle; when the dance stops, the world ends with Nimesa; with Unmesa, the dance starts again and the universe pulsates with life. There appears to be some variance with Sankara's Vedic philosophy in that Spanda theory espouses that this world is NOT an illusion but a reality.
Siddhantists are of the belief that all men are not equal in their spiritual standing because past, present and future are unique to each person. All religions help man march along the spokes of their philosophies towards the hub of Truth; but the axle of Truth exists in Saiva Siddhanta. All religions help their flock march towards realization. One is born in a religion that best suits a person; there are six forms of worship: Vaishnavam, Saivam, Saktam, Sauram, Kaumaram, and Ganapatyam, the worship of Vishnu, Siva, Devi, Sun, Kumaran, and Ganapathy or Ganesa. The wrangling (disputations) among the members sometimes creates problems, while they forget that Tantra is the source of Mantras of every sect. There is a pointed advice in Bhagavatam (11.3.46) to Vaishnavas: One should cut the knots of ego, and worship Kesava (Krishna) with Vedic and Tantric rites. Book eleven of Bhagavatam goes on further, saying that a Sadhaka should worship the Lord in the image of his choice. It further states that Lord (Krishna) wants his worship can be Vaidik, Tantric, and mixed or Puranik.
Lord Siva is the source of inspiration for all persons, though they may belong to different religions and pray to different gods. Siva is the God of gods of different religions and answers prayers through the surrogate gods. Ultimate Grace is conferred when one is born into Saiva Siddhanta by birth or belief. Of course, Vaishnavas differ and say that Narayana is the God of gods.
Christianity speaks of flock; flock is Pasu (animal(s) or individual soul = flock) in Saiva Siddhanta. Siva (Pati) forms a trilateral relationship with Pasa and Pasu: Pati-Pasu-Pasa. Pasa is impurity that the soul is burdened with. Pati is the Chief or Christianity's Shepherd. Since Pati, Pasu, and Pasa concept existed before the advent of Christianity, it is possible that this concept might be an import from ancient India. Pati (Chief, master, owner of the flock--Siva) in ancient India was associated with animals, which were vanquished and subdued by Siva's meditation and some, as the Bull Nandi, domesticated. Pasu (-animal-anma-soul) is tied down to the post of Samsara by Pasas, Mummalams (மும்மலம் = three impurities) and Avidya (spiritual ignorance). Nandi is considered a theriomorphic form of Siva and the first and foremost devotee of Siva and sometimes his delegate or surrogate. Now we can see how a Pasu has come a full circle to stand tall with Siva once it gave up its animal qualities such as Anava Mala. Tat Tvam Asi = That Thou Art = That (Siva) You Are. All Pasus like the flock or sheep need a Shepherd, who is Pati-Siva of the Hindus and the Lord and Jesus Christ of the Christians. Another note: All Christian rituals are imports from Tantrics, according to Woodroffe.
Samsāra = Birth and rebirth cycle in this world; cycle of mundane existence; a recurrent state of the embodied soul in the living human before the final release or liberation.
Mummalam = three Malas, Anava, Maya and Karma Malas (impurities). See the chart for definition of the three Malas. Malam in Tamil is Mala in Sanskrit.
Avidya = ignorance (spiritual).
Explanation of the above paragraph
Saiva Siddhantist believes that souls of other religions should excel and achieve the native blessedness of that particular religion; thus, no religion (other Hindu sects included) can give the ultimate release that Saivism gives. When the soul is ripe in its own religion, it will be reborn in Saiva religion. That is not the end of the road; within Savism there are subdivisions or inner religions; once the soul attains excellence in the inner religion, the soul has to take birth in Saiva Siddhanta. Now the soul has to perform Chariyai, Kriyai, and Yogam before it gets Jnanam. These are set in ascending step-wise ladder pattern to reach Siva. The soul has to excel in Dasamarga, Kriyamarga, Sakhamarga and Sanmarga. The above chart illustrates the various Margas, a Sadhaka in Saiva Siddhanta should follow to obtain release. Dasamarga is the path of servant; Kriya Satputramarga, the way of a child; Sakhamarga, the path of friend; Sanmarga-Sadhanamarga, the path of wisdom. The soul has to go through three events before it gets release: Malaparipākam, Iruvinaiyoppu and Sattinipātam (eradication or maturing of Anava Mala, equable resolution of good and bad Karma, and descent of Grace into the soul).
மலபரிபாகம் = Malaparipākam; இருவினை ஒப்பு = Iruvinaiyoppu; சத்திநிபாதம் = Sattinipātam
LORD SIVA AND HIS WORSHIP By SRI SWAMI SIVANANDA
One will develop love and devotion for Lord Siva if he is freed from egoism. Chariyai,
Kiriyai, Yoga and Jnana are the four Sadhanas or steps to kill egoism and attain Lord Siva.
Chariyai: The worship of the all-pervading, eternal Supreme Being through external forms, is called Chariyai. The requisite initiation for this, is Samaya Diksha. Erecting temples, cleaning them, making garlands of flowers, singing Lord’s praises, burning lamps in the temples, making flower gardens constitute Chariyai.
Tamil Lexicon: Chariyai = சரியை: (Šaiva.) First of the four-fold means of attaining salvation, which consists in worshipping God-in-form in a temple.
Kiriyai is to perform Puja, Archanas. The worship of the cosmic form of the Eternal Ruler of the universe externally and internally, is called Kiriyai. For Kiriyai and Yoga, the requisite initiation is called Visesha Diksha.
Tamil Lexicon: கிரியை:1. Act, action, deed; செய்கை. 2. (Šaiva.) Second of the four-fold means of attaining salvation, which consists in worshipping Šiva with rites and ceremonies prescribed in the Āgamas.
Yoga is restraint of the senses and contemplation on the internal light. The internal worship of Him as formless, is called Yoga. For Kiriyai and Yoga, the requisite initiation is called Visesha Diksha.
Tamil Lexicon: Yogam = யோகம் = Path of yoga which consists in the mental worship of Šiva in His subtler Form.
Jnana is to understand the true significance of Pati, Pasu, Pasa and to become one with Siva by constant meditation on Him after removing the three Malas, viz., Anava (egoism), Karma (action) and Maya (illusion). The direct realisation of Lord Siva through Jnana Guru, is called Jnana. The initiation that leads to it, is called Nirvana Diksha.
Tamil Lexicon: Jnanam = ஞானம். Path of wisdom which consists in the realization of God as transcending form.
Here is a depiction of the paths and their leading protagonists: Chariyai by Thirunavukarasar; Kiriyai by Thirujnanasambandhar; Yoga by Sundaramurthy Swamigal; and Jnana by Manikkavasakar. December 23, 2019
Here is what the Saivite Poet Manikkavakar says about worshipping Siva. Manikkavasakar regrets that he failed to render service to Siva in the temple in the following manner.
ஆம்ஆறுஉன் திருவடிக்கே அகம் குழையேன் அன்பு உருகேன்
பூமாலை புனைந்து ஏத்தேன் புகழ்ந்து உரையேன் புத்தேளிர்க்
கோமான் நின் திருக்கோயில் தூகேன் மெழுகேன் கூத்து ஆடேன்
சாம் ஆறே விரைக்கின்றேன் சதுராலே சார்வோனே. 18
Your feet are the means of salvation. I am of mind that did not soften for You and of love that did not melt. I did not praise You by weaving and offering flowers. I did not speak of your praise. You are the God of gods, O Lord Siva. I did not swab the floor of Your temple. I did not scrub the floor. I did not dance in devotion to You, having lost my hold on my self. I am rushing on the wrong path, having been bound to the world. O Lord, please give me Grace and protection.
[Offering flowers, waving lights, and scrubbing and cleaning the floors of the temple are the sacred devotional service done in Siva Temple.]
Go to The soul according to Saiva Siddhanta for more details.
The means to knowledge are Pratyaksha, Anumana, Sabda, Upamana and the rest.
Pramâ is knowledge; the means to acquire knowledge is Pramanâ.
Pramanâ according to Vedanta.
Pratyaksha Anumâna Upamâna Sabda or âpta Vacana An-upalabdhi or Abhâva-Pratyaksha Arthâpatti Perception by the senses Inference Analogy Verbal authority or revelation (Agamas) Negative proof Inference from circumstances.
Saiva Siddhanta lists one, two and four; Nyâya accepts the first four as the means; Samkhya admits the first three.
Coming back to Chariyai, Kriyai, Yoga, and Jnana. Tirumular makes a reference to them in the 4th chapter under Navagundam (nine sacrificial pits) in verses 1015-1044 and also in Verses 1003-1014.
V1003-1014: One should worship Siva with flowers (Jasmine, Lotus, Chrysanthamum etc.) Worship is performed in the mansion of the mind. Kriya Yoga leads to accumulation of Karma and thus it is not advocated for Siva Yogis. Bhakti Yoga is fine. Jnana Yoga leads to Nadanta, the divine light and thus to merger with Siva. Kriya Yoga can make a person a Deva or godling but for merger one needs to perform Jnana Yoga. For the Yogi Na Ma are not to be chanted because they are the obscuration and impurities. He should chant only SiVa, which will lead to liberation. Jnana Yoga takes the Yogi to A and U (of AUM) which are Si and Va. Seeking Him by the senses is in vain. Siva's seat is Si and Va and Jiva's seat is Na and Ma. Remove Na and Ma and Si and Va are yours. In Kundalini Yoga, the nectar flows in the 7th center. Jnana light is revealed in the 8th center. Beyond the 11th center is Paraparam. Beyond the 11th is the Great Void, the infinite Dvadasanta space.
The Panchakshara Mantra (5-letter mantra) has two aspects: Subtle and Manifest (Suksma and Sthula). Suksma Mantra is Sivayanama. The manifest Mantra is NaMaSivaYa. As you may notice the head of the Subtle Mantra is Siva and the tail is NaMa. In the Sthula Mantra the head and the tail are inverted or transposed. Significance: Manifest man--embodied soul (Ya) has the head in NaMa meaning he suffers from Na (obscuration of spiritual knowledge) and Ma (a load of Mummalams-மும்மலம்- Anava, Kanma and Maya Malas). The liberated man Ya (Jivan Mukta) enjoys Si and Va (Siva and Grace; his NaMa left him.
NaMaSivaYa = Na + Ma + Si + Va + Ya.
Na = Veiling power of Siva = obscuration of Spiritual knowledge.
Ma = Malams = Impurities of the soul.
Si = Siva.
Va = Grace; revealing Spiritual Knowledge.
Ya = the soul.
Tirumular says that anagram Mantra, Na-Ma-Va-Si-Ya stands in the sphere of Fire; Va-Si-Ya stands in that of Sun; and Va-Si stands in the sphere of Moon. The basic Mantra is Na-Ma-Va-Si-Ya. See variant example below. When the soul Ya is flanked by Na and Ma on the front and Si and Vā in the end, Na and Ma representing Tirodhana and Mala lead the soul into bondage and rebirth and Si and Vā representing Siva and Arul confer salvation and Grace to the soul.
Na Ma Ya Si Vā
In the above Mantra, obscuration and impurities are the burdensome front load (Na Ma) on the soul Ya, Siva and Grace Si Vā come once the soul is divested of the front load of Na Ma.
Na MaYa Si Vā: Strike Na and Ma (obscuration and impurities). This is what you want. At this juncture the soul Ya moves and sits between Si Vā (Siva and Bliss) and the new configuration is Si Ya Vā. This is bliss; this is liberation.
Kēvala state is dream-sleep state of the soul Ya before birth.
Sakala state is awake state, life of the embodied soul on earth (Na Ma Ya).
Suddha state is deep-sleep state, merger with Siva (Si Vā Ya---> Si Ya Vā ); Na Ma left the soul.
See the diagram above.
The bound soul has Na and Ma and thus the Mantra is NaMaSiVaYa. The liberated soul (Jivan Mukta = one with Corporeal Liberation = Liberation while alive in a body) chants the Mantra, SiVaYaNaMa or SiYaVa.
For easy understanding, let us compare the Siva Mantra as a fish with a head, a body and a tail.
Bound Soul = Ya: The head is obscuration and impurities, the body is Siva and Grace and the tail is in the soul. The proper Mantra is NaMaSiVaYa.
The Liberated Soul still living in the body (Yogi or Jivan Mukta) = Ya: Here the head is SiVa, the soul Ya moved from the tail to the body and the NaMa moved to become the tail. In the totally liberated soul, the tail NaMa fell off and Ya moved between Si and Va (Siva and Grace). The Mantras are SiVaYaNaMa → SiYaVa.
Verses 1015-1044: The nine pits correspond to nine openings in the body: two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, one mouth, one genital and one anal opening. Sacrificial pits are nine shapes:
சாதனை நாலு தழல்மூன்று வில்வயம்
வேதனை வட்டம் விளையாறு பூநிலை
போதனை போதுஐஞ்சு பொய்கய வாரண
நாதனை நாடு நவகோடி தானே.
1044. Four Sadhanas are on four sides of the square; three sides of the triangle for three forms of fire; semicircle for the bent bow; Circular shape for a well; six sides for 6 Adharas (of Kundalini Chakras) within; Eight sides for 8 directions of the earth; Heart shape as in the shape of Peepul tree leaf; five sides for the panchakshara Mantra; oval shape for the golden bowl: These are the shapes of nine sacrificial pits, as you strive to obtain Grace of Siva.
The five functions of the Lord (Pancha krityas) are depicted in the Dance of Siva.
1: Srsti: The drum held by the right posterior hand represents creation and emanates Paranada, the Supreme sound. It is the origin of all sounds, thus representing Nadabrahman, Sabdabrahman or Sound Brahman. Dhakka (Drum) produces fourteen distinct sounds which correspond to fourteen branches of Vedic learning. Siva produces these fourteen sounds from the drum at the summation of his dance. The summation is called Cappu in Carnatic music, which is beating the upper part of the right side of the drum (Mrdanga) at conclusion. Pannini, the Sanskrit Grammarian, based his work on these fourteen sounds. Vishnu and Brahma participate in this ensemble; Vishnu plays the Maddala drum and Brahma keeps time.
Chidambaram is the center of the universe where Nataraja dances; that center is in the heart also. Siva is also known as Gangadhara. When Ganges River descended from heaven, Siva caught the fall of Ganga on his head and matted locks, so that the earth was not ravaged by its harsh fall.
Thirugnanasambandar (Thiru-Gnana-Sambandar-TS) was a poet-saint born in Tamil Nadu. He was son of God, Siva. His subtle body carried all the learning that he acquired during his previous births and that at his last birth he recollected all of them so much so that he sang songs of praise of Siva at age three. It is said that he received (infusions of ) Grace in Utero (Karuvile Thiru Udaiyar, God's grace as a fetus). He was the chosen one. He was not subject to five powers (Panchakritya) of the Lord, mentioned above, including veiling (Tirodhana or Tirobhava); predetermined Grace was bestowed on him. TS lived until sixteen years of age.
Five Syllables NA MA SI VA YA Dynamic Panchaakshara of Nataraja Fire in the hand Right foot on Muyalakan
drum out-stretched hand left lower hand, dispelling fear
Thiruvarutpayan sings praise of Lord Nataraja and ascribes the alphabets to body parts of Nataraja: NA for foot, MA for abdomen, SI for shoulders, VA for face, YA for crown of the head.
Pati as defined by Sivaraman in his book Saivism in Philosophical Perspective, Page 47.
The Destroyer-God is not the mere deity of destruction who has a co-ordinate function and existence along with the deities of creation and preservation. The term Hara denotes the Supreme Being in a general as well as in a unique sense. Literally, of course, Hara is one that destroys, and yet its application extends not to any destroyer nor again to a mere destroyer but only to a specific one to whom it belongs uniquely. Siva, the Supreme, who is indicated suggestively by the name of Hara is not to be identified with 'Rudra' to whom belongs the office of limited dissolution. Siva is Maha-rudra, not guni-rudra. He is the universal Destroyer of whom Rudra and other deities are only the operative aspects.
The Saivagamas make this crucial distinction in univocal terms. They say that Srikantha-rudra, the agent of periodic dissolution (avantara-pralaya) is but a mature soul belonging to that group or class of Pasus which, though bound are not bound as we the earthly souls are, but whose bonds are snapped at the time of final Dissolution. About Siva Himself it is said that He is Pati, the Lord of the bound (pasupati) who freely descends and assumes the states of laya, bhoga and adhikara and take on the respective forms of Siva, Sadasiva and Mahesvara and performs the respective functions of dissolution, governance and creation of all the realms of existence including the realm of speech. As referred to Siva the Agent par excellence, differences of the functions of sristi, Sthiti, and samhara (Creation, Preservation and destruction) do not imply a difference in the cause of the functions: Siva, Sadasiva and Mahesvara are functional differences belonging to the same unity behind them, whereas, with reference to the intermediary agencies, their differences involve differences of agents also.
In the Saiva hymns too the same distinction is drawn at innumerable places. Siva's 'office' of Dissolution is not co-ordinate with the offices of the trinity, including that of Rudra. The entire universe with its creators, conservers and destroyers is under Siva's control even as dried leaves whirl under the control of a stormy wind. He is the Creator of the creator. He is the God that sustains the sustainer of creation. He remains hidden from what He sustains. Confounding Siva with one of the trinities is, therefore, a species of theological heresy of confounding God with creature, the transcendent with the non-transcendent, the Ever Free with the Bound, and comes in for a vehement condemnation at the hands of the Saiva hymnists.
Pati (Siva) has a trilateral relationship with Pasu (flock, animal, individual soul) and Paasa (pasa, impurity)--Pati-Pasu-Pasa Triangle. These three are connected with one another. (Remember Siva relates to Pasu through Sakti; He is very averse to impurity of soul; everything is dandy with the soul once it is pure.) Pati is eternal, the purveyor of Tirodhana Sakti and Arul Sakti in this context. Pasu is the individual soul and belongs to the flock in Christian terms. Pasam is impurity or Malam, everlasting as Pati and Pasu; in its causal state of Kevala Avastha, it is eternal; its ravages are seen in Sakala Avastha of life of soul on earth. A Guru goes a long way in helping the Sadhaka overcome Anava Mala.
Pati Pasu Pasa Omniscient, Omnipotent, Omnipresent, Immanent and Transcendent; Sat, Cit, and Ananda Parviscient, (Parvipotent, Parvipresent), sat and cit; full of maladies of the soul Nescient, Impurities (Mum-malam), clingy, causes metampsychosis Pure Sat, Pure Cit and Pure Bliss sat-cit of dilute variety Asat-Acit Pasu with Pati is sat-Sat; cit-Cit;
Sat-Asat in its Kevala and Sakala state.
Pasu with Pasa is sat-Asat and cit-Acit
Acit = Insentient
Parviscient: knowing little (Oxford English Dictionary). Parvus: Latin for small
Nescient: knowing nothing; ignorant
"Parvipotent" and "parvipresent" are not in the dictionary; Parvipotent = having a little power; Parvipresent = having mote of a presence, in one's own body. example: God exults over his omnipresence; man sulks over his parvipresence. I coined these words, Parvipotent and parvipresent to explain man's small position in the presence of God (omnipotence and omnipresence).
Pati and Pasa (Siva and fetter) exercise centripetal and centrifugal force respectively on Pasu, the individual soul. They are opposing forces; Siva pulls Pasu the soul or Jiva towards him and tries to morph him to his likeness, while Pasa the fetter gets him more and more entangled in its web of impurities. Pati and Pasu know that Pasu pines for salvation; Pasa is jada (inanimate lifeless matter or entity), not needing salvation; but its pull on Pasu is strong. Jiva or individual soul is compared to a colorless crystal; it assumes the color of the juxtaposed object; if there are two or more objects of different colors, the crystal projects all the colors. An observer passing by assumes that the crystal is a polychromatic object; in reality it is not. The dominant color prevails; thus, the soul is a "malleable" entity. Siva is Sat and Pasa is Asat. Sat = That which exists through all times, the Imperishable; Asat = That which is unstable and mutable. Under the influence of Pati and Pasa, Jiva or soul is neither Sat nor Asat; the siddhantist claims the soul is a blend of Sat and Asat, taking the qualities of both and thus is Sat-Asat, a two-tone entity. Siva Sat pulls the soul one way and Pasa-Asat pulls him in the opposite direction. Since it is touched by the Sat of Siva and Asat of Pasa, the soul is Sat-Asat.
Sine the soul is Sat-Asat, it is eternal and therefore, endowed with Iccha, Jnana and Kriya (desire, knowledge and action), though the Asat part of the soul renders the innate three qualities unexpressed and suppressed, meaning that an external force is necessary to activate the three qualities. The soul is compared to the flower bud which in order to exude its fragrance (quality) needs the sun to open the petals and let the fragrance waft in the wind.
Pati, Pasu and Pasa relationship.
Siva, Pati Sat Sea Greater Soul Sound Taste Fire color Soul, Pasu Sat-Asat copper Rice Water Body melody Fruit hot water crystal Pasa Asat verdigris on copper husk Salt in sea water colors
Asat Soul with Pasa Kevala state unintelligent Sat soul in Suddha state Sat State Intelligent Sat-Asat soul
Sakala state: Living and breathing soul-body.
Kevala, Sakala and Suddha states: Soul's natural state, before birth in a body, is Kevala with Anava Mala (Sahaja Mala, innate impurity) as the coloring agent; When the soul acquires a body on account of Karma, it is in Sakala state, a multicolored state in which Malas and Siva Sakti are the coloring agents; When all Malas are extinct, the soul is in Suddha state, where Siva Sakti is the only coloring agent (colorless translucent crystal). Kevala Avastha is night in slumber; Sakala state is day in phenomenal awakening and awareness; Suddha state is merger with Siva.
Karma Mala rides on the coattail of Anava Mala. Eradication of these Malas from the soul need the guidance of a Guru, who may be Supreme Siva in the human form or a human with divine qualities of Siva. Guru, after proper initiation, gives the Sadhaka a Mantra, which when chanted, sustains the soul on its long march through Chariya, Kriya, Yoga, and finally to Jnana. Pati and Pasu respectively are the donor and recipient of Arul or Grace; Pasa is that which impedes this transfer.
Pati = Siva Sakti; Pasu = individual soul; Pasa = bondage, world of senses; Jnana = knowledge.
There are three kinds of knowledge:
; these are based on the trilateral relationship between Pati, Pasu and Pasa. Pati is the Lord, Pasu is the individual soul, and Pasa is bondage imposed by the sense organs. Pati is beyond the perception of Pasajnana and Pasujnana; therefore, He is called Siva. Since He is knowable by only Patijnana, He is Sat, Siva-Sat or Cit-Sat. Pasajnana is lower knowledge acquired by the soul through sense organs (Inner Organ) derived from Maya in Sakala State. When the aspirant renounces the Inner Organ and the knowledge gained from it and becomes the knower of the true nature of his soul, he gains Pasujnanam (knowledge of the soul). Higher knowledge is Patijnana (Sivajnanam). Tthe lower cannot reach the Higher; the lower cannot comprehend the Higher; therefore, it is pasajnana, which is
notreally Jnana or knowledge. Since pasajnana is considered in the context of Patijnana, it received this misnomer. Soul is the experiencer. If the soul experiences and enjoys the outer world of senses, it has pasajnana (knowledge of bondage--experience creates bonds between objects and senses); if the soul is self-centered and enjoys the attitude of "I-Me-Mine-Mineness", it is Pasujnana (knowledge of animal). Patijnana or
Sivajnanamcomes to the soul, when Pasajnana and Pasujnana leave or become extinct.
Pati = Siva. pasu = soul. Pasa = bondage.
When the soul is without Patijnana it is in a state of Irul (இருள் = Darkness);when it is introspective, confused, self-centered, tossed, and tugged between Pasa and Pati, it is in Marul (மருள்= confusion) ; when it is full of Spiritual knowledge, the soul receives Arul (அருள்= Grace). Arul of Siva goes hand in hand with Terul (தெருள்) of Siva (Supreme knowledge), which is the source of Siva Jnana in a Jiva mukta.
Conclusion: The lowest is Pasajnana, Pasujnana is middling,
Sivajnanais the highest.
PasaJnana is the knowledge of the senses which creates bondage between the objects and the senses.
Pasujnana is the knowledge of nature of the soul, which renounced Pasajnanam and the Inner Organ.
Patijnanam (Sivajnanam) is knowledge that descended into the soul from Siva.
(இருள்), darkness. We are pulled by the passions of the world and Pasa (impurities) and that centrifugal pull is Pasajnanam, the pull or knowledge of pasa (fetters or bond) also known as IRUL (darkness). Knowledge (derived) of the world is pasajnanam, which has no value for liberation. Sekkizhar in his 10th verse (Periya PurAnam) speaks of two kinds of Irul: Aka Irul and Pura Irul (Internal and external darkness). As the sun dissipates the external darkness, Tiruththondar Puranam expels the internal darkness (spiritual darkness). A source tells that Siva's left eye is Periya Puranam (aka Tiruthondar puranam), the right eye TiruvilaiyAdal puranam, and the third eye on the forehead, Kanda Puranam.
(மருள்), confused vision or illusion. Tugged by God (Siva) and the world, the soul is confused and becomes introspective and looks within for self-knowledge or knowledge of its own nature. This is Pasujnanam, or introspective knowledge, which causes confusion in the choice the soul has to make.
(அருள்), Grace. The soul has won over Irul and Marul, gave up darkness and confusion, seeks knowledge of Pati, the Chief, the God, or Siva and receives knowledge and Grace. This is Patijnanam.
Knowledge.Supreme knowledge of Siva, which makes Him what He is. No one in this universe has Terul except Siva. Jivan mukta receives a trace of this knowledge by its descent into his soul (Saktinipātam), once the Malas are expunged....
The soul that was in union with Irul (darkness) and later with Marul (ignorance and confusion) is now in union with Arul, a step before union with Siva. Soul has made an arduous journey from Kevala Avastha to Sakala Avastha to Suddha Avastha, the end of the road, destination being oneness with Siva. Kevala Avastha is the primordial state of the soul before it sports a body; Sakala avastha is life on earth; Suddha Avastha is life of the soul ready to merge in its pure form.
Human bondage and senses (Pasa) cannot comprehend Him; the soul (Pasu) that is burdened with Malas and senses cannot comprehend Him; one with Pati knowledge (
derivative of Terul,knowledge of the Supreme Siva, Brahma Vidya) can comprehend Him.
Kevala = isolated, uncompounded, unmingled...
Kevala Avastha of the un-embodied soul (before birth) during its sleep state is comparable to amblyopia (blindness) of the eye due to visual deprivation from abnormalities of the eyelid (hemangioma causing swelling of eyelid and blocking entry of light) and lens (cataract), and distortion of image from astigmatism, and corneal opacities. The eye itself is normal and can perceive light and sight, if light is allowed to pass without hindrance or refraction. In Kevala Avastha, the soul is unable to see because of veiling by Anava Mala; soul's intelligence (sight) diminishes and the soul takes on the qualities of Anava Mala (darkness of the soul). Thus deprived of its intelligence, the soul becomes matter. In this state, the soul does not have a physical body. It is the other worldly entity. It pines to be born, get rid of the impurity and become pure for merger. It has to go out into the world of hard knocks to come back to Siva in pure state.
Sakala = many parts; the whole made from parts; the state affected by the elements of material world; the soul at the lowest stage of progress.
Sakala state is life on earth for the soul with a body. In Sakala state, there is some light coming in for the soul to gain knowledge necessary to merge with Siva in Suddha state. Without light the eye has no value; without spiritual knowledge the soul has no value. Knowledge proceeds from total absence in Kevala state, to limited knowledge in Sakala state to great knowledge in Suddha state. Knowledge here is NOT a referent to Arts and Sciences but to spiritual knowledge of the Highest order (Brahma Vidya)
Siva wakes up the soul first and other sleepers out of their slumber. Remember Kevala soul sleeps. Anava Mala is the next one to wake up. Siva sets in motion the creative process in which the now-awakened Maya gives body to the soul according to its karmic merits. Now the soul entered the Sakala state with the body and three Malas: Anava, Maya and Karma Malas.
Siva ordains that man in his Sakala state enjoys or suffers fruits of his Karma: this is known as Bhōga, experience, as a result of past karma, whether painful or pleasant and Bhōgya, Experience of good or evil karma; an object of enjoyment. Bhōga is the experience and Bhōgya is the object of enjoyment. The soul goes through many births and rebirths under the purview of Siva Sakti, performs Karmic deeds, eats their respective fruits and thus spends time on earth in Sakala Avastha.
Review and explanation: Siva wakes up the soul from its Kevala state. Siva takes pity, gives the soul a body and sends it to the world so it can enjoy the world, have varied experiences, births and rebirths, and through it all mature, ripen and come back to Him in a state of Bliss, Suddha state (Suddha = pure). Now the soul has become the Samsaric World traveler. This state is called Sakala Sate. Kanma and Maya Malas come into the soul during Sakala state along with a trace of Siva Consciousness (knowledge) in the spiritual heart. Anava Mala is intrinsic (congenital malady of the soul) to every soul that is born, Maya Mala is conferred to the soul by God, Kanma (karma) Mala is generated by the embodied soul on account of its thought, word and deed. Maya gives some spiritual light to the soul but only a little until it receives grace, which together with Karma tends to attenuate, and later destroys Anava Mala. (Think of Maya Mala as the detergent to partially remove Anava mala.) Siva has a presence in Sakala state along with the Malas; thus, Sakala state is Sat-Asat, Sat being Siva and Asat being the Malas. Siva-Sat gives the Soul some spiritual knowledge and Malas-Asat gives rise to spiritual ignorance. Anava Mala, the intrinsic Mala of the soul, is so ingrained and recalcitrant (tough and fibrous) that Siva employs Maya and Karma Malas to weaken it. Maya brings Tattvas to the soul thus giving the soul a body and organs, which help the soul acquire some rudimentary spiritual knowledge which to certain extent weakens Anava Mala. Maya is thus a faint light of the soul, while Siva in comparison is the sun.
In order to function in Sakala state, naturally man is endowed with Tattvas (building blocks, body). Don't be disheartened; even gods, celestials, and worms are in Sakala state, according to Mular. Soul has the susceptibility to accumulate surface impurities, when it comes into contact with Malas (literally feces, here it means impurities). Anava Mala is compared to verdigris on the surface of copper vessel. Anava is recalcitrant surface impurity burrowing deeper into the soul of a vessel. Anava is the first Mala of the soul and the last Mala to leave the soul, when Siva confers Grace. Some students of Saiva Siddhanta wonder why the soul, which is or should be a pure entity, is affected by corrosive verdigris.
Mular compares the Jiva (embodied soul = we the people) to copper and Siva to gold.
வாறே சிவாயநம சிவாயநம
வாறே செபிக்கில் வரும்பேர் பிறப்பில்லை
வாறே அருளால் வளர்கூத்துக் காணலாம்
வாறே செபிக்கில் வரும்செம்பு பொன்னே.--905
Chant as follows: Sivaya Nama, Sivaya Nama; If you chant thus, there will be no more birth. With his Grace, you can witness his eternal Dance. Copper (that is Jiva) turns into gold (that is Siva). 905
Another common analogy given is that the soul is like a crystal which takes on the color of the object next to it. The soul has to graduate from its Sakala state to Suddha (pure) state. Now it is important to scrub and remove the verdigris before it attains liberation; it is removed completely only by the grace of God. The newly embodied soul, which is a magnet for this and that, cannot remain in isolation, and must take qualities from God before it can obtain Bliss. Let me give you an example to illustrate the stickiness of the soul to anything that passes by. Calcium is good for the bone, but lead is not. When a child eats lead paint chip, the child gets lead poisoning and lead deposits in the bone, which over time releases lead into the bloodstream causing anemia and brain damage. The lead in the bone and blood is like impurities (Malas) sticking on the soul. How do you get rid of the lead from the bone? It is done by use of therapeutic modality of competitive binding and substitution. EDTA likes to combine with calcium and lead; but it likes lead more than it likes calcium. If you give Calcium EDTA to a child, the lead in the bone leaches out into the blood, kicks out the calcium from calcium EDTA and takes its place. Then the lead EDTA circulating in the blood is excreted in urine; the child gets the calcium, gets rid of the lead EDTA in the urine and gets better. In the same manner, Sivaness (calcium EDTA) likes to replace Malas (lead) by competitive binding and substitution, thereby making the soul pure (suddha).
The world is made of he, she, and it, consisting of Earth, Water, Air, Fire and Ether. A finished product needs a manufacturer, raw material, and machinery. Manufacturer is the efficient cause; raw material is the material cause; the machinery is the instrumental cause. In this instance, the analogy rests on the potter, the clay, and the wheel and the stick. In Saiva Siddhanta, the efficient cause is Siva; the material cause is Maya; the instrumental cause is Sakti.
Maya is the progenitor of the building blocks of this universe and beings. Maya in its original state is energy of Sakti, invisible, impalpable, and subtle. When these building blocks involute in a retrograde manner, they find repose in Sakti, which in its turn becomes one with Siva; this process goes by the term Samhāram or Odukkam (= ஒடுக்கம் = Involution, as of the elements one into another; absorption, dissolution, disappearance, as of salt in water).
Maya, being matter, traces back to Sakti upon involution and not to Siva, because Siva cannot be contaminated by matter; He is pure Consciousness. Saiva Siddhanta believes that there is a chasm between Pure Consciousness of Siva on one hand and Maya, Tattvas, and matter on the other hand. This chasm can be traversed by Sakti; there is no physical connection between Siva and matter. He acts through Sakti, who can jump back and forth over the chasm, while matter cannot be traced back to Siva Consciousness. The soul has a proximate connection with Siva Sakti in Sakala, Suddha, and Siva in liberated state; he controls and pervades everything through his Sakti. Sakti acts as his agent and surrogate in contact and connection with matter. Once the soul is devoid of matter and Malas (impurities), acquires Sivajnana, expunges Karma, involutes into Sakti, and receives Arul (Grace), the pure soul merges with Siva.
Siva is immanent in the souls. Does it mean that he enjoys or suffers the pleasure and pain of the embodied soul? No, He does not. The analogy goes as follows. The human body harbors in its intestines (GI tract) bacteria and worms; they are born, live, and die; their hunger, pain, and death do not cause similar effects on the host; in like manner, Siva is not subject to pain and pleasure, life and death and this and that of the human beings, though he is immanent in every soul.
Our skin, mouth, body openings and pores, and large intestines are full of commensal organisms, which eat what they thrive on. Parasites, bacteria and minute worms (e.g., Giardia lamblia, helicobacter pylori and pinworms) can affect the human GI tract; when they reside in the body below critical mass, they do not cause any trouble to the body. When they proliferate beyond a critical mass, they cause symptoms, signs and disease.
Saktas believe that Sakti is the Mother Goddess of the universe and beings.
Maya is of three types: Suddha, Suddha-Asuddha, and Asuddha (Pure, Pure-Impure, and Impure). Suddha Maya is forbidden zone for Anava Mala, which finds its home in Asuddha Maya. Asuddha Maya is the cause of beings and material universe. For details go to TATTVAS-36. Siva and Sakti belong to the Suddha Tattvas (Pure Principles); Maya and the individual soul belong to Suddha-Asuddha (Pure-Impure Principles); Matter belongs to Asuddha Tattvas (Impure Principles). Students of Saiva Siddhanta say that Siva is the First Cause; Sakti is the Instrumental Cause; Maya is the material cause.
Antahkarana, Janendriyas and Karmendriyas belong to the body of the soul, while the Tanmatras belong to the object or the outer world and impinge upon the senses in their subtle and gross forms. Ahankara, one of the Tattvas (#15), has modifications in Taijasa, Rajasa, and Tamasa Ahankara, which are known as Tattvikas. Antahkarana consists Manas, Buddhi, Ahankara, and Chitta; Manas avidly grasps; Buddhi resolves; Ahankara is restless and roving; Chittam contemplates on that which the mind grasps. Chittam by contemplation leaves impression on the soul reinforced by experience.
Tattvikam = That which is connected with tattva.
Manas = mind; Buddhi = power of discernment or judgment; Ahankara = Ego; Chitta = determinative faculty.
Indriya refers to faculty of sense, organs of sense. Indriyani is more appropriate word for organs, Indriya is more appropriate for innate function of the organ.
Jnanendriyas hearing, tactile, visual, taste, and smell senses Karmendriyas voice, grasp, ambulation, excretion, procreation Janendriyani ear, skin, eye, tongue, nose Karmendriyani Larynx, hand, foot, anus, and genitals
The Tattvas and Tattvikas constitute the sphere of experience and activity for the soul and the body and are fourfold: Tanu (body), Karana (organs), Bhuvanam (world), and Bhogam (Experience). Bhogam is of eight kinds (Ashtabhogam): women, clothes, jewelry, eating, Tāmpūlam (Betel leaves and areca nuts, pansupari), perfume, song, and bed of flowers. Another source says Bhoga is of five kinds: enjoyment arising from sound, sight, smell, touch and taste. As you may notice, Bhogam is indulgence of the senses and that is why Siddhantist calls a person Pasu (animal). Bhogam has no intellectual or spiritual aspirations. The gunas (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas = virtue, motion and passion, and darkness) bring both pleasure and misery.
The body is made of five elements: Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. Agamas mention that yogis can visualize these elements in shapes and colors depicted below. People eat what grows on earth, grazes on grass (salad) or swims in the ocean; we drink the water; we breathe the air; we keep our body warm from metabolism; we have empty spaces in our body; thus, we are made of elements. Symbol for earth is diamond; water, lotus; fire, swastika; wind, six dots; and Ether, Bindu.
Brahma is the creator, Vishnu the sustainer, Siva the destroyer, Mahesvara the obscurant, and Sadasiva the giver of Grace. In accordance with their portfolios, Brahma is the god of earth, Vishnu water, Siva-Rudra fire, Mahesvara air, and Sadasiva Ether. Rudra exercises his portfolio of limited dissolution, while Siva is Maha-Rudra, not Guni-Rudra. Siva is the Universal Destroyer, of whom Rudra and other deities are only operative aspects, according to K. Sivaraman in his book Saivism in Philosophical Perspective, page 47.
The Earth is golden; water is colorless or white; fire is red; wind is blue or black; Ether is smoky. Each element is assigned a Bija letter (Bija--root): Earth is Lam; water is Vam; fire is Ram; wind is Yam; Ether is Ham. Alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet and the vowel sound represented by this letter; similarly Sanskrit alphabet sounds are Lam for La, Akara for A, Ukara for U, and Makara for M.
Bija Mantras are seed letters (of Sanskrit language) which are the visual forms of Primeval Sound. If pen (written word) is mightier than a sword, Primal Sound is mightier than visual sound (Pasyanti) and written word. Go to Sabda or Sound. Bija mantra is a single-character Mantra; there are exceptions like Hreem, a compound. Primeval Sounds apparently have no meaning, so is the case with Bija mantra sounds; they possess mystic meaning. Since Sound (Nada) is the source of the universe, the Maha-Bhutas (gross elements) have Bijas.
The Great Elements, Bija Mantras, Chakras and Specific Deities.
Ether Air Fire Water Earth HA(M) YA(M) RA(M) VA(M) LA(M) Visuddha Anahata Manipura Svadhisthana Muladhara
Go to TANTRA for more information on Bija mantras.
Why is the soul subjected to so much of hardships over so many births and rebirths? Soul in Kevala and Sakala Avastha is burdened with Anava Mala, the I-Factor. I-Factor is more than I and You; It is the forgetting of the soul of its putative and filial connection to the Lord. The I-factor is a stain on the soul; thus, it is not ready for Grace. Did you (the ego factor--I am) ever consider to upstage and humiliate your boss and hope to stay in his grace and obtain a promotion? Siva was the First One to say, AHAM (I). Still He is the only I in the universe. For us to arrogate ourselves with an I is Avidya (ignorance).Consider lime or lemon, the acid fruit which is not easily edible unless it is sliced, diced, cubed, pickled, aged and matured. Once it is undergoes marinading, pickling, aging and maturing, it is delicious and edible. The acid of the fruit is Anava Mala of the soul. The embodied soul is given the body, organs, world and experience (the pickling and maturing process; now you know what it means to say, "I am in a pickle.") through the Tattvas and Tattvikas; the soul is embodied, jettisoned and jostled in the sea of Samsara (life on earth) over many births so that the Anava Mala becomes ragged ready to fall out and drop dead; Jnana enters the soul. Once the Anava Mala drops out of the soul, Grace enters; that process has many steps: Malaparipākam, Iruvinaiyoppu and Sattinipātam (eradication or maturing of Anava Mala, equable resolution of good and bad Karma, and descent of Grace into the soul).
Tanmatra or Rudimentary element Gross Element or medium Indriya or function Indriyani peripheral organ Central organ (Brain)
Sabda (Sound) Ether hearing sense Ear Auditory cortex Sparsa (touch) Air tactile sense Skin Sensory cortex Rupa (form) Fire visual sense Eye Visual Cortex Rasa (taste) Water taste sense Tongue Gustatory center
Earth smell sense Nose Olfactory center
Sabda (Sound) Ether Speech Larynx Speech center Sparsa (touch) Air Ambulation Feet Motor cortex Rupa (form) Fire Grasp* Hands Motor cortex Rasa (taste) Water Excretion Excretory
Higher and lower center
Earth Emission Genitals Higher and lower center
Grasp* = give and take
Tanmatra = merely that, the subtle rudimentary element.
First came Tanmatras, the subtle rudimentary elements, from which gross elements developed. Let us concentrate on Sound, the very first Tanmatra. Sound became Ether and pervaded all substances and spaces. There is no substance without space, like the space inside the atom. Sound and its product Ether can carry sound wherever there is space; the next step in the evolution is that an instrument with a sound receptivity and appreciation is necessary; the ear fulfills that function. When steps are taken backwards from the ear to the sound, one can appreciate sound is the essential element for all the other linear elements that came from it. If there is no sound there is no need for an ear; if there is no auditory center in the brain, the proximal elements are redundant and useless. The same premise applies to all other rudimentary elements and their respective products.
Go to BG Chapter 13 The Knower, the Field, the Nature for details on Tanmatras.
The reason for elaboration of Tattvas, Tattvikas, elements, their medium, peripheral and central organs and functions is that the soul comes under their sway and thus, is deeper in the world of matter and senses than in the world of spirit. This leads to action and more Karma, which guarantee rebirth.
These Anma (Atma Tattvas, prakriti Maya Tattvas, mulaprakriti derivatives) Tattvas (mentioned above) are the lowest Tattvas that the soul mires in. They keep the soul tethered to matter. Anava Mala is the millstone around soul's neck; it looks for some relief from Suddha-Asuddha Tattvas (Asuddha Maya, Vidya Tattvas; they are numbered from six to twelve as follows: 6. Maya Tattva, 7. Kāla Tattva, 8. Niyati Tattva, 9. Kalā (Kalai) Tattva, 10. Vidya Tattva, 11. Rāga Tattva, and 12. Purusha Tattva. Rāga Tattva = Arāga Tattvam (Tamil version.)
6. Maya Tattva is the progenitor of Vidya Tattvas.
7. Kāla Tattva. It is the Time element. Each created element has a time clock ticking inside it; it is finite; it has a beginning, middle, and end. This is not the case with the Tattvas in Suddha Maya from one to five (Tattvas). But surely, they also disappear into Sakti by involution. Time is a spinning wheel; people and matter drop into and out of the wheel.
8. Niyati. Niyati brings order to beings and matter. Sakti, as in all Tattvas, acts on Niyati, which makes sure that destined itinerary and karma of the soul are strictly observed and fulfilled. It keeps a master record of all events pertaining the soul.
9. Kalā (Kalai) Tattva. Kal is to learn or study. Kalā Tattva
Kalā is energy of Sakti that stimulates dormant Jnana, Iccha, and Kriya (knowledge, desire and action) intrinsic to the soul. By Kriya sakti, the soul acquires some Jnana which helps Buddhi partially efface the obscuration caused by Anava Mala. It is like rending the cloud to let some sunshine in; thus, the soul acquires some spiritual knowledge.
10. Vidya Tattva stimulates Jnana faculty of the soul. It is soul's ability to discriminate. Vidya is a cognate of Vid, Cid, Veda, and Vittai. It takes its origin from Kalai, 9th principle, gives wisdom to the soul, and helps the aspirant overcome the asuddha maya tattva consisting of prejudice, misconception, wrong belief, illusion, delusion, distortion, and obscuration.
11. Rāga Tattva activates Iccha (will, desire) in the soul. Arāgam (அராகம் = Tamil spelling). It is soul's desire to experience the world. Rāgam is desire, passion and love. It is the evolute of the 10th principle, Vidya. It is the Iccha Sakti (desire) of an individual to acquire, posses, and exploit objects and people and enjoy the world. It is modulated by Buddhi and Vidya.
Iccha, Jnana, and Kriya (desire / will, knowledge, and action) are the three faculties of the above Suddha-Asuddha Tattvas which link the soul with organs, objects and environment; thus, Purusa, the 12th Tattva, the embodied soul, exercises its will, knowledge and Kriya. (Iccha (Will) is Moon and prelude to creation; Jnana is Fire that incinerates all actions; Kriya is Sun which shines and makes all things visible to the eye [of wisdom]). Rāga (desire), Icchā (desire strengthened, or developed desire) Woodroffe
12. Purusa Tattva: Sakalar class soul having all three malas. Purusa is the individual self wrapped in Tattvas as above (#6 to #11 plus Anma Tattvas), endowed with consciousness, Ichha, Jnana and Kriya (desire, knowledge, and action). He is the common man (Purusa) who is mired in three malas (mum-malas).
The body, compared to a house, has nine gates or portals: two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, one mouth, one genital opening and one anal opening. The resident soul of the house looks out through these windows, gates or portals and receives impressions of objects which first impinge on the mind; this is the raw data coming in; therefore, it is called undifferentiated perception (raw data). Rāga, that is modulated by Buddhi and Vidya, is expert enough to digest, compare, interpret, collate (even collage and montage) all data into a cogent or disparate images and pictures; this is differentiated perception. The latter perception is burnt into memory as personal experience.
12.Purusa: Sakalar class soul having all three malas. Purusa is the individual self wrapped in Tattvas as above (#6 to #11), endowed with consciousness, Ichha, Jnana and Kriya (desire, knowledge, and action). He is the common man (Purusa) who is mired in three malas (mum-malas).
Suddha Maya consist of the first five Tattvas of pure variety: Siva Tattva, Sakti Tattva, Sadasiva Tattva, Isvara Tattva, and Suddha Vidya Tattva. 1.Siva Tattva, 2. Sakti Tattva, 3. Sadasiva Tattva, 4. Isvara or Isa Tattva, 5. Suddha Vidya Tattvas. Remember these five foremost Tattvas are derived from Sakti and are nowhere as pristine as the First Perfection, Siva. In Siva Tattva, Jnana or Knowledge exists without Iccha and Kriya; In Sakti Tattva, action (Kriya) occupies the centerpiece; In Sadasiva Tattva, knowledge and action (Jnana and Kriya) are in balance; in Isvara Tattva action is dominant while Knowledge is in the background; in Suddha Vidya Tatttva, knowledge is dominant while action is in the background. These are Pure Tattvas with higher consciousness, though Siva Tattva is the purest Consciousness ( and yet lower than the First Perfection) and others from 2 to 5 are progressively less pure (by small amounts) and have linear degradation in their consciousness, representing five generations of consciousness. Human consciousness is less pure than the five Suddha Tattvas, meaning we are further down the line. Animals don't even come close. They have instinct and subconsciousness. Saiva Siddhanta asserts the power of Sakti (Tattva) exists in all beings and matter. Consciousness sleeps in the stone, feels in the flora, senses in the fauna and thinks in man. Sentience runs parallel with consciousness. Go to TATTVAS-36 for more details. Gnostics call the material world of Tattvas by the term, Simulacrum of higher level Consciousness and Reality. Simulacrum = a slight, unreal, or superficial likeness or semblance. There is a suggestion of Panchadasi's philosophy that the world and beings are mirror reflections of Brahman (Kutastha vs Pratibimba). Brahman is Real and all else is mere reflection. No Brahman...no reflections.
Sometimes KAma (God of Love) is portrayed as the Cosmic Lover whose Iccha (will or desire) produces the universe with all its desires and passions. Now we have to assign the blame and flame of sexual desire of beings to the God of Love (KAma). If it is not for him, we would have been assigned to live an insipid stale life of parthenogenesis (whiptail lizard (genus Cnemidophorus), whose progeny are just clones , that are not capable of adaptation to changing environment. Consider the dull life of polypoid corals. I don't really know whether their life is dull or exciting. Recombination is the way to go for man, the Primal God decided. Here we are, the products of recombination, one day shooting to the moon and next day fighting to death in wars and violence. Karma is in play. We also escaped gynogenesis and hybridogenesis.
Another source gives the following: Iccha is Gauri (Consort of Siva), Jnana is Vaishnavi (Consort of Vishnu), Kriya is Brahmi (Consort of Brahma). Here Consort may be equated to respective Saktis.
Citta in Sanskrit is Cittam in Tamil, meaning determinative faculty or intelligence. God and man are at two ends of the spectrum, the former omniscient and the latter parviscient. Parvus (Latin) = small. Animals are not considered here because they have instinct and not intelligence as we know in man. Some animals do have the capacity to learn by imitating and some actually use tools. One instance shows a bird probing the tract in deadwood with a stick, getting grubs at the end of the stick and eating them. Birds are documented and videotaped to have built nests inside Home Depot, fly past the sensors to open the doors and enter the automatic doors so as to feed their chicks. God's faculty (Jnana along with Iccha and Kriya) is of the size of limitless universe, while man's is a mote floating in the air as seen in the shaft of sunlight. God's presence is seen in Jnana, Iccha and Kriya of all beings and He pervades all. Man is put on this earth, equipped with Tattvas, Tattvikas, and body to experience this world of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell and their gross products (Mahabhutas.); all experiences in this universe are contained in Tanmatras and bhutas and meant to purify the soul.
God is Sat, Cit, and Ananda in their fullness; matter is Asat and Acit; soul is Sat and Cit or Sat-Acit), Ananda missing. God is Being, Intelligence and Bliss in full measure (measureless unimaginative enormity). Christians call this fullness as Godhead. Gnostics and Colossians call this fullness, Pleroma. By contrast, the individual soul is being and has a mote of intelligence. Matter is not being (Asat) but existing; it is not intelligent (Cit); it is not sentient (Acit). The difference between Sat and Asat is the difference between Sunshine at high noon and total darkness in moonless cloudy night. God's Cit is not acquired; His constitution is knowledge; He has prior knowledge of everything known and unknown in a direct sense and simultaneously; He does not need learning, because He is full of knowledge. Soul's intelligence and knowledge depend on those of God. He is Bliss; his constitution is Bliss, meaning that He neither seeks Bliss from outside, nor experiences it (but dispenses it to mature souls). Experience indicates contact with an external object. Soul's journey in the world of experience, resolution of Karma, maturing of Malas, and descent of Jnana and Bliss into the soul are the events that presage union with Siva; union is soul's equal but separate existence in relation to Siva, enjoying Siva's bliss. Siva is like a nursing mother and soul is like a suckling infant; if the soul has to imbibe Grace, it has to be a separate entity. Before union, the soul wallows in a world of Acit, Asat, Malas, Maya, Tattvas, and Tattvikas; Sat has a minor presence and sits in the company of the said impure elements. Soul has to get away from all impure elements and move towards Sat, Cit, and Ananda of God.
Anava Mala (Adhikara malam) is weakened, tattered and discredited in Mukti or liberation. What happens to it? Anava Malam does not actually fall out, dissipate, dissolve, and disappear out of existence. It is still there; it has a second birth as it were by morphing. The blocking glob of a plaque of Anava Malam has morphed into a conduit for the flow of Bliss. It is like a kinked, pinched, twisted, bent, and blocked malleable rubber tube suddenly becoming straight and conducting smooth flow of liquid. It is like spiritual angioplasty.
Here is another view from Sivagnana Siddhiar Suppakam Verse 82
Sivagnana Siddhiar by Arul Nandhi Sivanar
சத்திதன் வடிவு ஏது? என்னில் தடை இலா ஞானம் ஆகும்;
உய்த்திடும் இச்சை செய்தி இவை ஞானத்து உளவோ? என்னில்
எத்திறம் ஞானம் உள்ளது அத்திறம் இச்சை செய்தி
வைத்தலால் மறைப்பு இல் ஞானால் மருவிடம் கிரியை எல்லாம். 82
One may ask, "What is Sakti's Form?" (Siva) Sakti's Form is without obstruction or limitation. That is also known as Parasakti. Does knowledge have in it Desire and Action Saktis? Knowledge has in it Obscurant Sakti. As Knowledge prevails so prevail Desire and Action. Therefore cognize that they (Desire and Action) are not separate from Knowledge.
Purport: Siva has three Saktis or powers: Iccha, Jnana and Kriya = இச்சை, ஞானம், கிரியை = Desire or Will, Knowledge, and Action. By these powers Siva creates, reigns and destroys this universe of beings and matter. Man has the same powers in a truncated form. Siva has the Will and exercises His Knowledge and Action. Man on the other hand has to have knowledge before he can exercise his will and action. That is the difference between Siva and the Mini-Sivas (We the people). Siva's sequence is Will, Knowledge and Action; Mini-Siva's sequence is knowledge, will and action. Man does not go anywhere unless he has the knowledge; his will has no place before knowledge.
Siva is Pure Consciousness; human consciousness is a dumb-down version of Siva's. We came from siva. Our soul is contaminated with impurities. We have to remove them before merger with Siva. Until we carry these impurities on our soul, Siva does not reveal Spiritual Knowledge; that is obscuration (Tirodhana or Tirobhava Sakti (Sanskrit) = திரோபவம் = obscurant power), which is contained in the Knowledge of Siva. This Obscurant power morphs into Anugraha (அருள் = Grace), when the impurities fall off the soul. Thus Obscuration and Grace are Knowledge Sakti with two morphologies, depending upon the impurity or purity of the individual soul.
Soul is the eye; Jnana is Light of Wisdom; the soul can choose from among the illuminated objects and discard those that do not contribute to salvation. Anava Mala is the controller of the soul as long it is in charge; once it is removed, morphed or fashioned into a conduit of grace, the soul undergoing Iruvinaiyoppu, Malaprapakam, and Saktinipatam receives grace; Sakti of Siva takes control of the soul; at this juncture activity of the soul does not generate any Karma and is not responsible for its actions. Soul is responsible for its action under the aegis of Anava Mala and not under Siva's.
Soul is without spiritual knowledge at entry into this world in Sakala state; if soul is full of divine knowledge, it has no use for a body of sense organs, which gathers Asat knowledge. Siva is Sat; Soul is Sat-Asat; matter is Asat. Sense organs take their origin from Tattvas, belonging to Asat. Knowledge gained by Asat Sense organs is Asat knowledge, which is useless for entry into the world of Siva. Siva Jnana (Siva knowledge) is available only from Sakti; Siva Jnana is Sat and only a Sat entity (Siva Sakti) can offer Sat Siva Jnana. For Sakti to inject Siva knowledge into the soul, the soul has to be prepared for its receptivity; for that to happen, dualistic karma must come to equable resolution and the Malas including Anava Mala, and Karma of the soul must (be ablated) come to an end by process of Iruvinaiyoppu and Malaprapakam. It is like ablation (destruction) of native diseased bone marrow in a leukemic patient by radiation and chemotherapy before the patient is given a new bone marrow transplantation.
The next step is acquisition of Siva Jnana from Siva Sakti. After Jnana acquisition, the soul undergoes Odukkam ( ஒடுக்கம் = Involution into Siva Sakti.) and the soul is liberated and merges with Siva. (Siva) Sakti is the intermediator (intermediate) between Siva on one side and the soul and Tattvas on the other side; Siva Sakti is one with Siva. The soul sheds its association with Malas and Karma, acquires Siva Jnana (darkness departs), becomes pure, associates with Siva Sakti and becomes one with Siva. The pure liberated soul has a separate but proximate existence with Siva, enjoying Arul (Bliss). Siva is mass of Bliss (Terul); only he can confer Arul. The donor of Terul is Siva and the recipient is the soul.
When all Tattvas involute in Sakti in Great dissolution, and when Sakti involutes into Siva, Siva is ஒடுங்கி (Odungi), the one into whom Sakti involutes.
Perfected souls who do not want rebirth and suffering in this world chant SiVāYaNaMa . By this Mantra one invokes Si and Vā (Siva and Grace) to come to Ya (the soul) so that Na and Ma (Tirodhana and Malas) leave the soul. Siddhas in the know chant the Mantra in the right order, SiVāYaNaMa ; Sakalars (us people! = we the people) not in the know chant NaMaSiVāYa (which is the proper Mantra for the imprisoned soul). In SiVāYaNaMa, the lead is taken by Siva and Grace while in NaMaSiVāYa, the lead is taken by Tirodhana and Malas, which shroud and lead the soul astray. We are Sakalar class souls and thus the Mantra sequence for us is NaMaSiVaYa, indicating that the cloud of Tirodhana obscures the sunlight of enlightenment or Siva Jnanam shining on the soul which is under the deleterious cloud cover of Malas; obscuration will last until Malas are eradicated (Malaprapakam = purgation) and Iruvinaiyoppu is realized. Iru-Vinai-y-Oppu = Two Deed resolution = equable resolution of good and bad Karma. According to Tamil Lexicon it means "State of the soul in which it takes an attitude of perfect equanimity towards meritorious or sinful deeds." After the Light of Knowledge (Jnana) descends (Saktinipatam) into the soul, it undergoes Odukkam (Involution into Siva Sakti.) and the soul is liberated. At this juncture the mantra is SiVaYaMaNa or SiVaYaNaMa; in this instance, liberation is achieved and individuality subsumed, Siva and Arul (Grace) are the leading elements of Mantra and Siva is the object of worship. Siva and Arul are the head; Soul is the middle; Malas and Tirodhana are the tail. In Kundalini Yoga at Ajna Chakra, this Panchakshara Mantra (SiVaYaMaNa, five letter Mantra) becomes three letter Mantra (SiYaVa) for the sage of spiritual development and attenuation of Malas.
Dr. Radhakrishnan calls these Purgation, Illumination and Union (Malaparipakam, Saktinipatham, and Odukkam (= மலபரிபாகம், சத்திநிபாதம், ஒடுக்கம்). Christianity also believes in this model. Note on October 25, 2013.
SiYaVa (three letter Mantra) is meant for the Sadhaka whose spiritual development has taken him to the level of Ajna Chakra (between the eyebrows), where Ya (soul) is comfortably placed between Si (Siva) and Va (Sakti); herein the soul serves at the feet of Siva and Sakti in prayer, meditation and sacrifice. NaMa are nowhere to be seen in the Sadhaka.
Mantras constitute the body of Siva. Go to OM NAMASIVAYA for more information.
Dance of Siva: Go to LORD OF DANCE
Dīksha: Consecration; dedication; initiation; self-devotion to a God.
Dīksâ, Diksa Tītcai or Diksai is initiation of a disciple into the mysteries of Saiva religion; it consists of three stages: Samaya-diksai, Viceta-diksai, and Nirvana-diksai (initiatory rites, second or middle step in initiation, which gives the disciple special privilege of making Puja to Siva, and Third and last step, which helps the disciple free himself from the bonds of existence and attain emancipation--Tamil Lexicon). As fire destroys cotton and reduces it into ashes, Diksai reduces all Malas into ashes and obtains liberation. Mantras destroy prarabdha karma and guarantees no rebirth, as fire roasts seeds and renders them unproductive. The earth Guru, on behalf of Siva, transfers all the five elements and the soul on to the rope, equal to the height of the disciple. The rope is a stand-in for the disciple who like us is made of soul and five elements: ether, air, fire, water, and earth. Now the parts (kalas, elements) are marked in color on the rope. Next day, the Guru, separates the symbolic constituent parts of the rope and casts them in the order in which Nivrtti takes place. Nivrtti Marga is involution backwards (upwards) to Siva (Sakti): Consciousness of the Jiva from its last Tattva, Earth; the latter Tattva gets reabsorbed into the former one until all 35 Tattvas are reabsorbed into Sakti Tattva. See TATTVAS-36 for details. Earth is reabsorbed into Water which is reabsorbed into Fire and so on through all 35 Tattvas, kalas or parts. This is known as Saanti-y-atiita. The fire of Yoga destroys all kalais or Tattvas until the state of Sivahood is reached by the soul; the matter gradually perishes in fire as spirit evolves. The elements and matter burn in effigy of rope. Saanti-y-atiita / Santiyatita = Santi + Atita = Quietism + edge, limit = Quietism, be-all and end-all. That is Nirvana. Once the disciple goes through these rituals, the disciple becomes a Guru. Consecration of Guru is known as Acarya-abhiseka.
Samaya-diksai. A mode of religious initiation admitting a person into the fold of Saivism, one of three Diksha. Samaya = established usage or convention; ceremonies.
Viceta-diksai. (viseshadiksha) Second or intermediate step in initiation, which grants to the disciple the special privilege of making puja (worship) to Siva, one of three titcai (Diksha).
Nirvana-diksai. Third or last step in initiation which enables the disciple to free himself from the bonds of existence and attain emancipation, one of three, titcai (Diksha). He can also perform temple services.
Abhisheka Diksa. It involves consecration and installation of the initiate as a guru.
Diksa is the essential element in the liberation of the soul, because Diksa, causing destruction of Anava Mala by the grace of Siva, brings about liberation. Initiation, and purification of the disciple with the eradication of Pasa are of several kinds: 1. Nayana Diksha, 2. Sparsa (Parisa, Tamil) Diksha, 3. Manasa Diksa, 4. Vasaka Diksha, 5. Sastra Diksha, 6. Yoga Diksha, and 7. Hotri Diksha.
Definitions according to Tamil Lexicon, Madras University.
1. Nayana Tītcai (Diksha): is a mode of religious initiation in which a Guru imparts spiritual knowledge to his disciple by dispelling the Anava Malam with his look of Grace. (Eye teaching)
2. Sparisa Tītcai (Diksha). Parisa Tītcai (Tamil). Gracious touch of a guru, a way of initiation which dispels the Maya-malam of his disciple, one of seven Tītcai. (Touch-teaching)
3. Mānasa Tītcai (Diksha). A mode of initiation in which a guru spiritually enters his disciple's mind by yoga and purifies him, one of seven Tītcai. (mind Hypnosis teaching)
4. Vāsaka Tītcai (Diksha). A way of initiation, in which the guru teaches his disciple how to pronounce the Pancākshara mantra and its eleven accessories, one of seven Tītcai. (Mantra Formula teaching)
5. Sāstra or Sāttira Tītcai (Diksha). A mode of religious initiation in which a guru teaches his disciple the truths of the Sivāgamas, one of seven Tītcai. (Sacred books Teaching)
6. Yoga Tītcai (Diksha). A mode of initiation in which the teacher teaches his disciple how to practice Nirātāra-yogam, one of seven Tītcai. Nirātāra-yogam: The state of the soul in which it loses all self-consciousness, attains Sivahood and remains without any attachment. (Yoga Science Teaching).
7. Auttiri Tītcai (Hotri Diksha). A mode of initiation in which symbols of divine service are used. 7a. Nirpīsam: a way of initiation in which the guru absolves his disciple from the performance of routine religious duties if he is not able to do them, a kind of auttiri-Tītcai; 7b. Sapīsa Tītcaii. mode of initiation in which the guru gives a properly qualified and learned disciple instructions on routine religious duties. Nirpisa Diksha is designed to accommodate the sick, the disabled, the worldly, women and children.
What happens to the deed performed by the embodied enlightened soul? Does it accumulate Punyam or Pappam (merit or demerit) which may precipitate rebirth in this world?
The enlightened souls, once freed, are free for good; Siva degerms (destroys the germ of the seed) the seeds of those karma-producing deeds and buries them in Maya where they are consigned to rot and not sprout. Let me give an example to illustrate this point. When a private citizen is elected to the office of a president or prime minister of a nation, he has the constitutional protection to engage in war and cause incidental death of his soldiers and enemies. Killing by a private citizen is prosecutable; it is not prosecutable when it is done by the president or prime minister in the pursuit of his duties to the nation. All infractions (Prarabdha Karma) prior to election, when discovered, subject him to consequences (eating of Prarabdha karma). All activities, when done in office, escape consequences, though illegal if done by a private citizen, because they are done in full faith and honesty in the capacity of an elected high official. In similar manner Prarabdha karma has to be consumed and Siva forgives Karma of the enlightened soul by his glance of Grace. There is no Grace for Prarabdha Karma.
Samcita Karma (accumulated stored karma; Karmic seeds in Silos) is what is accumulated in the past births, constituting all karmas, Prarabdha Karma being part of Samchita Karma. You can compare Samcita Karma to the (karmic) seeds accumulated from prior harvests and stored in the silos. Prarabdha Karma is actively sprouting seeds of Karma which by nature and compulsion make more seeds of Karma. Once it starts sprouting it cannot be stopped. Kriyamana Karma is actively produced Karma and these seeds go into Samcita Silo. The Karmas, that Siva burns once the devotee obtains Grace, are the stored unsprouted Samcita Karmic seeds and KriyamAna Karma done after Grace is given.
What happens to the embodied soul after release, before death and during life on earth? What actions should it undertake? Desire is instigator of action; one should give up wrong desires and uphold right desires. Wrong desires employ organs of the body; all actions proceeding from senses are wrong actions; one should completely insulate oneself from the world of matter and mundane desires and cease actions using motor organs (Karmendriyani) of Maya. The liberated soul must let his Iccha sakti subserve Iccha sakti of Siva. As long as the enlightened soul has a body of sensory and motor organs, it has desire and is in close proximity to Mayeya which is the prime cause of worldly desires. When Pasujnana dissolves and disappears in the soul, Sakti descends with Patijnana. Siva is the seed and Jnana is the germ; when the aspiring soul has love for Siva, Jnana sprouts from Siva. Inbu (Bliss) is the natural corollary of Anbu (Love).
Now back to the Soul and some more discussion.
Soul is a sticky entity. In Kevala state before embodiment, it sticks to Anava Mala so much so that it looks and acts like Anava Mala; it is also like the tail waging the dog (anava mala waging the soul); its nature is CitAcit. In Sakala state, it sticks to all the Malas and its nature is SatAsat. In Mukti, soul tags on to Siva and looks like Siva, though they are two entities. As the red-hot iron looks like fire, the soul looks like Siva. Siva pervades the soul like (dissolved) salt pervades water. The relationship of Siva with the soul is like the magnetic pull the magnet exercises on iron. This union of soul with Siva is passive, complete, cohesive, happy, and satisfying; Siva is the active magnetic entity in this union. Soul has the tendency to assume the personality of its conjugate other. Kevala Avastha is the polar opposite of Mukti (Suddha Avastha); it is darkness versus Light, and ignorance versus knowledge.
The soul is like a sponge; it is neutral and non-reactive until a reactant comes into it; it absorbs and takes on the qualities of the solution, it sits in; it can be squeezed dry and put into another solution of different property; thus, its quality depends on the quality of the extraneous reactants. Malas, Maya, Karma, Knowledge, and Bliss are the various external substances that the soul soaks in various combinations. The only time the soul is full of life and Bliss is in mukti, when it is in union with Siva. The Pasujnana (Pasu nature or knowledge) drops out (is squeezed out) of the soul and Sivajnana (Siva's nature or knowledge) seeps in.
The soul has Iccha, Jnana and Kriya functions (desire, knowledge and action) in Mukti. These three functions are donation from Citsakti (Intelligence-power) of Siva; thus, what the soul knows is what the indwelling Supreme Lord knows in the Suddha State. This state of three functions in Mukti is Turiya-atita, the 'be-all-and-end-all' of Bliss in advaitam, oneness or non-difference, so much so that what the soul knows the Lord knows too. Since the Supreme Lord pervades the soul, it has knowledge; without the Supreme Lord the soul has no knowledge. In Mukti (liberation), the soul knows Siva by His pervasion and himself as the recipient of Bliss.
Jivanmuktas (the liberated while living with body) receive the Light of Knowledge and the glance of the Lord, when they are ripe to receive such knowledge. Once the soul is Mala-free and ripe, it merges with the feet of the Supreme as the salt loses its substance as it enters the water; this union is irrevocable.
In Sakala Avastha, Siva directs the soul to perceive objects through Asat organs like eyes and ears; in Suddha state (mukti = liberation), it perceives through Cit Sakti (intelligence) of Siva. Matter drops out in Mukti and can never accompany the soul while it unites with Siva; the liberated soul acts through Siva. The Mukta does not participate in the five functions of Siva (creation, maintenance, destruction, veiling and Grace) which are the exclusive domain and privilege of Siva only; it just enjoys bliss. Siva is Satchitananda (Being, Consciousness and Bliss) and the soul bathes in it. Siva becomes the object of the faculties of the soul which is under the control of Siva. Once the soul attains the feet of Siva and surrenders, it appears not to exist and resembles Siva; they are one but their nature and function are different. Though the soul in Mukti is eternal like Siva, it is still subordinate to Siva and serves at his feet. The eye cannot see an object without Light or sun; in like manner, the soul, though Mala-free, cannot acquire Supreme Knowledge without Siva, who is the hypostasis, teacher, guide, and helper. In Mukti, soul is Siva-dependent and basks in his Bliss. The soul in Bliss is the knower, the knowledge and the knowable and stands one with Siva though Siva and Soul are two. Jivanmukti is liberation while alive and Paramukti is liberation after death; Saivites are of the belief that Jivanmukti, release before death, is attainable through Iruvinaiyoppu, Malaprapakam, Saktinipatam and odukkam, while Vaishnavites believe that release (Mukti--liberation) is attainable only after death (Paramukti). Jivamukti = Final deliverance while still in this life. Paramukti = Supreme liberation; final liberation from bondage (after death). The Siva devotee who attains Jivamukti is Jivanmuktar who are of four kinds. Paramukti = videha = incorporeal; without body; after death.
Sanskrit Brahma Vid Brahma-vara Brahma-varya Brahma-varistha
Pirama-vittu, Brahma Vid: He is a Siva Jnani who continues to perform duties for the sake of humanity, though he attained Brahma Jnana.
Pirama-varar, Brahma-vara: He is a Siva Jnani who wakes up from his Samādhi on his own accord.
Pirama-variyar, Brahma-varya: He is a Siva Jnani who has to be roused from his Samādhi by others. Classical real-life example is Ramana MahaRishi, who goes hours on end and even days in Samādhi without waking; his devotees shake him hard to rise from Samādhi so that he eats. Sometimes his devotees force-feed him while he is in Samādhi . Ramana Maharishi appeared in his body (birth) on 12/30/1897 and left his body (death) on 4/14/1950.
Pirama-varistar, Brahma-varistha: He is a Siva Jnani who does not wake up from Samādhi neither on his own accord nor from jolting interruptions from others. e.g., Ramana Maharishi.
The question arises as to why the Siva Jnani continues to live in this Mala-laden world after attaining Jivan Mukti. The karmic bag containing Prarabdha Karma is still under resolution; he continues to eat the fruits of his karma until he dies when he attains Paramukti, final liberation. Though he attains Jiva Mukti, Prarabdha Karma is so precise, inexorable and unforgiving that he may eat bad and good fruits and suffer misery or reap rewards during his remaining life on earth; this is Iruvinaiyoppu as described earlier. Once he finishes consuming the fruits of his karma, he can choose time and day of his death. He consumes bitter and sweet fruits without pain or pleasure. Would he accumulate new karma from action during this interim period? No, he does not. When Prarabdha Karma comes seeking him for his actions during the interim period, he retracts his senses and organs like a tortoise, goes into the inner recess of his soul for meditation and communion with the immanent Siva, and enjoys Bliss. This is inertia by body and diving into the soul for Bliss. Siva is his Guide. All dualities and opposites have come to point of neutrality. He is Siva in everything he does; he breathes Siva, thinks Siva, talks Siva and acts Siva. There is no Karma accumulation from his acts because he is Siva in thought, word, deed and essence.
Siva is the prime motivator and actor immanent in Siva Jnani, whose actions are those of Siva himself. He is suffused with Sivaness in body, mind, thought, word, deed and soul; there is nothing else but Siva in him. His innate Iccha, Jnana and Kriya (desire, knowledge, and action) have no outward expression but turned inward on a journey of the soul on the path of Bhakti (devotion) to Siva; Sivaness subsumes his innate qualities; Siva's Grace suffuses him through and through. Jivan Mukta considers Siva is the experiencer of any earthly pleasures that come in his way. He is not susceptible to birth, death or lassitude. He neither enjoys pleasure nor suffers misery (Tiru-k-kalitru-p-patiyār --Trikkalitruppatiyar Verse 76). Siva is a ocean of Bliss conferring Arul (Bliss) to this world of beings. True Bliss and Joy that comes to Jivan Mukta who attains the feet of Siva, is inexpressible as to its depth and content by ordinary senses and words.
Jivan Mukta waiting to become Paramukta should follow certain rules to stay pure in his pursuit of the ultimate liberation: 1. avoidance of Mala; 2. seeking and keeping company only with like souls; 3. worshipping Siva in pictures, images, icons and saints.
The following final paragraphs reflect the sentiments in Tiruvundiyar and Tirukkallitruppatiyar's exposition
Siva is easy of approach to Adiyār (அடியார்) devotee who seeks his feet) and dispenses spiritual knowledge, Grace and compassion through Gurus. The devotee basks in his munificence and yet cannot fathom the depth and breadth of his Grace and Knowledge by his limited mind and senses. The analogy goes as follows. Beech-goers swim in the ocean and yet do not have the capacity to plumb its depth and swim its breadth.
Siva loves his devotees who seek his feet. His emergence as Guru to enlighten his devotee is described in the following analogy. There is salt in every drop of the ocean, though not visible. Under proper conditions, salt emerges from the brine as sharp needles; in like manner, Siva emerges as Guru under proper conditions to help the devotee, though he is without form. Liberated souls can only be Siva's Adiyār or slave.
That the soul is a slave to Siva is illustrated by an analogy. Pulluruvi (Mistletoe) is a parasitic plant with roots that embed into the host tree to draw sap (nutrition and water). Mistletoe needs a living tree for its sustenance. Sap helps the living tree sprout, bloom, and bear fruits. Though the Mistletoe eats the same sap, it never produces flowers and fruits of the host tree. In like manner, though the individual soul is rooted and embedded in and stands along with Siva, it never blooms and bear fruits like Siva who is a ocean of Bliss and Grace and the Supreme Purveyor of Panchakritya. Soul has parasitic existence on Siva (parasitic symbiosis) and thus is his dependant slave.
Soul is like grapevine capable of producing grapes. (Grapes are Mukti that the soul yields after growth and maturation.) The grapevine of soul is shrouded and choked by Moham, another vine with delusion, known as Anava Malam. Choking Moham vine bears its bitter fruits, while the grapevine did not bear any grapes. When the choking Moham vine is destroyed root and all, the soul of a grapevine will bear fruit of Mukti (liberation). The choking Moham vine blocked the sunlight shining on the grapevine, thus causing barrenness. The sunlight is Sivajnana. The bitter fruit yielded by Moham vine is Arutti (Avidity), which is antithetical to Mukti. Soul, shattering its bondage and standing tall with Siva, bears the Mukti fruit.
The colorless crystal of a soul changes its color moment to moment, when a parade of colors pass by the crystal; sometimes a full rainbow of colors glisten in the crystal. These colors are not its true nature but distractions that enslave the soul to the world of matter and passion, which are the arching and overwhelming colors of worldly life. Restoring the crystal to its colorless state is the aim of life. Siva comes in the form of a Guru, ensures treatment of the sick soul with remedies such as Malaparipakam, Iruvinaiyoppu, and Saktinipatam, and confers Grace and Wisdom (Arul). Guru removes all doubts and delusions, ensures no more birth in this world of misery, shows the path to the feet of Siva, helps in cutting of Samsara root and all, and facilitates you becoming irrevocably His dear slave at his feet for all times. To be a slave of Siva is a life of Bliss Extraordinaire, which is ineffable joy. To be a slave to the Master of the universe is to stay close to him all the time. A note about Guru. A Sadhaka does not have to look for a Guru. He will come to you (sent by Siva) when you are ripe for release.
The true devotees of Siva (Sivajnani) feel their subservience to SivaSakti and Nandi and their Cintam (mind, intellect) and action are centered around SivaSakti, though the most unattainable Mukti comes to them and they immerse in the sea of Bliss of Siva.
T.U. Deva Nayanar is the poet-saint who sings in praise of Siva. In his concluding 100th verse (Tiruvundiyar), he pours out his heart, mind, body and soul.
Your presence is fixed and pervasive in my mind; my head is pedestal for your feet; you conferred Grace to me. You prevented my rebirth in this world of matter, accepted me as your slave and admitted me into your good graces. Let me savor your Grace for ever. That is my worship and praise to you.
Here is what Tirumular says about worship of Siva in Tirumantiram.
V1003-1014: One should worship Siva with flowers (Jasmine, Lotus, Chrysanthamum etc.) Worship is performed in the mansion of the mind. Comment: Kriya Yoga leads to accumulation of Karma and thus it is not advocated for Siva yogis. Bhakti Yoga is fine. Jnana Yoga leads to Nadanta, the divine light and thus to merger with Siva. Kriya Yoga can make a person a Deva or godling but for merger one needs to perform Jnana Yoga. For the Yogi Na Ma are not to be chanted because they are the obscuration and impurities. he should chant only SiVa, which will lead to liberation. Jnana Yoga takes the Yogi to A and U (of AUM) which are Si and Va. Seeking Him by the senses is in vain. Siva's seat is Si and Va and Jiva's seat is Na and Ma. Remove Na and Ma and Si and Va are yours. In Kundalini Yoga, the nectar flows in the 7th center. Jnana light is revealed in the 8th center. Beyond the 11th center is Paraparam. Beyond the 11th is the Great Void, the infinite Dvadasanta space.
More on Malas: from Saivism in Philosophical Perspective by Sivaraman.
Mala is impurity (literal meaning is excrement). It is darkness, darkness beyond all darkness. They are three: Anava, Maya and Kanma Malas. Malas are Pre-Cosmic (both Pre-macro and pre-micro). Mala resembles the Ajnana (Spiritual Ignorance) of Vedanta. Ajnana is the cause of world illusion, according to the Advaitin. A positive ignorance (of Brahman) is the cause of phenomenal world.
The soul according to Saiva Siddhanta
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa says that Maya is like mud, the soul is like a bar of iron stuck in the mud and God is like a Magnet. Unless the iron bar is cleaned of the thick mud, it is difficult for it to migrate towards the magnet. The soul should be cleansed of the mud of Maya so that it is free to be migrate and stick to the magnet of God. Adapted from The Sayings of Ramakrishna, saying 18 page 27.
Prevailing view of Saiva Siddhanta on the states of a soul.
Soul is like a crystal; it takes the color of a juxtaposed object. Two common juxtaposed entities are Siva Sakti and Mala; the crystal of a soul can be colored by Siva Sakti, Mala or both, which define its three states (avastha): Suddha, Kevala, and Sakala.
Soul's natural state before birth in a body is Kevala with Anava Mala (Sahaja Mala, innate impurity) as the coloring agent; when the soul acquires a body on account of Karma, it is in Sakala state, a multicolored state in which Malas and Siva Sakti are the coloring agents; when all Malas are extinct, the soul is in Suddha state, where Siva Sakti is the only coloring agent. Kevala Avastha is night in slumber; Sakala state is day in phenomenal awakening and awareness; Suddha state is merger with Siva. The soul has a sticky surface according to other interpreters of Siddhanta. If the soul is unstuck from Anava Mala, it can stick with Siva Sakti; it is like competitive displacement and binding of chemicals, when a stronger affinitive element displaces the lesser affinitive element and takes its place. This corresponds to displacement of Anava Mala and replacement with Siva Sakti in the soul. Since Siva Sakti is the source of pristine soul which is back home with Siva, it is Advaitam, oneness and more specifically unity in duality. There are many souls coming to Siva. This is a homogenized state for all souls in association with Siva. Homogenized milk comes from many cows; the buyer does not know how many cows it came from, though the cows know (if you can imagine that possibility). Assuming one drop is one soul, each soul knows its identity. One liter is 1000 mls; one ml is 15 drops; therefore, there are 15,000 drops. By extension of analogy, there are 15,000 souls in homogenized state with Siva. Siva is not part of the homogenized state; he is heavier and purer, if you can imagine that state.
Siva and liberated souls move as one unit, but there is Siva as one identity and the myriad homogenized souls as the second entity. Siva is heavy water and the souls are light water. Chemically Heavy Water (D2O) and light water (H2O) are the same. The two Hydrogen atoms in light water are replaced by heavier Deutrium atoms in D2O. The atomic nucleus of Deutrium has one proton and one neutron and one orbiting electron. It is the extra neutron that makes D2O heavier than H2O by 10%. D2O and H2O exist in lake water in a proportion of 1 to 20 million water molecules. When you drink water it is a mixture of both. Likewise your body is soaked in Heavy Soul and light soul. An infinitesimal tad of Heavy Water Siva is necessary for you to sustain life, moderate motion and passion and exercise caution. You are the ubiquitous abundant light-weight individual soul compared to the all-pervasive heavier Soul of Siva. Just remember that Siva is zillion times heavier than the individual soul, though Siva and the pure soul are (chemically) identical. Pralaya (destruction of the body) by Siva is recycling of soul, until they merge with him.
Another way of looking at Siva and individual souls is that Siva is proton-heavy and the individual soul is electron-light. The individual souls are like the orbiting electrons.
Siva and the liberated souls: It is like a father getting together with his many sons. There is oneness and yet a duality.
Christian theologicians are of the belief that only humans possess the indwelling soul, which lifted them above other animals. Hinduism is of the belief that all fauna and flora including matter possess soul. If God created this universe, it is hard to imagine that His created inanimate objects do not have a fragment of Himself; that Himself is the soul. He could not have incorporated souls just in humans and left animals, plants and matter without the soul. Since He pervades all, He has His fragment in all. Sentience is same in all, from a sage to a stone. Remember the tree-huggers who embraced two thousand year old trees from being felled. They said that they know it was a seedling when Jesus Christ appeared on this earth. It reminded them of him. That tree has sentience; its expression is suboptimal compared to that of a human. Consciousness sleeps in stone, feels in flora, senses in fauna and thinks in man. Sentience runs parallel with consciousness. Only the extent of its manifestation varies. Sentience may parallel the sophistication of nervous energy. Since there is only a difference in the (expression of ) degree of sentience between animal and man, how could one kill an animal for whatever purpose? That is the basis of Ahimsa or noninjury.
Let me give you an example. A sentient man knocked unconscious for any reason lays in the hospital for a month in an obtund state. For the duration of his vegetative state he is less than fully sentient. That does not negate the fact he was sentient before his present condition. It is the very low degree of sentience that reduced him to a vegetative state. He can become fully sentient when he recovers from his condition. In like manner objects and beings though sentient intrinsically, have variable degree of expression. Karma can reduce a soul to an embodied state of an animal, plant, or tree in its next birth. All inanimate objects were eternally ordained to suppress their sentience by God. Fish eggs lay dormant, lifeless, and insentient in a dry riverbed; once there is rain and water starts flowing you see fish where there were none before. The insentient egg which was part of the mud, acquired some degree of sentience when it became a fish. Sentience is feeling and awareness. Sentience is conditioned by certain qualities: Sattva (virtue and goodness), Rajas (motion and passion) and Tamas (darkness, sloth and slumber). A stone is Tamas through and through with no Sattva or Rajas. A Sage, Yogi, or prophet is the highest form of a human being and shows Sattva to its full extent. Ordinary human beings have a mixture of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas in variable amounts and their behavior corresponds to the degree to which they have these three qualities. Hitler was 85% Tamas, 14% Rajas and 1% Sattva. Remember he cried over injury caused to the cut flowers and a dead bird; that accounts for 1% of Sattva. His Rajas was the driving force for His Tamas. These three qualities are compared to a tricycle in Hinduism. The front wheel is Rajas (front-wheel drive); the right rear wheel is Sattva; the left rear wheel is Tamas. The driver who is sitting on the tricycle turns the Rajas wheel to the right and goes the way of a Sattvic (and Rajasic) man; when he turns the wheel to the left he goes the way of a Tamasic (and Rajasic) man. If he goes straight, he is the average man. Rajas provides momentum in whichever direction a man goes. Without momentum there is no direction. The same allegory is used to describe Gods: Brahma in Rajasic mode during creation, Vishnu in Sattvic mode in sustenance and Siva in Tamasic mode in destruction.
Kevala: Soul plus Anava Mala.
Sakala: Soul plus three Malas and Siva Sakti.
Suddha: Soul plus Siva Sakti.
In Sakala state, Siva Sakti and Malas coexist in the soul. The three entities (Soul, Malas and Siva Sakti) are comparable to the rice grain with three corresponding elements: the rice, the chaff, and the rice germ. The Malas do not preclude the presence of Siva Sakti and have no effect on him; Siva Sakti is as unaffected by Anava mala as the sun is unaffected by cloud, an umbrella or sunshade. Anava Mala does not veil Siva Sakti but only the soul. The soul is compared to an owl which is naturally equipped with the nictitating membrane in addition to the eyelids. The owl covers its eyeballs with its nictitating membrane and prevents light from entering its eyes. In like manner, Anava Mala covers the soul, preventing the light of knowledge reaching the soul. The soul, unlike God, is subject to vicissitudes in knowing, needs organs (Indriyas), objects, and sunshine of knowledge, and carries a shroud of Anava Mala which prevents diffusion of knowledge.
The soul and its capacity to acquire knowledge are compared to an eye or crystal; God or Siva is the sun. All objects, including the crystal, disappear in the thick of darkness and the eye cannot perceive any object (in darkness); the eye and the crystal need sunlight to see and shine respectively. Siva Sakti provides sunlight of knowledge to the soul to cognize an object and attain salvation.
People stand on the mountain; walk, run, and slice through air; and wade in water, and yet neither see the mountain nor feel the air, nor alleviate the thirst. People stand and grope in broad bright daylight and yet do not see. In like manner, they wade in the knowledge of the Supreme and yet do not recognize it. Anava Mala is in pursuit of evanescent pleasures of the world which end in pain, suffering and disappointment. It is like a cat that goes after a cockroach while sitting on a milk pot. These flimsy joys of the world do not lead to salvation of the soul. Whatever little spiritual knowledge that the soul acquires during Sakala Avastha is Siva Knowledge.
Pasu: It is the individual soul. Before the soul stepped into this mundane world sporting a body, it was in Kevala state (Kevala-k-kitai), which is disembodied inactive condition of the soul mired in Anava (I-ness, Mineness, spiritual darkness). Vaishnava ThAkura calls them, Ahamta (mineness) and Mamata --possessiveness (example of Ahamta: I am a doctor; example of Mamata: This is my house.) Mala, the inherent darkness of the soul. It was solitary (Kevala) and of low status, pining all the time for Bliss. It was wilted, with no iccha, Jnana and Kriya (desire, knowledge and action)-- a case of deep depression and darkness. Kevala state is a dormant state of the soul suspended in time between destruction and creation of the universe. It is a time of sleep for the soul because there is no world to speak of, and Maya and karma exist in a potential but inactive state. This is the interphase for the soul and the world, when there is no kinesis; the inactive soul keeps company with Anava Mala. (you may draw some parallels between the interphase of the soul and that of the cell physiology.)
Kevala Avastha of the soul during its sleep state is comparable to amblyopia (blindness) of the eye due to visual deprivation from abnormalities of the eyelid and lens , and distortion of image from astigmatism, and corneal opacities. The retina of the eye is normal and can perceive light and sight, if light is allowed to pass without hindrance. In Kevala Avastha, the soul is unable to see the Light of the Lord (Siva Jnanam) from the veiling by Anava Mala; soul's intelligence (light and sight) diminishes and the soul takes on the qualities of Anava Mala (darkness of the soul). Thus deprived of its intelligence, the soul becomes matter.
Notes: abnormality of eyelid: hemangioma causing swelling of eyelid and blocking entry of light. Opacity of lens causing cataract and blocking of light.
In Sakala state, there is some light coming in for the soul to gain knowledge necessary to merge with Siva in Suddha state. Without light, the eye has no value; without knowledge, the soul has no value. Knowledge proceeds from total absence in Kevala state, to limited knowledge in Sakala state to great knowledge in Suddha state.
Siva Sakti wakes up the soul first and other sleepers out of their slumber. Anava Mala is the next one to wake up. Siva Sakti sets in motion the creative process in which the now-awakened Maya gives Tanu, Karana, Bhuvana, and Bhogam to the soul according to its karmic merits. The soul enters Sakala state with the body and three Malas: Anava, Maya and Karma Malas.
Tanu = தனு = body; Karana = கரணம் = intellect and mind; Bhuvanam = புவனம் = world; Bhogam = போகம் = experience as a result of past karma, painful and pleasant.
Siva Sakti ordains that man in his Sakala state enjoys and suffers fruits of his Karma: these are known as Bhōga, experience, as a result of past karma, whether painful or pleasant and Bhōgya, experience of good or evil karma; an object of enjoyment. (Bhōga is the experience and Bhōgya is the object of enjoyment.) The soul goes through many births and rebirths under the purview of Siva Sakti, performs Karmic deeds, eats their respective fruits and thus spends time on earth in Sakala Avastha.
This process of birth, death, and rebirth of the soul is compared to a bird on a tree. The bird leaves (death of the body) the tree in the morning and returns (rebirth of a soul in a body) to the tree in the evening; this happens many times as long as the bird lives. When the bird dies (liberation of the soul), it never returns to the tree of life (earth). There are many birds on a tree; many go and come; some don't; some new ones come in; that is flux. That flux in permanence in the return of the embodied souls is Samsara (life on earth), while for individual soul liberation is the end of life on earth.
Review and explanation: Siva Sakti wakes up the soul from its Kevala state. Siva Sakti takes pity, gives the soul a body and sends it to the world so it can enjoy the world, have varied experiences, births and rebirths, and through it all mature, ripen and come back to him in a state of Bliss, Suddha state. Now the soul has become the samsaric world traveler. This state is called Sakala Sate. Kanma and Maya Malas come into the soul during Sakala state along with a trace of Siva Consciousness (knowledge) in the spiritual heart. Anava Mala is intrinsic to every soul that is born; Maya Mala is conferred to the soul by God; Kanma (karma) Mala is generated by the soul on account of its thought, word and deed. Maya is like a lamp that gives a little light in the dark of night until the sun comes up in the morning. Maya gives some spiritual light to soul but only a little until the latter receives Grace, which together with Karma tends to attenuate, and later destroys Anava Mala. Though Maya sheds some light of knowledge on the soul, it is a Mala because the knowledge gained through Maya is by itself not adequate to liberate the soul.
Siva Sakti has a presence in Sakala state along with the Malas; thus, Sakala state is Sat-Asat, Sat being Siva and Asat being the Malas. Siva-Sat gives the soul some spiritual knowledge and Malas-Asat gives rise to spiritual ignorance. Anava Mala, the intrinsic Mala of the soul, is so recalcitrant that Siva Sakti employs Maya and Karma Malas to weaken it. Maya brings Tattvas to the soul thus giving the soul a body and organs, which help the soul acquire some rudimentary spiritual knowledge which to certain extent weakens Anava Mala. Maya is thus a faint light of the soul, while Siva Sakti in comparison is the sun.
Sat = Being; Asat = nonbeing, matter.
Since Maya is only a weak light (in modern parlance, low-wattage bulb or night light), it provides limited mundane knowledge to the soul and not the knowledge of Siva; it takes Siva (Supreme Light) to offer Supreme spiritual knowledge to the soul. Maya is always Asat while Siva is always Sat and the soul is Sat-Asat. The question is why Siva Sakti uses Maya Mala to shed some light to the soul and also partially remove Anava Mala. Why does Siva Sakti use one Mala (Maya) to remove another Mala (Anava)? The argument goes as follows: As washerman uses soap or detergent (compared to Maya Mala) to remove a more ingrained dirt (compared to Anava Mala) in the soiled cloth. Thus by partial cleansing by detergent and beating of the clothe on the wash-stone, Maya prepares the soul ingrained with Anava Mala for greater purification by Siva Sakti. In modern parlance, the soul in Sakala state attends the school of hard knocks in this phenomenal world; hard knocks of daily living mature and "ripen" the Malas, which when completely ripened, fall off and the soul goes to the next state, Suddha Avastha. The soul goes through spiritual evolution over many human births and this progress is proportional to the attenuation of Anava Mala, which, when expunged with the Grace of God, results in liberation.
Eradication of Anava Mala is complete abandoning of I, Mine, I-ness, and My-ness, which coincides with the descent of wisdom into the soul. This stage, called Malaparipākam, strikes the death knell of three Malas and sets the stage for Iru-Vinai-y-Oppu, Satti- nipātham, liberation to enjoy Siva's bliss and Odukkam
Malaparipākam: stage of the soul when its three Malams meet with the causes of their removal.
Iru-Vinai-y-Oppu = State of the soul in which it takes an attitude of perfect equanimity towards meritorious and sinful deeds)
Satti-nipātham = Sakti-nipātham = Setting (descent) of the Divine Grace in the soul, when it is ripe.
Definitions are according to Tamil Lexicon.
Odukkam = involution into Siva Sakti
One of the five functions (panchakritya) of Siva is Tirodhana or veiling, concealment of spiritual knowledge; it is actually a function of Siva Sakti, the feminine aspect of Siva (Tiruvundiyar, Verse 78); Arul Nandi in Siddhiar is of the view that Tirodhana is a Mala along with Maya, Karma, and Anava Malas, because it obscures the souls from the Light of Siva Sakti in order to ripen Anava Mala. Tirodhana Sakti, belonging to Sakti, is an obscurant of divine knowledge, instigator of Anava Mala and impeller of desires, and creates in the embodied soul a sense of belonging to the world of pain and pleasure until the soul is ready (mature enough) to give them up for progress towards Suddha Jnana (pure knowledge) state. It is like the professor of mathematics concealing his knowledge of higher mathematics and letting his preschooler son struggle with simple additions.
Karma is the wash-stone on which the clothes are beaten for removing dirt; this beating of fabric of soul on the stone of Karma by Tirodhana Sakti (washerman) causes pain to soul, as Malas (impurities) are removed.
Under the influence of Tirodhana Sakti, the evil, unpliant and defiant I-defining Anava Mala expresses desire which leads the soul to action which in its turn leads to Karma and transmigration. Though Siva Sakti sits side by side with Anava Mala and soul, Siva Sakti activates but does not interfere with Anava Mala's natural autonomous course which is comparable to the sun (earth and water) not wanting to alter the kind of tree that grows from a particular seed.
Siva does not use Tirodhana Sakti and Anava Mala to torture but induce the soul give up desires that cause karma and make it eat the fruits of their deeds which helps obtaining liberation for the soul.
The self-centered Anava Mala is full of desires and has a choke hold on Jnana and Kriya Saktis; Siva Sakti stimulates Karma and Maya Malas; the latter induces the soul to perform purifying actions (karma) over many births and life on earth. The soul abandons Anva Mala with the help of Siva Sakti going into Malaparipākam, Iru-Vinai-y-Oppu, Satti- nipātham, Oddukkam and liberation to enjoy Siva's bliss.
Oddukkam: Involution, as of the elements, one into another; absorption, dissolution, disappearance, as of salt in water; in this instance it means that the soul involutes into Siva Sakti.
In order to function in Sakala state, naturally man is endowed (burdened) with Tattvas. Don't be disheartened; even gods, celestials, and worms are in Sakala state, according to Mular. Soul has the susceptibility to accumulate surface impurities, when it comes into contact with Malas (literally feces, here it means impurities). Anava Mala is compared to verdigris on the surface of copper vessel. Anava is recalcitrant surface impurity burrowing deeper into the vessel. Anava is the first Mala of the soul and the last Mala to leave the soul, when Siva confers Grace. Some students of Saiva Siddhanta wonder why the soul, which is or should be a pure entity, is affected by corrosive verdigris. Another common analogy given is that the soul is a crystal which takes on the color of the object next to it. The soul is sticky and the dirt (malas) easily sticks to it. The soul has to graduate from its Sakala state to Suddha (pure) state. Now it is important to scrub and remove the verdigris before it attains liberation; it is removed only by the grace of God. The new soul, which is a magnet for this and that, cannot remain in isolation, must take qualities from God before it can obtain Bliss. Let me give you an example to illustrate the stickiness of the soul to anything that passes by. The bone avidly eats up calcium and lead; calcium is good for the bone, but lead is not. When a child eats paint chip with lead, the child gets lead poisoning and lead deposits in the bone, which over time releases lead into the bloodstream causing anemia and brain damage. The lead in the bone and blood is like impurities (Malas) sticking on the soul. How do you get rid of the lead from the bone and blood? It is done by use of therapeutic modality of competitive binding and substitution. EDTA likes to combine with calcium and lead; but it likes lead more than it likes calcium. If you give Calcium EDTA to a child, the lead in the bone leaches out into the blood, kicks out the calcium from calcium EDTA and takes its place. Then the lead EDTA circulating in the blood is excreted in urine; the child gets the calcium, gets rid of the lead EDTA in the urine and gets better. In the same manner, Sivaness (calcium) likes to replace Malas (lead) by competitive binding and substitution, thereby making the soul pure (suddha).
When Sakalars with three impurities get rid of Kanma or Karma, they graduate to a higher class, Pralayakalars. Sakalars with three Malas were wallowing in Asuddha (impure) Maya ( 24 Tattvas beginning with #13 to #36) Go to Tatttvas-36. Man's soul is Tattva#12. Having moved to a higher ground, the Pralayakalars swim in Suddha-Asuddha Maya Tattvas (Pure and impure Maya). Srikanta Rudras also belong to this category. Once the Pralayakalars lose their Maya Malam, they become Vijnanakalars with Anava Mala. You might remember that anyone having only Anava Mala is said to belong to Kevala state; now Kevala state is the lowest rung of the ladder that Vijnanakalars have to scale; they are still enveloped by Asuddha Maya. There are four steps they have to ascend to reach Point Bliss: Each step one above the other is a purer state, Kevala-kevala, Kevala-sakala, Kevala-suddha, and Kevala-Arul. The 24 tattvas (#13 to #36), known as Anma Tattvas belonging to the body, involute into the soul of the aspirant (Tattva #12), as he moves from Sakalar state to Pralayakalar state. This aggregate of 25 Tattvas merge into six Vidya Tattvas (Suddha-Asuddha Tattvas, #6 to #11). This aggregate of 31 Tattvas (#6 to #36) merges into Suddha Vidya Tattva (#5) of Suddha Tattvas, which involutes into Isvaram(#4), Sadakhyam (#3) and finally into Sakti Tattva (#2). Sakti stands with all the lower Tattvas involuted (dissolved or merged) in her (#2) and Siva (#1) stands with her.
Sakalar Pralayakalar Vijnanakalar 3 Malas: Anava, Maya and Kanma Anava and Maya Malas Anava Malam
Mular says that there are nine states for the soul to pass through: three Kevala series, three Sakala series, and three Suddha series.
States of Jiva
Kevala-Kevala—1 Atita-atitia state
Kevala-Sakala—2 Vaindava manifestation
Kevala-Suddha--3 (Vijnanakala state)
Sakala-Kevala—4 Jagrat-Atita State
Sakala-Sakala—5 Jagrat within jagrat State
Sakala-Suddha—6 Tat-Para State
Suddha-Kevala—7 State of Upasantha
Suddha-Sakala—8 Expansive Turiya State
Suddha-Suddha—9 Siva-becoming State.
Kevala-kevala—1: Atita-atitia state
Kevala-sakala—2: Vaindava manifestation
Kevala-suddha—3: Vijnanakala state
Ref: Madras university: Lexicon
Sakala-kevala--4 = Jagrat-atita: state: condition of the soul while awake, when it loses its breath and consciousness.
Sakala-sakala--5: Jagrat within Jagrat state = Condition of the soul in waking state, in which all its powers are in full display, as when a person is alert and wide awake.
Sakala-suddha--6 = State of Tat Para state (self-illumined, Final Bliss)
Suddha-Kevala--7 = State of Upasantha (Calmness, tranquillity, peacefulness; Mitigation, alleviation.)
Suddha-Sakala--8 = Expansive Turiya state (Transcendental consciousness)
Suddha-Suddha—9 Siva-becoming State
The soul has to climb nine stages in order to become one with Siva.
Unless the soul acquires Brahman knowledge (Brahma Vidya or Siva Consciousness) during Sakala state and goes on to Suddha state it will go to Sakala-kevala (stage 4)) or Suddha-kevala (stage 7) state between destruction and creation of the universe. All knowledge acquired in previous lives are not wasted but retained, accounted for, and factored in, when the soul is born in a higher Avastha; the soul is closer to salvation in stage nine (Suddha-Sudda state). If there is no destruction of the universe the soul goes back into Sakala state in endless cycles of birth and death, until one of two things happen: 1. the soul graduates to Suddha state and gets Arul (Grace); 2. the soul is shunted into Sakala state again until Malas ripen and drop off.
Sakala state is the life in the phenomenal world; the joy and sorrow, success and failure, pain and pleasure, knowledge and ignorance, health, wealth, and happiness and their respective opposites are enjoyed or suffered in the name of maturation and fall of Malas. As said earlier, we are pulled by Malas by one hand and Siva Sakti by the other hand.
1. IruL இருள் darkness. We are pulled by the passions of the world and Pasa (impurities) and that centrifugal pull is Pasajnanam, the pull or knowledge of pasa (fetters or bond) also known as IRUL ( darkness). Knowledge derived of the world is pasajnanam, which has no value for liberation. Pasajnanam = knowledge of bonds of the world; mundane knowledge; useless knowledge lacking Siva Jnanam (wisdom of Siva)
2. Marul மருள் confusion. Tugged by God (Siva) and the world, the soul is confused and becomes introspective and looks within for self-knowledge or knowledge of its own nature. This is Pasujnanam, or introspective knowledge, which causes confusion in the choice the soul has to make.
3. Arul, அருள் Grace. The soul has won over Irul and Marul, gave up darkness and confusion, seeks knowledge of Pati, the Chief, the God, or Siva and receives Grace. This is Patijnanam.
This is the soul's progress from Darkness, to Confusion to Grace in Sakala state.
Considering Siva's Panchakrityas (five functions: creation, maintenance, destruction, veiling and liberation), the aim of four preceding functions is to liberate the soul. As opposed to Vaishnava view that this world is his playground, and the Lord's functions are his play activity, the Siddhantist says that Siva by his five functions creates this universe for the soul to enjoy the fruits of karma, bring the Malas to a ripe state (ripe Malas fall like ripe fruits), obscures soul's vision of knowledge long enough for the soul to eat its fruits in the Sakala state and then confer Arul (Grace) in Suddha state. This is the soul's journey from Kevala to Sakala to Suddha state.
Every soul takes a birth in a body from inorganic and organic entities to the highest earthly human being 8,400,000 times. One, then, would consider that human body is the most difficult to come by. It is mind-boggling to think that we as human beings have gone through possibly around 8.4 million births before we came to this stage. This is the evolution of the soul from the lowliest of 8,400,000 organisms to the highest--human. Devas are intermediate between Isvara, the inner controller and human beings. Gods and goddesses take birth among humans: Avatars, Parvati etc.
Our birth history:
Inorganic births: 3 million births (30 lakhs, 1 lakh = 100,000)
wrigglers (worms): 1 million births (10 lakhs)
Birds: 1.1 million births (11 lakhs)
Beasts: 2.4 million births (24 lakhs)
Human beings: 400,000 births ( 4 lakhs)
The question comes up whether we really went through 8.4 million births. It should be understood that this is revealed wisdom; we are not in a position to accept or refute the revelation with the aid of worldly intelligence. We are like a newborn infant, who has no capacity to understand its existence before conception, at conception, gestation, birth and postnatal period. In like manner we do not have the special Consciousness to know and realize that we went through 8.4 million births. Our physical memory of past lives ceases at death and birth. It is RAM memory. Our ROM is zilch. Our soul retains the ROM memory in its subtle body, which we cannot access. Rishi's Superconsciousness has received revelations from the Great Self about these events. Human consciousness is several levels below the Pure Consciousness of Brahman; in like manner the sentience of a worm is several levels below the human sentience. Worm has no knowledge of our existence, but we ourselves do of us and the worm. We are endowed with enough consciousness to think and it cannot leap out of our ambit of understanding and intelligence. We are like the flightless winged bird which sees the eagle soar high into the sky; our clipped consciousness cannot soar high enough to understand the mysteries beyond our sight. If the Sadhaka develops his Ati-indriya (Atīndriya) Tattva during the course of Sadhana (perfection), the inhered vision takes him far beyond worldly wisdom and knowledge. Atīndriya = Ati + Indriya = Beyond + Senses. Superconsciousness is the tool for understanding extramundane spiritual knowledge which is beyond reason and argument. That is where Sastras (sacred texts) come. Our world and being is corrupted by Avidya (ignorance) and Maya (illusion). Superconsciousness takes the Sadhaka far beyond the limitations of Avidya and Maya to see what has never been seen, hear what has never been heard, and experience bliss. Our intelligence (consciousness) is like the optical microscope, while Superconsciousness is like the Electron Microscope. Our consciousness is like a pair of eyeglasses, while Superconsciousness is like Chandra X-Ray Observatory.
Maya, the Mouse, and the mousetrap by Ramakrishna. Paraphrasing from His sayings of Ramakrishna, saying 9, page 24, the mouse and the soul are similar. Mouse has a granary to feed on and also fried rice (Mouri) placed in the mousetrap to relish. Granary is an endless supply of feed, while fried rice is an attractive flavorful feed. The mouse in its ignorance goes for the fried rice in the mousetrap and invites death. Similarly the embodied soul is faced with the attractive petty pleasures of the world and the threshold of Divine Bliss which is million times greater than the petty pleasures. By choosing the petty pleasures of the world, it falls into the trap of Maya, the great illusion and dies therein.
In rebirth, Siva Sakti makes the body as the deeds demand; but his input overrides Karma, in the choice of the body for the soul.
Sthulasarira, gross body that we own and use, takes it origin from Sukshmasarira (subtle body) by the will of Supreme Siva, Karma playing a secondary role. Subtle body originates from Asuddha Maya which again takes its origin from Bindu, Nada, Siva, and Sakti, the Tetralogy of Saiva Siddhanta. Go to TATTVAS-36.
Annamaya Kosa = food sheath; Pranamaya Kosa = vital airs (breath); Manonmaya Kosa = Mind sheath; Vijnanamaya Kosa = intellectual sheath; Ananadamaya Kosa = Bliss sheath.
The five Kosas or sheaths enclose the soul; some call them a prison for the soul. Maya is the material cause of these sheaths. The king (soul) lives in this palace (body) enclosed by five courtyards. As the king returns to his palace from a visit to his kingdom, one attendant stays at each of the five gates; and the king enters his room by himself and stays there alone. The vital breath is the closest guard near his room. As the king would wander into any one of the five courtyards, the soul may go to any one of the five sheaths, kosas or bodies. Each body (sheath) has organs; soul's activity depends upon the organ it visits; soul's condition also varies according to the organ it visits. There are five such states (Avastha) corresponding to the fivefold body.
The five states are
1. Jagara Avastha around the chest with 35 organs,
2. Svapna Avastha in the larynx with 25 organs,
3. Susupti Avastha around the heart with three organs,
4. Turiya Avastha around the navel with two organs, and
5. Turiyatita Avastha in Muladhara Chakra, where the soul remains alone by itself.
Jagra Avastha Svapna Avastha Susupti Avastha Turiya Avastha Turiyatita Avastha சாக்கிர அவத்தை சொப்பன அவத்தை சிழித்தி அவத்தை துரிய அவத்தை துரியதீத அவத்தை Purusha (soul) Purusha (soul) Purusha (soul) Purusha (soul) Purusha (soul) Citta four Antakarana four Antakarana five Jananedriyas five Karmendriyas five Tanmatras five Tanmatras 15 organs (10 vital breaths plus five motor functions: speech, ambulation, grasp, evacuation and reproduction.) 10 vital breaths, five motor functions. Prana (main life breath) Prana Total 35 organs. Total 25 organs Total three organs Total two organs Soul alone by itself Chest Larynx Heart Navel Muladhara Chakra Jagra Avastha Svapna Avastha Susupti Avastha Turiya Avastha Turiyatita Avastha
For more information on Indriyas, Tanmatras, Citta, Antakarana, go to BG Chapter 2 Samkhya Theory.
All the organs noted above in each of these states are active in their respective avasthas. The soul without the body was in Kevala state; when it moves into a physical body, it enters Sakala state, in which are present five different levels of activity ranging from Turiyatita Avastha to Jagra Avastha. The soul, when it occupies the body, settles down first in Muladhara Chakra, which is the stepping stone for higher areas. This is the lonely state of the soul, practically shut out from the outside world. Turiyatita Avastha5 in Muladhara is practically not any different from the static Kevala state, because there is not even a breath; it is suffocation with no action or knowledge of the body, the world, or God. Anava Mala is dominant and recalcitrant. The soul settles down in Muladhara Chakra at the base of the spine, then looks around to escape from the lonely place and goes up to the Navel area where it experiences Turiya Avastha4. It is a breath of fresh air; the soul finds itself showing some signs of life. In terms of embryology, It appears that the soul-body has moved from embryonic one-celled state to a fetus that can breath. Yet, it cannot think, act or feel; it is like being unconscious and yet breathing. The soul looks around and moves to the heart station and goes into deep sleep like a fetus that sleeps most of the time. What else is there to do? This is Susupti Avastha3 or deep sleep state. Now the soul gets some basic faculty like Citta, with which the soul understands in a limited way what happens around it. Deep sleep goes on to dream sleep, when the soul moves to the throat area, starts breathing, thinking with Antakarana, feeling, touching, grasping, tasting and hearing and acting out without using the motor organs. That is Svapna Avastha2 or the dream state of the soul. The soul has come a long way and snaps out of the dream sleep; it has some awareness, it thinks somewhat vaguely, and the senses show some function. It has all organs and it is awake, but not completely and this is Jagrat state1 or waking state.
The soul gets cloaked with a body; its progress matches with that of the embryo in the womb which grows from one embryonic cell to a fully formed viable fetus. It does not breathe in air because it is confined and its lungs are budding; the mother provides the vital air (prana or oxygen) via the umbilical cord and it does not drown as the breathing movements of the chest sucks in the amniotic fluid into his budding lungs. It does not eat though it makes eating movements. It opens the eyes, looks around, sees darkness, kicks, yawns, grasps slippery umbilical cord, sucks its thumb, urinates, swallows the urine-laden amniotic fluid, passes it back into the amniotic fluid, floats, and swims. It grows by leaps and bounds; it has the full complement of functioning organs; it dreams a while, sleeps a lot and thinks; what he thinks, no one knows.
The soul learns and knows through sense organs, karma, time, body, people, and books; on its own it knows nothing. What the soul knows through intermediaries actually comes from the grace of God. The soul needs the grace of God to know, but God does not need anything, anyone, any organ, or any known or unknown entity to know. He is all knowledge and all consciousness; uses Iccha, Jnana, and Kriya; creates, maintains, and destroys; pervades all in this universe; and remains as the life principle in all beings. He is extant in all things. All souls endowed with bodies receive knowledge and consciousness from him. He makes sure that Tattvas go to build bodies, organs, mind and other faculties through which he imparts knowledge of spirit and matter to the soul. Siva and Sakti are the essential elements in functioning of body, organs, faculties including physics, chemistry, and mechanics of matter. Nothing moves or functions without his Grace. As the sun is the source of light for the crystal, God is the source of knowledge of the soul.
The soul comes under the influence of Antakarana (inner organ) consisting of Manam, Buddhi, Cittam, and Ahamkaram (Mind, Intuitive intellect, Determinative faculty, and Ego).
The soul receives ambiguous knowledge from Manam, discerning knowledge from Buddhi, superficial knowledge from Citta, and questionable knowledge from Ahankaram.
Soul is the king; Buddhi is the prime minister; Ahamkara, Manam, and Cittam are cabinet members; then come down the line the five karmendriyas, five jnanedriyas, five Tanmatras and five Bhutas. The bhutas (earth, water, fire, air, and ether) and objects made of them exude tanmatras (sound, touch, color and form, taste, and smell). Tanmatras go beyond their preceding characterization in that they cover vibrations coming from Bhutas and their objects and beings. Janendriyas (sense organs) perceive Tanmatras by way of hearing, tactile sense, sight, taste, and smell. These impressions from Tanmatras and sense organs are passed on to Antakarana, the inner organ, which consists of Manam, Buddhi, Cittam, and Ahamkaram (Mind, Intuitive intellect, Determinative faculty, and Ego). The sense organs are limited in the sense that each has a specific function. But God or Siva Sakti has no physical eyes and yet can see, hear....
Jnanendriyas: Sense organs: Ear, skin, eye, tongue and nose
Karmendriyas are motor organs, voice box, hands, feet, rectum and genitals, causing speech, grasp, locomotion, evacuation, and generation.
Janendriyas are sensory organs, ear, skin, eye, tongue and nose.
Buddhi: Reason, power of discernment or judgment, one of the four species of antakkara–am
Antakarana = அந்தகரணம் = Inner seat of thought, feeling, and volition, consisting of four aspects: மனம்1, புத்தி2 , சித்தம்3, அகங்காரம்4 (Mind1, Buddhi or Intellect2, Determinative Faculty3, Egoism4 ; உட்கருவி = utkaruvu = Inner Organ.
Cittam = Determinative faculty
Tanmatirai: தன்மாத்திரை = Rudimentary or subtle elements, viz., ஓசை, ஊரு, ஒளி, சுவை, நாற்றம் = sound27, touch28, form29, taste30, odor31 from which the Great elements came: ether32, air33, fire34, water35, earth36.
The above definitions are obtained from Tamil Lexicon.
The soul receives ambiguous knowledge from Manam, discerning knowledge from Buddhi, superficial knowledge from Citta, and questionable knowledge from Ahankaram. Cittam receives the impressions of all the sense organs and integrates them for presentation to other faculties. Manas analyses information from Cittam, formulates hypothesis and makes suggestions to Ahankara. Ahankara, the egotistical element in the chain, views the presentation in relation to I, Me, Mine and Mineness. The next element in the chain is Buddhi (the chief minister) who elucidates the material from sense organs colored by the Mind and Ahankara and makes informed judgment. Buddhi is the link between all the distal elements and the soul which apprehends the object and the outside world by the elements mentioned above. Consciousness is the privileged possession of the soul, which other elements do not have. Soul may reject the advice of Buddhi and take that of Cittam, Manam or Ahankara, which are the qualities of animal or man deprived of Buddhi, which is the exclusive possession of man among beings. Soul has an oppressive overhang, Anava Mala; therefore, five Tattvas come to aid it. They are the fivefold Pancakancukam (= பஞ்சகஞ்சுகம் = panca + kancukam = five + vestures). They are Kālam, Niyati, Kalai, Vidyai, and Arāgam ( Tamil: காலம், நியதி, கலை, வித்தை, அராகம்; Sanskrit: Kāla, Niyati, Kala, Vidya, and Rāga; English: Time, Destiny (karma), Aptitude or Creativity, Knowledge, and Desire). Endowed with these five Tattvas, the soul knows and explores the outside world; these faculties provide the soul to think, speak, and act in ways that cause Karma. From Maya come in a linear fashion the following tattvas in a father-son descent: Kāla, Niyati, Kalā, Vidya, Raga and Purusa, the last being the soul. Desire (Arāgam) is the father of the soul, Knowledge (Vidyai) the grandfather, Aptitude or Creativity the great grandfather, Order the great great grandfather, and Time is the great, great great grandfather. Desire has the immediate influence on the soul, causing it to enjoy the world of objects and is the cause of Karma. Vidya or knowledge is a complement to will and action. Aptitude (Kalai) helps the soul remove some of Anava Mala. Order or Destiny (Niyati) makes sure that the soul consumes (resolves) its Karma. Time (Kāla), the patriarch of the said Tattvas, brings karma to its end, fruition or holds it in reserve for the future. The five tattvas or vestures serve the soul also called Purusa. Saiva philosophy here differs slightly from the Sankhya philosophy. Go to BG Chapter 2 Samkhya Theory. Siva Sakti provides the soul all the elements needed for embodiment, and enjoyment in this world. Siva pervades all that exists; he animates it; his Sakti operates in all animate and inanimate objects. The powers of beings and elements trace their origin to Siva Sakti, which is the highest of all Saktis. All combined Saktis of this universe is miniscule compared to Siva Sakti.
The soul obtains knowledge of objects and world from sense organs to which a susceptible soul falls prey. This is compared to an young prince who is waylaid and abducted by thieves. Living and growing up with and among thieves (sense organs), the prince learns their ways which are unworthy of a prince. In like manner, the senses hijack the soul and takes it to the world of Asat; the soul, though of divine origin from Sakti, wallows in sensual pleasures and pursuits, which accumulate Karma. Siva is Sat and Cit and the the soul is mired in a world of Asat and Acit. Once the soul comes under the influence of Sat, Siva Sakti, it moves away from matter and obtains liberation. When the soul is hijacked by and moves among the senses, it is like Topsy, the young slave girl in the novel 'Uncle Tom's Cabin". Her identity (like that of the soul) was concealed from her by her owners. When she was asked as to who she is, she replied, 'Never was born, never had no father, nor mother, nor nothing.' I 'spect I growed.'
Saiva Siddhantist believes that souls of other religions should excel and achieve the native blessedness of that particular religion; thus, no religion can give the ultimate release that Saivism gives. When the soul is ripe in its own religion, it will be born in Saivite religion. That is not the end of the road; within Savism there are subdivisions or inner religions; once the soul attains excellence in the inner religions, the soul has to take birth in Saiva Siddhanta. Now the soul has to perform Chariyai, Kriyai, and Yogam. These are set in a ladder pattern to reach Siva. The soul has to excel in Dasamarga, Kriyamarga, Sakhamarga and Sanmarga. The above chart illustrates the various Margas, a Sadhaka in Saiva Siddhanta should follow to obtain release. Dasamarga is the path of servant, Kriya Satputramarga, the way of a child, Sakhamarga, the path of friend, Sanmarga-Sadhanamarga, the path of wisdom.
One may progress from one stage to the next to the highest and attain salvation in one lifetime; that is rare. More commonly one lifetime is spent in Dasamarga and the soul is born again and again to pursue other paths and eventually merges with Siva.
Dasamarga. Dasa = தாசமார்க்கம் = servant or slave. Marga = path. Path of the servant. Service to the Lord with one's body. The devotee serves the Lord as a servant. He keeps the temple clean, spotless, and shiny; he collects flowers and makes garlands for the Lord; he keeps the flame of the lights alive all the time; he tends the flower gardens; he praises and sings glories of the Lord; he worships and honors him; he calls himself a loyal dog of the Lord, waiting to do his bid. Dasamarga takes the devotee of Siva to the world of Siva (Saloka) after death and he will be reborn again to pursue other paths. (loka = world)
Kriyamarga = கிரியாமார்க்கம் or Satputramarga. Kriya = service. Satputra = blessed child. The path of the child. Service to the Lord with one's senses. This path is that of the child of the Lord. Does this remind you of Jesus Christ? The devotee takes flowers to the Lord, lights up lamps with fragrant oils, performs five purifications, sets up a prayer room with alter, picture of Siva and other aspects of worship, consecrates the picture, makes burnt offerings and praises the Lord. This path of service is akin to that of son to his father (nearness, Samipya) and takes the soul to Siva.
Sakhamarga = சகமார்க்கம். Sakha = friend. Path of friend. The five senses should be kept under control; The Ida and Pingala Nadi should be controlled; meditation on a single object and channeling Prana and Kundalini goddess to Susumna Nadi, merging of the yogi with Siva in Sahasrara Chakra, imbibing the ambrosia and going to the sphere of fire, sun and moon are the steps towards Sakhamarga. This is the path of friend (intelligence) to the Lord. This path assures that the devotee attains likeness to Siva (Sarupya).
Prof. Shastri: Śivapurāṇa Volume 1 page 45. Motilal Banarsidass publishers.
The devotee attains exemption from further transmigration and his identification with the deity, gradually through four stages. Sālokya = Being in the same world with the deity. Sāmīpya = nearness to the deity. Sāyujya = Intimate union with the deity. Sārūpya = assimilation to the deity. Sārṣṭi = equality in rank, condition or power as one of the grades of mukti.
Page 62. Siva Purana Volume: 1.9.26-27: Siva says: "Worshipping Me in My supreme Linga form at this place and performing the other sacred rites shall accord the five types of salvation-- Sālokya, Sāmīpya, Sārūpya, Sārṣṭi and Sāyujya. May all of you achieve all your cherished desires.
The Journey of Soul beyond the borders of the body. The Path to Siva Bliss.
There are Âdhāra centers in the body and NirÂdhāra centers are above Sahasrara Chakra. Adhara = support. Niradhara = without support; centers above the seventh Chakra. There are six Adhara Centers in the body: Muladhara, Svadisthana, Manipura, Anahata, Visuddhi, and Ajna each one presided by a deity, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Mahesvara, Sadasiva, and Apara Bindu. Adhara yogam is accomplished by Kundalini yogi who ascends all six centers to reach the seventh Sahasrara center in the crown presided by Paranada where he unites with Siva. Kundlini yoga is Adhara yogam with support derived from the centers or chakras. Beyond the Sahasrara Chakra is the Niradhara center without any apparent support; reaching it is Niradhara yogam. Jnana and Prana ascend beyond the seven centers and course through eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh sthanas (posts), presided respectively by Parabindu, Paranada, Parasakti and Parasiva. Beyond these eleven centers is the 12th and furthest ultimate point of yogic journey (the Ultima Thule), Dvadasanta. This journey from Sahasrara chakra to the 12th point in space is Niradhara Yogam which is the state of the soul, when it loses its self-consciousness, attains Sivahood and remains without any attachment or physical support. Reaching Dvadasanta Siva (Paraipara) in Jnana form is Bliss. (Please note that there are several variants of the theme in different texts.) Many other texts say that this center is 12 inches above the crown as opposed to the above description. Realization from the 8th to 12th is progressively deeper and the 12th is ultimate experience.
Dvādasāntham (Sanskrit) / Tvādasāntham (Tamil) definition:
1. (Yoga.) A mystic centre which is believed to be 12 inches above crown;
2. (Yoga.) The 12th and last stage of experience of the soul in yoga practice;
The soul's progress to Grace: Iruvinaiyoppu1, Malaparipākam2, and Sattinipātam3
Bipolar equable resolution1, Purging of Malas2, and Surging with Grace3.
Others mention Oddukkam4 (involution) into Siva.
Malaparipākam = மலபரிபாகம் is maturing of the soul indicating that the soul is no more burdened with the three Malas, Anava, maya and Karma Malas. Malaparipākam = Mala + paripākam = impurity + cooking; maturity, perfection, ripeness; fit condition.
Karma in perfect resolution consists of good and bad Karma coming individually to zero sum status. Iruvinaiyoppu is the state of the soul coming to perfect equanimity towards meritorious and sinful deeds; the end result is a zero sum status. In Iruvinaiyoppu, there is no reciprocal cancellation; both good karma and bad karma must come to zero individually. Iruvinaiyoppu = இரு + வினை + ஒப்பு = Iru + Vinai + Oppu = two (good and bad) + deeds + likeness, resemblance, similarity, equality. Vinai = வினை = Nalvinai and Tivinai = நல் வினை + தீவினை = good deed and evil deed.
The Grace of God descends on the soul, once it goes through Malaparipakam after Iruvinaiyoppu; that is called Saktinipātam (Sanskrit) or Sattinipātam (Tamil).
Saktinipātam / Sattinipātam = Satti + Nipātam = சத்தி + நிபாதம் = Grace + Descent
Once Sattinipatam happens to the soul, it is free and becomes eternal like God. The Grace-infused soul is separate from the Lord or Siva, but enjoys Siva's Bliss.
Tirodhana Sakti (Veiling, concealing, obscuring) of Mahesvara is the antithesis of anugraha (Grace) conferred by Sadasiva. Mahesvara and Sadasiva are one and the same; transformation of the soul from impure state to pure state by Iruvinaiyoppu and Malaparipakam induces transformation of Tirodhana Sakti to Anugraha Sakti. Think of sound traveling as light energy.
The descent of Grace on to the soul proceeding from Parasakti (Sadasiva) takes place at a slow pace (Manda = மந்தம்) to start with, picks up slow speed (Mandatara= மந்ததரம்) followed by intense (Tīvira = தீவிரம்) and hyperintense (Tīviratara = தீவிரதரம்) penetration or pervasion. Descent and pervasion are proportional to the graduated weakening of Anavamala; it appears as if Anavamala is weakened by maturity of Malas (like the ripe fruit falling off) and the graduated penetration of the soul by Grace (Saktinipātam). According to Unmai Vilakkam, the soul, Anava Mala, and Pati still hold together in Mukti or liberation. How is that possible? Anava Mala has morphed from an obstructionist to a facilitator (transformation). Once Grace has pervaded the soul, Anava Mala becomes the purveyor of Bliss in Suddha state; remember, once Anava Mala was a purveyor of nescience in Kevala and Sakala state. Tirodhana Sakti, which is the veiling power of the Lord, has morphed into Arul Sakti. Arul = Grace.
The four events (Iruvinaiyoppu, Malaprapakam, Saktinipatam, and Oddukkam) caused the soul to step into Suddha Avastha. The soul, thus optimized and purified, and penetrated by Grace is at the doorstep of liberation; it also has transformed from the dual state of Sat-Asat to Sat state; Asat dropped out with the fall of Malas; now it is one with Siva. Here oneness with Siva does not mean integral part of Siva.
Mukti (liberation) is union with God; Mukta (the liberated soul) in relation to Siva is like the fruit and its essence, flower and its fragrance, fire and its heat and vina and its musical sound. Saivites believe that Jivan mukti (liberation while alive) is achievable while Vaishnavites (Ramanujacharya) believe in Videha Mukti (liberation after death).
The soul in mukti and Siva are indistinguishable like the rays of the moon and the sun. We very often forget that the moon is there in the sky in daylight and yet the effulgence of the sun subsumes the moon light. Though they are indistinguishable, Siva and the soul are distinct entities; for the soul to enjoy bliss from Siva, it has to be a distinct entity to receive bliss. Siva (Siva Sakti) is like a nursing mother and the soul is like a suckling infant.
Siva's Consort goes by many names depending on her association. As the Consort of Siva, She is Bhavāni; as the Mother of the world, She is Ambikā or Jaganmātā; as the daughter of Daksa and Virini, She is Uma; as the daughter of Himavat, She is Pārvati; as the repository of powers of gods, She is Durga in Her warrior status; She is Sakti with Siva; She is Kali with Siva; As Sati, She was the daughter of Daksa; She is the ten Mahavidyas.
As the personified energy of the gods Vishnu, Brahma, and Rudra, representing the three qualities Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, the Goddess is called 'Triguna' , the One possessed of three qualities. As the personified energy of Siva, who is the Supreme Being, devoid of attributes she is called Nirguna.
She is the Mother Goddess of Vishnu, Brahma and Rudra, the synthetic form of three qualities responsible for creation, maintenance and dissolution of the universe. Motilal Banarsidass publishers, Siva Purana Translation by Prof. Shastri.
Here is a flowchart depicting Siva and Sakti.
siva & sakti.jpg = Ganesa family.jpg
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