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Download Bhagavadgita-all 18 chapters in Sanskrit,
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Bhagavadgita in English
and the Veil
September 17, 2013. The Principal
Dr. Radhakrishnan Page 51.
seers are not
bound by the rules of caste, but extend the law of spiritual
universalism to the utmost bounds of human existence. The story of Satyakāma
though unable to give his father's name, was yet initiated into
spiritual life, shows that the Upaniṣad
appeal from the rigid ordinances of custom to those divine and
spiritual laws which are not of today or of yesterday, but live for
ever and of their origin knoweth no man. The words tat
tvam asi are
so familiar that they slide off our minds without full
There are skeptics who feel that some of the passages were
interpolations in the Sacred Texts. Here is an example of the
author who shows his
prejudice against Sudras.
Maitri Upanisad. page 855 The Principal Upanisads. translation and
comment by Dr. Radhakrishnan. December 9, 2013.
VII.8. Now then, the hindrances to knowledge, O King. This is indeed
the source of the net of delusion, the association of one who is
worthy of heaven with those who are not worthy of heaven, that is
it. Though it is said that there is a grove before them they cling
to a low shrub. Now there are some who are always hilarious, always
abroad, always begging, always making a living by handicraft.
And others there are who are
beggars in town, who perform sacrifices, for the unworthy,
who are the disciples of Śūdras and
who, though Śūdras, are learned in the scriptures. And others there
are who are wicked, who wear their hair in a twisted knot, who are
dancers, who are mercenaries, travelling mendicants, actors, those
who have been degraded in the King's service. And others
there are who, for money, profess that they can allay (the evil
influences) of Yakṣas (sprites), Rākṣasas (ogres),
ghosts, goblins, devils, serpents, imps and the like. And others
there are who, under false pretexts, wear the red robe, earrings,
and skulls. And others there are who love to distract the believers
in the Veda by the jugglery of false arguments, comparisons, and
paralogisms, with these one should not associate. These creatures,
evidently, are thieves and unworthy of heaven. For thus has it been
said: The world bewildered by doctrines that deny the self, by false
Comparisons and proofs does not discern the difference between
wisdom and knowledge.
Jñānopasargaḥ: hindrances to knowledge Jñānotpatti-vigātakā hetavaḥ
vṛthā = falsely, mthyā
veda-Vidyā = wisdom and knowledge, vedāvidyā = knowledge and
The caste prejudice comes out here with reference to the Śūdras.
(comment by Dr. Radhakrishnan.)
Here is what Ramakrishnaparamahamsa says about
accretions in sacred texts.
Accretion = an added part; addition: The last part of the legend
is a later accretion. January 19, 2014
321. Those who take fish
do not want the useless
head and tail of the fish, but only the soft middle portion of it;
so the ancient rules and commandments of our scriptures must be
pruned of all their accretions to make them suit modern times.
Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna.
thehindu.com April 29, 2015
Naveen Naik, a 13-year-old
tribal boy from Narsapur tanda in Marpalli mandal
of Ranga Reddy district, is all to set don the role of a priest
forcing his way into domain largely held by the upper castes.
He is the only student from the tribal community who
has been studying in the Sri Dattagiri Maharaj Vedic Pathashala
located in Bardipur Ashram. The Vedic Pathashala has been offering
Archaka, Vara and Pravara courses which includes even teaching
Jyotishya. Naveen is rated as one of the bright students in his way
with his immaculate skills in chanting and reciting Ganapati Pooja,
Shanti Mantralu and Shodhashopachara pooja, which are traditionally
practised by wards of Brahmin community.
In the next few years he would come out successfully
as a priest who can help people in performing their religious
Currently as many as 60 students are studying and the
school is offering admissions for the next academic year for 30
students. Last date for submission of applications was April 30 and
interviews would be held on May 4.
July 31, 2013
There are castes in
animal kingdom: Honeybees, Leafcutter Ants...
Leafcutter ants are in Agribusiness. They live on fungus. The colony
has ants in millions. They cut leaves, flowers and grasses, and take
them to the underground lairs. The fungus grows on the leaves and is
fed to the ant larvae. The fungus and ants need each other to live:
Obligatory mutualism. Leafcutter colony is a busy place. The ants
have four castes: Minims,
Minors, Mediae, and Majors.
Obligatory Mutualism among castes is the soulful cry of the
supporters of Varna Dharma. The Brahmana teaches his pupils Vedas in
oral-aural tradition. The Ksatriya fights the enemies and rules. The
Vaisya is the trader in the society. The Sudra does the menial work
that needs very little brain, though he may be endowed with an IQ of
200. The Indian Government after independence put an end to
Having used and enriched their cerebral mantle over millennia and
having lost interest in Vedic
Reciting, learning) and
adhyāpana (Teaching), the Brahmanas moved from the Sacred to
the secular and the
sacrilegious practices. Brahmana minus (Adhyayana
+ adhyāpana) = Brahmin (=
Brahmana-Bandhu = Adjunct or
adhyayana. Study &
Reciting the Vēdas. அத்தியாபனம் attiyāpaṉam.
= is the study of the scriptures dealing with liberation or
repetition of the pranava. (Dr. Radhakrishnan)
Sacrilegious is not
having direct relationship to religious practices. --Random House
Brahman's (Brahmana) six duties as enjoined by Manu (X. 75) are
different. They are 1. repeating the Veda, 2. teaching it, 3.
sacrificing, 4. conducting sacrifices for others, 5. giving, 6.
receiving gifts.-- Monier Monier-Williams Brahmanism and
Taittiriya Upanisad page 537 The
Principal Upanisads. Dr. Radhakrishnan.
December 10, 2013
Veda, the teacher
the pupil. Speak the truth.'
to the teacher
the wealth that is
not cut off
the thread of
be no neglect of truth.
be no neglect of virtue. Let there be no neglect
Let there be no
Let there be no
of study and
be no neglect of
the duties to
the gods and
page 196. The Principal Upanisads Brhad aranyaka
upanisad. Dr. Radhakrishnan.
Just as a donkey bearing the weight of sandal-wood knows its
weight but not its fragrance, so also is a Brāhmaṇa who knows
the texts of the Vedas and scriptures but not their
The Brahmins do not always exhibit the spirit of noblesse
oblige to all people, who, they consider, were born in other
castes due their so-called karmic loads. Claiming to be high
on the totem pole of caste hierarchy and not truly being there
in the said spirit are the reality of a segment of Brahmin
caste. The true Brahmanas, as they come from all castes, are
an exception and exhibit the said spirit to all beings, human
or otherwise. A Brahmin comes from one caste, but Brahmanas
come from all castes and even the Tribals. Brahmanahood is
sacred and unique, while Brahminhood is ubiquitous. A Brahmana
is well-versed in sacred texts, universal in his or her
outlook and a god-realized person. Rituals and rites mark the
present day Brahmins. There are more intellectuals among the
Brahmins because of their dedication to education and
immersion in the culture. The society will be that much
poorer, if not for the likes of Dr. Radhakrishnan. These
stalwarts may not be God-realized persons of the Brahmana
genre but superior Brahmins, whom everybody reveres. There are
many intellectuals in Non-brahmin castes, equal and exceeding
the achievements of the Brahmins.
-Krishnaraj December 28, 2013
This movement away from the original intent reduced them from the
state of sacred Brahmanahood to sacrilegious Brahminhood. They were
sacred because they emerged from the mouth of God. Because of their
educational background and a tradition of accommodation, the British
and the Brahmins found each other. They went in droves to take all
the privileged and plum positions, where one's cerebral mantle made
a difference. New Universities embracing the western secular
education started sprouting on the landscape. They abandoned the
Agraharas and Vedic Patasalas, received education in modern
universities, went far and wide to do the bidding of the new masters
and made a name for themselves. Their Varna Dharma as declared by
Manu suffered irretrievably. Their sense of service to fellow
citizens did not keep with their rise in power and prestige. They,
with certain exceptions, did not uplift the fellow human beings. It
took Indian independence and laws to take the lower classes up on
the economic, social and educational ladder. I was the second doctor
in my caste in the 1950s and the first one to go abroad in the early
1960s. Now there are many more engineers and doctors. Everyone of my
caste members has someone near and dear abroad for higher
learning... It is not that they became more intelligent to cope with
higher education. They did not have equal opportunity in the past,
or simply they did not care and were happy owning lands and raising
crops. They were happy marching in place. They were probably Manu's
minions. They were for many Yugas content to be land-owning class.
Now they are restless as the nation is. They want to take on and
tackle new challenges. That is human nature totally against the
dictates of Varna Dharma, which advocates division,
compartmentalization, segregation, stratification, stagnation...;
the end result is stultification of the mind, which serves the rise
of higher castes and stagnation of the lower castes. The main
purpose and thrust of the caste divisions are to keep people in
intellectual, mental, attitudinal, social and economic stagnation.
Some Sudras and others because of the native brain power moved from
mere weaving (Valluvar =
Nathaswaram playing (கம்பன் = Kamban of Kamba
Ramayanam, of the Occhan caste = ஒச்சன்) to the ivory towers of
erudition, scholarship...and made Tamil Nadu shine from its hoary
past to the glorious present. Nammazvar was a sudra Vishnava saint.
Swami Vivekananda (a Kayestha, lower than a Brahmin) says that many
of the sacred texts came out of the mouths and styluses of kings,
who were one step below the True Brahmanas. The very emergence of
Brahmana from the mouth of the God is for the sole
adhyayana and adhyāpana.
The great Brahmana Vaishnava Ramanuja learnt Sri Vaishnava Mantra
and its explication from a mere Sudra, who according to the Laws of
Manu and Varna Dharma should have been
tending Ramanuja's cow. Instead Ramanuja expressed and enjoyed the
milk of wisdom from the Sudra.
Still the caste business is holding its own, though there are early
signs of slow death in the cities. There are entrenched stalwarts
holding the fort against any seize. What is regrettable is that
Sudras and Vaisyas with their many sub-castes discriminate, kill and
maim the Dalits and the Tribals. Then the Sudras and the other
higher castes have no right to blame others, when they do not keep
their house clean. Overt virulence and violence are not the
stock-in-trade for the true Brahmana. Other castes have exhibited
this ugly side.
The old and venerable Varna Dharma divided the society into four
Varnas. Did they look at the bees or the leafcutter ants and pick up
the clues from nature?
Division of labor among insects serves as the paradigm for the
founders, the flaunters and the followers of Varna Dharma.
Minims are the
tiniest and the lowest among all castes in the leafcutter colony and
run the nursery. They tend to the brood and the fungus gardens. When
you saunter on the sidewalks of Park Ave New York, you will see neat
strollers glide by you with lily-white babies and attended and
pushed by minority-babysitters with earthy skin tones from all over
the world. They are glad to have the jobs, but if you give them
equal opportunity, they will shine as their employers do.
Minors are large in
numbers and bigger than Minims. They provide the first line of
defense and attack the intruders, enemies and fungus foragers.
Have you noticed the burly and brusque doorman (sometimes lean and
mean) at the entrance to the famous hotels and high-rise apartment
buildings? We see his obsequious bows to the rich, the famous, the
high and the mighty and disdainful treatment of "the uncouth, the
unwashed, the slovenly and the stragglers." Sometimes the doorman
looks more impressive than his employers or owners. He finds the
need to be stern with the stragglers, mean to the undesirables and
obsequious to the apartment owners or hotel guests. He is a Ph.D in
street psychology, a degree obtained in the University of Sidewalks.
He should be offered a visiting professorship in Street Psychology
101 in the university. Have you seen the colonic deposits and the
meandering streams (from the cistern) in the sidewalk of
high-risers? It is the work of "the uncouth and the slovenly" in an
act of getting even with the doorman, who did not let him use the
bathroom. Have you heard of the doorman who gave CPR until the
ambulance came? Yes, he saved that life.
Mediae are the
leafcutters bringing the leaves to the nest. These are the hard
Have you taken notice of the hard-working commuting office workers
on the city bus or subway cars? They bring the bread home as
uncomplaining leafcutters bring the leaves home. Do the office
workers complain? Yes, they do. About working conditions, living
wages, low pay, rising prices... They have more brains than the
leafcutter ants. They want to move up from their social class. They
aspire to climb the social and economic ladder. They want their
children to do better than they do. They do not want to be stuck in
the mire of near-poverty or lack of higher education. They are poor
and working, and paying taxes.
Majors have the
biggest bodies among the leafcutters, serve as soldiers, keep the
trails clear for the Mediae and help carry bigger items to the nest.
Talk about the big, the burly and the bad (the good)... Consider
this: Who gives $10.00 to the doorman to carry stuff from the
sidewalk to the elevator door? I like that job, but no one would
hire me because I am neither big, nor burly nor comely but more
Take a Major, it is
written in its genome (DNA) that it does work for food without ever
questioning or aspiring for higher social status. (This is the
battle cry of the Varna Dharma proponents to keep the divisions or
stratifications intact, functioning and stultifying so they can stay
at the top of the heap. But we are not ants; we are people with
social mobility written in our genome.)
The males and females emerge from the nest on their wings hoping for
nuptial flights. A single polyandrous flying female ant will mate in
the air with as many males as possible in a marathon orgiastic love
fest until her sac has 300 million sperm she has to have to
establish a colony of her own. Many fail. She carries the seed
fungus in her mouth to start the agribusiness for her young ones. An
aspirant could carry on his or her orgiastic fantasies in the air in
his or her own jetliner while he or she is flying over the Atlantic
In this ant colony, the castes do not fight with each other. They
have the robotic brains; they do what they are programmed to do.
People do not have engineered brains and so want social mobility
upwards. This is totally against the Varna Dharma. The respective
castes do the assigned jobs and stay content and happy. That is what
Varna Dharma die-hards say about maintaining castes. The Minim ants
tend the babies born to the queen, maintain the fungus gardens, and
remove the debris and the dead without one wisp of a complaint.
This caste system is all right for ants with ant brains. Men and
women have more sophisticated brains. They can go from their natal
caste to the next up and down the caste hierarchy based upon their
brain power or lack thereof. You cannot keep the Brainy down too
long, though he is the lowly Minima (a Sudra, a Dalit or a Tribal).
One could have been born a Major. If he cannot do the job of the
Major, he has to be happy with what he can do as Minima. It may be
less prestigious but goes with his ability and aptitude.
August 19, 2013 A Brahmin marries an
On Monday Aug 19, 2013, an educated Shivalli Brahmin
boy from Hornad married an orphan brought up in a government shelter
without bothering about her lineage, horoscope, caste or gotra and
without seeking the counsel of a priest.
In a simple religious ceremony organised by the
Department of Women and Child Development, Roopa, who entered the
government orphanage as a six year old, was united with B.P. Satish,
who was raised in a highly traditional Shivalli Brahmin family.
There hasnt been a single inter-caste marriage in my family for
centuries. I changed all that, beamed Satish who works in a college
Here is a story unrelated to the above real-life
Swami Vivekananda on caste
Today is his
150th Anniversary--January 12th.
January 12, 2013
I do not propose any levelling of castes. Caste is a very good
thing. Caste is the plan we want to follow. What caste really is,
not one in a million understands. There is no country in the world
without caste. In India, from caste we reach to the point where
there is no caste. Caste is based throughout on that principle. The
plan in India is to make everybody Brahmana, the Brahmana being the
ideal of humanity. If you read the history of India you will find
that attempts have always been made to raise the lower classes. Many
are the classes that have been raised. Many more will follow till
the whole will become Brahmana. That is the plan. We have only to
raise them without bringing down anybody. And this has mostly to be
done by the Brahmanas themselves...
Swami Vivekananda was born a
in Tamil and Sanskrit (काय)
means body. Kāyastha means
Writer. Swami comes from the family of writers, they who write for
the illiterates. It was a common sight during my schooldays in 1940s
in towns that a battery of typists with typewriters in bazaars and
near post offices write letters for the illiterates. Brahmins
claim they were born from the mouth of Prajapathi. Since Kayasthas
are born from the body of Prajapathi, they do not claim origin from
the mouth of Prajapathi. Brahmins look down upon Kayasthas. Born a
Kayastha and becoming a Tapasvin or Monk, Swami Vivekananda brought
Hinduism to the West and became the Brahmana of Brahmanas. A
Brahmana is a god-realized person irrespective of his or her natal
Swami lost his temper, upon being called a
Sudra. (The Brahmins of erstwhile Madras wondered aloud how
Vivekananda being a Sudra could become a monk.)
By C. H. MacLachan
Swami Vivekananda and Thoreau were both without guile. The Swamis
fellow disciple Swami Brahmananda used to teach his disciples always
to tell the truth, but never to tell a harsh truth. But the truth
with Swamiji could be very harsh however much deserved it might be.
When Aswini Kumar Datta (a saintly patriot of Bengal) reproached
Vivekananda for his retort to Madras brahmins who had called him a
(If I am a sudra, ye the brahmins of Madras are the pariah of
pariahs), the Swami replied: I never said I was right. The
impudence of these people made me lose my temper, and the words came
out. What could I do? But I do not justify them. Aswini Kumar Datta
then replied: Now I realize why you are a world conqueror and why
the Master loved you so much!
Caste is not being but
becoming. Caste is what your parents apparently give you. What they
really give you is their DNA. One's high birth caste is a spurious
claim and appellation, and a medallion, only the spurious and the
vainglorious can gloat about. Born a Sudra-weaver, Tiruvalluvar
wrote 2000 years ago the Greatest Manual on Ethics--Tirukkural-
திருக்குறள். Born a Sudra and becoming a Saint-poet is an example of
becoming a Brahmana for Nammalvar. Born in the family of wind
instrument players (Nadasvaram) and becoming a Brahmana and a Poet
of all Tamil poets is Kamban of Kamba Ramayana.
Valmiki, purportedly a highway
robber by name Ratnakar, a hunter,
a Naga tribesman...
becomes a changed man and a Brahmana by attributes and not by birth
and is the First Poet to write the story of Rama in Sanskrit. The
West observes that Nagas are brachycephalic Negritos from Africa and
are among the earliest people to come to India from Africa.
--Page198. Harper's Dictionary of Hinduism.
Nathuram Godse, the assassin
of Mahatma Gandhi was born a Brahmin but became a murderer (of the
Great Soul), a caste lower than the lowest. Mahatma Gandhi, born a
mere mercantile Vaisya, becomes a Brahmana by his sheer selfless
sacrifice for his country. Ambedkar born a lowdown Dalit
(untouchable) became a Brahmana by his education, attainment and
service to his country. Ramana Maharishi and Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
born in Brahmin families became true Brahmanas. Brahmin is a caste;
Brahmana is transcending all castes. Brahmanaka is a nominal Brahman
but not a Brahmana. --Veeraswamy Krishnaraj, a Brahmana-priya
(a friend of Brahmanas).
Godse and his apotheosis.
Om Nathuram Godseya namah.
Nathuram Godseya namah.
Godse has God as the Inner Abider (Antar Yāmi) in his name. Nathuram
Godse is the shooter and killer of Mahatma Gandhi. Remember Gandhi
uttered Ram Ram as he died, indicating Gandhi invoked Ram as in
NathuRAM. Godse is the Prime Candidate to join the gallery of gods
in the Hindu temples. Saints and Savants have been consulted for
apotheosis of Godse (the elevation or exaltation of a person to
the rank of a god). There will be Pranaprathishta
in the temples. It means infusion of breath in the idol, also known
as Installation and Consecration. Apotheosis and sainthood involve
1) Declaration of Godse as the Servant of God. 2) Giving Godse the
moniker-Venerable. 3) Recognition of Godse as The Blessed. 4)
Admission of Godse as a member of Hindu Pantheon of Gods (akin to
Cannonization and Beatification). The mantra to invoke Godse is Om
Nathuram Godseya Namah.
The Tamil Nadu government thwarted
efforts by fringe Hindutva groups to install a statue of Nathuram
Godse, assassin of Mahatma Gandhi, by taking strong precautionary
measures, Chief Minister O. Panneerselvam informed the Assembly on
February 20, 2015.--thehindu.com
no doubt a Brahmin by birth; but some
these born Brahmins grow up into great scholars.
turn out cooks,
others roll themselves
doors. --Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna.
SriVaishnava View on Castes, Dalits (the Opressed) and
Dalits (Hindus) are
outside and below the caste system (Brahmins, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and
Sudras = Priests, Warriors, Traders and Menial Workers.
Srivaishnavas = the
Worshippers of Vishnu and His incarnations.
November 30, 2012
Sri Ranganatha Yatheendra Maha Desikan, 46th
pontiff of Sri Ahobila Mutt (monastic
and similar religious establishments),
who had accompanied senior pontiff, the 45th Jeeyar, Sri Narayana
Yatheendra Maha Desikan to a visit to Tirupullani recently.
Both the Jeeyars took
bath in Sethukarai Sea along with hundreds of devotees before
Junior Jeeyar, who was gracious to spend time with The Hindu
Correspondent recently, laid stress on everyone doing their duty and
strongly felt that a sense of give and take and discipline were
necessary for social harmony.
He touched on a range
of subjects from caste conflict to the Ayodhya temple. The math (
monastic and similar
was trying to instill Hindu dharma in everyone, he said. Follow
dharma and there wont be conflicts, he said.
What is his take on
untouchability that prevails in some parts of the
country that includes the South?
unacceptable, states the jeer categorically. Only those who do not
perform their duties with sincerity and commitment are untouchables.
Caste has no role here, he adds.
Wednesday March 6,
2013. Non-Brahmins as trained priests.
According to the Travancore Devaswom Board, 12
priests of the nearly 40 in temples under its Vaikom group belong to
the non-Brahmin community. Nearly 50 per cent of the candidates
applying for the posts of priests in about 2, 000 temples under it
were non-Brahmins last year. About 40 per cent of the people
selected as pujaris were non-Brahmins.
Explaining that anybody can conduct poojas as per veda
noted poet-priest Vishnu Narayanan Namboodiri told The
Tuesday that many non-Brahmins were taking up priesthood and
performing the rituals as per traditions.
We should understand that varnam (caste) is decided by human beings
while vasana (subconscious inclination) is decided by God. Varnam is
not important, he said.
Non-Brahmin priests like Harish reminded that they had received
training and certificate from tantra vidya peetoms and had taken
pains to adhere to the code of conduct expected from a priest. We
have got elementary knowledge of tantra shastra and are also trained
in reciting mantras. It is difficult to clear the interview without
these basic qualifications, he said.
Accepting that the declining
number of Brahmins taking up priesthood remains a major reason for
the increase in people from non-Brahmin communities being appointed
as priests, Vaidikan Sreekumar Thottakkad said women in Brahmin
community these days prefer men in IT or other related fields rather
than marrying a priest. Its also a social issue. Women feel that a
priest may not get the time to lead a normal life, he said.
March 12, 2013.
noble soul coming from Brahmin community serves the "Untouchables"
A. Vaidyanatha Iyer, an eminent lawyer from Madurai
is remembered for the significant role he played in the Temple Entry
Movement. He led four Harijans into the Meenakshi Sundareswarar
Temple for the first time on July 7, 1939. Seventy-four years down
the line, Tamil Nadu Harijan Seva Sangam will recall the historic
movement and recollect his contributions to the cause of the
downtrodden on Wednesday, his 58th death anniversary. Iyer was the
president of Tamil Nadu Harijan Seva Sangam in the 1940s and
followed the instructions of Mahatma Gandhi to fight for the justice
A series of public meetings were organised where Iyer
vociferously said that Harijans should be allowed inside all the
temples in the State. To allay the fears of the Harijans who had
been assuming that it was a sin to enter the temples, Iyer took them
to Travancore where the Temple Entry Proclamation was issued and
implemented. After the temple entry in Madurai, he faced the ire of
many people and legal actions were initiated against him. The then
Chief Minister C. Rajagopalachari, who was Iyers good friend,
intervened and came to his rescue. But for Rajajis intervention,
Iyer would have been prosecuted for fighting for equality, Mr.
The curse of Caste. One's higher caste is flaunted
and the lower caste is flouted.
The Pyramid- the living monument of Manu, the author
of the Laws of Manu.
There are very many castes in Tamil Nadu. The following
link lists some if not all of them.
(Statesman and Philosopher) in his book about castes
early in the history of Hinduism, the caste distinctions came to
mean the various stratifications into which the Hindu society
settled. The confusion between the tribal and the occupational is
the cause of the perpetuation of the old exclusiveness of the tribal
customs in the still stringent rules which govern the constitution
of each caste. Caste on its
social side is a product of human organization and not a mystery of
divine appointment. It is an attempt to regulate society with
a view to actual differences and ideal unity.
The first reference to it is in
the Purusa Sukta, where the different sections of society are
regarded as the limbs of the great self. Human society is an organic
whole, the parts of which are naturally dependent in such a way that
each part is fulfilling its distinctive function conditions the
fulfillment of function of its function by the rest.
In this sense the whole is
present in each part, while each part is indispensable to the whole.
Every society consists of groups working for the fulfillment of the
wants of the society.
As the different groups work for
a common end they are bound by a sense of unity and social
brotherhood. The cultural and the spiritual, the military and the
political, the economic classes and the unskilled workers constitute
the four-fold caste organization. The different functions of human
life were clearly separated and their specific and complementary
character was recognized. Each caste has its social purpose and
function, its own code and tradition. It is a close corporation
equipped with a certain traditional and independent organization,
observing certain usages regarding food and marriage. Each group is
free to pursue its own aims free from interference by others. the
functions of the different castes were regarded as equally important
to the well-being of the whole. The serenity of the teacher, the
heroism of the warrior, the honesty of the businessman and the
patience and energy of the worker all contribute to the social
growth. Each has its own perfection.
THE LAWS OF MANU
CONDUCT BUT NOT BIRTH DETERMINES CASTE
THIS IS THE BENIGN VIEW OF MANU, THE MALIGNANT VIEW LATER IN THE
2.155. The seniority of Brahmanas is from (sacred)
knowledge, that of Kshatriyas from valour, that of Vaisyas
from wealth in grain (and other goods), but that of Sudras alone
2.156. A man is not therefore (considered) venerable
because his head is gray; him who, though young, has
learned the Veda, the gods consider to be venerable.
2.157. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope
made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmana; those
three have nothing but the names (of their kind).
2.158. As a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a
cow with a cow is unprolific, and as a gift made to an
ignorant man yields no reward, even so is a Brahmana useless, who
(does) not (know) the Rikas.
3.150. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who
are thieves, outcasts, eunuchs, or atheists are unworthy (to
partake) of oblations to the gods and manes.
239, Harper's Dictionary of
The origin of
Castes from Purusa.
April 8, 2012
Purusa is depicted as a cosmogonic
figure,' a creative source, the primeval male who envelops the
whole earth and who represents totality." This hymn is the earliest
account of secondary creation and is of particular interest as the
earliest account of the structure of Vedic society, which its
alleged composer Narayana divides into four occupational or
functional categories, each corresponding to a particular part of
the sacrificed body of the Purusa. This sacrifice became the
prototype of all future sacrifices.' From the Purusa's severed body
the brahmana emerged from his mouth, from his arms the rajanya;
from his thighs the vaisya, and from his feet the sudra. From his
mind was produced the moon; from his eye the sun; the wind from his
breath; from his navel the atmosphere; from his head the sky, and so
forth. Upon this purely symbolic description of the social,
political and economic structure of late Vedic society, subsequent
Indian 'sociologists' built a caste system, which was ultimately
presented in the Manu-smrti as the inviolable expression of divine
The Purusa-sukta was also prescribed
for those desiring a son, for purification, 'and in the ceremonies
performed in founding a temple which is constructed in the likeness
of the Purusa'." In the SBr. (XI. 1.6, 1-2) Purusa appears as the
secondary creator Prajapati, who emerged from the golden egg
produced by the primeval waters. In the Ait Up. (1,1-4) he is also
portrayed as a cosmogonic figure, the instrument of secondary
creation, from whose bodily parts emerged speech (vac), breath (prana),
sight (caksus), hearing (Srota), mind (manas), etc. But in the
Samkhya system the term purusa denotes the passive complement of
the active creative principle (prakrti). There is nothing higher
or beyond the Purusa (Katha Up., 3, II); it represents the material
from which the world was made, (i.e., the causa materialis) as well
as its creator (causa efficiens). 'Man is limited by his body and
sense-impressions, only his inner 'universe' is within his reach;
hence the universe, the macrocosm, is depicted as a Cosmic Man.
The Unborn was one of the early
designations of the World-ground. It was later called Purusa,
Prajapati, Brahman or Narayana; later Visnu inherited the formula
(Coomaraswamy, Yaksas, pt. ii, p. 25). The hymn contains sixteen
verses, this number representing totality.
Purusa becomes the oblation = the
animal victim of the cosmic sacrifice = creation performed by the
gods. 'The self-immolation of the demiurge is conceived in many
mythologies to be an essential prerequisite of creation. In
Christian mythology the corrupt creation is restored to its pristine
glory through Christ's self-sacrifice, which is like a second
creation' (IT., p. 335; v. also Eliade, Patterns, p. 183). The myth
of the sacrifice of the Primordial Giant is European, but it has
also been found among other ethnic groups, including some of the
most archaic' (Eliade, Yoga, p. 138, n.112).
A twenty-year-old Dalit who was working as a priest in a local
temple was assaulted after he objected to the efforts asking him to
be absent on auspicious occasions and festival times as it was
alleged that devotees felt hesitant to visit a temple where Dalit
was a priest. September 19, 2012
Dalits (the Oppressed) of Sanyasipatti near
Sankagiri in Salem district fought bitterly for five days before
forcing the district administration to take firm action to demolish
a four-foot-high and 20-foot-long wall erected right across a
tar-topped road with the intention of preventing them from using it.
The wall of untouchability' erected on November 29,
2011 in the middle of the night by some caste Hindus was pulled down
on Sunday by those who put it up after revenue authorities
intervened. Thehindu.com December 05, 2011.
October 1, 2012. Temple Entry by the Dalits or the Oppressed Caste.
Around 400 Dalit men
and women, led by members of the Tamil Nadu Untouchability
Eradication Front, entered the Mariamman Temple in Kalapatti station
limits on Sunday morning.
He also said that the
district Collector, Superintendent of Police and Revenue Divisional
Officer had assured them that henceforth, the members of the
community would not have problems in entering the temple and that
that they would stand by them. A release from the Front said that
its members undertook the temple-entry agitation on September 30,
2012 which was the anniversary of Sreenivasa Rao of Thanjavur, who
had fought against discrimination.
November 09, 2012.
Caste girl marries a boy
from Dalit caste (Oppressed caste = Pariah = A
beater of a drum. 2. A low caste man--Tamil
Lexicon; a derogatory characterization). 268 Dalit Dwellings burnt
in Tamil Nadu.
the Dalits Harijan, meaning children of Lord Hari or God.
Three colonies of
Dalits (of the Adi-Dravida community) near Naikkankottai in
Dharmapuri district of western Tamil Nadu remained benumbed on
Thursday by the fury unleashed on them by a rampaging mob of caste
Hindus on Wednesday.
As many as 268
dwellings huts, tiled-roof and one or two-room concrete houses
were torched by the mob after a caste Hindu man, Nagarajan,
committed suicide over his daughter marrying a Dalit boy from one of
the colonies. Police said there was no casualty as occupants of the
houses escaped and took shelter in another village. Ninety persons
were arrested by Thursday evening and cases registered against
another 500 unidentified persons.
The prime target of
the attack was Natham Colony, whose resident, Ilavarasan (23) had
married N. Divya (20), a caste Hindu. But, the mobs fury was also
directed at the adjoining Anna Nagar Colony and Kondampatti Old and
New Colonies. Police said Ilavarasan and Divya were safe and
under police protection.
Chinnaswami Subramanya Bharathi (Tamil:
சின்னசுவாமி சுப்பிரமணிய பாரதி) (December 11, 1882
September 11, 1921) was a Tamil writer, poet, journalist,
Indian independence activist and social reformer from
Tamil Nadu, India. Popularly known as Mahakavi Bharathiyar
பாரதியார்), he is a pioneer of modern Tamil poetry.--Wikipedia
Tamil Poet Bharathi belonging to Brahmin caste deplores practice
ஜாதிகள் இல்லையடி பாப்பா = O child,
there are no castes.
ஜாதிகள் இல்லையடி பாப்பா குல = O child, there are no castes. Lineage
தாழ்ச்சி உயர்ச்சி சொல்லல் பாபம் பாப்பா = sin to attribute
(caste) inferiority or superiority (to people)
ஜாதிகள் இல்லையடி பாப்பா = O child, there are no castes.
நீதி உயர்ந்த மதி கல்வி = learning, mind with a lofty sense of
நீதி உயர்ந்த மதி கல்வி அன்பு = learning, mind with a lofty sense of
justice and love
நிறைய உடையவர்கள் மேலோர் பாப்பா = those plenteous (of love and
justice) are of higher rank, O Child.
ஓடி விளையாடு பாப்பா - நீ = run and play, O Child--You.
ஓய்ந்திருக்கலாகாது பாப்பா = weariness is a no-no, Child.
ஓடி விளையாடு பாப்பா = run and play, O Child.
கூடி விளையாடு பாப்பா - ஒரு = togetherness in play is a must, O
குழந்தையை வையாதே பாப்பா = Do not abuse (any) child, O Child.
ஓடி விளையாடு பாப்பா = run and play, O Child.
Translation by Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
May 29, 2012
But time and
again, various groups of people, particularly from the north-east
have experienced forms of racial discrimination and highlighted the
practice of racism in India. In fact, institutionalised racism has
been as much on the rise as cases of everyday racism in society.
In 2007, the
Delhi Police decided to solve the problems of security faced by the
north-easterners in Delhi, particularly women, by coming up with a
booklet entitled Security Tips for North East Students asking
north-eastern women not to wear revealing dresses and gave kitchen
tips on preparing bamboo shoot, akhuni, and other smelly
dishes without creating ruckus in neighbourhood.
asked to produce their passports or other documents to prove that,
indeed, they were Indian citizens and not refugee Tibetans.
How does one
prove that when an autorickshaw driver asks a north-easterner on the
streets of Delhi if he or she is going to Majnu ka Tila, a Tibetan
refugee colony, that the former is reproducing a common practice of
racial profiling? This remark could be doubly interpreted if made to
a woman from the region both racial and gendered. How do I prove
racism when a young co-passenger on the Delhi Metro plays Chinese
sounding music on his mobile, telling his friend that he is
providing, background music, sneering and laughing in my
direction? And what one cannot retell in the language of evidence,
becomes difficult to prove. Racism is most often felt, perceived,
like an invisible wound, difficult to articulate or recall in the
language of the law or evidence. In that sense, everyday forms of
racism are more experiential rather than an objectively identifiable
Displaced Hindu Kashmiris trickle back to Kashmir, their native
One blood, two
religions: Hinduism and Islam
Omar vouches of Pandits return May 29, 2012
Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Omar Abdullah on Tuesday said that
a sense of security and economic safeguards were the basic elements
which will help in return of Kashmiri Pandits to their native land.
Before bringing back Kashmiri Pandits, we have to instill a sense
of security in them. We are making all our efforts in this
direction, Omar told reporters after visiting the Kheer Bhawani
said economic package in the shape of employment to the youth of the
Kashmiri Pandits in the Valley is an important step to help return
of these families.
the atmosphere of peace and security is gaining ground gradually and
the state government has implemented half of the employment package
for Kashmiri Pandits, the situation is becoming more and more
palatable for their return, he added.
Chief Minister said the state government is taking up the issue of
enhancing financial support to Kashmiri Pandits to enable them
construct their residential houses in the Valley.
said the remarkable increase registered in the number of Kashmiri
Pandits visiting Kheer Bhawani during last few years is an
Government would continue to work to improve the facilities for the
large number of devotees visiting Kheer Bhawani, he added.
Chief Minister said Kashmiri Pandits are integral part of the
culture and ethos of Kashmir and Kashmiriyat.
said that their return to the Valley is the cherished goal and
desire of the government and the civil society.
Omar said the gradual improvement in the security situation and
generation of economic avenues for this community would give
required boost to the endeavours of the government to achieve this
In this day and age, there are people who still
believe that they (brahmins) emerged from mouth of god, while all other
castes emerged from lesser body parts; without lesser parts, no one is a
complete person. All without exception emerged from the womb of the
respective mothers. The myth started by Manu and others and
perpetuated by self-serving and ruthless higher castes (of
bygone era) to protect their means of livelihood and untenable
superiority is still alive and well. The kings and princes (Bhagavan
Krishna, Mahavira, and Buddha) gave us the religions and what the
self-styled 'twice-born' Brahmins (and not Brahmanas) gave us were
castes and rituals with costs. Brahmanas are a distinct group of men and
women coming from all castes with Brahma Vidya (God Realization:
Brahma- or bhagavat-sākşātkāra)),
belong to no caste and have risen above the pettiness of the castes.
Where do Chinese, Europeans, and Eskimos fit in this inane system of
As to the celebrated Vishnu temple of
Jagannāth at Puri in Orissa, its sanctity is such that 100,000 pilgrims
annually eat the sacred food (prasāda)
distributed in its courts to priest, prince and peasant alike; for
no distinctions of caste are
recognized in the Presence of Krishna (Vishnu) the lord of the
world.(The car festival is described in my Modern India,p. 68.)Monier
Williams in Brahmanism and Hinduism
(12 November 1819 11 April 1899)
Note added on Dec 26, 2014.
On the other hand, there is spice and nice(ness) in
mythology that some were born from the body parts of the Lord. That our
ancestors were apes is not appealing. Let us repeal that notion from our
mind. Against my sterile scientific bent of mind, I will accept
mythology as a charming alternate explanation of the origin of man.
Science is bent; once bent, you can never make it straight.
tail can't be
straightened. I am going to stop the fight and accept wight
(human being) came from body parts of god.
This is a contemptuous term which has descended from the days when the
stranger was looked on as an object of enmity or contempt. Just as the
Greeks and Chinese called anyone not a Greek or a Chinese a "barbarian,"
so Hindus of the Exoteric School call all non-Hindus, whether'
aboriginal tribes or cultivated foreigner,
Mlecchas. Mlecchatā is the state of
being a Mleccha. It is to the credit of the Sākta-Tantra that it does
not encourage such narrow ideas.
Woodroffe, The Serpent Power, Page 275
in Sanskrit is cognate with Barbarian. A barbarian is the one with
'uncouth and incomprehensible speech'. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mleccha
By Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Gotra means "Cow-pen or Cow-shed" and
is of two kinds - Vaidika and Laukika.
Vaidika is according to the Vedic
prescription and the Laukika is
"mundane, worldly, common". In ancient
times the extended family members shared one cowshed and therefore that
name stuck. Yes, they were living in the barn with livestock and grains.
Gotra is a family tree whose root can be traced to a common ancestor.
Since it is exogamous and patrilineal, it is based on the Y
chromosome. The females claim the gotra of father, and of
husband after marriage. A man can not marry a woman of the same gotra.
But a male can marry a woman of the same gotra at least seven degrees
removed from his father. The Vaidika
Gotra members trace their lineage from high priests and renowned
Rishis, namely Bharadvaja, Gautama,
Vasistha (SaptaRishis) and more (Atharvan,
Angiras, Bhrgu). Strictly speaking only Brahmanas can claim a
gotra. The Ksatriyas and others can not claim any such medallion
or pendant, simply because they are not cognate to the original
Brahmana Rishis and for that reason they are categorized in the laukika
(mundane) variety. There were exceptions:
Visvamitra and Vasistha, both
Ksatriyas by birth performed tapas ( austerity) and were accepted as
Brahmanas. Mundane gotra members are defined as non-cognate
followers of a succession of disciples of the original Priests and
Rishis. There is no genetic or Y chromosome linkage here between
the mundane gotra members and the original Progenitors listed above.
Y chromosome is transferred intact from father to son. It is very
common especially in everyday speech, in temples and in books that a
person claims his Gotra from the High Priests of Yore.
is a descendant or member of a priestly family and never claimed any
superiority over others of the
The priests were Brahman, Hotṛ,
Adhvaryu and Udgātṛ.
These priests had assigned duties in a sacrifice. Brahman is the
supervising priest. Adhvaryu, the reciter of Yajur Veda, is the Engineer
responsible for the design and construction of the sacrificial pit and
the immolator of the sacrificial animal. Construction of the
sacrificial pit was a precise mathematical exercise. Hotṛ
are the reciters of Ṛgveda
The invention of zero is attributed to Aryabhata.
Aryabhata, mathematician and astronomer in Ancient
India. Inventor of Sunya or Zero. Public Domain-Wikipedia
File:2064 aryabhata-crp.jpg Uploaded by Mukerjee Uploaded: October 11,
In 498 AD, Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata stated
that "sthānāt sthānaṁ daśaguṇaṁ syāt;" i.e.,
"from place to place each is ten times the preceding," which
is the origin of the modern decimal-based place value notation.
The purpose of the sacrifice is to obtain
or Mukti) from the miseries of existence in this world as a human,
animal, and plant. Birth, death and rebirth are metempsychosis:
transmigration of the soul to a human, animal or plant depending upon
the nature and weight of the karmic load.
Take the human: the life is not a bed of rose
petals; there are thorns and misery. Take the majestic tree 2000 plus
years old; it is struck by lightning simply because it is taller than
others; man cuts down such an old tree which has witnessed Buddha, Jesus
Christ and many other great souls. Take the animals and plants: many
disappeared from earth, where man shed his responsibility to care for
the less intelligent and the more vulnerable. Hindus consider that all
animate and inanimate things have consciousness: Conscience sleeps in
stone, feels in flora, senses in fauna and
thinks in man. Sentience runs parallel to conscience. Hindus
classified these miseries of existence as Theogenous, endogenous and
exogenous (God-given, miseries coming from within the body, miseries
coming from outside the body. Birth is misery for all beings. Liberation
is freedom from rebirth.
non-injury was a code originally introduced by the Indo-Aryan;
obviously, it got lost along the way. Some say that the Jains were
the first ones to adopt Ahimsa, followed by the Buddhists.
A true Brahmana is the one who obtained
God-realization; it is not being but becoming. By that measure, there
are very few Brahmanas today. There are tons of brahmins but only a ten
of Brahmanas. The examples are Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Swami
Vivekananda, Ramana Maharishi, Ramalinga Swamigal.... Brahmins are born
in the caste everyday by thousands but have not become Brahmanas
judging by the paradigm of Paramatma Saksatkara. A true Brahmana comes
from all castes, races, religions, countries.... Becoming a Brahmana is
to obtain realization of the God-- Bhagavad
= perception; realization. Akṣa
= eye. Experiencing with ones own eyes. Experiencing God with one's own
eyes = God realization. This realization goes by several names:
Paramatma Saksatkara, Isvara Saksatkara, Brahma Saksatkara....
Performance of and strict adherence to
rituals do not make a Brahmana, but an observant tradition-bound brahmin.
Whether this will yield Moksa is doubtful. In Hindu religion obtaining
Moksa is an individual effort, unlike the Mahayana Buddhists who claim
universalism in enlightenment as they ferry a boatload of people to the
Pure Land by faith in Buddha and invocation of Buddha's name. There is a
prevailing hypothesis that Mahayana has nothing to do with Great Vehicle
(big boats) but with Great knowledge (mahājñāna (great knowing).
Great knowledge somehow got corrupted to Great Vehicle.
= Knowledge ) is corrupted to Yāna
afflicts the Judicial system in India March 25, 2012
even if with great difficulty a lower caste person tries to make it
to those positions,
Dalit is kept out
through shrewd manipulations. Between 1950 and 2000, 47% of Chief
Justices and 40% of judges were of Brahmin origin, according to a
parliamentary committee report. In order to continue their monopoly
over important positions, upper caste people have fought tooth and
nail using all possible means to keep
from even dreaming of aspiring for those positions.
Dr. Ambedkar's observations were true, made
on the basis of some of his own painful experiences, when way back
in 1918 in spite of attaining high educational qualifications he was
not allowed to drink water from a pot reserved' for the high caste
professorial staff at Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in
Mumbai. Dr. Ambedkar realised then that education had not succeeded
in bringing out the desired attitudinal change in most of the
upper caste people towards Dalits. Upper caste in village or
city even with the highest degrees shared the same mindset when
issues of Dalits emerged.
Only recently, on
15 February 2012, at
Daulatpur village in Haryana's Uklana region, a Dalit youth had to
face the wrath of an upper caste when in a bid to quench his thirst
he drank water from a pot located on his premises. Once his caste
became known, his hand was
chopped off with a sickle. Even though we are living in the
21 century and make claims of having the world's largest democracy,
there is little change in the attitude of the upper caste towards
Dalits, literate or illiterate.
* (The details of the surveys have been
sourced from the book, Untouchability in Rural India, authored by
Ghanshyam Shah, Harsh Mander, Sukhadeo Thorat, Satish Deshpande and
Amita Baviskar published by SAGE Publications, New Delhi,2006).
14, 2013. Ambedkar and Barking dog in 3-D images.
A company representative has been arrested at Sadar Bazar here for
allegedly selling offensive 3-D pictures of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. The
pictures, which have been seized, were purportedly imported from
The sacrilegious 3-D pictures, presenting Dr. Ambedkars popular
facsimile photographs in one shade, represented a barking dog in
another shade and this has hurt the sentiments of people especially
members of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the
A statue of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was damaged by unknown persons at
Dabri in South-West Delhi on Saturday, July 13, 2013.
Brahmin's spit (Saliva) is a
panacea for many and varied skin diseases. Dec. 2011
Got Skin Disease; I heard of a universal cure, which will save a
visit to the Dermatologist and hundreds of dollars and Rupees. The
cure is not a lotion, potion, ointment....You have to have a
complete trust and roll over the Banana leaves containing leftover
food eaten by Brahmins in a temple in Karnataka. I am a devotee of
Krishna Paramatma and though this event takes place annually there
in a Temple, I have the regrettable duty to report it. It is the
Brahmin's saliva in trace amounts and the condiments in the food
which cure a person of skin diseases. This 500 year old practice is
wholesome and sanitary for the believers. The official position on
this is not to interfere with age old custom. Hundreds of devotees
from the backward castes took part in the ritual.
But there was a dissenter coming from the oppressed caste (Dalit
= दलित in Hindi = Oppressed = Pariah = பறையன்:
a pejorative word = actual meaning is Drummer who announces on the
village streets.), who saw superstition, humiliation, perpetuation
of caste system, unhygienic practice,.... Luckily for him, the
leftover food does not contain chicken bones, ribs, animal bones
because Brahmins do not eat dead animals as food in public. Vedic
Brahmins did eat beef and some priests even today eat goats
sacrificed to Mother Kali. Some Brahmins do eat non-vegetarian food
as a matter of convenience and taste.
"The ritual is over 400 years old.
According to legend Samba, the son of Krishna, during the Dwapura
Yuga (according to Hinduism, the third of four eras of evolution of
life) defeated leprosy rolling on banana leaves, on which his
devotees had consumed food. In 1979 the "Made Snana" was abolished,
but was soon reinstated because of the protests of the devotees.
November 10, 2012: In a move to end the controversy
surrounding the centuries-old practice of made snana at the
Kukke Subrahmanya temple in Dakshina Kannada district, the
State government has decided to modify the annual ritual.
Devotees will no longer be
allowed to roll over plantain leaves with leftovers of food
had by Brahmins. Instead the food offered to the deity will be
directly brought from the sanctum sanctorum of the temple to
the outer yard in the form of prasadam and it will be placed
on the plantain leaves.
Any devotee can roll over it as
part of their harake (offering to god). It has also been
decided against serving food to Brahmins or anybody else in
the outer yard on the day the ritual is held.
It has also been decided to
ensure that the temple does not encourage, sponsor or permit
pankthi bedha (caste discrimination while serving food).
The low-caste and other believers thrashed him (and dumped him
over a Banana Leaf--I just made it up). I am sure the
thrashers were not Brahmins, because they, by tradition, are pacific
people and do not believe in violence. Another reason I believe the
miscreants are not Brahmins is that a Brahmin touching a Pariah is
unheard of unless the Brahmin is a physician. Oh, I see, the
dissenter can be hit with a stick; that is non-polluting to the
hitter. The business end of the stick is polluted and the other end
is not. The bare-chested hitter here is not a Brahmin, Ksatriya or
Vaisya because I do not see a sacred thread across his chest. My
assessment is that the man was beaten by fellow caste members, who
go along with the custom. I doubt brahmin shed his sacred thread and
caste mark, took the stick and smote the low-caste protestor. It is
unlikely that the perpetrators were instigated by the Brahmins. No
Brahmin compelled any non-Brahmin or Dalit to show up and roll over
the Banana leaves. They were free to stay home. They are other
castes below Brahmins but above the Dalits. He filed a complaint
with the police against the bare-chested and non-threaded
thrasher-in-chief, the cohorts and the minister and vowed to take
the case to the Supreme Court.
"While the ritual itself was sickening, Karnataka Chief Minister
Sadanand Gowda's response clearly indicted that he would not be the
one to crack down on such inhuman practice.
Instead of condemning the practice, Gowda said it was typical
ritual that has been going on for several years. He said he would
look into the matter and a decision on discontinuing it would be
taken only after consultations."
"How can the government promote discrimination based on caste?
The Brahmins are served food in a separate dining hall while people
representing other castes are served food in the general dining
hall. Then, these people roll over the leftovers of the Brahmins.
This is ridiculous. It is happening right under the nose of the
government," political historian Dr A. Veerappa said.
The practice is called
December 1, 2011.
I saw in the villages and towns in the 40s,
50s... that Banana leaf was used as kind of non-stick bed sheet for
a person who had burns, small pox, and or festering and oozing skin
diseases. The Banana leaf is spread on the floor or bed smeared with
oil and the patient with burns and or sticky and oozing skin disease
was laid over it. The modern petroleum-laden dressing over burns:
fugetaboutit. This Banana and Oil bed sheet was superior because
patients did recover from their diseases. But I don't recommend
asking a Brahmin to spit on the poor patient though a Brahmin's
saliva is believed curative for skin diseases.
Let us take a hypothetical brahmin
dermatologist. He stands on a raised platform in his office. The
patients are lined up in another room; fees are collected from
fee-for-service patients; others make a co-payment and give
insurance information; the patients walk into the office one by one;
the doctor spits on the patient; the patient walks out of the room;
a week later he is all cured. The doctor keeps a lemon sucker and a
bottle of water by his side; whenever he runs out of saliva, he
drinks water and sucks on the lemon and the saliva comes in
profusion. The doctor is a considerate man (because he took the
Hippocratic oath); he renders free service to indigent patients. All
he needs in his medical armamentarium is a mouthful of saliva, water
and a lemon, lime or a pickle bottle. The high-caste Hindus have a
separate room to assemble and a separate session for salivary
treatment. The caste Hindus receiving salivary splatter
objected mixing with the Dalits. The organizers set up two adjoining
rooms, one for the Dalits and Tribals and the other for the caste
Hindus. The middle of the separating wall accommodates a revolving
chair on a platform that can face one or the other room simply by
rotation. The good doctor simply rotates the chair to render
salivary treatment to the Dalits and the Tribals and then again
rotates to come back to the room with caste Hindus.
The fourth tier caste, a notch above the
untouchables, Sudra is vilified in Dharmasutras.
Translation by Patrick Olivelle. page 269, verse 6.26:Among all my
worthy of receiving gifts, the most worthy is the man
into whose stomach the food of a Sudra has never entered. 6.27: If a
Brahmin dies with food of a Sudra in his stomach, will be reborn as
a village pig or in the family of that Sudra. 6.28. Such a Brahmana
does not find the celestial path. 6.29.
If such a
has sex soon after eating, his sons will belong to the
and he will not go to heaven.
I thought postprandial sex is a common
occurrence in the offices in the west; I never knew Vedic Brahmanas
were mixing Sandhyavandanam (worship) with sex. If it did not
happen, why would Dharamasutras make a mention of it?
I have seen in Indian villages men from
oppressed castes chasing to kill feral pigs for a community meal.
According to Hindu Sacred Texts, these feral pigs might have been
Brahmins who ate food from a Sudra in their past lives. Now the
Oppressed in the name of Sudras are exacting their revenge, if you
believe in reincarnation. Brahmins are Numero Uno and the Sudras are
4th down in the layered cake and the Dalits or the Oppressed is
outside the inane caste system.
Why is it that we all harp on Gotra, birth
star....? Do we really believe in Sapta Rishis who were purported to be
the head honchos with superior cojones to have disseminated their
respective Y-Chromosomes and started the inane Gotras. Yes, there were
Rishis or seers in India, who were not the mind-born sons of Brahma, but
were womb-born like everybody else. What is this all about Vaidika and
Laukika Gotras? I must admit that Gotra consideration prevented
proscribed marriage within the same Y-chromosome-dependent Gotra. Do you
know of any Gotra member attain Moksha or even college admission on the
strength of his high Gotra? I bet the interviewers in college
admissions panel did not ask for Gotra. May be, they should so they can
choose the lowest Laukika Gotra candidate from among candidates
otherwise equally eligible for the seat. Science tells us that the first
man and first woman were Africans (African Adam and Eve) and
definitely not Sapta Rishis, the mind-born sons of Brahma. We are all
Africans first and then only the other mutated races. The African lurks
even in the lily white with blond hair, blue eyes, peachy peach skin....
Why then perpetuate this myth? Even the educated and the enlightened
announce their Gotras.... The VIPs and the High and the low Govt.
officials announce their Gotra, when they go to temple to offer prayers.
If one were a high Government official or a minister, he or she would
look stupid for not knowing, when the priest asks for the name,
Nakashatra and Gotra. People say it is all tradition. When the Dalit
minister goes to the temple, every priest and the congregation know who
he is. They dare not eject him for he may be the minister for Hindu
religious and charitable endowments. When the priest asks him for his
Gotra, Birth star etc, he appears confused because he is outside the
caste system. What malefic spell cast on a noble soul, who comes in the
form of a Dalit, a product of crafty artifice. In real life story, a
Brahmin priest carried a devout Dalit on his back to the inner sanctum
upon the command of the Lord in the Brahmin's dream. What Gotra and Kula
does Siva belong to? If God Himself has no Gotra (Siva is Akula, not
sakti = not having any power.), why do ordinary Karma-bound earthlings
take pride in spurious Gotra appellations? Of course, Daksa did not
think much of his son-in-law Siva because He lived in cremation grounds,
begged for food and ate out of a skull bone. Even worse, Daksa called
Siva a Sudra. How low can you get? That is hitting below the belt. When
God Himself is denigrated and beaten down to the ground, mortals should
know the stupidity of the caste system.
Here is a brahmin (not a Brahmana) introducing
himself to others about his high birth and the eminent Seers belonging
to His Gotra and the rest. A Brahmin of Vedic Times or an Atavistic
Brahmin of today introduces himself in a snobbish, pompous,
highfaluting, superior-than-thou flamboyance, whereby he diminishes
everyone around. A Dalit is already diminished for no fault of his; you
can't take him down any further. To say that Great Rishis born of Brahma
belong to his Gotra is to append greatness to his name by invoking the
names of the Saptarishis of spurious bygone era. That is name-dropping
of spurious kind. Why would not every one stand on his own intrinsic
merit? You have the mouth of a brahmin but not the feet of a Sudra.
Even a genuine Brahmana (Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Ramana Maharishi...)
whom we all revere, respect and look up to, cannot honestly and
does not claim heredity, sampradaya or parampara from the Great Rishis.
That kind of pompous claim is antithetical to being a Brahmana.
A Brahmin is born of God's mouth, a Ksatriya of His
shoulders, a Vaisya of his thighs and a Sudra of His feet. If that is
so, where do the Dalits and the Tribals come from? They are real people
and should have come from somewhere. What about all the foreigners who
are the degraded Mlecchas according Hindu sacred lore.
The full affiliation of a brāhamana consists of
(1) gotra, (2) pravaras (3) sutra (of Kalpa), (4) shakha.
(Example :) A brahmana named 'X' introduces
himself as follows : I am 'X', of Shrivatsa gotra, of Āpastamba sutra,
of Taittiriya shākha of Yajurveda, of five pravaras (the most excellent
Seers) named Bhārgava, Chyāvana, Āpnavan, Aurva and Jāmadagnya (This
example is based upon the example given by Pattābhirām Shastri in the
introduction to Vedārtha-Pārijata, cf. ref.).
Here I am, a pallid pensioner compared to the
(I am Veeraswamy
Krishnaraj, claim my ancestry from African Adam and Eve, and wear
Indo-European genes; no eminent seer or seers have the distinction to
belong to my nondescript ancestry, heredity and circumstance. I don't
claim high Gotra, eminent Pravaras, Sutra or Shaka). What you see is
what you get.
Take the Master Painters
of the West. They painted Adam and Eve in their image: tall, handsome,
very white.... I heard some say they are with the angels while (they
said) others were with apes. We all heard that time and again. The very
idea that other people belonged to category of apes did not impress on
them that their own forefathers were apes, monkeys or whatever.
On the other hand, does it really matter that a
person invokes cognate but mythical lineage from non-existent
Brahma-born Saptarishis or claims a proximate affiliation with the
angels? It does not matter. This is all a case of benign sometimes
malignant self-massaging of one's ego.
Gotras go the way of Gomūtra
= cow's urine)
In a court case "Madhavrao
vs Raghavendrarao" which involved a Deshastha
Brahmin couple, the German scholar Max Mueller's definition of gotra as
descending from eight sages and then branching out to several families
was thrown out by reputed judges of a Bombay High Court.
The court called the idea of Brahmin families descending from an
unbroken line of common ancestors as indicated by the names of their
respective gotras impossible to accept.
The court consulted relevant Hindu texts and stressed the need for Hindu
society and law to keep up with the times emphasizing that notions of
good social behavior and the general ideology of the Hindu society had
changed. The court also said that the mass of material in the Hindu
texts is so vast and full of contradictions that it is almost an
impossible task to reduce it to order and coherence.--Wikipedia.
By the way, the judges were staunch Hindus.
Out of Africa
According to the Out-of-Africa model, developed by
Chris Stringer and Peter Andrews, modern H. sapiens
evolved in Africa 200,000 years ago. Homo sapiens began
migrating from Africa between 70,000 50,000 years ago and
eventually replaced existing hominid species in Europe and Asia.
Out of Africa has gained support from research using female
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the male Y chromosome. After analysing
genealogy trees constructed using 133 types of mtDNA, researchers
concluded that all were descended from a woman from Africa, dubbed
Mitochondrial Eve. Out of Africa is also supported by the fact
that mitochondrial genetic diversity is highest among African
4.13: I founded (created) the four-fold order of
Varna according to guna and karma - fundamental quality and work. Though
I am the founder, know me thou as unable to act or change.
The emphasis is on Guna and Karma and not on birth.
Gunas dictate and determine which caste a person belongs to.
Some reputable Hindu scholars have mentioned that
many sacred texts have interpolations.
Could this be one of those
It is quite
possible that this verse is an interpolation. There are very many
so-called sacred texts written by men and falsely attributed to God.
that Krishna Paramatma Himself uttered these verse, let us analyze them.
Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sūdra, O
Parantapa, and their activities are divided according to their own
nature born of their own Gunas.
Caste is not being but
(There is clear evidence here that the Varna system, commonly
called caste division, is based not on birth but on the content of
Definition: Vipra, Brahmana, and Brahmin:
Vipra is one who has
learnt the Vedas and
Brahmana is he who knows
the Brahman. --Page 250, The Ten Sacraments
by Sir John Woodroffe.
By this definition, very few of the so-called
Twice-born qualify for these appellations. A
Brahmin claims birth
in Brahmana caste, but neither learnt the Vedas, nor realized God or
Brahman. Exceptions and examples: Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Ramana
self-control, austerity, purity, patience, honesty, knowledge,
wisdom, and belief in God are the duty of the Brāhmana
born of his own nature.
is how a Brahmana is measured, not by birth.--Krishnaraj
|18.43: Heroism, power,
determination, resourcefulness, not fleeing from the battle,
generosity, and leadership are the duty of Kshatriya born of his own
|18.44: Cultivation, cow
protection, and trade are the duty of Vaishya, born of his own (Vaishya)
nature. Duty of Sudra is of the nature of service (to other three),
born of his own nature. (Cow protection is rearing of cattle.)
|18.45: Devoted to his own
duty, man attains perfection. Hear now as to how he engaged in his
own duty attains perfection.
Srivaishnavas do not entertain caste feelings in their
dealings with others, but it is not difficult to find some rule
Krishnan Swamy, the
foremost among the present Acharyas, emphasizes on Bhakti, Varna and
Asrama, and Sikhai. Brahmins in dedicated pursuit of moolah (money)
do not wear the tuft, and sporadically and waveringly practice Varna
and Asrama and Bhakti. I have not seen a tuft wearing CEO. There are
noble Brahmanas of egalitarian type as exemplified by Sri Krishnan
The Tuft (குடுமி) is a
bunch of hair strands perched and anchored on the posterior Fontanel
area (= the occiput) left behind after a shiny close tonsure of the
rest of the head and corresponds to Bindu in the brain or the
Sahasrara. It is worn by celibate monks and temple priests. Bindu is
not an anatomical part of the brain.
Think of Bindu as Singularity with no dimension,
from which everything proceeds. Nada and Bindu are the progenitors
of Tattvas, the building blocks of the universe. In Srivaishnava
tradition, the triad is composed of Isvara, Cit and Acit.
Krishnan Swamy in answer to question
to remain in our mind, we need to follow
It is only these acharams that purify our mind and nurture bhakti.
But for them we would get contaminated. A college principal cannot
say that I care for only marks and not for your dress, or behaviour
in the college. 2. Yes God says that performing one's
is the only way to please Him. He mentions that those who disobey
His commands in the form of sruti and smruti are His enemies. 3.
is the best form suitable for mental health considering the nervous
4. When you have faith in these, kindly brush aside the ignorant
arguments. Do not waste time in them.
Explanation of terms by
= devotion (to Narayana)
ஆசாரம் = acharyam2
Conducting oneself according to the dictates of the āstras.
= four principal classes described in Manu's code: Brahmanas,
Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras; Caste; Jati.
= stages in the life of a Brahman: Brahmacharin [student of Veda],
Griha-stha [householder], vAnaprastha [anchorite], Samnyasin
[abandoner of all worldly concerns]. --Monier Williams dictionary.
cikai = Sikhai4,
n. < ikhā. குடுமி
Tuft of hair on the
crown and other parts of the head. In this instance, the head is
shaved on the top and sides. In another instance, the frontal area
is shaved. In another, a tuft of hair is seen on the posterior
fontanel area. see the pictures
The tuft is knowledge (Jnana).
In Saiva tradition hair-tuft is the corporeal equivalent of
Tirodhana or Veiling power of Siva, whereby Siva conceals Divine
Knowledge and Grace until the soul sheds its impurities.
(Lokadharmini) is a mode
of initiation in which the hair tuft which represents the Veiling
Energy is not removed for the worldly minded disciple.
(Sivadarmini) is a mode of initiation accompanied by the removal of
hair-tuft on the head, upon acquisition of spiritual knowledge. The
area of the tuft on the head corresponds to Bindu center inside the
head. Inside Bindu, Moon secretes Amrta or nectar. This nectar comes
and has its origin in Sahasrara Chakra, the abode of Cosmic
Consciousness. The Universal Pure Consciousness becomes dilute as it
comes down and individual consciousness takes shape in Bindu Visarga.
Between Bindu and Vishuddha Chakra, there is a repository for the
nectar in the vicinity of nasopharynx. This nectar should not be
mistaken for postnasal drip. This reservoir,
Lalana Chakra or
Talumula is stimulated by the long tongue (Khechari Mudra) that
folds back into the nasopharnx and can occlude the Ida and Pingala
Nadis (posterior Choanae-opening in the back of the nostrils). The
stimulation helps the
Chakra empty the nectar into the
Chakra, which processes the nectar and separates the pure form from
the poison. The pure
form promotes health, longevity, and regeneration of the body.
Vishuddha Chakra neutralizes the poison. Khechari Mudra involves
folding back of the tongue released from its anterior anchor by
cutting the frenulum at the bottom of the tongue and pulling the
tongue over many months to elongate it so that it can fold back and
reach the openings at the back of the nose. This Mudra helps the
tongue taste the nectar from the Bindu Visarga and Lalana reservoir.
Yogis say that they can live on air and nectar.
An auspicious procedure in Saiva tradition
is wearing one bead on the tuft, thirty on the head, 50 around the
neck, 16 around the arm on each side, 12 around each wrist 500 on
the shoulders 3 strings of 108 beads each worn as the sacred thread.
He who wears all these 1000 beads and performs rites punctiliously
is worthy of worship like Rudra.
Others say that Bindu
exists in the back of the head (brain) which corresponds to the area
of the head where the Brahmins and Hare Krishnas keep their tuft of
= Brahma's gate, aperture, or opening corresponding to
anterior fontanel area of the head--Soft spot on the infant's head.
This opening is the entry and exit point of the soul in an
individual. It is said that the soul of good people exit by this
aperture; those of evil people exit 'in the same manner as the
excreta'. Some believe that the soul exiting the body by the feet go
to Vishnu; by the Brahmarandhra to Brahma; and by the eyes to Agni
or Fire god. Brahma writes the destiny of a child on his or her
forehead on the 6th day after birth; this squiggly line on the skull
is Brahmarekha (Brahma's line), commonly known as sutures of the
skull by anatomists.
Katha Upanishad Section 2 on
Individual Self mentions that
there are in the body-city 11 gates--ekAdasa-dvAram.
Bhagavadgita 5.13 says:
The embodied soul, while controlling
all his activities, renouncing them in his mind, and remaining in
happiness in the city of nine gates,
neither works nor causes
gates in the city of the body: They are two eyes, two
ears, two nostrils, one mouth, one anus, and one generative organ
(phallus or vagina). In all humility, I want to mention that the
female has another opening superior to vagina, known as urethra. In
man, penis is a generative organ and urinary passage in one. In
females, the vaginal passage and urinary passage are separate; thus
the female has 10 openings, while male has nine openings.
top of these nine gates in man there are two more: the navel and the
saggital suture on the skull. That is 11 in man and 12 in females.
The soul passes up the Susumna Nadi and escapes through BR in good
people and true SriVaishnavites. The sagittal suture is
Brahmarandhra through which the soul, dwelling in the heart, escapes
upon physical death. The good soul takes the path of Light [ArchirAdi
MArga] to the sun and on its way to the world of Brahma Loka,
Satyaloka, Vaikuntam from which there is no return. The souls that
took the path of Smoke [DhUmAdi MArga] return back to the world of
Gita Chapter 18 Verse 41:
Gita C18V41 Lord Krishna states:
Ksatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras, O Parantapa, are separated by the
gunas Sattva, Rajas, Tamas born of their own nature.
The Uddhava Gita Verse 12.16 says,
disposition of a Brahmin should be to control the manas and Indriyas
(mind and senses), meditate on Isvara, observe purity, live
contented, exercise compassion, abide in Truth, renounce, walk a
straight path, and remain devoted to the Supreme.
The Uddhava Gita
Verse 12.41 says acceptance of
gifts by a Brahmin for performing sacrificial rites is antithetical to
austerity, independence, and reputation. He should use only the grain
gleaned from previously harvested fields.
Vivekanada says about Ksatriyas (kings) and Brahmana priests.
What business had the priests to interfere (to the misery of millions
of human beings) in every social matter?
You speak of the meat-eating Kshatriya.
Meat or no meat, it is they who are the fathers of
all that is noble and beautiful in Hinduism.
Who wrote the Upanishads?
Who was Rama? Who was Krishna? Who was Buddha? Who
were the Tirthankaras of the Jains? Whenever the Kshatriyas have
preached religion, they have given it to everybody; and whenever the
Brahmins wrote anything, they would deny all right to others.
Read the Gita and the Sutras of
Vyasa*, or get someone to read them to you. In the Gita the
way is laid open to all men and women, to all caste and colour, but
Vyasa tries to put meanings upon the Vedas to
cheat the poor Shudras. Is God a nervous fool like you that the
flow of His river of mercy would be dammed up by a piece of meat? If
such be He, His value is not a pie!
There is one thing that is certain; if there were no Brahmanas, Hindu
religion will be unrecgnizable something else; to that extant Brahmanas
(not Brahmins) deserve a universal sky-high credit from all people of
A List of Brahmin Communities
Compiled by Vikas Kamat
First Online: April 01, 2003
Page Last Updated: January 02, 2012
The following is a list of Brahmin communities of India.
It is documented here for anthropological research purposes. Where
available, links to related pictures and topics on the particular
community are provided. Please suggest additions/corrections to
Adi Goud Ahiwasi Brahmins
Babburkamme Smartha Brahmins
Badagnadu Smartha Brahmins
Barendra Brahmins of Bengal
Bhargava Brahmins of Bundelkhand and Madhya
Devrukhe Brahmins of Konkan region in
Dravida Brahmins (originally from Tamilandu,
migrated to parts of Godavari and Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh)
Embranthiri Brahmins of Kerala
Gouda Saraswat Brahmins
Gurukkal or Shivacharya Brahmins
Halenadu Karnataka Brahmins, also known as
Muguru Karnataka Brahmins
Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins
Kanyakubj or Kanaujia Brahmins
Karhada or Karade Brahmins of Karhad region
Kashmiri Saraswats or Kashmiri Pundits
Khajuria or Dogra Brahmins of Jammu
Konkanastha or Chitpavan Brahmins
Konkani Saraswat Brahmins
Nandimukh or Nandwana Brahmins of Gujarat
and Rajasthan area.
Naramdeo or Narmdiya Brahmins
Pottee Brahmins of Kerala
Punjabi Saraswat Brahmins
Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins
Rahri Brahmins of Rahr region of Bengal
Rigvedi Deshastha Brahmins
Sadotra Brahmins of Jammu
Sanadhya Brahmins mainly of western Uttar
Sarypari Brahmins of Eastern Uttar Pradesh
and Madhya Pradesh
Sirinadu Smartha Brahmins
Suryadwij Brahmins (of Kota region in
Thenkalai (a.k.a.Thengalai) Iyengars
Vaidik or Vaidiki Brahmins
Yajurvedi Deshastha Brahmins
The Tribal neglect in India from the days of Mahabarata to today.
The Bhagavadgita teaching is all are equal;
the practice is all are unequal.
विद्याविनयसंपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि ।
शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः ॥५- १८॥
vidyāvinayasaṁpanne brāhmaṇe gavi hastini
śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ samadarśinaḥ 5.18
= The learned ones;
= see with
equal view [eye]; brāhmaṇe4
= on a Brahmana; vidya1
= endowed with knowledge and humility =
= on a cow;
= on the dog;
= and surely;
= on the
A punditah (sage) regards (sees) with an equal eye a learned
humble Brahmin, a cow, an elephant, a dog, and even a dog-eater.
--Bhagavan Krishna in Bhagavad Gita
As it may surprise many, India--as Americas are--is a nation of
immigrants going back several thousand years. India is the true
melting pot and a polygenic DNA Soup. The tribal people are the
original inhabitants scattered all over India even to the present
day. The Dravidians and the Indo-Aryans were the immigrants in that
order. From time immemorial, the Tribals suffered in the hands of
the immigrants. At all times, the immigrants entertained benign
neglect or discriminated against, injured, and prevented advancement
of the Tribals. In real life, there is a lot genetic mix and
mash seen on the faces of many Indians, who do not fall into neat
The Brahmin, the
Indo-Aryan and the Tribal of Mahabarata.
Excerpt from Hindu Jan 13 2011.
well-known example of injustice to tribals is the story of Eklavya (Tribal)
in the Adiparva of the Mahabharata. Eklavya wanted to learn archery,
but Dronacharya (Bharadwaja
refused to teach him, regarding him as lowborn. Eklavya then built a
statue of Dronacharya and practised archery before the statue. He
would have perhaps become a better archer than Arjun (Indo-Aryan),
but since Arjun was Dronacharya's favourite pupil Dronacharya told
Eklavya to cut off his right thumb and give it to him as guru
dakshina (gift to the teacher given traditionally by the student
after his study is complete). In his simplicity Eklavya did what he
This was a
shameful act on the part of Dronacharya. He had not even taught
Eklavya, so what right had he to demand guru dakshina, and
that too of the right thumb of Eklavya so that the latter may not
become a better archer than his favourite pupil Arjun?
Despite this horrible
oppression on them, the tribals of India have generally (though not
invariably) retained a higher level of ethics than the non-tribals.
They normally do not cheat or tell lies, or commit other misdeeds,
which many non-tribals do. They are generally superior in character
It is time now to undo the
historical injustice to them.
India's Supreme Court
Instances like the one with which we are concerned in this case
deserve total condemnation and harsh punishment.
Vyasa was born of a
Brahmana father and a non-Aryan mother.
Facts and a little parody If you see some apparent irreverence,
it makes it all the more enjoyable.
At the end of the
article, a definition of Brahmin (Brahmana) is given. The verses
were uttered by the Buddha (a prince before He became the Buddha)
was gathered from several sources.
Ramanuja, Kanchipurna, Ambedkar, Narayana, Andal, Nammalvar, Panalvar,
Vivekananda. what is their Varna? Is it by birth
or by attributes? Which is it? Now it is becoming increasingly
apparent that it is the attributes that make a Brahmin, as originally
intended and advocated by Lord Krishna.
The president, Dr. Kalam, is a
Muslim; the Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, is a Sikh; there are
Dalits (the oppressed or untouchables) in the legislature, parliament,
and ministries; India is showing signs of equality of races and castes.
Sonya Gandhi, if she wished, could have been the Prime Minister.
Gujarat government cited its two-decade old notification which says the
Modh-Ghanchi (oil-pressers) caste, to which Modi belongs,
was inlcuded in Other Backward Castes (OBCs) categories. "The Social
Welfare Department of the Gujarat Government has passed a notification
on July 25, 1994 which included 36 castes as OBCs and at number 25(b)
Modh-Ghanchi caste has been mentioned to which Narendra Modi belongs.
The caste has been included amongst OBCs," Nitin Patel, the state
government's spokesperson, said. Updated on May 8, 2015
The pernicious casteism spreads
to USA among upper-caste Indians.
NYTimes reports in the METRO section
on 10/24/2004 the following: Mr. Daniel, former director of Columbia's
South Asian Institute, told of the resistance he faced among upper-caste
Indians on an academic committee when he wanted to name an endowed chair
in Indian political economics after a noted untouchable, Dr. B.R.
Ambedkar, a Columbia graduate who helped draft the Indian
Constitution, which decades ago abolished caste system." Article in NYT:
Family Ties and the
Pressure to Live an Outmoded Tradition
(1863-1902) the disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa came to Chennai
(formerly Madras) and talked about Atman, Brahman, Reality, inane caste
system and untouchability. The pernicious, calcified, ossified and
petrified orthodox Brahmins of Madras of yore threw verbal barbs without
touching him; they called him a Sudra. They asked him in a pointblank
in-your-face verbal assault (physicality is out of question; touch is
defiling) how a Sudra like him could become a Sannyasi. A Sudra can be
householder but not a Sannyasi according to the Brahmanical canons
(cannons) of Varnasrama Dharma. Vivekananda tried his best to convince
the irate Brahmins that Sannyasa is open to anyone with proper
qualification. They saw no reason. Vivekananda loaded his verbal gun
with enough powder and pellets and fired it on the pack of Brahmins by
saying, "You the Brahmins of Madras, you are the pariahs of the
By the way,
even pariah sheds his bondage and obtains liberation when he mentions
the Lord's name, Narayana, once. (Bhagavata Purana 5.1.35)
Swami Vivekananda actually belongs to Kayastha
- The Kayasthas have sprung from the
kaya or body of Lord Brahma. They are similar in
rank to Brahmans.
Krishnaraj: Brahmanas are born from the mouth and thus Kayasthas
originating from the body cannot really be called Brahmanas.
- I am the descendant of that great man at whose feet every
Brahmin bows his head.
- Comment by Krishnaraj:
kAya = काय in
Sanskrit and காயம் (KAyam) in Tamil refer to body; காயம் has other
Going by present knowledge, genetics and evolution, the origin
of the castes from various body parts of a deity appears
unscientific and open for question. That being so, You, I, He and
She are not born from the various body parts of the deity. Our true
ancestors - that is of the humanity- are the African Adam and
African Eve in scientific and genetic terms. Why are we still
insisting that we have the supreme halo of the Saptarishis and their
disciples as our ancestors. This gotra game is self-cheating,
self-aggrandizing, self-elevating, self-important put-down of other
This was the same man who came to the
west later and addressed The World's Parliament of Religions
Chicago, 11th September 1893, "Sisters and Brothers of America." The
recalcitrant Brahmins of Madras of yore saw their stupidity and
ineptitude and had a change of heart, after the intelligentsia of the
world first and later India recognized his greatness.
Swami Vivekanda says the
following to his listeners in America (26th September, 1893):
"The religion of the Hindus is divided into two
parts: The ceremonial and the spiritual.
The spiritual portion is specially studied by the
monks. In that there is no caste. A man from the highest caste and a man
from the lowest may become a monk in India, and the two castes become
equal. In religion there is no caste; caste is simply a social
institution." Another blow to Manu; one-two punch; down goes Manu. Manu
is the ancient man who wrote "The Laws of Manu" which codified men into
castes. Dr. Ambedkar, who wrote the constitution of India, burnt a copy
of 'The Laws of Manu and converted to Buddhism.
My comment: What
is amazing is even now there are religious heads who profess, practice,
support, and enforce Varnasrama Dharma. Dharma label does not make it
sacred or the word of god. It is a misnomer in this context; Dharma
cannot be conjoined with Varnasrama; they are poles apart. How could
there be justice (Dharma) based on caste, color, race, creed...?
Krishna's words on Varnasrama are twisted, tortured and molded to fit
their cast and caste. Those words may not be those of Bhagavan Krishna.
is not thrilled about the hereditary Gurudom in India: the father Guru
passing on the mantle to the son. Read what Vivekananda says about
pseudo-Gurus and real Gurus.
One more idea. There is a peculiar
custom in Bengal, which they call Kula - guru, or hereditary Guruship.
"My father was your Guru, now I shall be your Guru. My father was the
Guru of your father, so shall I be yours." What is a Guru? Let us go
back to the Shrutis --"He who knows the secret of the Vedas", not
bookworms, not grammarians, not Pandits in general, but he who knows the
meaning. [Sanskrit]--"An ass laden with a load of sandalwood knows only
the weight of the wood, but not its precious qualities"; so are these
Pandits. We do not want such. What can they teach if they have no
realisation? When I was a boy here, in this city of Calcutta, I used to
go from place to place in search of religion, and everywhere I asked the
lecturer after hearing very big lectures, "Have you seen God?" The man
was taken aback at the idea of seeing God; and the only man who told me,
"I have", was Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, and
not only so, but he said, "I will put you in the way of seeing Him too".
The Guru is not a man who twists and tortures
texts. [Sanskrit]--"Different ways of throwing out words,
different ways of explaining texts of the scriptures, these are for the
enjoyment of the learned, not for freedom." Shrotriya, he who knows the
secret of the Shrutis, Avrijina, the sinless, and Akamahata, unpierced
by desire -- he who does not want to make money by
teaching you -- he is the Shanta, the Sadhu, who comes as the
spring which brings the leaves and blossoms to various plants but does
not ask anything from the plant, for its very nature is to do good. It
does good and there it is. Such is the Guru, [Sanskrit]--"Who has
himself crossed this terrible ocean of life, and without any idea of
gain to himself, helps others also to cross the ocean." This is the
Guru, and mark that none else can be a Guru, for [Sanskrit]--"Themselves
steeped in darkness, but in the pride of their hearts, thinking they
know everything, the fools want to help others, and they go round and
round in many crooked ways, staggering to and fro, and thus like the
blind leading the blind, both fall into the ditch." Thus say the Vedas."
Purusasūkta of Rg
Veda [(Purusa = man, heavenly man + Sukta = Vedic hymn) = The
Purusa Hymn or Hymn of Rg Veda)]. It contains the revealed wisdom,
cosmogony, race, color, and origin of man.
and separation of the Hindu man /woman into four classes (Brahmana,
Ksatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra) and its origin can be traced back to
According to the
Tantrics, generally man is divided into three types: Divine man, Hero,
and Animal (Divya, Vira, and Pasu). Tantric classification takes
the whole human race into consideration in this classification. Tantrics
do not, by their tenets and precepts, practice discrimination by caste.
And yet you can see some remnants of Brahmanical system even among
is man, not according to his birth, caste, race... but according to what
Intuitional = pure, untaught,
noninferential knowledge, largely spiritual.
The above chart
illustrates the stages of man in general based on his intrinsic quality
which has seven ranges, five steps or three stages according to the
system of classification.
three kinds: 1. Pasu (animal man), 2. Vira (Hero or man-man), and 3.
Seven stages: anal man, genital man, emotional man, thinking man,
Sattvic man, intuitional man, and Yogi.
Radha: five stages: 1. mineral-man, 2. vegetable-man, 3. animal-man, 4.
man-man, and 5. god-man.
= good, virtuous.... Rajas = motion and passion; Tamas = darkness,
sloth, slumber. Guna = mode, quality, attribute.
W + E + SC = Wealth, Education,
Social Climbing; several degrees of separation from animal man; traces
of Sattva or goodness.
It appears that
Manu's system is based on natal division and comes into conflict with
other Indian systems of classification, which pertain to one's
post-natal behavior and accomplishment. The Non-Aryan system of
classification is much older and robust than the Aryan Manu's decrepit
Saint Ramalingar (1823-1874) of Tamil
Nadu Vellalar caste advanced the following precepts.
have been described as Upper Shudras or Sat-shudras
in the Brahmanical Varna system. The Vellalar community
however never accepted this classification and they have challenged
the Brahmins who described them as shudras
Common titles are
Pillai. When southern parts of Tamilnadu came into the control
Telugu Nayak kings, most Vellalars were employed by them as
accountants, hence they assumed the title Kanakku Pillai, in Kerala
they use the title Karnam Pillai.
1) There is only one God.
2) He is Arut-perum-Jyothi
(God, the great embodiment of effulgent Grace).
3) Do not waste time with
worshipping minor deities.
4) Do not perform animal
5) Do not eat meat, poultry,
fish etc. ("When I see men feeding on the coarse and vicious food of
meat, it is ever-recurring grief to me.")
There should not be any
discrimination based on caste, jati, race and religion.
There should not be any difference among Jatis,
castes and religions.
7) Consider all life
equal to yours; see unity in all beings.
The door to heaven of
happiness opens when you feed the hungry and show mercy.
9) Puranas and Sastras do not
reveal the Ultimate Truth (A fundamental departure from
10) Get rid of bad habits.
11) Do not pierce your ears
and nose (body-piercing). (A 19th century statement is still good
today. are you listening, boys and girls?)
12) Do not take back the
Thali of woman upon her husband's death. (Thāli
= marriage badge (equal to a wedding ring) worn as the neck ornament
by married woman. The badge, usually made of gold, hangs at
the level of the heart from the neck chain.)
13) The dead should be buried
and not cremated.
14) Do not perform funeral
ceremonies and Tithi (Ceremony performed in honor of a deceased
person on the anniversary of his death)
15. Entertain a balanced view
on all matters.
mankind is path of
moksha or Liberation".
Peoples Watch, an NGO, alleged the two-tumbler
system still existed in the village, wherein Dalits and upper caste
people are made to use different tumblers (drinking utensil) in tea
shops and eating joints.
Some people belonging to upper caste attacked Dalits,
including women and children, ransacked their houses and took away
valuables including some jewellery, they said, adding the houses
damaged in the incident included that of the Tamaraikulam Municipal
jewelry is fit for stealing and wearing; but the higher caste thief
won't drink out of the same stainless steel tumbler used by a
though it might have been heat-sterilized.
The Hindu Feb 6, 2011
The one who knows the Imperishable as
Brahman is a Brahmana (Brhad Upanishad 3.8.10). The last statement in
the Upanishad absolutely eliminates any doubt that only Brahmins have
the privilege to know the sacred scriptures and learn about and know
Brahman. The birth caste of a person is irrelevant;
his Guna or
nature is relevant. For Yoga sadhana, a Guru's guidance is recommended.
A Guru transfers spirituality to his pupil by
sparsa (touch), Dharshana (sight),
and Sankalpa (thought). Ramana Maha Rishi
was known to have conveyed his wisdom, grace and bliss just by casting
his eyes on the visitors.
Siva in answer to a question from Parvati
tells her: Veda is not Veda, the eternal Brahma is Veda.
Whosoever knows the Brahma Vidya is a Brahmin,
skilled in the Vedas (Verse 50).
After knowing Brahma Jnana, one is free
from all distinctions of caste (57). Jnana Sankalini Tantra.
A view from the West: Abbe Dubois in his own words
(1770-1848) a Christian Missionary from France was one of the most
astute Hindu watcher in Tamil Nadu, India and an acerbic commentator. He
did feel that Mantras neither induced vibrations nor oscillations of
Spirit nor obtain realm of peace. He most of his time was watching the
Hindus so much so that he did not have time and that he converted in his
own words only "two to three hundred
converts, 2/3rd were 'pariahs' (his words) or beggars and the rest
composed of Sudras, vagrants and outcastes of several tribes." He
was frustrated that Roman Catholicism contaminated with caste system
prevailed among the converts. The converts consulted the astrologers and
purohitas (priests), practiced Hindu manners and customs in marriage. He
had a particular annoyance at the Brahmin community then, whom he
regarded as the sole purveyors of Mantras, which 'enchain
the power of gods themselves.' Gods thus bound by chains were
afraid of Purohitas who declared themselves as
'Brahma gods or gods of the earth.' He quotes a Mantra familiar
Which means, 'The
universe is under the power of gods; the gods are under the power of
Mantrams; the Mantrams are under the power of the Brahmins; therefore
the Brahmins are our gods.'
'The argument is plainly set out, as you may see,
and these modest personages have no scruples about arrogating to
themselves the sublime title of Brahma gods or gods of the earth. When
one points out to the Brahmins that these much-vaunted Mantrams do
not produce startling effects in the present day, they reply that this
must be attributed to the Kali-Yuga, a veritable age of iron when
everything has degenerated.
derides Gayatri Mantra, so highly regarded by Hindus. He observes
derisively that Gayatri Mantram removes the sins
and that gods tremble at it. The Brahmin must make sure that he
always repeats it in a low voice,
that he is not overheard by a Sudra, or even by
his own wife, particularly at the time when she is in a state of
uncleanness (monthly periods). The Mantram should
not be imparted to an unbeliever (like Abbe
Dubois). Page 138-140: Hindu Manners,
Customs and Ceremonies. (Dubois
speaks and writes here in green and I in black.)
Verse 5.10. People in whose homes there are
menstruating women, people who do not maintain the sacred fires, and
people in whose family there hasn't been a Vedic scholar--all these
are equal to Sudras.
Translation by Patrick Olivelle, page 265
The Sudras, the Sutras, the
gotras and the Y chromosome
The Brahma Sutra
devotes a whole section 1.3.34 to 38 on the topic of disqualification of
Sudras for Brahma-knowledge. Janasruti, a previously documented
Ksatriya (warrior caste) but now mistaken for a Sudra (menial worker)
was grief-stricken to hear words of disrespect. Of all birds, a flamingo
derided Janasruti for lack of Brahma-knowledge and he ran to
Raikva in grief. When Raikva saw grief written all over the face
of Janasruti, Raikva called him a Sudra for the word Sudra also means
"grief." That makes every Sudra feel good, for a Sudra it is a
little better to grieve than to heave in pain. The Sudras are
prohibited from offering sacrifices, but not acquiring
Brahma-knowledge. A well-known Sudra of Mahabharata is Vidura,
born of Vyasadeva and a palace maid and is known to have mastered
By the way Sutra
means thread and is cognate with
Suture; in this context Sutra means
means "Cow-pen or Cow-shed" and is of two kinds -
Vaidika and Laukika.
Vaidika is according to the
prescription and the Laukika
worldly, common". In ancient times the extended family members shared
one cowshed and therefore that name stuck. Gotra is a family
tree whose root can be traced to a common ancestor. Since it is
exogamous and patrilineal, it is based on the Y chromosome.
The females claim the gotra of father, and of husband after
marriage. A man can not marry a woman of the same gotra. But a
male can marry a woman of the same gotra at least seven degrees removed
from his father. The Vaidika
Gotra members trace their lineage from high priests and renowned
Rishis, namely Bharadvaja,
(SaptaRishis) and more (Atharvan, Angiras, Bhrgu). Strictly
speaking only Brahmanas can claim a gotra. The Ksatriyas and
others can not claim any such medallion or pendant, simply because they
are not cognate to the original Brahmana Rishis and for that
reason they are categorized in the laukika (mundane) variety. There were
exceptions: Visvamitra and
Vasistha, both Ksatriyas by birth
performed tapas ( austerity) and were accepted as Brahmanas. Mundane
gotra members are defined as non-cognate followers of a
succession of disciples of the original Priests and Rishis.
There is no genetic or Y chromosome connection here between the mundane
gotra members and the original Progenitors listed above. Y
chromosome is transferred intact from father to son. The only way
to resolve the dispute is to perform DNA analysis of Y Chromosome in
males, and Mitochondrial DNA of all people and find out the common
denominator or tree structure in Vaidika and Laukika Brahmins, Ksatriyas,
Vaisyas, and Sudras. Additional benefit would be finding any
strays among other castes who belong to Brahmana caste and strays who
are Non-Brahmins among Brahmana caste by the strength of DNA analysis.
It is a known finding that Brahmins by and large belong to Eurasian
genetic pool and are closer to Europeans than to ancient people of
India. Ramanuja took in his fold a lot of Jains and non-Brahmins;
genetically there is a mingling between the Brahmins of yore and the
neo-Brahmins of post-Ramanuja period. The Brahmins are not as pure as
they think they are. There are whites in USA who have sickle cell trait
or even disease, though they have all the conventional features of white
people. Does it all mean anything? Claim of superiority by race, color
or caste is for the weak, who has no other flotation device in this sea
of Samsara; he or she clutches on the straw of race, color or caste to
claim superiority in a roiling sea, where intellect, prudence, patience,
tolerance, compassion, sympathy, and empathy are the flotation devices.
Bigotry, arrogance, false sense of superiority, and inhumanity are the
dead weights that sink the soul, body, and mind into the abyss of
Sri U. Ve Velukkudi Krishnan Swamy
The combination of rishis
, pravara and gothra make every lineage unique. So we need to avoid
spouse of same gothram only. For that matter all rishis were born
from Brahma and so we would all belong to one father including
saraswati the consort of Brahma.
Comment by Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
Sri Krishnan Swamy is
a Srivaishnavite of first order today (April, 2010). He is a strict
Srivaishnava constructionist and adheres to its tenets and precepts
without any deviation or exegesis. His knowledge, sincerity of
purpose and devotion are unquestionable. And yet the above statement
in one part conflicts with scientific evidence. It appears to me
that Gotra has a geographical confinement to India. What Gotra, the
people in the rest of the world belong to? Bhagavan Krishna
talks about Varna (Castes). I am not sure He talks about Gotra. It
serves a good purpose in that marriage between same Gotra members is
prohibited thus ensuring genetic diversity and avoiding in-breeding.
Do the Chinese attribute their descent from Brahma and the Sapta
rishis? How about the evangelical Christians, who call all these
Gotras are mumbo Jumbo.
Africans, no matter what your race, color or caste is. No Escape Clause
Mitochondrial DNA can trace mother backwards
to the African Eve. The first man and the first woman are Africans; one
cannot wash that off from one's genes, body, mind and soul.
If modern science and genealogy are any guide,
where do Saptarishis fit in? Why are the Brahmins and the priests play
this Gotra Game? It is the tradition which perpetuates the feigned
superiority of high birth, high Gotra and doubtful mythical lineage to
prop something that does not exist in real-life genetics.
The SaptaRishis were the original Rishis, most
favored by the gods and were saved at the time of the Great Deluge by
Lord Vishnu by taking them on to a floatation device. These seven
Rishis are seven stars forming the Great Bear in the sky.
Rig Veda says that Rishis came from all castes.
That being so, let us embrace this delightful multi-chromatic
mom doesn't know my Gotra.
Jabala, the poor boy goes to Gautama
for Brahma-knowledge. Gautama, a man way ahead of his time, asks him
what his gotra is. The youngster born of a maid working in a travel
lodge (eons ago) admits to his indeterminate status (Nirkkottiram =
நிர்கோத்திரம்) Gautama immediately puts his trust on his honesty and
truth and takes him as a pupil. The lesson here is that the content of
his character rather than his birth or gotra determines his caste. The
Sudra fortunately originated from a body part of the Lord, namely the
feet, at which all the Alwars worshipped. At the feet of Lord Krishna,
the Alwars, the Sudras, and the twice-born see eye to eye. That is
நிர்கோத்திரம் = nirkkōttiram
, n. < nir- gōtra. The state of belonging to no family. See
கோத்திரமின்மை. (சிலப். 10, 188, உரை.)
power-grubbing lesser gods cause all the trouble.
wealth, service and justice are the cornerstones of a society.
Brahman establishes order through varnasrama dharma.
Brhad-Aaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 - 17: In the very
beginning there was Brahman, who "became all". Becoming all means that
he is the Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaishya and Sudra -the priestly class, the
warriors, the traders and the nourishers, (including the Dalits, the
Tribals, the Mlecchas and the rest of the human race). The gods,
seers and men who "knew" this became Brahman themselves. Whoever
thinks that he and Brahman are separate and worships a god, "knows not",
and is like an animal to the gods. The gods did not like this
secret - the Truth - known to men, for the gods wanted to be worshipped
by men and offered sacrifices. Brahman was not pleased with his
first creation, Brahmana and created the Ksatra. He did not
flourish and Brahman created Vis -Vaishyas. Just remember that the
created classes - Brahmanas / Brahmins, Ksatriyas and Vaishyas
were gods originally. The Vis did not thrive and so Sudras were
created. Sudra is compared to the earth. He is the nourisher.
He did not thrive and Brahman created justice. This justice /
Dharma / Truth / Law establishes order and is the common thread joining
the classes. There is nothing higher than this justice or Truth.
Brahmana represents knowledge, the ksatra the power, the Vaisya
wealth, and the Sudra service to all.
Knowledge, power, wealth, service and justice are the cornerstones of a
society. Sri Chanakya Niti-Shastra
says: The strength of a Brahmana, a king, a Vaisya, or a Sudra comes
from his learning, army, wealth, and aptitude to serve others
Joseph Campbell on
separation of castes and internal segregation within a group, Myths
of Light, page 103-104.
Joseph Campbell says, that Hinduism and Judaism are
ethnic religions as opposed to creedal religions, Christianity,
Buddhism, and Islam. Creedal religions span across geography and race
and are founded by a single persona. By and large the ethnic religions
come under ritual laws, while creedal religions come under ethical laws.
He believes that Dharma and Varna keep a certain group of people
compartmentalized and separate from the other group. Since these groups
and descendants do not generally intermarry and have their special
external markers, they can be distinguished from one another by their
physiognomy and other markers, particularly at the village level and
even in cities. The behavior of the group is dictated by the ritual
laws. Group identity supercedes individual aspirations.
Societal structure and strata keep the various castes touchable within
the group and untouchable outside the group and between the groups.
Violation of ritual laws within a group makes the violator
untouchable and not worthy of having at a dinner table. He cites an
example of a Brahmin youth who could not sit with his father to eat at
the same table because he crossed the seas and ate with "lechers."
If the youth was Jewish, the father would have used the word goyim,
"gentiles." according to Campbell. "These are the people who are not of
the holy society. This is a very important point to remember about the
great old traditional religions out of which these later creedal
religions have developed. The current situation--the relationship of
traditional Hindu culture to the secular cosmopolitan society--is
extremely complicated, and one can only feel anxiety for the problem of
the Indian psyche."
The caste laws (of each caste)
determine the morality, stratum in the society and individual behavior
in such ways that the individual spends his lifetime within the confines
of their respective constrictive laws; they tell him what he must do and
does not address what he wants to do. The individual is smothered and
the group is tethered to its laws. "Everything about the individual that
you meet on the street proclaims his caste: the dress that he wears; the
name that he bears; even his physical character. Since people have
married only within the caste for thousands of years, these groups have
essentially become separate races. If you travel in India and have the
good fortune to get outside of the Cook' s Tours area and meet people of
different social orders or see them, you'll know within days how to
distinguish the people walking down the street: you can tell when you
see them, That's a brahmin, that's a merchant, this one is a
Sudra. And it is not merely a matter of bearing and material
possession that signals these differences, as they would in the West.
Remember, there are wealthy, proud sudras and humble, poor
brahmins: everything about the person proclaims his identification
with the caste.
The goal of all this is to make the individual forget that he's an
individual, to make him lose the sense of himself as a freely willing,
freely judging, unique being.
The highest caste is called the brahmins; in Sanskrit, that is
brāhmana. Now that long ā with the line, or macron, over it at the
beginning means "related to." So brāhmana means "having to do
with Brahman," that divine power which we have been examining-the
source and being of the universe."
Campbell says that the Brahmins
employ two important services to assert their top position in the Hindu
hierarchical society; one is action and the other word; they are the
rituals and chanting of hymns. All aspects of Hindu life from birth to
death and everything in-between are governed by rituals and hymns. A
Brahmin's presence at every ceremony, stage, and station in life, birth,
coming of age, school, temple, various events, marriage, and death
is so significant that the society does not move without them. They
chant their way into a Hindu's life from birth to death. Not
paying for his services is sin. Every movement in the ritual act is
choreographed; every word is intonated, modulated and uttered precisely.
They are passed on from one generation to the next generation. It is a
miniature cosmic dance and music.
Brahmanas are more powerful than gods.
They are the agents between gods and men; their
rituals and chanting of Mantras and hymns invoking god are so
powerful that gods are pleased to receive the burnt offerings; if it is
not for the brahmana priest, the gods will be starving for lack of food
and attention and not receive the holocaust (burnt offerings) of butter
and cereal; thus, the brahmanas became more powerful than gods. Without
Brahmanas, the temples will not function according to Agamas and Nigamas.
One such Brahmana, Bhrgu Muni, had the temerity to kick Vishnu on
his chest because Vishnu was not quick enough to get up on his feet to
greet him. The same Bhrgu Muni laid a curse on Vishnu to be born on this
earth as Avataras. When was the last time you heard that a delivery boy
kicked his boss because the boss did not get up from his seat to receive
him with honor guard and a round of applause for delivering interoffice
mail? Strange things happen in heaven! To be fair, Bhrgu Muni was
testing Vishnu as to his fitness to run his Office of
Creation, Maintenance and Destruction of the universe under duress and
abuse. Vishnu played along and accepted the kick on his chest. Krishna
in The Uddhava Gita, Dialogue 1 Verse 28-34 says, "I served my
purpose in my descent as Krishna. The Yadu line has become very
arrogant, proud, and greedy and seize all they see. I stopped their
usurpation; their end is near and I will oversee it before my departure.
The Brahmin's (Bhrgu Muni) curse is in full force on me and the Yadhava
clan. My family's destruction has begun. "O Brahma, let me stay with you
for a while before I return to Vaikuntha. Look at this devastation and
destruction all around you. Nothing can stop the destructive power and
play of the curse of Brahmins." Thus, Bhagavan Krishna Paramatma
himself could not escape the wrath and the curse of the Brahmins. The
story behind the curse is as follows.
Vishnus incarnations were due to karma.
Once the Asuras (demons) took shelter in hermitage of Bhrgu Muni.
Vishnu, Indra and other lesser gods seized the hermitage and Bhrgus
wife pleaded with gods and asked them to leave her hermitage forthwith.
She threatened to burn them down with the fire of her Tapas. At the
suggestion of Indra, Vishnu killed Bhrgus wife. (Bhrgu once kicked
Vishnu on his chest. The story on that incident is in the
Supplement section titled The Cagey
Sages.) Bhrgu Muni cast a curse on Vishnu saying that he would be born
a human being seven times. Bhrgu, being a muni and sage, brought his
wife back to life immediately for them to witness his power.
Thus a Brahmana was able to cast the Lord of the Universe Vishnu into a
world of misery and kick him on His chest for not paying respects
promptly. On top of all this, Vishnu, the Divine Smoothie
Extraordinaire, massaged his feet for they might be tired from all the
walking he did before coming to Vishnu and the one kick he delivered on
Vishnu's chest. Mahalakshmi massages the feet of Vishnu; Vishnu massages
the feet of Bhrgu Muni: the optics does not look good.
me my place in the totem pole of Hindu Caste hierarchy.
do I get to the top of the list?
The following is the
hierarchical layers of a community from top down.
The King (Though the Ksatriya is lower than the
Brahmin, the latter is in his employ.)
The Vedic Brahmin
The Temple priest
The merchant or grocer
The oil vendor
The barber, physician, and surgeon
The Pulayan: புலையன்
pulaiyaṉ. he who eats offal (the inedible parts of butchered animal);
aboriginal; low or mixed caste person.
What started as craft gelled and became fossilized
as caste; craft passed down generations as a birth privilege or curse.
does a donkey know about sandalwood?
Sometimes gods traded insults by obliquely calling
each other a Sudra. Bhagavatham Canto 4 Text 13: When Daksa
entered an assembly of gods, Shiva did not rise to pay Daksa respects.
Daksa expected respect from Shiva, because Shiva was married to Daksa's
daughter. Daksa excoriated Shiva by saying that giving his daughter to
Shiva in marriage was like teaching Vedas to a Sudra.
Chandogya Upanishad 6.1.1: The Veda chanter is compared to a donkey
which knows the weight, but not the fragrance of the sandal wood.
When it comes to food, the tongue knows what the hand knows not. Maitri
Upanishad 7.8 exudes an aroma (is it a stench?) of prejudice
against Sudras as follows: it is unworthy of being disciples of Sudras
who are learned in scriptures. A Brahmana cannot be a mere draft animal
and a Sudra cannot be a Vedic expert. A double whammy to Joseph
Campbell's nostrum, "Follow your bliss". There were exceptions. The most
famous real-life Brahmana, Ramanuja (1017 C.E.) had his Guru and
preceptor in a Sudra, Mahapurana / Kanchîpûrna.
Here is an extract from
Devi Mahatmya by Coburn on page 27.
From our perspective, the
most significant agreement of these two traditions is on the
applicability of a phrase that has become the virtual motto of Puranic
itihāsapurānābhyām vedam samupabrmhayet.
R.C. Hazra translates this in its fuller context as follows:
That twice-born (Brahmana),
who knows the four Vedas with the Angas (supplementary sciences) and the
Upanisads, should not be (regarded as) proficient unless he thoroughly
knows the Puranas. He should reinforce the Vedas with the Itihasa and
the Purana. The Vedas is [sic] afraid of him who is deficient in
traditional knowledge (thinking) "He will hurt me."79
Speaks, everybody listens.
(●Verses 230-233) states that thread and tuft do not make a Brahmana.
True Brahmana wears Vedanta as his thread and his knowledge as tuft.
They, who are devoid of pure wisdom, lack control over senses,
remain spiritually bankrupt and vacuous of devotion, and fail to grasp
the Truth, are mad fools and not Brahmanas. True and pure Brahmanas
follow the path of neither Chit nor Achit, reach the Supreme Gurus
(Siva) feet with guidance from earthly guru, give up all actions,
rituals, rites, and ceremonies, and finally slip into Turiya state.
Those who chant the Vedas are the Pure Brahmanas. The Vedanta
that flows out of the pure Brahmanas is pure and conducive to salvation.
The true Brahmanas realize that Vedanta preached by others is deficient;
it is mere ostentation.
●234: The Brahmanas, who adopt pure
life and reflect on the Truths of the Vedanta, have fertile lands, their
king flourishing, if they maintain the sandhi fires.
மாம்பரன் பாற்புகப் புக்கதால்
●235: When Jnana of Vedanta shines,
the Brahmanas receive relief from karma, tread the path to the Light of
Nadanta, and reach the Bodhanta Light of the Great Lord; Nadanta mukti
and Siddhi come within their reach.
The Vedists, who practiced Vedic Truths, abandoned their desires. Thread
and tuft declare not the state of Brahmin; thread is cotton, fine tuft
is mere hair; (true) thread is Vedanta, fine (true) tuft is Jnana
(knowledge); the (true) thread-Brahmins do see the virtues of a real
மூடங் கெடாதோர் சிகைநூல் முதற்கொள்ளில்
வாடும் புவியும் பெருவாழ்வு மன்னனும்
பீடு ஒன்று இலனாகும் ஆதலாற் பேர்த்துணர்ந்து
ஆடம் பரநூல் சிகையறுத் தால்நன்றே.
When the (Brahmins) flaunt their tuft and thread out of rank stupidity,
the land withers, and the high-life king is deprived of greatness.
Therefore, after great deliberation, it is better the king cuts the
thread and the tuft of the pretenders.
ஞானமி லாதார் சடைசிகை நூல்நண்ணி
ஞானிகள் போல நடிக்கின் றவர் தம்மை
ஞானிக ளாலே நரபதி சோதித்து
ஞானமுண் டாக்குதல் நலமாகும் நாட்டிற்கே.
The unwise don matted locks and sacred thread, and act like the wise.
The ruler of men should employ the truly wise to test (the pretenders),
and educate the unwise in ways of wisdom. That increase in wisdom will
bring goodness to the country.
Lakshmi: Don't pick my petals.
Here is a humorous episode as related by Chanakya,
a man of words and wisdom. Lord Vishnu wondered aloud as to why
His consort Lakshmi did not want to live in the house of a Brahmana.
Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, not living in a house means that the
house is deprived of wealth and prosperity.
She said " O my Lord, Rishi Agastya swilled
my Father, the Ocean; Brigu Muni booted you on the chest where I reside;
the Brahmanas are too haughty with their knowledge gained from
Sarasvathi, my competitor; and last but not the least, they keep
picking the petals of my Lotus seat. Therefore, my Lord, I
stay as far away as possible from a Brahmana." There is a reason
why Lakshmi does not like the petals picked by any one. Lakshmi or Sri
rose up with a lotus in her hand from the ocean that was churned
by Suras and Asuras. Another version states that she was seated on
the fully blossomed lotus flower floating in the ocean at the time
of creation of the universe. Sri knew that having the petals picked
while seated and floating on the lotus flower is not the thing to do to
a friend. She did not care for Bhrgu Muni, who came to test
the patience, fortitude of, and the ability under stress to offer
salvation to the devotees by Lord Vishnu by kicking Him on the chest
wherein Sri Lakshmi took up residence.
(Fire) consumes Manu, as Ambedkar rewrites Laws of Manu.
modern lawyer goes after the Vedic law giver.
Manu wrote the Laws of Manu, codifying the castes.
Reference to castes and their respective qualities is mentioned in
Bhagavadgita. According to some scholars, the Laws of Manu may have been
written by more than one person. The
modern-day Manu was Dr. Ambedkhar,
who burnt a copy of the laws of Manu in public to express his
disgust at the codification of people by caste and other disagreeable
laws listed in the Laws of Manu. How about our erudite
distinguished President Narayanan? How
about President Dr. Kalam, a Muslim by
birth and a devotee of Lord Rama? All of them are not Brahmins by birth.
But they rose to the highest of the offices in India by sheer Brahmin
attributes. No one is born with Brahmin attributes, which are not
hereditary. A Brahmana is not being but becoming. A Brahmin does not
have to be a Hindu; any one with qualification can claim to be a
Brahmin. Now we have a non-Hindu, non-Brahmin as our Prime
Minister, Manmohan Singh and a Muslim (Dr. Kalam) as the
president. India is changing for the better. As of 2011, a woman is the
president of India: Pratibha Patil. 2015. Now we have Mr. Modi as a
Prime Minister from the "Oil-Pressor" caste.
Varna generally means color, but literally means
veil, or screen. Since it means veil or screen, you can right away rule
out that color is not the only aspect of varna. In the ancient Indian
literature, colors have alluded to men and Gods. Puranas and Alvars
describe God in different colors. In various yugas,
God appears in colors such as gold, white,
red, green, and blue black. The most common color for God
according Alvars, is dark blue complexion of
the clouds. As you know, the God of the Alvars is Narayana /
Vishnu / Krishna. Black was beautiful as far as Indira (the chief of
gods) was concerned. Krishna and Rama were of dark-blue
complexion. It is interesting to note that the pillar of cloud, Fire,
and Ark are the earthly manifestations of G-d (God), according to Jews.
Color Scheme. (castes4MenColors.jpg)
Each caste was doled out a color. Brahmin got the
white, Ksatriya the red, Vaisya the yellow, and Sudra the
black. On second thought, the colors and the associated castes
reflect the gunas as told by Krishna in BG C18V41. The white goes with
sattvic attributes of a person, the red goes with rajas, the yellow goes
with a mixture of white and red, and mixture of Sattva and rajas,
and the black with tamas. He (God) created man in
his His own multiple colors. This separation of people by gunas or
attributes or tendencies degenerated into a hereditary birth right and
privilege. Religion and speech were also some of the distinguishing
factors in this separation by varna. Sanskrit, as opposed to Prakrits,
connotes that it is cultivated. It is said that the Aryans were faced
with Dravidians and proto-Austroloids. It is claimed that color and the
nose struck the Aryans. The brown Dravidians and the black proto-Austroloids
were branded as dasyu-varna and the Aryans branded themselves as
Arya-varna. Religion, language, speech and Arya-varna congealed
into separation of people into a four-fold division: Brahmin, Ksatriya,
Vaisya, and Sudra. This was codified, and sanctified by Manu.
Varna is discussed in Narada Purana (2.43.53b-89)
in a question and answer fashion. Bharadvaja, a
great sage asks Bhrgu Muni (Remember, he is the one who kicked Vishnu on
his chest) to list the criteria used for dividing people into different
castes in the light of the fact that sweat, urine, feces, phlegm, bile
and blood are of the same nature in all.
In India, skin tones can take you to places or deny admission, earn
adoration, adulation and approbation or disapprobation. My father
was a light-skinned, clean-shaven Brahmin-looking person fluent in
local, national and international politics living in T' Nagar in the
1950s, 60s, and 70s. He went to the Siva-Vishnu temple or next door
assembly hall daily to listen to the pundits and Brahmins talk about
religion (and politics rarely). My father never practiced religion
at all but visited holy places. He never spoke ill of gods; if he
stumbled upon an idol, he would pay respects and go on his way. The
Brahmins always gave him respect and treated him well. They used to
wonder and talk in whispers who that Brahmin (look-alike) was. They
assumed he was a Brahmin because he was light-skinned and had
Indo-Aryan looks. All Indians like the wheat complexion or the color
of tender mango leaf (மாயிலை நிறம்). He never opened his mouth and
told any of them his name or caste. He died in late 1970s a
light-skinned Brahmin in the eyes of the dark-skinned Brahmins. The
prevailing attitude at that time was, 'If he is light-skinned, he
must be a Brahmin until proven otherwise.' He never went into the
Sanctum Sanctorum on his own accord unless he had to tag along with
us and I never knew him worship any god in his life. My family never
celebrated any religious events in our household. Yet we were
Hindus; go figure that. He stayed in Tiruvannamalai and listened to
Ramana Maharishi. He was rather a closet philosopher than an
idolator. And he never taught me any Hindu philosophy. He went to
Gandhi Ashram once and stayed there for a few months. People took to
him and Gandhi personally asked him to join the Ashram. He lived in
Rishikesh for several months and rubbed shoulders with mendicants,
yogis and foreigners. All this he did without much Moolah on hand.
He was living on donated food, I assume. We never questioned him
about it. Every time he came back home, he looked like a stick. He
had a wanderlust and came home for good when the lust weakened and
the bones became weary. In good old days, god-men (hermits) wandered
with no money, holding a stick and kamandalam (Today's water bottle)
and somehow managed to live. Nowadays, this is impossible. My
feeling is that he wanted to become a Sannyasi, an Avadhuta or a
recluse. Some modern Indians try hard to become anchorites in the
dusk of their lives but fail miserably and come back home in
May 11, 2014.
In the south, there is also the ideological possibility that many
dont think about Modis caste; an imperviousness that, under normal
circumstances, I would applaud. But here the reason is different.
Another ugly reality of our society is all that goes with skin
colour. The fairer you are then the more brahmin you will be. Ask a
random South Indian what caste he thinks Modi belongs to, and you
are likely to hear I assumed he is Brahmin.
Even if you are non-Brahmin, you can, if fair-skinned, get taken to
be a brahmin by colour.
Brahmanas morphed or mutated into Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras.
Bhrgu Muni says in reply that at the time of
creation by Brahma, there was no difference between people. All people
created by him were Brahmanas, equal in all aspects. Their different
karmas made them different people. Some Brahmanas became
lascivious, violence-prone, jealous, risk-taking, red-complexioned
fighters full of Rajas (passion and motion) guna. They became the
Ksatriyas, warrior class. Some Brahmanas were fond of making a living by
tending and rearing cattle, became yellow (mixture of Rajas and Tamas)
Vaisyas. Some Brahmanas practiced violence, spoke untruth, worked at odd
jobs, and became greedy and black (Sudras) full of Tamas. Here, the
colors of Brahmanas (white), Ksatriyas (red), Vaisyas (yellow) and
Sudras (black) indicate their character rather than the pigment of their
skin. Take heed Sudras and Vaisyas, you were once Brahmanas, but you
slipped and slid from your high station and now feel like Sisyphus
trying to get back on the top. Brahmanas (the old timers) are saying
that things have deteriorated in the past 50 years; it is euphemistic
saying for the rise of Sudras and Vaisyas and the fall of Brahmanas. The
Sudras and Vaisyas have moved in on them in their neighborhoods and
jobs, as they started going to colleges and getting better in their
skills. Forget about the Ksatriyas (the warrior class); the Government
took care of them: their kingdoms, fiefdoms, titles and purses were
abolished in the democratic India. It is like saying in the West that
the neighborhood has gone bad, when the minorities move in, take the
jobs and marry their daughters.
Those people who practiced truthfulness, charity,
benignity, kindness, compassion, sympathy, and asceticism are the
Brahmanas. He should be learned in Vedas, have external and internal
purity, practice religious duties, respect the elders and the learned,
and observe Vratas (vows) and rites. (Now show me one who is qualified!)
A Ksatriya should study Vedas, collect taxes, make
gifts and defend his subjects. A Vaisya engages in business, husbandry
of nonviolent nature, makes gifts, studies Vedas, and respects the
Ksatriyas and Brahmanas. When a person has fallen from the study of
Vedas, performs odd jobs and no ordained duty, and eats any food, he
becomes a Sudra. If a Sudra by birth shows Brahmanical qualities, he is
no longer a Sudra. If a Brahmana by birth does not show Brahmanical
qualities, he is no longer a Brahmana. (It is time for Sudras and
Vaisyas do what Brahmanas are supposed to do and become the Brahmanas
that you were once before., not in the name but by true worth.)
The difference between a
Brahmana and a Brahmin.
This Varnasrma dharma
became the foundation of the Vedic society. The Brahmanas
claimed to be the representatives of gods on earth. They sought and got
exemptions and privileges from the king. They were exempt from death
penalty for capital offences. They were entitled to receive gifts,
freedom from oppression, and exclusive rights to consume sacrificial
soma and Prasaada. Since they were gods on earth, no body was
holy enough to eat prasaada. His wife and his cow were declared
sacred. The priestly services to the king helped the Brahmana
advance his career to ministerial posts and other high offices of the
state. They became very learned in Vedas. The
Brahmanas were the forerunners of the present day Brahmins. There is a
distinction between a Brahmana and a Brahmin. The former was very
much immersed in the study of all scriptures and Sanskrit. They
were the gurus, the teachers, the priests, and the high officials above
the king. A Brahmana was a truly sattvic person in all respects.
The Brahmanas trace their lineage to seven Rishis. In the
passage of time not all Brahmanas were able to keep up with the
stringent demands and requirements of being a Brahmana. They took
up other professions. Most of them were not proficient in their
scholarly pursuits of scriptures or Sanskrit and deterioration took
place. Brahmanas became Brahmins. He, who is
not a true Brahmana or a Ksastriya is called a Brahmana-Bandhu or a
Ksatra-Bandhu. It is an associate or an adjunct status. When
Gayatri has not been sung for three generations in a Brahmana family,
the family loses its privilege and caste status and ceases to be
Brahmanas. They still retain the Brahmin status, which is one or several
notches below the real entity.
He is called a
Vrātya = a
degraded or disqualified Brahmana. The family which
has not performed sacrifices for three generations loses its status and
is called degenerated Brahmanas, Durbrahmanas. A degenerate Brahmana can
regain his status by performing Prayascittas, expiatory rites. Full
restoration is not possible for those who gave up Gayatri for three
generations; this Brahmin cannot be made whole again; he is simply a
Brahmana-bandu. The neighborhoods where the Brahmana-bandus live lose
their status, Agrahara.
Brahmana: Don't flaunt your Tuft and thread. Repeat-skip
Tirumular (V230-233) states
that thread and tuft do not make a Brahmana. True Brahmana wears Vedanta
as his thread and his knowledge as tuft. They, who are devoid of pure
wisdom, lack control over senses, remain spiritually bankrupt and
vacuous of devotion, and fail to grasp the Truth, are mad fools and not
Brahmanas. True and pure Brahmanas follow the path of neither Chit nor
Achit, reach the Supreme Gurus (Siva) feet with guidance from earthly
guru, give up all actions, rituals, rites, and ceremonies, and finally
slip into Turiya state. Those who chant the Vedas are the Pure
Brahmanas. The Vedanta that flows out of the pure Brahmanas is pure and
conducive to salvation. The true Brahmanas realize that Vedanta preached
by others is deficient; it is mere ostentation. V241-2:
the (Brahmins) flaunt their tuft and
thread out of rank stupidity, the land withers, and the high-life king
drowns in sorrow. Therefore, after great deliberation, it is better that
the king cuts the thread and the tuft of the pretenders. The unwise don
matted locks and sacred thread, and act like the wise. The ruler of men
should employ the truly wise to test, and educate the unwise in ways of
wisdom. That will bring goodness to the country.
flings insults on Mendicant Siva, the Yogin of Yogins.
Daksa, the progenitor
and Prajapati, conducted a sacrifice to increase the material prosperity
of the world. Siva, one of the attendees, was insulted by Daksa for not
respecting Daksa. Sivas follower Nandisvara blasted all the officiating
Brahmanas for calling themselves twice-born spiritual leaders while they
actually put matter over spirit in the performance of sacrifice. They,
he said, were guilty of vidya-buddhi, avidyam, and karma-mayam (material
knowledge, ignorance, and delusion of karma). Nandisvara cursed all the
Dvija-kulayas (the twice-born Bahmanas) for their materialistic pursuits
in the performance of the sacrifice, by saying that the Brahmanas of the
genre Vedas-for-sale, Vedas-for-livelihoodwould be wandering beggars,
glorifying wealth, creature comforts and satiation of senses.
With all the deterioration,
as a caste they still enjoyed a privileged place in Indian society and
their contribution to the arts and sciences are noteworthy. There
were many Brahmana Rishis, who contributed to the spiritual development.
There were many Sudras too who contributed to bhakti movement both in
Siva and Vishnu sects. All castes made significant contributions
in the matters of religion, arts and sciences. There were Dalits (the
Oppressed, below the 4 castes) and Tribals who were saints in the true
sense of the word.
When a Brahmin is born, he is
not a Brahmin until he undergoes the cord ceremony, at which time he
becomes twice-born. Take the Sudra: he is eka-janman (once-born)
Mix and Mash (the gene pool)
But as things go through their natural evolution,
there was racial / caste mixing and integration going on from the
time of its inception. Vyasa
was born of a Brahmana father and a non-Aryan mother.
(Krishna says in The Uddava Gita, Dialogue 11, Verse 19, " I am a
Brahmin, Guru and priest." A technical nincompoop could right away
challenge Krishna's assertion pointing out his less than desirable
parentage and lineage.) The race became less of a factor as time went
on. But the division did solidify into distinct entities not only for
the beneficial interdependence of the whole society, but also for the
preservation of privileges and prestige attached to Varna by
birth. Even the modern world is divided into a
four-fold division. There is no escaping that fact. The division
exists whether we like it not in all societies. It is the mutual respect
that is lacking, and most desirable. It is not the color or the jati
(caste) but the attributes that matter. But this Varna was given a boost
by allusion -or is it illusion? It is claimed
that the Brahmins originated from the mouth of the God, the Ksatriyas
from the arms, the Vaisyas from the legs and the poor Sudras from the
feet. (But don't call them poor yet. You have no feet and you
arn't a complete person; this in no way denigrates a handicapped person.
Thank God that the Brahmins originated from the fore end.
God puts His money where His mouth is. While Brahma was creating
animals from various parts of his body, he created goats from his mouth
[Brahmanda Purana188.8.131.52]. That does not mean that Brahmins and goats
are equal or Brahmanas are no better than goats.) The Brahmins, by
tradition occupied the higher echelon in all departments of noble
endeavor. (Money talks and you know who walks. Yea yea, the Sudra
walks.) But over years, other castes played catch-up. There is no
way this Organism can function satisfactorily without the full
complement of the four Varnas -divisions. Dynamic tension among castes
helped betterment of other castes in all noble endeavors.
Brahmanas claim (genetic) superiority for wearing
Aryan genes; but genetics do not support this wishful longing of many
Brahmins. A significant number of non-brahmins wear Aryan genes but
don't know that fact. Non-brahmins moved up the ladder by adopting their
practice. Coburn in his book Devi Mahatmya says on page 10-11 the
following as a quote from the book by Srinivas Religion and Society
among Coorgs of South India.
"The caste system is far
from a rigid system in which the position of each component caste is
fixed for all time. Movement has always been possible, and especially so
in the middle regions of the hierarchy. A low caste was able, in a
generation or two, to rise to a higher position in the hierarchy by
adopting vegetarianism and teetotalism, and by Sanskritizing its ritual
and pantheon. In short, it took over, as far as possible, the customs,
rites, and beliefs of the Brahmins, and the adoption of the Brahmanic
way of life by a low caste seems to have been frequent, though
theoretically forbidden. This process has been called "Sanskritization"
in this book. . . ,28".
[According to text 15 of
Brahmasamhita, Maha-Vishnu floating and resting in the causal ocean
created Vishnu from His left limb and Brahma from His right limb and the
effulgent halo of male principle from the space between the eyes.
If the Supreme God Himself emerged from a limb and not from the mouth or
head of Maha-Vishnu, the Sudra should be pleased that he came out of the
feet of God. There were certain people and beings who
emanated from the buttocks and anus of Brahma. Consider Vishnu here .
Even though He is derived from Maha-Vishnu, the adjunct or the delegate
status does not diminish His potency. He is the personal God
of the Vaishnavas.]
castes according to Garuda Purana 1.96-1-73, as
narrated by Yajnavalkya.
Mixed caste marriages among castes is somewhat like
miscegenation in the west once considered illegal in the US.
Inter-caste marriage is not illegal but looked down upon by
people, less so now. There may be consequences if one party
turns out to be an Untouchable.
(Lowliest of all)
Definitions from Tamil Lexicon.
caṇṭāḷan = சண்டாளன் = Chandalan is a common curse word
in Tamil Nadu.
சண்டாளன் = caṇṭāḷan An apostate who has forfeited the privileges of
his religion, caste, ...4. One born of a Brahmani and a Sudra
father. Chandalan is male; Chandalini is female.
சமுத்திரலங்கனன்சண்டாளன்: Samudra-langanan-chandalan = The Brahman
(Brahmin) who passes over the sea (goes overseas) is an apostate.
கருமசண்டாளன் = Karuma-chandalan = A villian, a scoundrel, a rogue,
an abandoned wretch. பரமசண்டாளன், = parama-chandalan =a vile wretch.
சண்டாளப்பாவி = chandalap-Pavi = a vile wretch and sinner.
embrace versus conjugal embrace
of sweet vengeance
Parvati as Chandalas
Matangi (Maatamgi) is one of the
ten Mahavidyas who are various manifestations of goddess Parvati or
Kali. Matangaka was the name of the chief of Chandalas. Chandalas are
one of the lowest among the castes. In a game of impersonation, "fool
me, fool me not," Siva impersonated as a traveling jewelry salesman (the
milkman of the by-gone era in the west), sold some ornaments to Parvati
while she was visiting with her father, and suggested that she could pay
him by sexual favors. Parvati without missing a beat said, "Yes, but not
now." She had the intuitive divine vision that the traveling salesman
was her husband in disguise. Siva went on his way and sat down on the
banks of Manas Lake for meditation and worship. Parvati assumed the
appearance of a nubile outcaste (Chandala) girl with a shapely body
accentuated by a red dress, and beautiful and beguiling eyes, and
danced in front of Lord Siva jiggling her moon-like breasts. Siva's
ravenous eyes imbibed Parvati's beauty in motion and gently asked her
who she was. Parvati in the sweet innocence of youthful voice replied
with the utmost bashfulness, "Swami, I am a Chandala girl. I came to do
penance." Siva is the Yogi of Yogins. Who else is more fit to
teach penance? Siva gently took her lotus hand and pressed it tenderly
against his lotus lips. Then he proceeded to make love to the captive
but willing Parvati, whose identity was unknown to Siva. (They call it
consensual sex nowadays.) While they were in the conjugate embrace in
Siva's mind and conjugal embrace in Parvati's mind, Parvati morphed Siva
into a Chandala (in embrace with a Chandalini). Siva in a flash realized
that Matangi (Chandala girl) was no other than his dear wife, Parvati.
Parvati reaped her sweet
vengeance, laid open utter lowness of her action and sexual submission,
and begged Siva to accept her in his heart as "Ucchista
Chandalini." Ucchista = rejected
(once used commodity); remnants of food in the mouth after eating, that
are spit out of the mouth; food sticking in the mouth and hands after
eating, therefore impure remainder of sacrificial food; left over
crumbs. Siva accepted to honor her supplication. She is thus called
Matangi (a woman from a degraded mountain
tribe or hunter-gatherers, who became Sudras from neglecting all
prescribed rites, mlecchas.) The deities in this instance did not
feel ashamed in playing the role of Chandalas You are whom you associate
with. One who makes love to a Chandalini, is a Chandala, though he is a
god. These Lilas (plays of gods) affirms the fact that all are born
equal. The very fact that Parvati asked Siva to accept her as she is (Ucchista
Chandalini and Matangi)) speaks
volumes about equality. Remember, once Siva's Father-in-Law insulted him
as unworthy like a Sudra.
The egalitarian aspect of gods and goddesses did
not leave an imprint on the recalcitrant few of the higher castes.
burial mound is taller than yours. I am Spring and you are Winter.
To further concretize this division, the height of
the burial mounds were raised or lowered
according to the anatomical assignment of the four castes. The
Brahmin's burial mound was the tallest
from the ground up and rises to mouth level and so on and so forth. This
was not enough for the separation by varna. What
metal each one is made of? I
thought people are judged by their mettle. No pun is intended
here. You guessed it right. Each one is assigned a metal that they can
wear as jewelry. The Sudra is the iron man.
Guess what? You got no iron; you got iron-poor blood. The
Vaisya is the
brass man. The Ksatriya is
silver man of low quality. And the
Brahmins wore gold and silver of highest quality. You thought
this is the end of it. No way. Who do you think is the man for all
seasons ? Or should I say which is the fair-weather caste?
Just kidding. Find out. Initiation - upnanayana - ceremonies:
Spring for the Brahmin, summer for the Ksatriyas, and fall for the
Vaisyas. Sudra, obviously left out in the cold, was not initiated. Could
that be why the Sudra is hardy, enduring and catching up fast? He
could take the heat; no no, I mean he could take the cold.
Brahmin, Ksatriya and Vaisya carry staffs
progressively shorter (than that of a Brahmin) according to the caste
superiority, Brahmin's staff being Palasa wood , Ksatriya's Banyan wood,
and Vaisya's Udumbara wood. You can tell them apart by the length
and the species of the wooden staff each one carries. The girdles
accordingly are Munja grass, bowstring, and hemp thread. Upper garments
respectively are the skins of black antelope, spotted antelope, and cow
or goat. The colors of garments are white, purple-red and yellow.
Condensed passage. --Dharmasutras of Vasistha Verses 11.52-67. page 279
Translation by Patrick Olivelle.
Mantras, Sudras excluded.
The Brahmin is initiated at the eleventh year after
conception and Ksatriya in the twelfth year. Just hold your Asvas
/ horses. Gayatri - Vedic poetic meter of
24-syllables, triplet of eight syllables each - was assigned to the
Brahmin, Tristubh - meter of 4 feet of 11
syllables each - to the Ksatriya (funeral verses are in Tristubh),
Jagati - meter of four feet with 12
syllables each -to the Vaisya. Jagati has the quality of spreading like
waves of water, came out of the western mouth of Brahma and goes with
consecration and sacrificial animals. Brhati meter of 36 syllables
helped gods gain heaven. Viraj meter consists of 40 syllables (4X10 or
8X5). Read on. I love this one, the best of all. The Brahmin
can take four wives- holy mackerel-, the Ksatriya, three wives
and the Vaisya, two wives and the Sudra only one wife; all this happened
at Vedic times. Poor Sudra, he always gets short changed.
Why does a Brahmana, expected to control his senses, end up with four
wives? The primary wife is of the same varna.
One can marry down but can't marry up the line, Shucks! Name that Dalit
who married up. Dr. Ambedkar married a Brahmana lady, who found no one
more fit to be her life partner. Apacharam, Apacharam! according to
Varna Dharma. apa-cāra *அபசாரம் apa-cāram
, n. < apa-cāra.
Incivility, disrespectful conduct, irreverence. This union might
result in mixed-caste children. More Apacharam!
Virginity is highly regarded. Manu
Chapter 3.21 to 26: Since a Brahmana is god on earth, a Brahmana
is allowed to marry Brahma, the gods, the Rishis, Prajapati, the
demons, and the Ghandharvas to fill the quota of secondary wives.
Brahmana had in front of him a whole panoply of choices. The king
can have secondary wives, the primary wife being of the same caste, from
among the Asuras, the Ghandharvas, the Raksasas and
the Pisakas. Brahma is the creator, Rishis are the seers,
Prajapati is the Lord of the creatures, Asuras are the demons /
anti-gods / a-suras, Gandharvas are the atmospheric godlings or akin to
the Greek Centaurs ( half human and half animal - Chimera), the
Raksasas are the ogres, the Pisakas are the carnivorous demons.
The female of Pisaca is Pisaci. Pisacas are known to metamorphose
to any form and render themselves invisible. Just cover your mouth
or snap your fingers in front of your mouth when you yawn. If not, don't
be surprised that the feces-eating Pisacas enter the intestine via the
mouth. (Sorry for being blunt and forthright, but it is true!) I
wonder why a king would want to have a Pisaci as his secondary wife.
Adultery is discouraged, because it causes
confusion of castes. The king can dispense punishment for adultery.
Sudras left to their own devices.
Coming to the duties of the respective castes, the
following is pertinent. Teaching is the
essential duty of a Brahmin. No wonder it is that the anatomical origin
of a Brahmin is the mouth of the God. Bearing arms is the
principle duty of Ksatriya. Does that mean he is more brawn than
brains? No, I don't think so. Because there were very erudite
kings. Hinduism owes its birth and existence to Kings and less so on
Brahmins. Take Krishna Bhagavan a king, who gave Bhagavad Gita free of
charge. Take king Rama, the most virtuous. Take Prince Buddha, on whose
name and teachings Buddhism came about. Take king Mahavir, on whose
teaching, Jainism was born. Agriculture is for Vaisya. Service to
the other three is expected of Sudra. Just like each caste can marry
down, each caste also can do the work of a lower caste, when needed, say
when the king is a drunk - you had your moonshine and we had our Soma
Rasa - and the Brahmin minister had to take over the kingdom - You
call this a step-down, you must be kidding - or when a Brahmin has
fallen off his station in life or when the Sudras went on strike! Holy
moly. Sudras can attain merit by imitating virtuous men with
the exception of reciting sacred texts. What kind of deal is that?
Only Brahmins, Ksatriyas, and Vaisyas
were allowed to perform Jnaana yoga, Karma yoga, and Bhakti
yoga. Sudras were left to their own devices. Sudras never
gave up, played within the system and progressed.
Nammalvar (798AD) was born a Sudra, but respected
and loved the Vedas and the Brahmins. The
most famous Sudra Saint Nammalvar deviced, practiced,
propounded and taught Prapatti and Saranagatti.
Prapatti and Saranagatti
are resignation and total self-surrender to God with six
conditions for its fulfillment. 1:
(God) Pleasing acts 2: Avoidance of (God) displeasing acts
3: Humility, helplessness, vulnerability because of ordained
ineligibility to practice yogas 4: Absolute and irreconcilable faith in
God 5: Supplication to God for Protection 6: Prayerful
pleading of God to safe-keep one's self. The sixth is the
centerpiece. Here is the Greatest Soul who didn't fight
the system, but studied the system inside out and devised ways to
overcome the obstacles. If you take evolution, you will see that
an organism changes its own devices in order to thrive in an
adverse environment. The organism effected an internal change
rather than a change in its milieu . Now guess who adopted
this prapatti and Saranagatti. It was Sri Ramanuja himself, the
propounder of Visistadvaita.
A Brahmana takes a Sudra as Guru.
According to Bhagavata
Dharma: Lord Hari's true devotees are the ones who claim no
superiority by birth, knowledge, deed, or caste.
Ramanujacharya's genius -Qualified
Non-dualism - is not only his philosophy, but his
humanity. Ramanuja, a Brahmin by birth
(1017 A.D) and attributes, sat and learnt at the feet of Mahapurna, a
Sudra, and received important lessons on bhakti and more.
Ramanuja's wife, a practicing Brahmin lady - if you call her a lady -,
served meals to Mahapurana / Kanchîpûrna on a plantain leaf,
pushed out the leaf by a stick to prevent contaminating herself and took
a ritual bath after serving meals to Kanchîpûrna. She also
scrubbed the house clean. Sri Ramanuja was very upset and said that he
would have eaten from out of the same leaf used by Kanchîpûrna.
Ramanuja's wife and Kanchîpûrna's wife were quarrelling over drawing
water from the same well. In those days and even now, it is not
uncommon, esp in remote villages, that the higher caste person
won't share the same well for water with a lower caste person for
fear of contamination. Kanchîpûrna saw the incident and left
Ramanuja to prevent such incidents happening again. In another instance,
Ramanuja's wife didn't serve a hungry man, telling him that she had no
food in the house. Ramanuja, to his disgust and consternation,
found out that there was enough food to feed the hungry man and more.
These three incidents upset Ramanuja so much that he sent his wife
back to her parents and became a sannyasi. No, Not all Sannyasis
were created this way! Eventually Ramanuja asked for forgiveness from
Kanchîpûrna, who graciously wondered why Ramanuja was asking for
Holier than me
Once Ramanuja was
circumambulating a holy shrine when he
saw a Chandala woman ( a person of mixed caste) coming towards him.
R asked her to move away from him so that he could pass. The woman
did not budge one bit and retorted saying that there was purity all
around her and which side could her impurity turn to.
R was struck speechless at the woman's retort and later asked her
for forgiveness and declared that she was holier than him. Later
he visited all the holy places all over India, in an attempt to purify
are the most broad-minded and yet they impose some restrictions on
Guru Tantra states that Guru is the central figure
in all activities of Sadhakas. Any tantric activity without the guidance
of Guru is sin. Others are of the opinion that practice of Tantra due to
mitigating circumstances like unavailability of Guru for initiation and
teaching does not constitute sin. Guru by
convention and sastras is a Brahmana for initiation. A
Brahmana Guru can initiate all castes; in his absence, Ksatriya and
Vaisya can serve as initiating Gurus for their own or lower castes;
a Sudra can never initiate any caste, because
initiation, with a Mantra by a Sudra, of other caste member or even
another Sudra will take the initiator and the initiated to depths of the
Kamadhenu Tantra is very strong in its condemnation of Sudra initiators;
they are characterized as follows: Their sinning tongue should not utter
Mantras, because their tongues are contaminated with feces, urine and
blood. His face is urine, feces and blood; his food is excrement; his
water is urine; he is a Chandala (lowest of the low). The mere sight of
his face makes the sacred River Ganga abandon its own waters and take a
flight out of abhorrence. All Tirthas (places of pilgrimages)
scoot from their seats out of repulsion. A Mantra-Mongering Sudra
(seller of Mantras) is an atrocious sight which makes Ganga go to
Brahmaloka, the highest place, unreachable to a Mantra-Mongering Sudra.
(Sudra's tongue is contaminated because he is presumed to eat meat,
blood, and bone of an animal for the satiation of his hunger. Prescribed
eating of Mamsa and Matsya (meat and fish) are not proscribed.
Mantramongers (Venders) are ubiquitous among higher castes too.
They are not vilified here, but should elicit same condemnation and
| Dharmasutra by Vasistha
If a Sûdra approaches [has
sex with] a female of the Brâhmana caste, (the king) shall cause the
Sûdra to be tied up in Vîrana grass and shall
throw him into a fire. He
shall cause the head of the Brâhmanî [brahmna
woman] to be shaved, and her body to be anointed with butter;
placing her naked on a black donkey, he shall cause her to be
conducted along the highroad. It is declared that she becomes pure
Here is a real life story. Bhadragiri was a king. He married a
beautiful commoner and made her his queen. She stealthily had sexual
relations with a Stable hand regularly in the Royal Stable. One
night he saw what they were doing. Apart from that, the stable lad
was beating up the queen. The king next day put the woman on a horse
and paraded her in town with a royal crier announcing her infidelity
to the king. People stoned her to death.
shoulder with a Sudra, an accidental devotee
Dhanurdasa was an
athletic handsome charming young man in love with a beautiful lass by
name Kanakamba. K wanted to go to Srirangam to witness
festivities. D was so much in love with the girl with beautiful
eyes and clear skin; he was holding a cover over her to protect her from
the scorching sun, wherever she went. Ramanuja accompanied
by his disciples, was returning from River Cauvery and saw D making love
to K, a private act in a public place. He pointed this private act
to his disciples and took up the challenge, saying that he would direct
the love of the handsome man from girl to God.
R approached him and gently posed him the question as to how he could
engage in an act of such nature so publicly. D replied that he
couldn't help but do it, considering her lotus-like eyes, her beauty and
charm. R told him that if it was alright with him, he could show
him eyes more beautiful than those of his girl friend. D
agreed to be shown such eyes and went along with R who took him to the
temple, showed him the eyes of Lord Ranganatha and asked him to study
the eyes of the Lord well. D could not not take his eyes off the
Lord's eyes and agreed that he never saw anything like them. He
thanked R profusely for having been kind to him and immediately became
the devotee of Lord Ranganatha and the disciple of Ramanuja. K
having heard this episode became a devotee of Ranganatha and a disciple
of R. R after morning customary ablutions in the River Cauvery
walked many times with his hands on the shoulders of Dhanurdasa, a
commoner. The Brahmin disciples did not like this one bit.
How could he do that? Apacharam, Apakarman - offence, an offender.
Why so? Because he was a Sudra.
R told his Brahmin disciple that they were all
guilty of setting themselves high because of high birth,
learning and wealth. He added that D was completely free from
three vices namely pride of high birth and caste, pride of learning
and pride of wealth, and they are all contaminated with those vices.
R pointed out that the Cauvery river water could purify their or his
body but his mind was purified by the
TOUCH of a devotee like D. The
Brahmin devotees did neither raise the subject again, nor protested.
Andal was found as a baby by a flower bed / garden by Perialvâr.
Nammalvâr belonged to
Vellala Sudra family. According to Upanishads, only
Brahmins, Ksatiyas and Vaisyas were allowed to practice Bhakti
yoga, Jnaana yoga, or Karma yoga. He was in a fix, because he was
a Sudra. He was a man in a hurry to attain moksa / liberation in this
life, not next life. So his genius
devised Prapatti and Saranagatti, resignation and total self-surrender
to God. See above for details.
low-born rides on the back of the High-born: A real-life story.
781 A.D) was a low-caste devotee of Lord Ranganatha.
He was not allowed to enter the temple.
He composed a poem with ten verses extolling the body, the body
parts and the ornaments of Lord Ranganatha. The ending line in his
poem - paraphrase -, is: My eyes having seen You can't see
anything else. One day he was sitting by the banks of the Kaveri
River meditating on Lord Ranganatha. He
was deep in ecstasy. He wasn't aware of his surroundings.
A Brahmana temple priest, by name
lokasaranga muni, uttered abusive
words and threw a stone on this
low-caste Panan because he was on his path to
the river. Having been hurt and a
victim, the low-caste Panan apologized to the high-born and said
that he didn't hear him coming and repented.
This episode didn't go unnoticed by the Lord
Himself. The Lord is color-blind and caste-blind.
He loves His devotees and would never allow anything to happen to
His devotees. The Lord appeared in the
dream of the Muni and ordered the high-born to carry the low-born Panan
on his shoulders to the Sanctum Sanctorum. And the high-born
carried the low-born to the Sanctum. The
low-caste saint was named Munivahana, meaning that his vehicle
was a muni himself or the one who rode on the Muni.
the eulogy to the Lord in Srirangam.
936. கொண்டல் வண்ணனைக்
காணாவே 10 Divyapraphandam verse 936
The Lord of the color of the clouds
descended as the cowherd youth and the eater of the stolen butter.
He stole my heart. He is the king of the cowherds appearing as
beautiful Ranganatha. My eyes, having seen my Ambrosial Lord, will
not see anything else.
Comment: Lord Ranganatha as child
Krishna stole butter from the cowherd households in the hamlet and
made a mess of the pots. That same Krishna steals the heart, mind
and soul of the poet and the devotees. He is of the color of
dark-blue clouds. The Lord is so beautiful that no one can take his
eyes off Him. His form once seen, the eyes never see another. The
West calls Krishna the pastoral king. Veeraswamy Krishnaraj
(low-caste or Harijan) real-life Saint, Nandanar
(Pulaiyan) lived in Adanur in Tamil Nadu. He worked on the lands and
dead carcasses of animals and made leather goods for the Chidambaram
Nataraja temple for the temple drums. He was a Siva devotee. (I lived in
Chidambaram for two years while attending Annamalai University in the
Pulaiyan = புலையன் =
A tribe of aborigines, inhabiting some mountains. புலை = meat.
Pulaiyan = meat-eater or meat handler
known by the derogatory word Paraiyan (பறையன்)
in Tamil Nadu; the word Pariah is derived from Parai, the drum; Pariah
or Paraiyan is the one who beats the drum to make announcements. Mahatma
Gandhi christened them Harijans (children of God). They live on the
outskirts of the village and are mostly day laborers, tend cattle and
lands for the village upper caste landowners. I lived in such a village
in Tamil Nadu and know their lot very well. If there is anything nobody
wants to do, that is the job that a Dalit takes. )
He was later named Nandanar,
after people became aware of his saintliness. Before that, he could not
go to Chidambaram to see Lord Nataraja because of his daily toil on the
lands and low-caste status. People used to ask him when he was
going to visit Chidambaram. He used to say, "I will go tomorrow."
So people named him Tiru-naalai-povar (திருநாளைபோவார்),
meaning the "sacred-tomorrow-goer." Right from childhood he was a
devotee of Lord Nataraja but he never gained entry into the temple
because of his caste status. He watched from a distance the temple and
went around the temple walls as a mark of his devotion to Lord
Nataraja. He did not want to break the caste barriers imposed by
others on him and his caste. Once he went to Tirupungur to see the Deity
Sivalokanathar. He and his friends stood outside the temple to see the
deity in the Sanctum Sanctorum; the sacred stone bull Nandi was in the
way for a proper darsan (தரிசனம்). Siva ordered the stone bull to move
so that his devotee can take a look at him well. Nandi moved and he
received the vision of the Lord. Since then he was known as Nandanar
(named after Nandi), a very respectful name for a devotee. He
wished to visit the sanctum sanctorum in Nataraja Temple. How was it
going to be possible for a Dalit to enter the temple? Lord Nataraja
appeared in the dreams of Nandanar and the temple priests and ordered
the priests to let him take a bath and walk through fire and visit him
in the Sanctum Sanctorum.
Nandanar enters fire
Nandan's physical body
euphemistically called the illusory body perished in the fire with the
emergence of a radiant muni of great virtue with the sacred thread
shining on his chest and matching matted locks. When the crimson
fire rose to the sky, he was radiant-looking like Brahma seated on the
lotus flower. Dundubhi (large kettle drum) sounded; the celestials
poured showers of flowers and ManthAra blossoms (shoe flower, Japapushpa,
hibiscus rosa-sinensis). He, to the amazement of the hereditary
temple priests (Thillai-Vaz-Anthanar) walked on his own power to the
Sanctum (Golden Hall) and merged with the Lord with no trace of him
either in the cinders or in the Sanctum.
Bharati added some dramatic elements in the biography of Nandanar with
good intentions and changed the biography, true in spirit and practice.
The word VaruhalAmo
(வருகலாமோ) packs all that is wrong in the oppression of the Dalits.
May I come in
to your street so that you can all retreat to your houses and thus stay
pure and not see the polluting sight of a Paraiyan?
is an airy character, to whom Bharati gave a physical body and a
spurious run side by side with Nandanar.
Walking through fire to prove purity and chastity (Sita) and sacredness
(Nandanar) has been a disturbing feature of Hindu religion, though
ordered by the gods.
low-caste Chandala asks high-caste Brahmana Sankara a pointed question.
We have the Pure Self we
all share. I can keep my body away from your body. How could I keep the
Self that we both share away from you?
Once Sankaracharya (Propounder of Monism, b 788 A.D) was walking
along Ganges River, a Chandala was walking by with his dogs.
The disciples of Sankara yelled at the
chandala and asked him to get out of the way of Sankara. It is
claimed that a Chandala was born of a Brahmin women and a Sudra man.
Here is an instance of confusion of castes as mentioned earlier.
Those days this confusion of castes and its prohibition were
equated to the miscegenation laws of the west. Here the
varnasrma dharma was broken. Chandala was also a lowest person outside
the Varna system. The chandala asked Sankara whether
propounder of Advaita philosophy should see the difference between man
and man and how it was consistent with his advaitism.
Another expansive version of the same incident gives the following
narrative. Sankara himself asked the Chandala to keep some distance from
him. The Chandala spoke his mind: What is it that you want to keep away
from, my Self or my body? Your and my body are made of food; if you
desire, I could keep my body away from your body. The Self, that
is pure awareness, is shared by you and me. How is it possible for
the omnipresent Pure Awareness go away from itself? Sankara fell
at his feet like a stick with all his eight angas
at prostration. (Eight Angas / Sashtanga
Namaskaram: Prostration by touching with
eight limbs: two hands, two knees, two shoulders, chest, and forehead.)
Sankara thought that Lord Siva himself in the
form of Chandala was there to teach him a lesson. He composed 5
slokas, named Manisha panchaka. Every sloka ended with a phrase that
essentially said that anyone, be a chandala or
Brahmin, who was learned enough to look at phenomena in the light of
Advaita, was his guru. The great Indian tradition doesn't exclude
anybody from acquiring knowledge. He can rise to any height
according to his ability and depth of devotion. According to Chandogya
Upanishad 5.24.4, if any one offers the sacrificial remnant of his
food to a chandala, it is offered to the Universal Self. Here the
caste, the race, and all other discriminatory pettiness are given the
When the Indian masses
were buffeted by orthodox Brahmanical Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Buddhism
and other Isms at various ages, Bhakti movement of personal devotion
without the umbral priests blocking the light of Grace brought God into
hearts and minds of the masses. If it is not for the Bhakti movement,
Hinduism would have fallen prey to the latter-day religions and the
constrictive, restrictive, destructive, and ritualistic Brahmanical
Hinduism, which would have only stunted its growth.
(b: Oct/05/1823) states that there is no such thing as higher or
lower castes. He adds that the Lord revealed to him that color of
the skin is not an indication of a higher caste, and that
these distinctions of caste and life styles are childish plays.
18.41: Brāhmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and
Sūdra, O Parantapa, and their activities are divided according to the
Gunas born of
their own nature.
Character (Guna) makes a
Brahmin and not natal caste
Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT)
should be the case with castes.
The four classes are not determined by birth or colour but by
psychological characteristics which fit us for definite functions in
society. Dr. Radhakrishnan, The Bhagavadgītā , page 364-5.
Sri Nārāyana Guru
(August 22, 1856 September 20 1928) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sree_Narayana_Guru
Sri Nārāyana Guru (18551928)
From the beginning of time, so far as anyone
Brahmins had ever installed an idol. Yet when Gurudevan (born in
Ezhavan Caste) performed the sacred rite it appeared so natural for
him to pick up a small rock and install it.
When brahmins challenged his right to consecrate, he replied in his
famous quote:This is not a Brahmin Siva, but an Ezhava Siva.To
those who questioned the timing of the consecration saying it was
not an astrologically auspicious time, he replied: Horoscope is
to be cast after the birth of a child, not before. He instructed
to place a plaque containing a motto on the temple wall which read
Devoid of dividing walls of
Or hatred of rival faith,
We all live here
Such, know this place to be!
This Model Foundation!
Next, he started a
Sanskrit school in
Varkala. Poor boys and orphans were taken under his care. They
were given education regardless of caste distinctions.
In 1913, he founded the Advaita Ashram
Aluva. This was an important event in his spiritual quest. This
Ashram was dedicated to a great principle - Om Sahodaryam
Sarvatra (all men are equal in the eyes of God). This became the
motto of the new Ashram. He further said in that message,
Ezhava does not denote a caste or a religion and he made temple
rights to everyone. Therefore people can be admitted to this
organization without paying heed to differences of caste.
Schools rather than
temples are to be preferred, he exhorted in a dramatic shift of
focus, he said. He advised Sri Buddha's principles of five purities
- body, food, mind, word, deed called as Pancha Dharma.
An Advaithin to the core, he did not
differentiate people on the basis of their religion, caste, colour
or beliefs. He was tolerant toward all philosophies that stood for
the progress of mankind.
In the year 1916, he proclaimed : It is
years since I left castes and religions. Yet some people think that
I belong to their caste. That is not correct. I do not belong to any
particular caste or religion.
The fourfold order is
not peculiar to Hindu society. It is of universal application. The
classification depends on types of human nature. Each of the four
classes has certain well-defined characteristics though they are not to
be regarded as exclusive. These are not determined always by heredity.
The Gītā cannot be
used to support the existing social order with its rigidity and
confusion. It takes up the theory of the four orders and enlarges its
scope and meaning. Man's outward life must express his inward being; the
surface must reflect the profundity. Each individual has his inborn
nature, svabhāva, and to make it effective in his life is his duty,
svadharma. Each individual is a focus of the Supreme, a fragment of the
Divine. His destiny is to bring out in his life this divine possibility.
The one Spirit of the universe has produced the multiplicity of souls in
the world, but the idea of the Divine is our essential nature, the truth
of our being, our svabhāva, and not the apparatus of the gunas, which is
only the medium for expression. If each individual does what is
appropriate to him, if he follows the law of his being, his svadharma,
then God would express Himself in the free volitions of human beings.
All that is essential for the world will be done without a conflict. But
men rarely do what they ought to do. When they undertake to determine
events believing that they know the plan of the whole, they work
mischief on earth. So long as our work is done in accordance with our
nature, we are righteous, and if we dedicate it to God, our work becomes
a means of spiritual perfection. When the divine in the individual is
completely manifested, he attains the eternal imperishable status,
śasvataṁ padam avyayam. The problem that human life sets to us is to
discover our true self and live according to its truth; otherwise we
would sin against our nature. The emphasis on svabhāva indicates that
human beings are to be treated as individuals and not as types. Arjuna
is told that he who fights gallantly as a warrior becomes mature for the
peace of wisdom.
There are four broad
types of nature and answering to them are four kinds of social living.
The four classes are not determined by birth or colour but by
psychological characteristics which fit us for definite functions in
society. Dr. Radhakrishnan, The Bhagavadgītā , page 364-5.
'Caste is a state, not an
iron-bound class, and every one who knows and loves
God is a true Brahmin.'
The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda Volume 2 [ Page : 508 ]
Mr. Thomas, Professor of Sanskrit, University of Oxford was visiting
Tiruvannamalai Tamil Nadu in December 1937 and posed a question to
Q: What do you think of castes?
A: The castes relate to bodies and not to the Self. The Self is Bliss.
To realize Bliss one realizes the Self. No need to worry oneself about
caste, etc. Talk 433. Ramana Maharishi.
Here is what Vajrasucika Upanishad says
about caste. This belongs to Sama Veda and undermines caste distinctions
based on birth. This passage is a complete extract minus Sanskrit text
of Vajrasucika Upanishad, The Principle of Upanishads,
translated by Radhakrishnan (page 935-938).
I.I shall describe the
Vajrasuci doctrine which blasts
ignorance, condemns those who are devoid of the knowledge (of
Brahman) and exalts those endowed with the eye of knowledge.
2. The Brahmana
the Ksatriya, the Vaisya and the Sudra are the four classes
(castes). That the Brahmana is the chief among these classes, is in
accord with the Vedic texts and is affirmed by the
Smrtis. In this connection
there is a point worthy of investigation. Who is, verily, the Brahmanas?
Is he the individual soul? Is he the body? Is he the class based on
birth? Is he the knowledge? Is he the deeds (previous, present or
prospective)? Is he the performer of the rites?
3. Of these, if the first (position) that
the Jiva or the individual soul is Brahmana (is to be assumed), it is
not so; for the individual's form is one and the same in the large
number of previous and prospective bodies. Even though the Jiva (the
individual soul) is one, there is scope for (the assumption of) many
bodies due to the stress of (past) karma, and in all these bodies the
form of the Jiva is one and the same. Therefore
the Jiva is not the Brahmana.
4. Then if (it is said) that the body is the Brahmana, it is not
so, because of the oneness of the nature of the body which is composed
of the five elements, in all classes of human beings down to the
candalas (outcastes), etc.; on account of the perception of the
common features of old age and death, virtue and vice, on account of the
absence of any regularity (in the complexion of the four classes) that
the Brahmana is of the white complexion, that the Ksatriya is of the red
complexion, that the Vaisya is of the tawny complexion, that the Sūdra
is of the dark complexion and because of the liability of the sons and
others (kinsmen) to becoming tainted with the murder of a Brahmana and
other (sins) on cremating the bodies of their fathers and other kinsmen:
Therefore the body is not the Brahmana.
5. Then (if it is said) that birth (makes)
the Brahmana, it is not so, for there are many species among creatures,
other than human; many sages are of diverse origin. We hear from the
sacred books that Rsyasrnga was
born of a deer, Kausika of Kusa
grass, Jambuka from a jackal,
Valmiki from an ant-hill,
Vyasa from a fisher girl,
Gautama from the back of a hare,
Vasistha from Urvasi (the celestial
nymph), Agastya from an earthen jar. Among these, despite their
birth, there are many sages, who have taken the highest rank, having
given proof of their wisdom. Therefore
birth does not (make) a Brahmana.
6. Then (if it is said) that knowledge
(makes a) Brahmana, it is not so because among Ksatriyas and others
there are many who have seen the Highest Reality and attained wisdom;
Therefore knowledge does not (make) a Brahmana.
7· Then (if it is said) that work (makes a)
Brahmana, it is not so, for we see that the work commenced in the
present embodiment or accumulated during the previous or to commence on
a future embodiment is common to all living creatures and that good men
perform works impelled by their past karma. Therefore
work does not (make) a Brahmana.
8. Then (if it is said) that the performer
of religious duties is a Brahmana, it is not so; for there have been
many Ksatriyas and others who have given away gold. Therefore the
performer of religious rites is not the Brahmana.
Giving away gold is an act of religious
9· Then, who, verily is the Brahrnana? He
who, after directly perceiving, like the amalaka fruit in the palm of
one's hand, the Self, without a second, devoid of distinctions of birth,
attribute and action, devoid of all faults such as the
six infirmities, and the
six states, of the form of truth,
wisdom, bliss and eternity, that is by itself, devoid of determinations,
the basis of endless determinations, who functions as the indwelling
spirit of all beings, who pervades the interior and the exterior. of all
like ether, of the nature of bliss, indivisible, immeasurable,
realizable only through one's experience and who manifests himself
directly (as one's self), and through the fulfillment of his nature,
becomes rid of the faults of desire, attachment, etc., and endowed with
qualities of tranquility, etc., rid of the states of being, spite,
greed, expectation, bewilderment, etc., with his mind unaffected by
ostentation, selfsense and the like, he lives.
He alone who is possessed of these qualities is
the Brahmana. This is the view of the Vedic texts and
tradition, ancient lore and history. The accomplishment of the state of
the Brahmans is otherwise impossible. Meditate on Brahman, the
Self who is being, consciousness and bliss, without a second; meditate
on Brahman, the Self who is being, consciousness and bliss
without a second. This is the Upanisad,
old age, death, sorrow, delusion, hunger and thirst.
six states: birth, being,
growth, change, waning and perishing.
texts declare that the determining factor of caste is character and
conduct and not birth.
Listen about caste, Yaksa dear, not study,
not learning is the cause of rebornness.
Conduct is the basis, there is no doubt about it. M.B.
Aranya-parva 312. 106.
O King of
serpents, he in whom are manifest truthfulness, charity, forbearance,
good conduct, non-injury, austerity and compassion is, a Brahmana
according to the sacred tradition.
O serpent he in whom this conduct is
manifest is a Brahmana; he in whom this is absent treat all such as
Sudra. M.B. Aranya-parva 180. 20, 27. The gods consider him a
Brahmana (a knower of Brahman who has no desires, who
undertakes no work, who does not salute or praise anybody, whose work
has been exhausted but who himself is unchanged.
defines a Brahmana as one who is devoted to truth: sa eva
satyānnāpaiti sa jñeyo brahmanas tvayā.
It is valuable to recall
the teaching of this Upanişad which repudiates the system that
consecrates inequalities and hardens contingent differences into
End of Vajrasuika Upanishad.
(Dalit) Woman Wins Post of Speaker, (proficient in Sanskrit,
English, Hindi and Spanish).
Indias Parliament on Wednesday elected its first female
speaker, the daughter of a former deputy prime minister and a
Dalit, a member of Indias lowest caste. Meira Kumar, 64, was
elected unopposed and immediately assumed her post. She replaced
Somnath Chaterjee, a member of the Brahmin caste, Indias highest.
Ms. Kumar has been elected to Parliament five times and has also
served as social justice minister.
what Pujya Swamiji of Rishikesh does in his Gurukulam; here is
his stance on caste. He takes orphaned
children irrespective of caste, names them Rishikumars, and offers them
both secular education and Vedic studies.
Parmarth Gurukul, Rishikesh India
At the sacred time of
the Paush Purnima (full moon), 24 of the rishikumars had their
official upanayana, or sacred
thread ceremony. This ceremony marks the boy's official entry
into the study of the vedas and the "gurukul" system.
Although historically it was a
ritual performed only for the brahmin caste, Pujya Swamiji
made no distinctions
between children born of different castes.
Any of the boys who wanted to
undergo the official ceremony - during which they also receive a sacred
mantra from Pujya Swamiji - were welcome.
In India today there are thousands and
thousands of abandoned and impoverished children, roaming the
streets of the cities and the dirt paths of the villages. These are
children whose parents were too poor to raise them, or who simply
decided they did not want to accept the burden of a child, or who were
befallen by an accident that left them incapable of fending for
themselves, let alone a child.
However, simple shelters with food, beds and babysitters are not
sufficient. These children need not only to be fed and sheltered - they
need to be educated and trained so they can be
productive members of society. They need to be
inculcated with values, ethics and spirituality
which will make them torchbearers of Indian culture and divine cultural
ambassadors. We have opened an orphanage /gurukul
in Rishikesh where 100 young boys live and study - both basic academics
as well as intensive Sanskrit and ancient Vedic texts.
Their days are filled with yoga, meditation, Vedic
chanting, reading of scriptures, mathematics, seva and
special programs designed to infuse their lives with essential sanskaras.
They are being trained to be not only doctors,
scientists and engineers, but they are also being trained to be
India's cultural ambassadors, to be the priests and guides
who will travel throughout the world, carrying with them the ancient
secrets of the Vedas combined with the blessings of Mother Ganga.
From the first minute that the boys arrived,
their identity was changed from "orphan" and
"poor" to "Rishikumar." With that slight, simple change of
term, their entire identities have changed. Looks of hopelessness have
become looks of great optimism and hope. Lightless eyes have become
bright, shining eyes. Feelings of destitution and despair have become
feelings of pride, of faith and of enthusiasm.
We currently have 150 young boys living in our 2 gurukuls, one on
the premises of Parmarth Niketan in Rishikesh and the other on the
premises of the Veerpur ashram, 8 km. away. We are looking to take in up
to 500 more children.
Computer Centre for Rishikumars
February 2005 saw the inauguration of a computer centre in the
Gurukul, which was kindly sponsored by Bellaben and Yogeshbhai Patel. A
special prayer was said at the function so that the rishikumars grow,
blossom and bridge the gap between ancient traditions of the Himalayas
and modern technology of the computer age.
Janeo Sanskar of Rishikumars
On 12 July 2005, Parmarth Gurukul accepted 91 new Rishikumars into
the Gurukul. The children, all of whom come from
poor, disadvantaged situations (some of whom are
orphans, some who have one parent, some who have both but the
parents cannot properly care for the children) received their janeo
sanskar. The sacred thread ceremony is an important ritual in the
life of a Hindu boy (see www.parmarth.com/sanskaras.htm for details of
the meaning of this ceremony), and one which prepares him to study the
The ceremony was performed and all the rishikumars received the
sacred mantra from Pujya Swamiji and a mala for japa, as well as a
special asana for sitting for their meditation and sandhya.
In the evening, after the Ganga Aarti, the rishikumars all (new and
old) received new clothes, new school books and big sweet ladoos, by the
hands of the Shahra family from Indore and Mumbai.
Here is a real-life story of a
high-caste Nayanar (Naminandhi Adikal
, a devotee of Siva. Lord ThyAgEsar (Image) rode in state from
TiruvArUr to Manali. There was a huge crowd jostling with each other for
a good clear obstruction-free Darshan (¾¡¢ºÉõ
= Auspicious sight of the deity) of
the Lord. The Brahmanas, Vaishyas, Sudras and other unclassified castes
were mingling in the crowd and rubbing shoulders. Adikal went home that
night but did not enter his pollution-free house because his body was
polluted by the touch of the lower castes. He went to sleep in front of
the house that night, as he was thinking he would take a cleansing bath.
Siva in His Archana form appeared in his dream and told him that all
those born in TiruvarUr are His Ganas (attendants) and that he should
take a note of this condition. He woke up early in the morning, told his
wife of his dream and being afraid of Apasaram («Àº¡Ãõ
= irreverence) for not doing the
morning worship, left for TiruvArUr. All the people of TiruvArUr
appeared as Siva-Nilakanta (Siva with blue throat) to Adikal, who raised
his hands above his head, held the palms together and fell prostrate on
the ground in humility and became ecstatic at having seen Siva (Siva
clones). Here you may notice several things. Siva is the egalitarian
God. He forgives His devotees for any infractions and wrong notions
about caste. He positively tells them what is right and what is wrong in
a very non-threatening and amiable manner without flustering the
devotee. He even gives a vision of Himself to his erring devotees.
Pollution is just not a physical but mostly a mental perception. Siva
tells the down-trodden and oppressed people that they are one with the
higher castes and He has their interest in His mind. Siva gives Grace (அனுக்கிரகம்)
to all irrespective of caste. The following verse depicts the appearance
of Siva with blue throat to His devotee as myriad Clones of Himself, to
teach the high-caste errant devotee that He belongs to all castes.
Periya Puranam (பெரிய
புராணம்) Verse 1899 by Sekkizar.
பெருமாள் திருவாரூர்ப் பிறந்து வாழ்வார் எல்லாரும்
அனைய மணிகண்டார் வடிவே யாகிப் பெருகு ஒளியாய்
அமர்ந்த மேனியராம் பரிசு கண்டு முடிகுவித்து
அஞ்சி அவனி மிசை விழுந்து பணிந்து கண் சிறந்தார். 1899
All the people born in Tiruvarur under the aegis of the Supreme Lord of
the gods (ThyAgEsar) with the black throat appeared as the blue-throated
Nilakantappas with effulgent bodies. Having seen the nature and
appearance and become afraid, he raised his hands above his head,
brought his palms together, fell prostrate on the ground in worship and
humility and became ecstatic at seeing the form of the Lord.
May 2009: Indian
students in Australia, the land down under of Aussies and a former Penal
Colony are the victims of assault by the Junkies among Aussies.
There is a lesson to be learnt from the Aussie
Junkie Curry Basher, who is an equal opportunity Basher. All
Indians and Indian look-alikes joined together to protest the violence
against Indians. The basher did not pick and choose one's religion,
caste, economic status and other identifiers. The victim could be
Muslim, Buddhist, Jain, Sikh, Brahmin, (Ksatriya), Vaishya, Sudra, Dalit,
other or any one of the scheduled castes and tribes (SCs & STs
constitute 24% of India's population). The Curry Basher goes by your
look and not by your affiliation. All of you joined together in the
protest, because each one of you felt the pain irrespective of that
which separates one from the other. When you go back to India, you
should remain Indian, advocate oneness of all Indians and do not engage
in divisive politics or practices.
In a larger global context, each one of
us is a citizen of the world and thus should rise above that which
separates us. Obviously the supreme ignoramus the curry basher is not
destined for greatness. They are the scum, the dross, the riffraff, the
dregs, the refuse, the curse of Australia and the world. We should not
be part of his culture.
What Krishna Bhagavan tells about Varna in
4.13: I founded (created) the fourfold
order of Varna according to guna and karma (fundamental quality and
work). Though I am the founder, know me thou as unable to act or change.
It is quite possible that this verse is an interpolation by the
unscrupulous. This social engineering of the past was deliberate in
excluding other castes from acquiring knowledge.
Sri U. Ve Velukkudi Krishnan Swamy (VVKS)
speaks to his flock.
This is a question and answer forum. I have omitted the questions to
save space. You may go into
the web site for more on questions.
Commonly held views by the current Acharyas
1) One cannot move from one varna to another. It is decided when
born. By conduct one can follow satvik qualities. Moreover there is
no need to switch as moksham (मोक्ष
= Liberation = Vaikuntam)
can be attained from any varna.
वर्न = appearance, color
= Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra (Brahmana, Warrior, Trader,
All the three varnas
(castes) have poonul (sacred thread), So not only brahmanas. 2. Your
Varna (caste) is decided by your birth. If your father is a brahmana
you are a brahmana. 3. We cannot choose or switch varnas (expect in
extreme cases like Visvamitra who had enormous will power).
So although you work you
will have to follow brahmana dharma only and try to practise all
karmas of a brahmana. 4,5. Yes if you realise your varna in the real
sense then you can lead your life by chanting vedas and preaching
bhagavat vishayam to others.
Bhagavan would certainly
protect you and your family. Before taking any decision
discuss with your parents and wife.--(VVKS).
(Chanting Vedas and
preaching matters related to God are the duty of a Brahmana; If they
follow the injunctions, many Brahmana households will be in penury.
The country will lose the great minds from public service. Science
and education will suffer.--Krishnaraj))
(inter-caste marriage) is a papa (sin) as per first chapter of Gita.
marriage as a sin is an empty rhetoric. This is like miscegenation
of the races--marriage between the white and the black. Historians
say that those days, marriage between the Aryan and the Non-Aryan
Itihasas mention many instances of marriage between
Yes Ramanuja sampradaya would accept anybody as a Sri vaishnavite
irrespective of caste or country provided the individual follows the
(This is egalitarianism of SriVaishnavism, when it comes to moksa or
The combination of rishis , pravara (lineage) and gothra make every
lineage unique. So we need to avoid spouse of same gothram (cowshed,
house, race) only. For that matter all rishis (seers) were born from
Brahma (god of creation) and so we would all belong to one father
including saraswati the consort of Brahma.
Brahmin claims lineage from Seers born of Brahma. This, though very
gratifying, inspiring, self-aggrandizing, and elevating, is against
present scientific evidence that we all came from African Eve and
African Adam. Our remote ancestors were humanoids and sub-human
Varna and asrama dharmas (caste and duties of the stages in a
Brahmana's life) are relevant for any day. They may deteriorate due
to the changing yugaas (Cosmic age) and more due to the nature of
people in the yugaas. Your suggestion that we can alter the
prescribed dharmas (caste duties) according to their current
profession cannot be held valid as, prima facie, a change in
profession itself is not acceptable. When there is a rule that I
should not cross the yellow line can we formulate a fresh set of
rules for driving across the line. In reality even if many are
crossing it cannot be justified or ratified.
(This essentially states that each caste should perform what
Manu-authored so-called sacred texts have prescribed: A Brahmana
learning and teaching sacred texts; a warrior doing the fighting; a
Vaishya doing agriculture and related things; a Sudra serving the
first three. By this measure, we would not progress any further than
what prevailed in Vedic India. We would be taken over by the
stronger countries who do not believe in Vedic texts and
prescriptions. This is a recipe for disaster.--Krishnaraj)
Mukti (liberation) is common to all varnas and asramas. The swamis
whom you have mentioned are following sanyasa asramam (renunciation)
as they have chosen that.
Entertaining foreign guests especially when they are non veg and
alcohol consumer would amount to papam (sin). Kindly abstain.
You will have to wear metti (மெட்டி). I am sure you will find a way
out of your shoes.
In Vedic times, the Twice-born indulged in Soma, a drink, the West
claims, gives inebriation and hallucination. The present day
religious heads dispute the west's assumption, though they and the
west never imbibed the stuff and thus cannot offer any opinion. (Metti
(மெட்டி) are silver rings worn on the second toes by married woman.
The friction between the silver rings and the toes establishes a
connection with the uterus and the brain (the pituitary), thus
assuring pregnancy and lactation. These rings sometimes make it
difficult to wear shoes especially in the winter. But removing Metti
is against the injunctions. Entertainment by Brahmins of the
foreigners (Whites, Blacks, Chinese, Europeans including Indians)
with chicken, meat and alcohol are against Hindu injunctions. Just a
reminder: the Vedic Brahmins ate Beef. I am a vegetarian and
says in his book on castes. Ref: The Garland of letters, page 295
The cultural restrictions in this country have been of a different
kind, consisting in the social ordering of life, and in
later times exclusion from
knowledge by reason of artificial distinctions of caste. But those,
to whom the book of knowledge was open, have always been able to
think freely enough.
Comment by V. Krishnaraj:
One of the main reasons why caste system came into
being is to exclude people from knowledge. Thus all the sacred texts
were excluded from the mental domain of the lower castes. A Brahmana
woman joins the ranks of Sudras in the sense that both of them
should be excluded from hearing Gayatri Mantra uttered by her
husband. A mind thus deprived is an inferior mind. The mind thus
enriched by knowledge is the superior mind. That is why in the whole
of India, the Brahmins advanced by the paradigm of exclusion of
other castes from acquiring knowledge. Simply by training and
exercising the mind, the Brahmins became the best among Indians.
But not all Brahmins were endowed with superior knowledge because of
inability, inaptitude, disability and other unwelcome
deficiencies. The oppressive caste system could not stop the Non-brahmins
from acquiring knowledge either.
The inherent genius of the Non-brahmins showed and
it was unstoppable. The true Non-brahmin intellectual elites like
by profession) of Tirukkural,
Kamban (கம்பன்) of
KambaRamayanam (Kambar belonged to the Ochchan or
caste, traditionally Nadaswaram players in southern
India, who was well-versed in Sanskrit and Tamil) and
(நம்மாழ்வார்) of Divyaprabhandam. Nammalvar is the prolific
leading poet-devotee of Vishnu who described Vaikuntam, the Sri
Vaishnava heaven. He composed 1296 hymns (1296/4000). There are many
more like them.
of Ramayana was the son of Sumali.
was born in a tribal
His birth name was Ratnakara,
and he was, by profession, a
Robin Hood styled Dacoit.
But the trust factor of the sources is questionable. When everyone
left to travel south Sumali took his son and wife and moved near the
Vipasa River (Northern India).
The Uttara Khanda tells the story of Valmiki's early life, as
an unnamed highway robber who used to rob people before killing
them. Other versions name him Valya Meet.
Robbing people who passed by was the only source of money
(வியாசர்) of Mahabharata appears for the first time as the
author of, and an important character in the
Mahābhārata. He was
the son of
daughter of a ferryman or fisherman,
and the wandering sage
Parashara. He was
born on an island in the river
The fact of the matter is that Brahmins by and
large are in the privileged position of being the repository of
knowledge. They thus had the best of jobs in the country. That is
indeed good for them and for the country; but ethically speaking it
is immoral and that privilege came about by excluding others.
Vedas and preaching bhagavat vishayam (Matters of God) to others are
what Brahmanas were ordained to do by sacred injunctions. But in
practice, the Brahmanas took other professions where knowledge was
essential; they stayed at the top of the heap. Take the Noble prize
winners of South India like C.V.Raman and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan.
The Brahmins have educational, religious and traditional culture
that made them shine above others. Other castes should emulate them
and advance. They should use their skills to promote the same ideals
in others. It has been once said by an eminent person: there
in the paddy fields, there are many geniuses and hands toiling and
languishing in the hot sun because of lack of equal opportunities
for their mind to function and shine. The present day Acharyas
should desist from saying that Brahmanas should only chant Vedas and
spread the word of God and other castes should do their
caste-ordained or caste-bound duties. India would never be able to
compete with the west and the East in this world, if this
stultifying paradigm continues to be the model.
By the paradigm of exclusion
of lower castes, promulgated even now by the die-hard purists, to
Kamban, Nammalvar, Vyasar,
Valmiki should have done exclusively their caste-ordained work of
weaving and clerical jobs... Fortunately, they were what and
where their knowledge took them and benefited all.
Equal opportunity is the new game in town. All
classes and castes are advancing now.
Why do you think India became the favorite country for foreign
invasions? It is because we were divided and weak.
Abdul Kalam says: In
strongly advocates an action plan to develop India into a knowledge
by the year 2020. He regards his work on India's
program as a way to assert India's place as a future
--Wikipedia. He further
states: First of all strength respects
strength. To protect the nation, nation should have
adequate strength. Hence we need to equip ourselves with minimum
defense. If we have
strength and good leadership, then peace in the nation will prevail.
the humiliation suffered by India in 1962 from the Chinese
incursions into the so-called disputed territory. There ended the
bhai-bhai, which was downgraded to Hindi-Chini bye-bye.
January 12, 2012: The two Asian giants China and
India might be rivals due to their border disputes and the said,
unsaid willingness to beat each other. But in a major first both
emerging economies are going to cooperate in astronomy research as
partners in a Hawaii telescope, the worlds largest telescope when
its built around 2018. AP reported that China and India will pay a
share of the construction cost expected to top $1 billion for
the Thirty Meter Telescope
at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano. They will also have a share of
the observation time. TMT
will be a 30 meter long and with a segmented primary mirror of
nearly 100 feet which will give it nine times the light-collecting
area of the largest optical telescopes in use today. Its images will
also be three times sharper. It will be able to observe planets that
orbit stars other than the sun and enable astronomers to watch new
planets and stars being formed. It should also help scientists see
some 13 billion light years away for a glimpse into the early years
of the universe.
Pilgrimage Incident converts a theist to an Atheist.
Feeding others for the attainment of heaven.
Here in this instance, the Brahmanas broke the
rules and go to hell.
ஆகுதி வேட்கும் அருமறை அந்தணர்
போகதி நாடிப் புறங்கொடுத்து உண்ணுவர்
தாம்விதி வேண்டித் தலைப்படு மெய்ந்நெறி
தாமறி வாலே தலைப்பட்ட வாறே.
Veda-chanting Brahmanas, who desire to perform oblations in the
consecrated fire for the express purpose of enjoying future life in
the house of salvation (heaven), eat after feeding others.
Performing the daily duties, observing and knowing virtuous path,
they behave accordingly.
EVR Periyar started Self-Respect movement and
Dravidian Movement. Theist, to begin with, became an Atheist,
when he was seeking food from a free feeding station (அன்ன
சத்திரம்) and thrown on the street on empty stomach
for being a Non-Brahmin. Strangely, a wealthy Non-Brahmin from South
India was the sponsor of the feeding program. Krishnaraj
In 1904, Periyar went on a pilgrimage to
Kasi to worship in the revered
Kashi Vishwanath. Though regarded as one of the holiest sites of
Hinduism, he witnessed immoral activities, begging, and floating
dead bodies. His frustrations extended to functional Hinduism in
general when he experience what he called
However, one particular incident in Kasi had a profound impact on
Periyar's ideology and future work. At worship
site there were free meals offered to guests. To Periyar's shock,
he was refused meals at
choultries which exclusively fed
Due to extreme hunger, Periyar felt
compelled to enter one of
the choultries disguised as a Brahmin
on his bare chest, but was betrayed by his moustache. The
gatekeeper at the temple concluded that Periyar was not a Brahmin as
Brahmins were not permitted by the Hindu
shastras to have moustaches. He not
only prevented Periyar's entry but also pushed him rudely to the
As his hunger became intolerable, Periyar
was forced to feed on
leftovers from the streets. Around this time, he realized
that the choultry which had refused him entry was built by a wealthy
This discriminatory attitude dealt a blow to Periyar's regard for
Hinduism, for the events he had witnessed at Kasi were completely
different from the picture of Kasi he had in mind, as a holy place
which welcomed all.
Ramasami was a
theist till his visit to Kasi, after which
his views changed and he became an
Conversion is not
the answer. The change should come from inside.
the conversions in the name of Jesus Christ, the Curse of Caste is
deeply embedded in the hyphenated Christians: Naidu-Christians,
Reddy-Christians, Vellalar-Christians, Kamma-Christians, Dalit-Christians.
Obviously the guaranteed salvation and equality in Christianly are
defeated roundly by these hyphenations, separation and endogamous
marriages. It is not uncommon among Christians to announce and claim
superiority that their ancestors were Brahmins, Reddys, Naidus, Velalars,
Chettiars.... Dalit-Christians politely called Adhi Dravidas are the
bottom of the heap, which is regrettable, and offensive to the moral,
legal and ethical concerns of a community, a nation and the world. The
hyphenated Christians always fall back on their ancestral heritage, when
it comes to marriage, social standing, association.... Dalits are
escaping discrimination and segregation by education and migration into
cities. Matrimonial columns are the place to find out about castes,
hyphenated castes couched in code words and the desired prospective
spouses. I had the opportunity to associate with ease with Muslims,
Brahmin-Christians and Dalit-Christians in my professional and personal
life. Dalit oppression and suppression are so locally pervasive, severe,
and intolerable in some instances that they take refuge in the alien
so-called Abrahamic creedal religions (formal creeds which of necessity
limit and restrain thought, free will and intellectual pursuits.) which
took upon the mantle to salvage the world of unbelievers and which are
driven by prophets, dogmas, central authority, occupations, military
campaigns, colonialism, organizations, misrepresentations, false
promises, conversions, and wealth. Hindus are largely to blame for these
conversions. If they don't treat their brethren well, they fall into the
hands of alien religions. Once the conversions have been accomplished,
the Hindu organizations bend over backwards to reconvert them back to
the Hindu faith. In the west Christianity suffers the same malady by
separation, race, color, ethnicity, abuse.... Black church burning is an
example of intolerance of Christianity of blacks. We have our castes;
they have the race.
116 Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna 1836-1886
I had to practice the various religions
once, Hinduism, Islam and Christianity, and
I have walked the paths of the different sects of Hinduism again--the
Sakta, the Vaishnava, the Vedantic and others.
And I have found
that it is the same God towards whom all are travelling, only they come
through diverse ways.
It appears that the evil of caste has crossed its sardonic boundaries
and embraced the hyphenated Christians. Here is an example given by Mark
Twain. The fractured soul of the hyphenated Brahmin-Christian in the
unusual role of a Brahmin-servant speaks in broken English.
(November 30, 1835 April 21, 1910) in Bombay records a conversation he
had with his servant, Manuel.
Page 5002/9190 Entire Collection of Mark
Twain.Pdf on Scribd.com
"Name, Manuel. Yes, master."
"I know; but how did you get the name?"
"Oh, yes, I suppose. Think happen so. Father
same name, not mother."
I saw that I must simplify my language and
spread my words apart, if I would be understood by
this English scholar.
"Oh, he,"--brightening a little--"he
Christian--Portygee; live in Goa; I born Goa;
mother not Portygee, mother
native-high-caste Brahmin--Coolin Brahmin;
highest caste; no other so high caste. I high-caste
Brahmin, too. Christian, too, same like father; high-caste
Christian Brahmin, master--Salvation Army."
Matthew 23:15 "Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you
You travel over land and sea to win a single convert, and then you make
that convert twice as much a child of hell as you are.--
I knew of a Christian classmate of mine training and working in a
hospital on the East Coast in the USA. This was before the Civil Rights
Legislation, and when the Jim Crow South had 'Whites
Only' signs and the blacks were riding in the back of the bus
with white kids who rode in the back for fun of a butt-bruising
bumpy ride. This medical doctor was black like coal but ebony in appeal,
handsome by appearance, brilliant and compassionate as a physician, and
a gentleman by character; yet he was as black
as it comes. The hospital was short on doctors; the staff was long on
conventional racial attitudes at that time, place, and circumstances and
had to take Foreign Medical Graduates to fill the positions. His life
was miserable in the hospital. (Even after
Civil Rights legislation in the USA and with an avalanche of Indian
doctors, I was told by an immigrant
white nurse with red hair and generous sprinkling of freckles on her
otherwise lily white face to go back to India. The freckles were so
crowded and so close together on her face that if they coalesced
together, she would be no different from an Indian woman. I see
with amusement now a white tigress in human form. It appeared she
asserted her right to be a legal immigrant and working and denied me the
same right. She was antithetical to the good soul, Sister
Nivedita, a white disciple of Swami
Vivekananda.) He was adored and admired in his family and
Christian Community in Tamil Nadu for his accomplishment and yet he
suffered humiliation and prejudice here for his color, though he was a
true Christian by name and practice. He left the hospital and went
straight back to India. It appears that Indian Christians are better
treated, tolerated, respected, educated and employed in India than in
countries, which pride themselves on their Christian heritage. (If you
have noticed, it is an invariable custom and tradition that the defense
Minister of India [Currently A.K.Antony 2010; He claims to be an
atheist.] is a Christian most of the time. A Muslim, a
Dalit, a woman [Currently
Pratibha Patil, 2010] or a Minority is the president of India. A
Dalit [Dr. Ambedkar,
formerly a student at Columbia University, NY] takes the honor of having
written the constitution of India. We the people.) Some domiciled
so-called educated Indians of higher caste shamelessly blocked Columbia
University from establishing a chair in the name of
Ambedkar simply because he was a Dalit
(oppressed class). Do you think that they will get any
Deliverance, liberation; absolution, as from sin)?
I heard in another instance from
reliable sources that a patient in the USA refused to undergo
cardiovascular surgery by an eminent surgeon, who happened to be a Sikh
with a full-length luxuriant flowing beard tied up neatly to be
non-threatening, and a glittering turban to match. The patient has the
right to choose his surgeon. But going by
appearance of the reputed surgeon on the staff of a famous hospital
(which is proof that he is good) is grievous stupidity and
self-defeating racism; he uses the latter to justify his prejudices.
What if all patients refuse to take the surgeon's
service by virtue of his appearance? That is a loss of talent and
loss of job for the surgeon at that hospital. He goes elsewhere where
his services are in demand.
Oct 17, 2010. Take Ajay Banga-the
Sikh with a neat beard and a turban. Educated exclusively in
India, he is the current
chief executive officer of
MasterCard. NYTimes reports the
frequently asked question of his appearance in relation to his rise in
his career. Ajay
Banga brushes off questions about his
appearance. "People say 'How does it feel to be looking like you working
in the West?' " he notes.
Without skipping a beat, he replies in fluent Hindi:
"What difference does it make?"
A case of Ragheads and self-professed and
Today these good souls are referred to as Ragheads by a few (who proudly
brand themselves as Rednecks) in the USA (Example: Sikh-born Nikki
Haley, Republican Candidate for Governor SC --May,
2010). Now she is Governor-elect, the first woman
governor of South Carolina and the 2nd Indian-American Governor in the
USA. Nov 4, 2010. She was sworn in on Wednesday, January 12, 2011.
On that score, all woman all over the world are Ragheads when they step
out of the shower with their heads wrapped in towels. The Indians or
South Asians are called by pejorative names:
Ragheads, Turban Toppers, Dot heads (Vs Dot busters),
Wogs (Vs Curry Bashers), PAKIs....
When you think of good souls like Sir John George
Woodroffe (18651936), also known by his
pseudonym Arthur Avalon, Paul Brunton
(October 21, 1898 - July 27, 1981), Sister Nivedita
(1867-1911), born Margaret Elizabeth Noble... we have to cast aside our
lurking disapproval of the marginal souls, who are yet to advance from
(animal man), to Vira
Bhava (man-man) and Divya
bhava (spiritual or godly man).
Feb 4, 2011.
Volunteers of the Tamil Nadu Untouchability Eradication Front (TNUEF),
Adi Thamizhar Peravai (ATP), Democratic Youth Federation of India
and Dalits of Uthapuram were arrested at three different places in
the district during their bid to enter Muthalamman temple in the
village on Monday.
Mr. Ramakrishnan said that the government, which should guarantee
the Constitutional right of the Scheduled Castes to worship at any
temple, was preventing them from entering the temple, thereby
CPI (M) cadre and
activists of other organisations staged a protest at Mahaboobpalayam
in Madurai on Monday, Jan 31, 2011.
High caste Christians discriminate against low caste Dalit
Christians. Dalit = oppressed,
untouchable, Adhi Dravidas, christened by Gandhi "Harijans (=
Children of God). That tells me that we are all children of God.
Hindu Newspaper reports:
Oct 8, 2009
VILLUPURAM: Alleging continued caste discrimination in the Roman
Catholic Church, a section of the Adi Dravida Christians left
Eraiyur and went to Elavanasurkottai, about three km from there, on
Wednesday (Oct 7,2009).
About 85 members of the Makkal Manram, including 45 men and 40
women, led by Antony stayed put at Elavanusrkottai from morning to
evening, boycotting the annual car festival of Our Lady of Rosary
Church at Eraiyur.
They alleged that they were not allowed to use the common pathway
to the cemetery and the common hearse kept in the church. Above all,
the car procession deliberately avoided the Dalit colonies.
Shameless so-called caste Hindus:
December 25, 2008:
MADURAI, India: After a decade-long struggle,
Dalits* at Panthapuli village
in Tirunelveli district entered the Kannanallur Mariamman temple
with help of district officials defying a ban imposed by caste
Hindus. Dalits, led by district collector G. Prakash and
Superintendent of Police Asra Garg, entered the temple at Panthapuli
near Sankarankovil on Wednesday, the 24th December 2008.
Dalits* (Harijans, Children of God, according to Gandhi,
and untouchables according to the so-called caste Hindus, some of
whom are ignominious godless hypocrites.) end of news.
Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna
1031. Why do religions degenerate?
Rain water is pure, but by the time it reaches earth it gets dirty
owing to the medium it passes through. If the roofs and the pipes
and the channels are all dirty, the water discharged through them
must also be dirty. (So religion gets defiled by the medium through
which it manifests.)
Black Laws of the Manu Smriti Against
Dalits and Women
S. L. Virdi Advocate
Dr.Ambedkar burnt Manusmriti
Manu divides Hindus into
four varnas i.e. casteism. He not only divide Hindus into four varnas,
he also grades them. Besides prescribing rank and occupation Manu grants
privilege to swarnas and imposes penalties on the shudras.The status of
the Shudras in the Hindu society as prescribed by Manu the Law-giver and
the Architect of Hindu society. There are so many Codes of the Manu
Smriti against the Shudras and Women which are below:
1. For the welfare of
humanity the supreme creator Brahma, gave birth to the Brahmins from his
mouth, the Kshatriyas from his shoulders, the Vaishyas from his thighs
and Shudras from his feet. (Manu's code I-31,)
2. God said the duty of a
Shudra is to serve the upper varnas faithfully with devotion and without
grumbling. (Manu 1-91) Manu is not satisfied with this. He wants this
servile status of the Shudras to be expressed in the names and surnames
of persons belonging to that community. Manu says:
3. Let the first part of
a Brahmans name denote something auspicious, a Kshatriyas be connected
with power, and a Vaishyas with wealth but a Shudras express something
contemptible. (Manu II. 31.)
4. The second part of a
Brahmins name shall be a word implying happiness, of a Kshatriyas (a
word) implying protection, of a Vaishyas a term expressive of thriving
and of a Shudras an expression denoting service. (Manu II. 32.)
5. A hundred year old
Kshatriya must treat a ten year old Brahmin boy as his father. (Manu
6. The Brahmin should
never invite persons of other varnas for food. In case, the latter begs
the Brahmin for food, the Brahmin may give them some left-over. Even
these left-over must be served not by the Brahmin but by his servants
outside the house. (Manu II2).
7. He who instructs
Shudra pupils and he whose teacher is a Shudra shall become disqualified
for being invited to a shradha. (Manu III. 156.)
8. A Shudra is unfit of
receive education. The upper varnas should not impart education or give
advice to a Shudra.It is not necessary that the Shudra should know the
laws and codes and hence need not be taught. Violators will go to as
amrita hell. (Manu IV-78 to 81)
9. "Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Shudras." (Manu
10. He must never read
the Vedas in the presence of the Shudras. (Manu IV. 99.)
11. Any country, where
there are no Brahmins, of where they are not happy will get devastated
and destroyed. (Manu VIII-20 to 22)
12. A Brahmana who is
only a Brahman by decent i.e., one who has neither studied nor performed
any other act required by the Vedas may, at the kings pleasure,
interpret the law to him i.e., act as the judge, but never a Shudra
(however learned he may be). (Manu VIII. 20.)
13. The Kingdom of that
monarch, who looks on while a Shudra settles the law, will sink low like
a cow in the morass. (Manu VIII. 21.)
14. Any Brahmin, who
enslaves or tries to enslave a Brahmin, is liable for a penalty of no
less than 600 PANAS. A Brahmin can order a Shudra to serve him without
any remuneration because the Shudra is created by Brahma to serve the
Brahmins. Even if a Brahmin frees a Shudra from slavery the Shudra
continues to be a slave as he is created for slavery. Nobody has the
right to free him. (Manu VIII-50,56 and 59)
15. A Shudra who insults
a twice born man with gross invectives shall have his tongue cut out;
for he is of low origin. (Manu VIII. 270.)
16. If he mentions the
names and castes of the (twice born) with contumely, an iron nail, ten
fingers long, shall be thrust red hot into his mouth. (Manu VIII. 271.)
17. If a Shudra
arrogantly presumes to preach religion to Brahmins, the king shall have
poured burning oil in his mouth and ears. Manu VIII. 272.)
18. A Shudra who has an
intercourse with a woman of the higher caste guarded or unguarded shall
be punished n the following manner; if she was unguarded, he loses the
offending part; if she was guarded then he should be put to death and
his property confiscated." (Manu VIII. 374.)
19. A Brahman may compel
a Shudra, whether bought or unbought, to do servile work for he is
created by the creator to be the slave of a Brahmana. (Manu VIII. 413.)
20. No Shudra should have
property of his own, He should have nothing of his own. The existence of
a wealthy Shudra is bad for the Brahmins. A Brahman may take possession
of the goods of a Shudra. (ManuVIII-417 & X129)
21. A Brahman may seize
without hesitation, if he be in distress for his subsistence, the goods
of his Shudra. The Shudra can have only one occupation. This is one of
the inexorable laws of Manu. says Manu. (Manu VIII. 417)
22. A Shudra who wants to
just fill his stomach may serve a Vaishya. If he wants a permanent means
of living he can serve a Kshatriya. But if he wants to go to heaven or
wants higher or superior birth in the next generation he must serve a
Brahmin. (ManuIX334 & 335)
23. The most sacred duty
of a Shudra is to serve the Brahmins, always, reciting the words
"Brahman" with utmost devotion. Such a Shudra will get salvation.
Otherwise he will die a worst death and will go to the worst hell. (Manu
24. But let a (Shudra)
serve Brahmans, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both
(this life and the next) for he who is called the servant of a Brahman
thereby gains all his ends. (Manu X. 122.)
25. The service of
Brahmans alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Shudra
for whatever else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit.
(Manu X. 123.)
26. They must allot to
him out of their own family (property) a suitable maintenance, after
considering his ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he
is bound to support. (Manu X. 124.)
27. Brahmins to give
Shudras food leftovers, old torn clothes, spoiled grain and old utensils
28. No superfluous
collection of wealth must be made by a Shudra, even though he has power
to make it, since a servile man, who has amassed riches, becomes proud,
and, by his insolence or neglect, gives pain to Brahmins. (Manu X. 129.
29. A Brahmin shall never
beg from a Shudra, property for (performing) a sacrifice i.e., for
religious purposes. All marriages with the Shudra were prescribed.
Marriage with a woman belonging to any of three other classes was
A Shudra was not to have
a connection with a woman of the higher classes and an act of adultery
committed by a Shudra with her was considered by Manu to be an offence
involving capital punishment. (Manu XI. 24.)1, 2 ,3, 4In the matter of
acquiring learning and knowledge Manus successors went much beyond him
in the cruelty of their punishment of the Shudra for studying the Veda.
For instance, Katyayana lays down that if a Shudra over heard the Veda
or ventured to utter a word of the Veda, the king shall cut his tongue
in twain and pour hot molten lead in his ear. Manus law book and its
strict compliance by the Brahmans, it may be summarized that men and
women are not born equal. There is no room for individual merit and no
consideration of individual justice. If the individual has the
privilege, it is not because it is due to his/her personally.
privilege goes with class, and if it is his/her good luck to enjoy it,
he/she is destined to be born in the privileged class. On the other
hand, if an individual is suffering in a class, it is because he belongs
to that class. Thereby, logically speaking from Manusmritis point of
view, the suffering of Shudras and women is because of their being part
of their caste and sex respectively. Manus social order breeds
'social out-caste, which in turn dishes out social injustice to the
underprivileged. Nardas Smriti (law book), openly advocate slavery,
but since Varnashram (a creation of caste system by the Manu) was
critical and deviously interwoven into religion, to subjugate the
Shudras through superstitions like opium to an addict, the Brahmans let
the slaves die."5From-Casteism: The Eighth Worst Wonder by Dr. S. L.
Saheb Ambedkar, Writings and Speeches, Vol. 5, Page 113 to 115
2. Kovena, Toward Emancipation, Page 57, 62
3. S.L.Shashtri, Manu Simiri ki Shav Preksha, concluded, Page 54 to 155
4. Author Coke Burnale, Hindu Polity (The Ordinances of Manu) concluded.
5. G.S.Thind, Our Indian Sub Continent Heritage, Page 145
Laws against the Women - Casteism and Degration of Women
1. Every woman must be
loyal, faithful. obedient honorable to her husband even if he is blind,
deaf, dumb, old, physically handicapped, debauchel or, gambler and
neglects his wife and lives with his concubine(s). If the husband is
unhappy, it would be the fault of his wife. If he cries, she should cry.
If he laughs she should laugh. She can only answer humbly to his
question. She should not on her own put any question. She should eat
only after her husband eats. If he is beating she should not react, but
fall on his feet and beg him to pardon her, and kiss his hands and
pacify him. If the husband dies she should burn herself to death on his
funeral pyre and go along with him to the other world and serve him
there in this manner. (Padma Purana)
2. Women are fickle
minded. Never believe them. Friendship with a women is just like
friendship with a wolf. (Rig-Veda 8-33-7)
3. A virtuous woman is
one who dies on the funeral pyre of her dead husband and avails the
privilege of serving her husband in the other world. (Atharva Veda
4. Woman is the source of
sorrow. At birth she makes her mother weep. At the time of the puberty
she makes her parents weep. At the time of the marriage she makes all
her family members and relatives weep. In youth she commits lot of
blunders and brings bad name to the entire family, relatives and Varna.
She tortures the hearts of her parents, husband and other family
members. She is called 'DARIKA' because she is source of sorrow to all.
5. Women are liers, corrupt, greedy, and unvirtuous. (Manu II 1)
6. Even for a woman, the
performance of the sanskaras are necessary and they should be performed.
But they should be performed without uttering the Veda Mantras." (Manu
7. It is the nature of
women to seduce men in this (world); the wise are never unguarded in the
company of males. (Manu II. 213)
8. For women are able to
lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and
(to make) him a slave of desire and anger." (Manu II.214)
9. One should not sit in
a lonely place with one's mother, sister or daughter, for the senses are
powerful, and master even a learned man." (Manu II. 215)
10. A Brahmin male by
virtue of his birth becomes the first husband of all women in the
universe. (Manu III. 14)
11. Women not care for
beauty, nor is their attention fied on age; (thinking); (it is though
that) he is a man, they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly.
(Manu IV. 14)
12. By a girl, by a young
woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even
in her own house." (Manu IV. 147)
13. In childhood a female
must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is
dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent. (Manu IV. 148)
14. She must not seek to
separate herself from her father, husband or son; by leaving them. She
would make them both (her own and her husband's) family incompatible.
(Manu IV. 149)
15. A Brahman must never
eat food given at a sacrifice performed by a woman. (Manu IV. 205)
16. Sacrifices performed
by women are inauspicious and not acceptable to god. They should
therefore be avoided. (Manu IV. 206)
17. A girl must be under
the care of her father . . . in youth under the care of the husband and
in old age under the care of her sons. But she should never be free and
independent. (Manu V. 148)
18. She must always be
cheerful, clever in management of her household affairs, careful in
cleaning her utensils and economical in expenditure. (Manu V. 150)
19. Him to whom her
father may give her, or her brother with the father's permission, she
shall obey as long as he lives and when he is dead, must not insult his
memory. (Manu V. 151)
20. The husband who
wedded her with sacred mantras is always a source of happiness to his
wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next.
(Manu V1. 53)
21. Though destitute or
virtuous, or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities,
yet a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife.
(Manu V. 154)
22. No sacrifice, no vow,
no fast must be performed by women, apart from their husbands. If a wife
obeys her husband, she will for that reason alone be exalted in heaven.
(Manu V. 155)
23. At her pleasure let
her (i.e. widow) enunciate her body, by living voluntarily on pure
flowers, roots and fruits, but let her not when her lord is deceased,
even pronounce the name of another man. (Manu V. 157)
24. But a widow, who from
a wish to bear children, slights her deceased husband by marrying again,
brings disgrace on herself here below, and shall be excluded from the
seat of her lord (in heaven). (Manu V. 161)
25. Responsibly the
father who gives not (his daughter) in marriage at the proper time.
(Manu IX. 4)
26. A woman must always
maintain her virtue and surrender her body to her husband only, ever if
she is married off to an ugly person or even a leper. (Manu IX. 14)
27. Through their passion
for men, through their mutable temper, through their natural
heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their husbands, however,
carefully they may be guarded in this (world). (Manu IX. 15)
28. Knowing their
disposition, which the Lord of Creatures laid in them at the creation,
to be such, (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to guard
them. (Manu IX. 16)
29. When creating them,
Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of heart) seat and (of)
ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct.
(Manu IX. 17)
30. Killing of a woman, a
Shudra or an atheist is not sinful. Woman is an embodiment of the worst
desires, hatred, deceit, jealousy and bad character. Women should never
be given freedom. (Manu IX. 17 and V. 47, 147)
31. Women have no right
to study the Vedas. That is why their Sanskars are performed without
Veda Mantras. women have no knowledge of religion because they have no
right to know the Vedas. The uttering of Veda Mantras, they are as
unclean as untruth is." (Manu IX. 18)
32. All women are born of
sinful wombs. (Bhagavad-Gita IX 32)
33. The husband is
declared to be one with the wife, which means there could be no
separation once a woman is married. (Manu IX. 45)
34. Neither by sale nor
by repudiation is a wife released from her husband. (Manu IX. 46)
35. To a distinguished,
handsome suitor of equal caste should she have not attained (the proper
age) (i.e. although she may not have reached puberty). (Manu IX. 88)
36. A wife, a son and a
slave, they three are declared to have no property: the wealth which
they earn is (acquired)for him to whom they belong. (Manu IX. 416)
37. None of the acts of
women can be taken as good and reasonable. (Manu X.4)
38. Day and night women
must be kept in dependence by males (of their families), and, if they
attach themselves to sexual enjoyments, they must be kept under one's
control. (Manu XI2)
39. Her father protects
(her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in youth, and her sons
protect (her) in old age; a woman is never fit for independence." (Manu
40. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations,
however trifling (they may appear); for, if they are not guarded, they
will bring sorrow on to families." (Manu XI. 5)
41. Considering that the
highest duty of all castes even weak husbands (must) scribe to guard
their wives. (Manu XI. 6)
42. A woman shall not
perform the daily sacrifices prescribed by the Vedas. Then according to
IX.37 if she does it, she will go to hell. (Manu XI. 36)1, 2, 3, 4 From-
Casteism: The Eighth Worst Wonder by Dr. S. L. Virdi, Pages-39-43)
1. G.S.Thind, Our Indian Sub Continent Heritage, Page 146 to 151)
2. Author Coke Burnale, Hindu Polity The Ordinances of Manu) Concluded
3. Kovena, Toward Emancipation. Page 57, 62, 72, 73
4. S.L.Shashtri, Manu Simiri ki Shav Preeksha concluded page 54 to 155.
No one is to argue
critically about vedas because religion has originated from them. Any
nastika (non-believer) or critic of the Vedas, who "insults" them on the
basis of logic, is worthy of being socially boycotted by "noble"
persons. Women, that is, even women belonging to Brahmin, Kshatriya and
Vaishya varna are not entitled to upanayan and the study of the Vedas.
For them, marriage is equivalent to upanayan and service of their
husbands is equivalent to the study of the Vedas in the gurukul. Even if
the husband is morally degraded, engaged in an affair with another woman
and is devoid of knowledge and other qualities, the wife must treat him
like a god. A widower is allowed to remarry but a widow is not. Besides,
women are not considered fit for being free and independent. They are to
be protected in their childhood by father, in youth by husband and in
old age by son. They should never be allowed by their guardians to act
independently. A woman must never do anything even inside her home
without the consent of her father, husband and son respectively. She
must remain in control of her father in childhood, of husband in youth
and of son after the death of her husband.
In Ramayana, Ram kills Shambuka simply because he was performing tapasya
(ascetic exercises) which he was not supposed to do as he was a Shudra
In Mahabharata, Dronacharya refuses to teach archery to Eklavya, because
he was not a Kshatriya by birth. When Eklavya, treating Drona as his
notional guru, learns archery on his own, Drona makes him cut his right
thumb as gurudakshina (gift for the teacher) so that he may not become a
better archer than his favorite Kshatriya student Arjuna!
Notes: Eklavia was a Nishada, historically identified as an African
coming in the blood line of king Vena. Africans, the survivors of
continental drift separating India from Africa. Dravidians forced the
Nishadas to move into the hills and jungles. The Indo-Aryans further
dispersed the Nishadas. Ref. Page 211 Harper's dictionary of Hinduism.
Bhagvat-Gita, too, favors varna-vyavastha. When Arjuna refuses to fight,
one of his main worries was that the war would lead to the birth of
varna-sankaras or offspring from intermixing of different varnas and the
consequent "downfall" of the family. On the other hand, Krishna tries to
motivate Arjuna to fight by saying that it was his varna-dharma
(caste-duty) to do so because he was a Kshatriya. In fact, Krishna goes
to the extent of claiming that the four varnas were created by him only.
There are unwelcome interpolations in Sacred texts. (This idea of
Krishna Paramatma creating the castes is doubtful. In BG 18.66 Krishna
advises people to abandon all duties and surrender to Him and He would
forgive all sins and grant liberation. If that is the case where
is the need for any rituals?)
Notes by Krishnaraj:
Arjuna is not a pure Kshatriya. He comes in the blood lines of Brahmana
Rishi Parasara and Fisherman's daughter Satyavati.
Vyasa, the author of Mahabharata, and the
Bhagavad Gita as told by Krishna, was born of a Brahmana father
and a non-Aryan mother (a fisherwoman).
Satyavati (Sanskrit: सत्यवती) is the
mother of Vyasa and great-grandmother of the
Pandava and Kaurava princes, principal characters of the
Mahabharata. She is nevertheless a commoner,
daughter of a ferryman or fisherman.
She is also known as Matsyagandha
(one who has the smell of fish).
As a young woman, she met the wandering Rishi Parasara by whom
she had a son, Vyasa (the son of a single mom).
Parasara by his mystic power guaranteed that she would not
lose her virginity from union and delivery. This reminds me of girls
who had premarital sexual relations undergo hymenoplasty (surgical
restoration of inviolate contour of hymenal ring)) to restore the
appearance of hymen to its virginal inviolate state to impress the
husband who insists on virginity in his wife in certain countries.
Parasara and Satyavati had union and Vyasa's birth took place in secret
on an island in the river Yamuna.
Vyasa was also known as Krishna
Dwaipayana (Dark islander)
because he was dark (Krishna) in color and born in an
island. Rishi Parasara by his
Yogic power created an ambience of mist around the island, so that no
body could witness the famed union, and delivery of the baby. Vyasa was
born immediately after the union with no mandatory gestational period,
which is the norm for humankind and immediately grew into a young man.
This is again a Yogic phenomenon. (Consider Jesus Christ born of
Virgin Mary.) The West says that Vyasa is a generic name (meaning
compiler) like teacher, tailor, barber. There were many Vyasas,
according to the west. Many of the sacred texts span over many centuries
and they could not have been all composed by one Vyasa. This is
contested by devout Hindus. Later, King Santanu legally
marries Satyavati with "inviolate hymen", who thus becomes the matriarch
of the Pandavas in the lineage of Parasara Rishi and the Kauravas in the
lineage of Santanu. Pandavas (the good guys) have the Seer's (Rishi)
blood run in their veins. The Kauravas (the bad guys) have the royal
blood run in their veins.
Dealing with the question of wages to the shudras:
They must allot to him (shudra) out of their own family property a
suitable maintenance, after considering his ability, his industry and
the number of those whom he is bound to support.
The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old
clothes, the refuge of their grain and their old household furniture.
No collection of wealth must be made by a shudra even though he be able
to do it; for a shudra who has acquired wealth gives pain to Brahmana.
One should give,
according to ones ability, wealth to Brahmanas learned in the veda and
living alone; (thus) one obtains after death heavenly bliss.
261-62. A Brahmana
who has killed even the peoples of the three worlds, is completely freed
from all sins on reciting three times the Rig, Yajur or Sama- Veda with
Thus in Hinduism, there
is no choice of avocation. There is no economic independence and there
is no economic security. Economically, speaking of a shudra is a
Successors of Manu made
the disability of the shudra in the matter of study of veda into an
offence involving dire penalties as:
If the shudra intentionally listens for committing to memory the veda,
then his ears should be filled with (molten) lead and lac; if he utters
the veda, then his tongue should be cut off; if he has mastered the veda
his body should be cut to pieces.
The Manu Code of Laws (the revered
book of Hindus) stated 2000 years ago :
"No collection of
wealth was to be made by Shudras (low caste) even though he /she
may be able to do it, for a Shudra who has acquired wealth gives pain to
Brahmin, and that a Brahmin may appropriate by force the property of
Smriti X, 129)
"Sri Brahma (God
the Creator) had intended from eternity that the Untouchables should be
born slaves, live as slaves and die as slaves"
(Manu Chapter 19, #413)
Dhammapada by Buddha defines
Brahmana as follows (Verses 383 to 423):
383. He who gives up sensuality and stills the mind is a Brahmana.
384. He who transcends duality (pleasure and pain) is a Brahmana.
385. He who is free from anxiety is a Brahmana.
386. He who meditates, tranquil in mind, free from taint and
intrusive thoughts, and accomplished in yoga is a Brahmana.
387. Day shines in sunlight; night shines in moon light;
warrior shines in his armor; a Brahmana shines in meditation; at all
times Buddha shines in his glory.
388. He who breaks with evil deeds is a Brahmana.
389. He who does not lose his temper is a Brahmana.
390. He whose mind recoils from pleasurable experiences is a
Brahmana, who does not harm anyone.
391. He who does not inflict pain by body, mind and speech is a
392. He who tends the sacrificial fire is a Brahmana. Pay homage
to him who teaches the Truth, like Buddha does.
393. Matted hair, caste, and lineage do not make a Brahmana.
Purity and truth make a Brahmana.
394. Matted hair and antelope skin do not make a Brahmana; they
make him look good; but he is a tangled knot inside.
395. A man may wear rags from refuse and look haggard; his
strength glows in every fiber of body as he meditates alone in the
forest; that man is a true Brahmana.
396. A Brahmana he is not, just because he is born of a Brahmana
mother. He is contemptible if he owns anything at all. A true
Brahmana owns nothing to call his, having no attachment.
397. He who severs his bonds (with the world); shows equanimity,
and transcends all worldly ties, is a liberated Brahmana.
398. He who severs his harness (straps, bands, and bridle)
and breaks out of the barrier is a Brahmana; he is Buddha himself.
399. He who stays calm under severe censure, brooks maltreatment,
remains patient, and shows inner strength is worthy of his appellation,
400. He who is free from anger and desire, has enduring
discipline, and lives in his last body (with no possibility of rebirth)
is a Brahmana.
401. He is like water on a lotus leaf; he is like a mustard seed
on the point of a pin; thus, he is not attached to the senses; he is a
402. His experience of suffering in this life has come to an
end, having put aside his burden; he is a Brahmana.
403. He is wise; he knows right from wrong; he attained the
supreme purpose; him I call a Brahmana.
404. He shies away from monks and men, has no place to call
home, and entertains few needs; him I call a Brahmana.
405. He refrains from injury to mobile and immobile living
things; he neither kills nor causes death; him I call a Brahmana.
406. He is placid among the tumultuous; he glows with peace among
the violent; he is unclinging among the clingers; him I call a Brahmana.
407. He transcends love and hate; ego and pretense have
fallen by the wayside like the mustard seed on the point of a pin; him I
call a Brahmana.
408. He is gentle in speech and revealing in his words; he utters
only Truth, criticizing no one; him I call a Brahmana.
409. He takes nothing that is not given to him; him I call a
410. He has no desire in this or the next world; he is free from
craving; him I call a Brahmana.
411. He is a realized soul, having dived into deathless
bliss; him I call a Brahmana.
412. He transcends good and evil; he is faultless and pure
with no sorrow; him I call a Brahmana.
413. He is pure and stainless like the rays of the moon; he
has drowned his desires; him I call a Brahmana.
414. He crossed the ocean of Samsara and ignorance and
reached the other shore, by meditation, tranquility of mind and paucity
of desires; him I call a Brahmin.
415. He, having renounced contact with senses and expunged
desires, wanders homeless; him I call a Brahmin.
416. He, having renounced craving, gave up worldly life and
home; him I call a Brahmin.
417. He, having broken the human bonds and transcended the desires
of heaven, is free from all bonds; him I call a Brahmin.
418. He, having transcended pleasure and pain and withdrawing the
fuel, extinguished his desires and won over all worlds; him I call a
419. He, having seen death and rebirth of all beings, frees
himself from clinging desires, attains realization and enters a world of
bliss; him I call a Brahmin.
420. Devas, Ghandarvas, and men do not know his path; his
mind is empty of mundane thoughts and passions; him I call a Brahmin.
421. He had no possessions of his own at any time and
remains unattached; him I call a Brahmin.
422. He has no fear; he is noble; he is a great sage, a
vanquisher of desires and a realized soul, having washed off all stains;
him I call a Brahmin.
423. He knows his former lives, heaven and hell; this
life marks the end of birth for him who attained transcendent knowledge;
him I call a Brahmin.
Translation from Sanskrit by Dr. Radhakrishnan
The futility of Caste distinctions
The Upaniṣad belongs to the Sāma Veda and describes the true
character of a Brāhmaṇa and incidentally offers comments on the
nature of the Supreme Reality. The Upaniṣad is valuable in
undermines caste distinctions based on birth.
PAGE 935 The Principal
1. I shall describe the Vajrasūci doctrine which blasts ignorance,
condemns those who are devoid of the knowledge (of Brahman) and
exalts those endowed with the eye of knowledge.
Jñānam = doctrine V. śāstra' =
2 The Brāhmaṇa the Kṣatriya, the Vaiśya and the Śūdra are the four
classes (castes) That the Brāhmaṇa is the chief among these classes
is in accord with the Vedic texts and is affirmed by the Smṛtis. In
this connection there is a point worthy of investigation. Who is,
verily, the Brāhmaṇa? Is he the individual soul? Is he the body? Is
he the class based on birth? Is he the knowledge? Is he the deeds
(previous, present or prospective)? Is he the performer of the
3 Of these, if the first (position) that the Jīva or the individual
soul is Brāhmaṇa (is to be assumed), it is not so, for the
individual's form is one and the same in the large number of
previous and prospective bodies. Even though the Jīva (the
individual soul) is one, there is scope for (the assumption of) many
bodies due to the stress of (past) karma, and in all these bodies
the form of the Jīva is one and the same.
the Jīva is not the Brāhmaṇa.
4 Then if '(it is said) that the body is the Brāhmaṇa, it is
Page 936 The Principal Upaniṣads
not so, because of the oneness of the nature of the body which is
composed of the five elements, in all classes of human beings down
to the caṇḍālās (outcastes), etc , on account of the perception of
the common features of old age and death, virtue and vice, on
account of the absence of any regularity (in the complexion of the
four classes) that the Brāhmaṇa is of the white complexion, that the
Kṣatriya is of the red complexion, that the Vaiśya is of the tawny
complexion, that the Śūdra is of the dark complexion and because of
the liability of the sons and others (kinsmen) to becoming tainted
with the murder of a Brāhmaṇa and other (sins) on cremating the
bodies of their fathers and other kinsmen:
the body is not the Brāhmaṇa.
5 Then (if it is said) that birth (makes) the Brāhmaṇa, it is not
so, for there are many species among creatures, other than human,
many sages are of diverse origin. We hear from the sacred books that
Ṛṣyaśṛṅga was born of a deer, Kauśika of Kuśa grass, Jāmbuka from a
Jackal, Vālmīki from an ant-hill, Vyāsa from a fisher girl, Gautama
from the back of a hare, Vasiṣṭha from Ūrvasī (the celestial nymph),
Agastya from an earthen Jar. Among these, despite their birth, there
are many sages, who have taken the highest rank, having given proof
of their wisdom.
birth does not (make) a Brāhmaṇa.
6 Then (if it is said) that knowledge (makes a) Brāhmaṇa, it is not
so because among Kṣatriyas and others there are many who have seen
the Highest Reality and attained wisdom.
knowledge does not (make) a Brāhmaṇa.
Page 937 Verses 7- 9
7 Then (if it is said) that work (makes a) Brāhmaṇa , it is not so,
for we see that the work commenced in the present embodiment or
accumulated during the previous or to commence on a future
embodiment is common to all living creatures and that good men
perform works impelled by their past karma.
work does not (make) a Brāhmaṇa.
8 Then (if it is said) that the performer of religious duties is a
Brāhmaṇa, it is not so, for there have been many Kṣatriyas and
others who have given away gold.
the performer of religious rites is not the Brāhmaṇa.
Giving away gold is an act of religious duty.
9. Then, who, verily is the Brāhmaṇa? He who, after directly
perceiving, like the amalaka fruit in the palm of one's hand, the
Self, without a second, devoid of distinctions of birth, attribute
and action, devoid of all faults such as the six infirmities, and
the six states, of the form of truth, wisdom, bliss and eternity,
that is by itself, devoid of determinations, the basis of endless
determinations, who functions as the indwelling spirit of all
beings, who pervades the interior and the exterior of all like
ether, of the nature of bliss, indivisible, unmeasurable realizable
only through one's experience and who manifests himself directly (as
one's self), and through the fulfilment of his nature, becomes rid
of the faults of desire,
Page 938 The Principal Upaniṣads
attachment, etc, and endowed with qualities of tranquility, etc ,
rid of the states of being, spite, greed, expectation, bewilderment,
etc , with his mind unaffected by ostentation, self-sense and the
like, he lives. He alone who is possessed of these qualities is the
Brāhmaṇa This is the view of the Vedic texts and tradition, ancient
lore and history. The accomplishment of the state of the Brāhmaṇa is
otherwise impossible. Meditate on Brahman, the Self who is being,
consciousness and bliss, without a second, meditate on Brahman, the
Self who is being, consciousness and bliss without a second This is
old age, death, sorrow, delusion, hunger and thirst.
birth, being, growth, change, waning and perishing.
Many texts declare that the determining factor of caste is character
and conduct and not birth.
Listen about caste, Yaksa dear, not study, not learning is the cause
of rebornness Conduct is the basis, there is no doubt about it M.B.
Araṇya-parva 312 106.
O King of serpents, he in whom are manifest truthfulness, charity,
forbearance, good conduct, non-injury, austerity and compassion is a
Brāhmaṇa according to the sacred tradition.
O serpent, he in whom this conduct is manifest is a Brāhmaṇa, he in
whom this is absent, treat all such as Śūdra MB Araṇya-parva 180.
20, 27 The gods consider him a Brāhmaṇa (a knower of Brahman who has
no desires, who undertakes no work, who does not salute or praise
anybody, whose work has been exhausted but who himself is unchanged.
MB XII 269 34 See Dhammapada, Chapter XXVI
It is valuable to recall the teaching of this Upaniṣad which
repudiates the system that consecrates inequalities and hardens
contingent differences into inviolable divisions.
Castes and Asramas. The Great Liberation By Woodroffe.
Siva in His talk with
His Consort talks about he castes and their duties.
But for those who,
neglecting the study of the Vedas, the service of mother and father, and
the protection of their wife, go to places of pilgrimage, such holy
places are changed to Hell (98-99). For women there is no necessity to
go on pilgrimage, to fast, or to do other like acts, nor is there any
need to perform any devotion except that which consists in the service
of their husband (100). For a woman her husband is the place of
pilgrimage, the performance of penance, the giving of alms, the carrying
out of vows, and her spiritual teacher. Therefore should a woman devote
herself to the service of her husband with her whole Self (101). She
should ever by words and deeds of devotion act for the pleasure of her
husband, and, remaining faithful to his behests, should please his
kinsmen and relations (102).
A woman whose husband
is her vow,2 should not look at him with hard eyes, or utter
harsh words before him. Not even in her thought should she do anything
which is displeasing to her husband (103). She who by body, mind, and
word, and by pleasant acts, ever pleases her husband, attains to the
abode of Brahman 3 (104). Remaining ever faithful to the
wishes of her husband, she should not look upon the face of other men,
or have converse with them, or uncover her body before them (105). In
childhood she should remain under the control of her parents, in her
they are worshipped such asSri-ksetra (POri) the land of Visriu;
Arka-ksetra (Konarak) the land of the Sun God.
chaste and dutiful wife. Brahmapada = Brahmatva.
husband, and in her old age of the relatives of her husband. She should
never be independent 1
should not marry his daughter if she does not know her duty to a husband
and how to serve him, as also the other rules
of woman's conduct (107).
the flesh of human beings, nor of the animals resembling them,3
nor the flesh of the cow, which is serviceable in various ways, nor the
flesh of carnivorous animals, nor such meat as is tasteless, should be
eaten (108). O Auspicious One!
fruits and roots of various kinds,
whether grown in villages or jungles, and all that is grown in the
ground, may be eaten at pleasure (109).
and the performance of sacrifices are the proper duties of a Brahmana.
But if he be incapable of these, he may earn his livelihood by following
the profession of a Ksatriya or Vaisya
(110). The proper occupation of a Rajanya
is that of fighting and ruling. But if
he be incapable of these, he may earn his livelihood by following the
profession of a Vaisya or Sudra (111). If a Vaisya cannot trade, then
for him the following of the profession of a Sudra involves no blame.
For a Sudra, O Sovereign Queen!
service is the prescribed means of
livelihood (112). O Devi! members of the Samanya
class may for their maintenance follow
all occupations except such as are specially reserved for the Brahmana
(113). The latter, void of hate and attachment,8
own mistress, with none to guide and protect her. This is the text of
p. 207, note 6.
Nirmama. Mama, or
Mama-tā', is a sense of" Mineness," attachment to self, to one's
self-controlled, truthful, the
conqueror of his senses, free of envy and all guile, should pursue his
own avocations (114). He should ever be the same to, and the well-wisher
of all men, and teach his well-behaved pupils as if they were his own
sons (115). He should ever avoid falsehood, detraction, and vicious
arrogance, friendship for low persons, the pursuit of low objects, and
the use of language which gives offence (116).
Where peace is possible, avoid war.2
Peace with honour is excellent. O Beauteous One! 3
for the Rajanya it should be either death or victory in battle 4
(117). A man of the kingly caste should not covet the wealth of
his subjects, or levy excessive taxes, but, being faithful to his
promises, he should ever in the observance of his duty 5
protect his subjects as though they were his own children (118). In
administration, war, treaties, and other affairs of State the King
should take the advice of his Ministers (119). War should be carried on
in accordance with Dharma.° Rewards and punishments should be awarded
justly and in accordance with the Sastras. The best treaty should be
Vyasana (see p. 215,
note 3). Manu enumerates ten evil habits as arising from pleasure, and
eight from anger. Under the first head are: hunting, gambling, sleeping
in the daytime, gossip, women, intoxicants, dancing, singing,
instrumental music, and idle roaming; and under the second: slander,
violence, insidious injury, envy, detraction, unjust seizure of
property, violent language and assault. The word translated as "
falsehood " (Mithyālāpa)
in the text may also mean "frivolous conversation."
The Sanskrit may also
mean, "Desire for war when there is peace is blameworthy ".
A Ksatriya should not
flee from the field of battle.
i.e., duty undertaken or promise made.
6Because men have to
fight, they should not do so like beasts.
THE GREAT LIBERATION
CASTES AND ARAMAS
allows (120). By stratagem1
should the end desired be attained. By the same means should wars be
conducted and treaties concluded. Victory, peace, and prosperity follow
stratagem (121). He should ever avoid the company of the low, and be
good to the learned. He should be of a calm disposition, judicious of
action in time of trouble, of good conduct, and reasonable in his
be an expert in the maintenance of his forts, well trained in the use of
arms. He should ever ascertain the disposition of his army, and teach
his soldiers military tactics (123). O Devi he should not in battle kill
one who is stunned, who has surrendered his arms, or is a fugitive, nor
those of his enemies whom he has captured, nor their wives or children
(124). Whatever is acquired either by victory or treaty should be
distributed amongst the soldiers in shares according to merit (125).
should make known to himself the character and courage of each of his
warriors, and if he would care for his interests he should not place a
large army under the command of a single officer (126). He should not
put his trust in any single person, nor place one man in charge of the
administration, nor treat his inferiors as equals, nor be familiar with
them 2 (127). He should be very learned, yet not garrulous;
full of knowledge, yet anxious to learn; full of honours, yet without
arrogance. In awarding both reward and punishment he should be calm and
discriminating (128). The King should either himself or through his
spies watch his subjects, kinsmen, and servants (129). A wise master
should not either reward or punish anyone in a fit of passion
2 eschew playing and
joking with the low.
arrogance and without due cause (130). Soldiers, commanders, ministers,
wife, children and servitors he should protect. If guilty, they should
be punished according to their deserts (131). The King should protect,
like a father, the insane, the helpless, children and orphans,' and
those who are old and infirm 2 (132).
agriculture and trade are the appropriate callings of the Vaiya. It is
by agriculture and trade that man's body is maintained (133). Therefore,
O Devi! in agriculture and trade all negligence, vicious habits ,3
laziness, untruth, and deceit should be avoided in every way
both buyer and seller are agreed as to the object of sale and the price
thereof, and mutual promises have been made, then the purchase becomes
complete (135). O Dearest One! the sale or gift of property by one who
is a lunatic, out of his senses ,1 under age, a captive, or
enfeebled by disease, is invalid (136). The purchase of things not seen
is concluded by hearing the description thereof. If the article be found
to differ from its description, then the purchase is of no effect (137).
The sale of an elephant, a camel, and a horse is effected by the
description of the animal. The sale is, however, set aside if the animal
does not answer its description (138). If in the purchase of elephants,
camels, and horses a latent vice becomes patent within the course of a
year from the date of sale, then the purchase is set aside, but not
after the lapse of one year (139). O Devi of Kula! the
whose protectors are dead.
The text is
Jvarabhibhüta, but probably should be read (and is so translated) as
Jarabhibhuta, the latter being the adjective of Vrddha. But, read as in
the original, the meaning would be "stricken by disease ".
Vyasana (see p. 223,
note 1). e.g., by drink.
THE GREAT LIBERATION
CASTES AND ASRAMAS
is the receptacle of piety, wealth, desires, and final Liberation. It
should therefore never be the subject of purchase; and such a purchase
is by reason of My commands invalid (140).
One! in the borrowing of barley, wheat, or paddy, the profit of the
lender at the end of the year is laid down to be fourth of the quantity
lent, and in the case of the loan of metals one-eighth (141). In
monetary transactions, agriculture, trade, and in all other
transactions, men should ever carry out their undertakings. This is
approved by the laws 1
should be skilful, clean, truthful, wakeful, careful and alert, and
possess his senses under control (143). He shoud, as he desires
happiness in this and the next world, regard his master as if he were
Himself, his master's wife as his own
mother, and respect his master's kinsmen and friends (144). He should
know his master's friends to be his friends, and his master's enemies to
be his enemies, and should ever remain in respectful attendance upon his
master, awaiting his orders (145). He should carefully conceal his
master's dishonour, the family dissensions, anything said in private or
which would hurt the mind of his master (146). He should not covet the
wealth of his master, but remain ever devoted to his good. He should not
make use of bad words or laugh or play in his master's presence (147).
He should not, with lustful mind, even look at the maidservants in his
master's house, or lie down with them, or play with them in secret
(148). He should not use his master's bed, seat, carriages, clothes,
vessels, shoes, jewels, or weapons (149). If guilty, he should beg the
forgiveness of his master. He should not be forward, impertinent, or
attempt to place himself on an equal footing with his master (150).
when in the Bhairavi-cakra 1
or Tattva-cakra,1 persons
of all castes should marry in their caste according to the Brahma form,2
and should eat with their own caste people (151). O Great Queen! in
these two circles,3
however, marriage in the Saiva form is ordained,4
and as regards eating and drinking, no caste distinctions exist (152).