Bhagavad-Gita: 18 Chapters in Sanskrit
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Siva according to Tiruvundiyar
by Tiruviyalur Uyyavanta Devanayanar
Not much is known about the saint poet, Tiruviyalur UD, whose opus appeared in 1147 C.E. It consists of 45 verses. Tirukkalitruppadiyar, exposition of Tiruvundiyar, appears as the second piece following Tiruvundiyar.
அகளமாய் யாரும் அறிவு அரிது, அப்பொருள்
சகளமாய் வந்தது என்று உந்தீபற
தானாகத் தந்தது என்று உந்தீபற.
To know Siva as Akalam (in his Formless form) is rare indeed; he comes as Sakalam, sporting many forms, appearing in images and gracing as Guru. Siva drives the shuttlecock of karmic deeds out of sight, and bestows grace unsought by his deserving devotees.
Siva takes a human form in the body and soul of Guru to confer Grace to those devotees whose Malas have attained maturity. Since Siva is without form (Akalam or Niskalam), he is eternal and not constrained by past, present and future. Siva can present himself as Sakalam, meaning he exists in the images and has many forms.
Akalam = Akala = A + Kala = No Parts = incorporeal quality; Niskalam = formlessness. Akalam, Niskalam and Arupam are synonyms.
UntiPara is "Battledore and Shuttlecock," a game from which Badminton was developed, played since ancient times in India (Random House Dictionary). The poet-saint tells us that the Tamil ladies and girls of yore played this game in twos or threes and sang praises of Siva. This game appears to have a universal following among children all over the world. The moves involve standing on toes, jumping in the air, flapping the hands like a bird singing songs or just simply giggling and cackling and having a good time.
Before a soul gets release from rebirth, Karma and Malas have to be driven or expunged. Siva drives karma and Malas as shuttlecock is driven out of sight (compare it to the home run in baseball). Munificent auspicious Siva does not wait for the deserving devotee to ask him for Grace and confers it unasked. Siva does not take a corporeal form, as Vishnu does in incarnation. He sends surrogates (Gurus) in his place, who carry his message, whose thrust is to drive out Malas and Karma and whose gift is Grace.
2. O Girl, give up your old habits; there is no gain being mired in defunct worldly habits. He drove the shuttlecock out of sight; take to his Grace; he is the First Principle in this universe.
This verse indicates that the poet-saint is addressing one of the girls playing the shuttlecock. Here by euphemism, soul is addressed as girl. The soul, in its ignorance and incompetence, knows neither its own intrinsic worth nor the worth of Pati (Siva) and keeps rolling and roiling in the mire of Malas and Karmic deeds out of ingrained habit. Soul must realize the habits are deleterious and unworthy, the world of matter is changeable (not eternal), and Sivajnana obtained by the poet-saint is the only enduring asset. The author pleads with the player to change her habits in such ways that she will gain Arul (Bliss) from Sivasakti. Nothing in this world is worthy of pursuit like the one leading to Grace of Siva. Driving the shuttlecock is euphemism for expunging Malas and Karma; as the girls play they sing songs too.
3. They who expunged the Karma will never return to this world; there is no birth or death for them.
There are three basic karmas:
1. Prārabda Karma, Nukarvinai, (Actively sprouting seed karma)
2. Āgami Karma, Eruvinai (coming, approaching, impending, harvested seed Karma)
3. Sanchita karma, Tolvinai (Storehouse seed karma, the silos)
Nukar +Vinai = Eat, consume + Karma; Eru = Impending; Tol = distant in the past.
1. Prarabdha Karma is Nukarvinai in Tamil, meaning that the person eats the fruits of his Karma now. 2. Agami Karma is Eruvinai meaning impending Karma. 3. Sanchita Karma is Tolvinai or Pazavinai in Tamil meaning it involves distant deeds of former births. Once all Malas and Karma are destroyed, there is no rebirth. Tamil saints are of the opinion that Diksa expunges Prarabdha and Sanchita Karmas and Guru's eye of wisdom expunges Agami Karma. Dīksâ, Diksa Tītcai or Diksai is initiation of a disciple into the mysteries of Saiva religion; it consists of three stages: Samaya-diksai, Viceta-diksai, and Nirvana-diksai (initiatory rites, second or middle step in initiation, which gives the disciple special privilege of making Puja to Siva, and Third and last step, which helps the disciple free himself from the bonds of existence and attain emancipation--Tamil Lexicon). As fire destroys cotton and reduces it into ashes, Diksai reduces all Malas into ashes and obtains liberation. Mantras destroy prarabdha karma and guarantees no rebirth, as fire roasts seeds and renders them unproductive.
4. How could I tell, "This it is"? There it was, the intelligence of intelligence.
"This it is" refers to the Siva Bliss enjoyed by the devotee. "That it is" refers to the Bliss that is beyond words, and the one thing it is comparable to is itself; that is the way it is. It is beyond ordinary life experience. What is comprehended by human intelligence is changeable and therefore Asat. Bliss is beyond intelligence and Asat, and therefore, is Sat.
5. He is Ēkan, who became Anēkan; he became Nāthan too. He did rule over us.
Ēkan is God as one; Anēkan is God as many; Nāthan is Master, Lord, the Supreme Being, Siva, Guru. The poet uses the word Âtkōl meaning that Siva by taking the Jiva into his fold accepts him as a slave, and admits him into his good graces, as God does to his faithful devotee. Since Siva does not descend to earth as Vishnu does, he sends a Guru to the devotee for his benefit. One God becoming many means that he becomes immanent in every soul. He is the Supreme being (Nāthan) both in immanence and transcendence. Siva is the creator, maintainer, destroyer, obscurant and grace-giver.
6. Our deeds die; then we renounce (all deeds). Then it is all Nāthan's deed. He gave (to us) his own self.
Jiva is the soul whose ego knows no bounds and comes in the way of destroying Anava Mala. The "I" factor is the most dominant in all beings in their interaction with other beings. Once "I and Mine" are destroyed, all deeds become His, meaning all subsequent actions do not carry karmic load. This is maturing and Malaprapakam which result in the descent of Siva Jnanam and Bliss into the soul on its way to Mukti.
The soul comes to its destination, Mukti, when I-ness, Mine, Mineness are destroyed. When we renounce all deeds by dedication to Siva, He occupies, owns and abides in our body and soul and all our acts become his. He, remaining within and abiding in us, eats, sleeps, walks and performs all deeds and makes them his own. All differences submerge; everything becomes his effulgent self.
7. If Ullam (mind, heart and soul) melts and glows with love (in thought of the Lord), you become one with him; otherwise the Lord is unknowable in his essence. Transcendent God (Cirparan) is beyond human understanding.
Ullam includes mind, heart and soul. If ullam melts and surges with love, the devotee of Siva becomes one with him. If Ullam lacks love, his vision of the Lord is clouded.
8. Go from Âdhāra to Nirādhāra; then go to Methanam; that is the place for Vimalar.
First, one should worship the appropriate Lord seated in each of the six Âdhāras; later he should go to Nirāthāram and Mēthānam; that is the place for Vimalar.
Ādhāram is base and support and also means body as the abode of the soul. This refers to the six Kundalini centers: Muladhara, Svadhisthana, Manipura, Anahata, Visuddha, Ajna centers. Go to Kundalini Power for more details.
Mēthānam (Medhanam, Metanam) means highest place. Mē = highest; thānam = Sthana = place. This obviously refers to Dvadasanta as described below. That is where Vimalar (Siva, the purest of the pure; one who is immaculate) resides. Vimalar = Vi +malar = No + Impure Being = the Purest of the pure.
Nirāthāram: Niratharam, Niradhara
Niradhara = without support; centers above the seventh Chakra. There are six Adhara Centers in the body: Muladhara, Svadisthana, Manipura, Anahata, Visuddhi, and Ajna each one presided by a deity, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Mahesvara, Sadasiva, and Apara Bindu. Adhara yogam is accomplished by Kundalini yogi who ascends all the six centers to reach the seventh Sahasrara center in the crown presided by Paranada where he unites with Siva. Kundlini yoga is Adhara yogam. Beyond the Sahasrara Chakra is the Niradhara center without any apparent physical support; reaching it is Niradhara yogam. Jnana and Prana ascend beyond the seven centers and course through eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh sthanas (posts), presided respectively by Parabindu, Paranada, Parasakti and Parasiva. Beyond these eleven centers is the 12th and furthest ultimate point of yogic journey (the Ultima Thule), Dvadasanta. This journey from Sahasrara chakra to the 12th point in space is Niradhara Yogam which is the state of the soul, when it loses its self-consciousness, attains Sivahood and remains without any attachment. Reaching Dvadasanta Siva (Paraipara) in Jnana form is Bliss. (Please note that there are several variants of the theme in different texts.) Many other texts say that this center is 12 inches above the crown as opposed to the above description. Realization from the 8th to 12th is progressively deeper and the 12th is ultimate experience.
Each Chakra has its own dominant tattva, presiding diety, and animal that represent the tattvas and gunas of that center.
Causal Regions Causal Bhurloka Causal Bhuvarloka Causal Svarloka Causal Maharloka Causal Janaloka Chandraloka
Smell, feet, Gandha Tattva
Taste, hands, sense of taste, Rasa Tattva.
Vision, anus, sense of sight, Rupa Tattva.
Touch, Phallus, sense of touch, Sparsa Tattva.
Hearing, Speech, sense of hearing, Sabda Tattva
Earth, Bhu Mandala
Water, Jala Mandala
Fire, Vahni Mandala
Ether, Nabho Mandala
Triangle, red, fire
circle, air. blue Ether, Oval, Smoke-colored
ParaVani, Transcendental Sound
Pasyanti. Visual Sound
Madhyama, mental Sound
Vaikhari, Articulate speech
Color of petal
Brahma with Savitri
God of Adharas as described by others; see below
God Ganesa Brahma Vishnu Rudra Mahesvara Sadasiva
Ida & Pingala
Svayambhu Linga with Kulakundalini
Brahma with Savitri
Isvara with Bhuvanesvari
Parasiva with Siddha Kali
9. There you manifest; otherwise, there you do not manifest. When you consider, it is noumenal. It is beyond mental effort (Bhāvanai).
God is not the kind who appears, when he is invoked and disappears when he is not invoked. He is the noumenal Supreme Being both immanent and transcendent, not reachable by human intelligence or consciousness. He can be reached by prayer, worship and Mantras.
God is present everywhere, where you look and where you do not look; his existence is not limited to phenomenal cognition but noumenal too.
God is open to access on four paths: Chariyai, Kriyai, Yogam and Jnanam. Go to TANTRA and Siva-Ashtamurthy for more details. The first three are important paths though Jnanam is the most important, capable of giving Paramukti. Paramukti is supreme Mukti or liberation (release) after death, while mukti while living is Jiva mukti. The file Siva-Ashtamurthy uses the analogy of a ladder consisting of four steps, the bottom being Chariyai and the top Jnanam. In each step the soul relates to Siva in a different manner: slave, son, friend, and likeness.
Service Chariyai Kriyai Yogam Jnanam Relation with Siva Slave Son or child Friend Likeness to Siva
10. The five remains as five; knowledge becomes wisdom; realizing it without sleepiness, you know that this is the Pure and Holy Principle, Essence.
In this verse the five could be ascribed to the five-letter Mantra, SiVaYaNaMa or to the five bhutas, fire, air, earth, water and ether.
One should meditate on SiVaYaNaMa constantly and understand its inner meaning by intellect. Continuing to meditate on it without any slackening, one would reach the conclusion, "This is pure and holy." SiVaYaNaMa: Si = Siva; Va = Grace; Ya = soul; Na = Obscuration by Siva; Ma = Malas (impurities). The lead is taken by SiVa to take the Ya, the soul out of NaMa, obscuration and Malas; the destination is Jivamukti and later Paramukti.
This five-letter Mantra is for the use of those devotees who have successfully expunged Karma (Iruvinaiyoppu), removed Malas (Malaprapakam), and received Sivajnanam (Saktinipatam). Common Sakala class souls should use only NaMaSiVaYa or NaMaYaSiVa, until they become mature.
The five belong to fire, air, earth, water and ether, which form the basis for this physical body which ensconces the soul. The imprisoned soul thinks it is the body and forgets its unique separateness. Once it realizes its uniqueness, and proximity to Siva without any slackening (with conviction), Siva admits the soul into his good graces; that is when it knows the pure essence of Siva.
11. Tarparam stands as witness in all. It disappears, when the soul tries to see it (through the senses). See it not, but through grace.
Though Tarparam (The Supreme Being, Siva) stands as a witness in all, it is never affected by the host. Senses do not perceive the Lord. Those who look up, embrace and surrender to him in love , receive grace from him. Native intelligence of the soul, seeking him, does not find him; path of grace helps the soul find him.
The Supreme Being is immanent in every soul which never affects him. He is like the sun shining on an object, the qualities of which do not affect the sun. They, who seek him with Ahamkara and Avidya (ego and ignorance), always find him unreachable; they, who follow the path of Chariyai, Kriyai, Yogam, and Jnanam always reach him without delay.
12. The soul was pining away in the dark corners (of Kevala Avastha); the Lord let the soul to walk into the open space (of Sakala Avastha). He is a very great compassionate God. He is the head of all Tapasvis (Yogin of Yogis).
The soul between Pralaya and creation was in Kevala state. It was a pitiable state because it had nowhere to go; Anava Mala was oppressing it; it had no body, organs or senses; it had no means to help itself; it was simply pining away in the darkness of spiritual bankruptcy. Siva took pity and took the soul out of the dark recess of Kevala Avastha and put it in the wide open space of the phenomenal world with sights, sounds, smells, tastes and touch of Sakala Avastha, where he could get body, organs and senses to experience the world; later, it could come to him in Suddha Avastha. Siva's compassion knows no bounds; he is the Yogin of Yogis. Please go to primer_in_saiva_siddhanta.htm and The soul according to Saiva Siddhanta for more details.
13. Consciousness should stop rambling and merge with Pati. Sivam is a place without surfeit; that is where the search should be (end).
The senses pursue objects in a fleeting manner without any satisfaction, which should be stopped forthwith. One should seek the fountainhead of Sivam in places where there is no cloying surfeit and sumptuousness. Sensual pursuits and objects are not where Sivam is found. Sensual pleasures are subject to surfeit, but Sivam is not.
14. Pinch and wake up the Old Woman (Kundalini Devi); stand by her, one with her. Siva finds you (and takes you into his good graces.)
Kizhavi: Old woman. Kizhavi is euphemism for Kundalini Devi who sleeps in the Muladhara Chakra, waiting to be woken up so that she can take Yogi or Sadhaka up the upper chakras to attain oneness with Siva. She is called an old woman because she enjoys the right and privilege of Sivasakti associated with Supreme Siva. Simply put, she enjoys the privilege of grand father (mother) clause. Once she is awake and imparts Jnana, Sadhaka attains release. When Yogis travel from one chakra to the upper chakra, Kundalini Devi travles with them and drops them off at Ajna Chakra to merge with Siva. At Ajna Chakra, he is left to his own devices; accomplished Yogi travels to Sahasrara Chakra and unites with Siva.
15. Grasp that desire that destroys all desires. Contemplate (dwell) not on the severed desires.
Cut asunder external attachment; once you attach yourself to the Lord, self-love will be severed. Continuing to dwell on desires and severing attachments only reinforces attachment to them.
Attachments are of two kinds: external attachment and self-love. Here external attachment includes family, friends and relatives, apart from objects. The only attachment that leads to release is attachment to the Lord, who stands firm with his devotees. Dwelling on cutting attachments does not sever the relationship. By substitution, one should follow the path of the Lord, which will ensure detachment.
16. Without effort, Yogis come to realization; they stand without embracing (the mundane world), like the tongue of the bell sitting on a flat surface.
Anticipating the grace of the Lord, Yogis consciously lapse in their effort to embrace this world. The goings-on of this mundane world give them neither pleasure nor pain for they remain unattached like the rolling water droplets on the lotus leaf. They are like the suspended bell whose tongue becomes silent and motionless upon sitting on a flat surface. Yogis give up their attachment; as they eat the fruits of prarabdha Karma, they maintain equanimity in the midst of pain and pleasure and other dualities. As the tongue of the bell goes silent and motionless on a flat surface, Yogi's being, mind, heart and soul fall silent and motionless.
17. Follow the sound of jingling sacred anklets of the Dancer and worship him (at his sacred feet). Such worshipper obtains direct vision of the Lord.
Sadhaka ascends eight steps (Angas) to become Yogi: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, and Samadhi. Go to BG Chapter 5 The yoga of Renunciation of Action for more details. Ashtanga Yogi = one who ascended eight steps. Nada Yogis practicing meditation hear Anahata and other sounds. Go to Sabda or Sound for more details. Yogis hear these subtle sounds in their inner mystic ear. Saiva Saint-poets also received vision of the Lord.
18. In his grace, Marul and Terul dissipate; Do not forget his grace. That remains here steadfast.
Soul is susceptible to Marul and Terul; it should never forget the Arul received from the Lord; that will stand it in good stead.
Marul is confusion; Terul is knowledge; Irul is spiritual darkness; Arul is grace. Soul is exposed to Irul, Marul, Terul, and or Arul, one time or another; the first two are undesirable and the latter two are desirable, if the Terul happens to be Siva Jnanam. Soul in its Sakala state is susceptible and exposed to Irul, Marul and Terul, which are sequential events before soul receives grace. In Sakala state, soul is immersed in spiritual darkness (Irul); later it becomes introspective, self-centered and confused (Marul). When the Malas mature, it is exposed to Terul (Supreme knowledge); Jnana (spiritual wisdom, Saktinipatam) descends into the soul and Arul (grace) envelopes the soul replacing the dark cloud of Malas; Mukti is the result. The message of the verse is that we should not forget Arul (given by the Lord) which will stand us in good stead.
19. His thoughts flow, overtake, embrace and annihilate your thoughts; Sakti hears you. God is beyond reach (of thoughts).
Explanation of the verse: Even before the devotee of Siva begins to think of Siva, His thoughts overtake devotee's thoughts, embracing and annihilating his thoughts in full grace. Sakti hears your thoughts, even before they are thought or formulated. You do not really know the transcendent Lord, though you may think you know him.
Mukti (liberation) is annihilation, absorption, merger into Siva. Siva and Sakti are one; Arul becomes his Sakti; without Arul, there is no Jnana Sivam (Terul Sivam); there is no Sakti without Sivam.
20. Free from day and night, a Vault of Joy; hurry, hurry, stand by him; faster and faster.
True joy is Mukti. Night and day are the spiritual darkness in Kevala state and darkness and knowledge in Sakala state. This night and day also refers to the death and rebirth of the soul in everlasting cycle of Samsara. When the soul rises above night and day and reaches the immense outer space of Joy, release is realized.
Before the soul stepped into this mundane world sporting a body, it was in Kevala state (Kevala-k-kitai), which is disembodied inactive condition of the soul mired in Anava (I-ness, Mineness, spiritual darkness) Mala, the inherent darkness of the soul. It was solitary (Kevala) and of low status, pining all the time for Bliss. It was wilted, with no iccha, Jnana and Kriya (desire, knowledge and action)-- a case of deep depression and darkness. Kevala state is a dormant state of the soul suspended in time between destruction and creation of the universe. It is a time of sleep for the soul because there is no world to speak of, and Maya and karma exist in a potential but inactive state. This is the interphase for the soul and the world, when there is no kinesis; the inactive soul keeps company with Anava Mala. (you may draw some parallels between the interphase of the soul and that of the cell physiology.)
Kevala Avastha of the soul during its sleep state is comparable to amblyopia (blindness) of the eye due to visual deprivation from abnormalities of the eyelid and lens , and distortion of image from astigmatism, and corneal opacities. The retina of the eye is normal and can perceive light and sight, if light is allowed to pass without hindrance. In Kevala Avastha, the soul is unable to see the Light of the Lord from the veiling by Anava Mala; soul's intelligence (light and sight) diminishes and the soul takes on the qualities of Anava Mala (darkness of the soul). Thus deprived of its intelligence, the soul becomes matter.
Notes: abnormality of eyelid: hemangioma causing swelling of eyelid and blocking entry of light. Opacity of lens causing cataract and blocking of light.
In Sakala state, there is some light coming in for the soul to gain knowledge necessary to merge with Siva in Suddha state. Without light, the eye has no value; without knowledge, the soul has no value. Knowledge proceeds from total absence in Kevala state, to limited knowledge in Sakala state to great knowledge in Suddha state.
21. Words, meaning, and unsaid thoughts; there, none of these; he remains Ambika's partner.
Siva is beyond (description by) words and thoughts; he transcends both. He is beyond attributes, comparison and analogy; he is one without a second. Though he is supreme, he descends to confer Grace through Ambika, his Sakti and Consort.
22. Alternate breaths; accomplishment is sharpening concentration; all else is nothing.
Control and alternate breaths; accomplishment is sharpening concentration on Siva consciousness; all else accomplishes nothing.
There are several kinds of breaths; here the saint-poet talks about Ida and Pingala breaths (Nadis). Ida is the breath through the left nostril and Pingala right nostril. Breath control followed by mind control is the way to Samadhi (union with First Principle). Normally we breath through the nostrils, but they are not patent, both at the same time many times. This is autonomic control in the patency of the nostril, one open while the other is closed. Pranayama is control of breathing in such ways that it leads to Samadhi.
Pranayama as described by Mular
Prana is compared to a steed which would carry a master and throws down the weak one. The destination is Samadhi; for that to happen the mind has to have control over the senses. It is important to gain control of two steeds, which are the Ida and Pingala breaths of the left and right nostrils. They can be mastered with the grace of the Gurus. The steeds of Prana move faster than a bird. If Pranayama is mastered, the exhilaration is greater than that from imbibing toddy (home-made country liquor). It gives jauntiness to gait and whips laziness. Once Pranayama becomes the second nature of the mind, both Nadis become tranquil and there is no more birth and death. Master the technique of controlling the flow of left and right breaths and the nectar of life is yours.
When the left Ida Nadi is patent it is the flow of lunar energy; it is the flow of solar energy through the patent Pingala Nadi. Susumna Nadi heads upwards. The right brain function is connected to and dependent on the patent lunar Ida Nadi and the left brain function to the patent solar Pingala Nadi. The Yogi can make all Nadis function simultaneously.
Swami Sivananda says practice of Svara Sadhana regularly leads to long life and health. It consists of allowing the breath flow through the left nostril all day and right nostril all night. One may use a wad of cotton to block the non-breathing nostril for the duration. I would recommend taking professional advice on this matter. Prayer to Siva and Ganesa is advised every morning before launching the breathing exercise.
23. If they who cohabit with the Thief merge with him, it is infinite open space; gaining Veedu is easy.
Here Siva is characterized as thief. In another verse, "Ullam kal Kalvan" rhymes beautifully in Tamil, meaning that he is wont to stealing your heart, mind, and soul. God is immanent in your body and soul; thus, he is a thief inside your body and soul. He robs you of karmic bag--your twin deeds, both good and evil, --thus expunging karma, which results in Mukti. Then your true home will be Heaven or Mukti. "Veede Veedākum" means home will be heaven. Veedu has two meanings, one a dwelling place, and another heaven; your home will be heaven. When the soul merges with the Lord, karmic bags are removed.
24. They who stand one with Ashtamurthi are the relinquishers of the world. Such renouncing is Veedu (Mukti).
Siva has eight attributes and so his other name is Ashtamurty, one with eight forms. He is Ether, Air, Fire, Water, Earth, Moon, Sun and Soul. They, who have their mind and soul in constant thought of the Lord, will have no thoughts of the phenomenal world and in this life will reach heaven. The world consists of these eight elements and their derivatives; whatever is there in this world is Siva.
25. Cittam and fallacious Karnam must subside in Siddhi; nonconformity is discord.
Cittam (determinative faculty) and Karanam (inner organs and senses fallacious by nature) must conform to the path of the Lord to obtain Siddhi (realization); those who deviate from the path become unsuitable for Mukti. Soul obtains knowledge of the outer world by mind, intellect, ego and sensory organs; these are actionable stimuli, capable of producing Karma, both Punyam and Pappam (virtuous and evil acts). When these acts attain Iruvinaiyoppu (equable and balanced resolution of two karmas, good and bad), the soul goes to the next stage of Malaprapakam (maturing of Malas or impurities), Saktinipatam (descent of Jnana Sakti into the soul and finally Odukkam (involution into Siva). All this amounts to Mukti. Go to primer_in_saiva_siddhanta.htm for more details.
26. The inner and the outer disappear from the mind and memory; from inside springs Amutham (nectar); bondage will not sprout.
This verse discourages the devotee making ostentatious inner and outer worship and vainly thinking of God embracing and taking him in his fold. The true worship is to follow a path of righteousness and Siva Jnanam, completely avoiding the feeling of "I, my, mine and mineness"; that will break the bondage of Malas and prevent Prarabdha Karma from sprouting. With that stance, a devotee can immerse in the nectar of Bliss.
27. Ties loosen in those with knowledge; this affliction will fall loose; otherwise ties of misery is firm.
Ties, drawn tight by factor of "I and mine," loosened with knowledge; loosened ties fall and lead to end of Samsara; those whose ties are intact, there is no end to birth and rebirth. Ties = Malas, impurities of the soul: Mummalam, Karma, Maya, and Anava Malas
Ego is the main culprit in the producing Karma; once it is destroyed, there is end to birth and rebirth.
28. Seeking the Seed (of Bliss) they lost the sprout (-ing Karma) and ascended to the state of Bliss (pittu). O girl, what is there to obtain?
The saint-poet addresses this verse to the girl who plays Untipara. Arul forms the basis for Mukti and Bliss. By seeking Bliss, they nip Prarabdha Karma in the bud. Pasam is the impurity of the soul and contributes to the formation of Karma. Elimination of Pasam helps in eradication of Karma and paves the way for the descent of Pati Jnanm and Bliss into the soul.
Pittu means delirium, derangement, madness. In this context Pittu means Bliss. The truly devoted do not follow the usual conventions in their love to and worship of God; since it in odds with conventional behavior, it is called Pittu.
29. The place is ineffable; the meeting place is the outer limit, that is Sivam. That being so, what are we to do?
The destination of soul is Siva. He is omnipresent. Explaining that place is beyond the power of words.
30. Does it matter whether one stays home or wanders all over the country? Keep the sword in its sheath. Others will not succeed.
These verses are dense and replete with meaning. Staying home is living the life of a householder (Grahastiyan); wandering all over the country is life of Sanyasi (relinquisher) visiting temples and sacred places. Keeping the sword in its sheath is not acting, reacting and engaging in karma-producing deeds. Having returned from war, a swordsmen hero receives accolades not only because of his past actions of bravery but also upon his equanimity, ability to control his passions and his willingness to retire the sword. It means that the hero has morphed from a man of action to one of inactivity, which does not generate Karma. Inactivity is not total inactivity; it allows essential and unstoppable biological functions to continue in a body and action dedicated to the Lord. Others, whose actions and passions did not arrive to a point of stillness, will not succeed in obtaining Mukti.
31. Other religions (systems of thought) are like blighted crop, not offering mitigation of the miseries of the soul. Do not listen to their precepts.
Religion is a system of thought. Saivas call Siva the Prime Mover. It could be any name; the emphasis is on sound, word, thought, knowledge, intent and action, which are the building blocks of the universe and beings. This is the view of Saiva religion; even among the Saivite sects, Saiva Siddhanta is the only direct route to Siva. All systems of thought, whether they know it or not have their convergence in the Prime Mover who goes by the name Siva. Birth and or belief in Saiva Siddhanta brings Veedu or Mukti. Other religions (systems of thought) and inner sects are distractions, because their religion does not remove misery as Saiva Siddhanta does. Saiva Siddhantha system of thought is what the saint-poets promote as the sure way of getting Mukti (release or liberation). There is no putting down of a particular religion or system of thought, only that they are a blighted crop with no significant yield.
Within Hindu religion there are about six sects depending upon their specific deity: Saktas, Saivas, Sauras, Ganapatiyas, Kaumaras, and Vaishnavas. Adi-Sankara saw innumerable cults on the Hindu religious landscape. He brought them under the six categories mentioned above.
There six kinds of religion (system of thought) as follows: (definition only, Madras university, Tamil Lexicon). Radhakrishnan does not list Carvakam as religion; Mimasa divides into Purva and Uttara as the 5th and 6th religion or systems of thought or Darsanas (direct vision). Here word religion is used in a loose and generic sense; It is a system of thought and does not refer to any of the religions that people practice in this world.
Cārvākam. The materialistic philosophy of Carvakam which says that perception is the only source of knowledge, that earth, water, fire and air are the only elements, that life is produced or annihilated according as the elements combine or separate, that there is no life beyond, that there is no soul, that God does not exist and that accumulation of wealth and enjoyment of pleasures are the only goal of life.
Sankhyam. The Samkhya system of philosophy expounded by Kapila, enumerating twenty-five tattvas. Go to BG Chapter 2 Samkhya Theory for more information.
Vaisesikam. A system of philosophy, founded by Kantar/Kanāda.
Each soul is Visesa (special, unique, individual). Visesikam does not talk about God and therefore is non-theistic. Commentators began to think that elements cannot come together to form a living body, soul or universe; therefore, there must be a Prime Mover or God behind the curtain. The elements could not have been created without somebody having a prior knowledge; that knower is God.
Soul is a separate but real entity and mover, because the organs that make the body cannot be the seat of consciousness. Each soul is special because each one has different basket of life experiences. Karma alone cannot be sole cause of birth and life experience, because karma is Asat (nonbeing). God is the Prime Mover, Purveyor and modulator of Karma.
Ignorance is the root cause of pain and misery; liberation is obtained only upon realization of right knowledge, which can be had by perception and inference. There are seven categories of reality: Dravya (substance), Guna (quality or attribute), Kriya (activity), Samanya (generality) Visesa (uniqueness or particularity), Samavaya (inherence), and Abhava (nonexistence). Earth, water, light, air, ether, time, space, soul, and mind are the nine substances, which encompass all corporeal and incorporeal entities.
NyAyam. The Nyaya system of philosophy, founded by Gautama.
(In ancient India) a philosophical school emphasizing logical analysis of knowledge, which is considered as deriving from perception, inference, analogy, and reliable testimony. (RHD.) Nyaya principles are prevalent in Vaisesikam. Nyayam is what is just or right; therefore, it is a perception and conclusion by the mind. Observation, demonstration and knowledge are the source of Nyaya which has four components: subject, object, cognition, and means of knowledge. By means of knowledge, we (subject) are able to cognize (apprehend) the object and test the validity of knowledge. Intuition is the diffuse medium in which knowledge is suspended. This medium of intuition is infused with perceptions gathered from various sense organs and the key ingredient is that ungraspable entity not received from the senses but behaves as the chief modulator of impressions received from the senses. Knowledge soaked in that medium is now intuitive knowledge which is more than the sum of all knowledge gathered from senses. Mind is storehouse, broker and conveyor of this intuitive knowledge from the senses to the soul.
Intuition : Pratyaksha; subject= Pramatr; object= Prameya; cognition= Pramati; means of knowledge = Pramana.
There are two kinds of perception: determinate and indeterminate. Determinate perception categorizes an object in a species, in which a member has specific quality distinguishable from another member of the same species; two members of the same species with distinct qualities, also have common qualities. It is like saying a white person though different from a black person belongs to the same species as the black and both have common qualities and characteristics. In indeterminate perception, there are no perceivable distinguishing characteristics between the two members of the same species; the border between the two is blurred and that is the beginning of knowledge before determinate knowledge can be elucidated.
The means of knowledge (Pramana) are four: Perception (Pratyaksha), inference (anumana), analogy (upamana), authoritative verbal testimony (Sabda).
Anumana (inference) is initially nebulous but logical knowledge based on assumed premise, until the knowledge is proven by direct observation. When you see smoke on the top of the mountain, you assume that the mountain is on fire and that is Anumana until you see the fire yourself. Since smoke is connected with fire, inference is based on prior knowledge of their association.
Upamana is knowledge gained by analogy which illustrates essential similarity to another. One may not compare an orange to an apple; one may compare an orange to a tangerine because they possess essential similarity. It is knowing the unknown by the known.
Sabda is verbal knowledge which has the backing of authority. It is also known as Sabda Brahman or Brahman of sounds which encompass all authoritative religious texts and words, written or spoken by Isvara or great men.
Yogam. Varieties of spiritual discipline.
A school of Hindu philosophy advocating and prescribing a course of physical and mental disciplines for attaining liberation from the material world and union of the self with the Supreme Being or ultimate principle. (RHD) The founder of Yoga system is Patanjali (2nd Century B.C.).
Patanjali (2nd century B.C.) is the founder of Yoga practice and author of Yoga Sutra. Yoga is rising of the spirit above the flesh to the point of perfection, by using and controlling physical and psychological instruments of the body. The aim of Yoga is obtaining salvation. The Yoga system embraces Samkhya principles but injects God as the most important other element which stands above all 25 elements of Samkhya system. Purusa and Prakrti are the Spirit and matter or Nature. It is the dominion of Spirit over Prakriti. Samkhyan Mahat or Buddhi is Patanjali's Citta (mind stuff). Citta, a product of Prakriti, behaves like a mirror and a conscious entity, when juxtaposed with Purusa, the real conscious entity and the Light of life; thus, Citta believes that it is the experiencer, when the senses bring all their images and inputs to the mind. Citta appears conscious because of Purusa which is also a repository of images and input of sensory organs. These images are colored by intuition and forwarded to the self, the real experiencer. Self experiences the outer world through nine gates of the body, two eyes, two nostrils, two ears, mouth, anus and genital organ, with Citta serving as the intermediary and image processor. When Citta is annihilated in Yoga, the self rises to its pure nature; there is no more assault of self by the disparate images; Citta becomes\ a blank slate and the Yogi merges with Para Brahman.
Ego by nature does not express satisfaction and is in a state of restless motion. Ego sports a palette of colors, ignorance, likes and dislikes: 1. ignorance of the difference between the eternal and the noneternal, 2. mistaken belief that body and mind are the same as self, 3. love and attachment to gratifying objects, 4. hatred and avoidance of unpleasant things, and 5. love of life and fear of death.
There are eight angas (literally body parts, requisites) before an aspirant can attain Siddhi (perfection).
Go to Tantra Three Tirumantiram for more details on Yogam.
Mīmāmsā. The twin systems of Purva Mimamsa and Uttara Mimamsa , being the means of understanding the Veda and the Vedanta. Jaimini is the author of Mimamsa Sutra (4th Century B.C.). Dharma or duty receives extensive treatment in Vedas which are uncreated and eternal. The Gods, Rishis, Munis and Seers are not the authors, but expound them for others.
Dharma, Jaimini says, is conducive to the highest good. Dharma is not something that can be obtained from the senses and therefore, transcends them. Senses live in the present and therefore do not have the wherewithal to understand Dharma , while dharma looks to the future.
The philosophy that accepts the authority of Vedas is Astika and that which rejects it is Nastika. Mimamsa explores Dharma (duty) as stated in Vedas. Vedas are eternal and uncreated; therefore, Gods, Rishis, and Munis are not the authors but only interpreters.
Every viable seed under proper conditions sprouts, grows and bears fruits; in like manner every act bears fruit. Between the act and the fruit, there is a force that arises from the act and matures into a fruit; this is force is Apūrva. Apurva has the memory of the act and the nature of the fruit it will bear.
Mimamsa to be continued.
Comment on Verse 31 continued.
Saiva Siddhanta asserts that religion is meant to bring relief from misery and show man the path for salvation in this birth. And Saiva Siddhantha fulfils it eminently. Other religions including Inner Hindu sects thrive on grand pretension of showing the pathway to salvation. They are like the blighted empty grain, while Saiva Siddhanta is like the mature healthy grain.
32. These Tondars who went beyond Turiya abide in Turiya as their Jagrat state. They are the true recluses.
Tondar = Devotees as slaves of Siva. People have three kinds of consciousness and Yogis have two more past the three; in all, there are five: Jagrat (wakefulness), Svapna (dream sleep), Susupti (deep sleep), Turiya (4the state); Turiyatita (5th state).
(1) Visva is the waking state (Jagrat) and entails cognition of external objects and duality of experience. Consciousness is outward moving. It is the perceptual self and entails actions, reactions, and dualities. The empirical world is its playground. The sound A of AUM corresponds to the waking state, which is Vaisvānara meaning “relating to all men.” (See below, compared to level four.)
If an aspirant meditates on Brahman in the Visva state, he returns to earth as human being and enjoys the objective world.
(2) Taijasa is the dream state (Svapna), in which we enjoy subtle objects. We experience duality such as pain and pleasure; consciousness is inward moving; the self is imaginative and the dreams are woven from the experiences of the waking state. The self is released temporarily from the empirical world. Mind is active and the senses are inactive and disengaged from the sense objects. The sound U of AUM corresponds to this state. (See below, compared to level three.)
If an aspirant meditates on Brahman in Taijasa state, he reaches the subjective world of Soma Loka (Sphere of Moon) after his death. After his sojourn there, he comes back to earth to live among human beings.
(3) Prajna is deep sleep (Susupti). No desire is known or expressed. This third quarter of the self is prajna (a state of knowledge), full of received bliss, and enjoys bliss. Consciousness enjoys peace and there is no awareness of external or internal objects. It is a temporary state during deep sleep; it is a conceptual self in that the concepts are incubated without awareness until they are hatched. This state of union with Brahman confers a temporary relief lasting for the duration of deep sleep. It is Prajna consciousness because it does not have heterogeneous experience of the empirical world and it knows only one homogeneous mass of Bliss. It is not Bliss itself, but enjoys Bliss. The Higher Self is all Bliss; Brahman is all Bliss. Objective consciousness is absent, but its seed is present. The sound M of AUM corresponds to this state. (See Below, compared to level two.)
If an aspirant meditates on Brahman as a whole (all three parts or AUM), he goes after death to the sphere of the Sun from where he goes to Satya Loka, where he becomes one with the Absolute. He becomes homogenized with all other souls (with no distinction) which joined the Absolute.
(4) Turiya is Spiritual Transcendental Consciousness. Visva, Taijasa, and Prajna merge and fuse sequentially. Turiya is without any attributes. It is santam, sivam, and advaitam (peace, goodness, and nondual), for didactic purposes. It or He is the Self. Objective consciousness is absent and its seed is absent. Ramana Maharishi calls this “Wakeful Sleep.” Turiya is present and functional in the perfected ones, even when they are awake. In Turiya, there is an irreversible union with Brahman: There is Oneness with Brahman. There is a permanent Metaphysical Unity. There are four progressive Turiya states, one deeper and subtler than the earlier one. The silence that follows the Sound AUM corresponds to this state. (See Below, compared to level one.)
Turiya and Turiyatita are the 4th and 5th states, experienced by mostly Yogis.
Turiya States: as explained by Mular in Tirumantiram
(4A) Jiva Turiya: Jiva realizes its pristine spiritual nature and its organic relationship with God or Self. Duality still exists.
(4B) Para Turiya: Jiva realizes Brahman, and union (absorption or merger) takes place. It is still NOT united. Duality is still apparent between object and subject, Jiva and Brahman. Remember: Brahman, the all-knowing subject can never be an object. Siva says, "I am I and you are you; there is only one I that I is Me" (God, Siva.)
(4C) Brahman Turiya: Jiva unites with Brahman, and is fully absorbed and integrated into One Being.
(4D) Beyond Turiya: Jiva and Brahman become ONE as butter is poured into butter, and water is mixed with water. It is an undifferentiated and homogeneous state of subject and object fusion.
(5) Turiyatita: This is the fifth transcendental state of the soul, in which the jivatma is absolved of all sins, malas (impurities), and bondages, and is called Sivamukta. The other expansive term for it is Nirmala (ninmala) Turiyatitam. Nirmala = no + impurities.
33. Little joy turns into great joy, which comes to ripeness in Bliss which is a gift. Mayai never sprouts.
Previous verse talks about the Yogi, who is a recluse and not a householder. Here the verse draws attention to the devotee (saint) who indulges in small joys like married life. This does not preclude him from getting the ultimate joy, that is Bliss. In addition, in his case, the seeds of Maya do not sprout; thus, there is no Karma and no rebirth.
34. The Lord remains in Great joy in the company of Sakti and enjoys endless Bliss; he reigns over you.
Bramakizhatti: Sakti of Siva
35. Possessed women and men act at the bidding of the fiend; souls should see Siva as if possessed by him. Those who see not (in such manner) do not really see (Siva).
Pursue (Siva) like men and women possessed by a fiend; pursue (Siva) as if possessed by a devil; only they will find (Siva); others of different disposition will not find (envision) Siva.
Possessed people forget decorum, and lose self consciousness; Siva consciousness takes its place. The words, behavior and movement during that possessed state is beyond control because devil takes over their heart, mind and soul; in like manner devotee immersed in Siva consciousness loses his self consciousness and act, say, breath, and worship Siva. Iccha, Jnana, and Kriya (desire, knowledge, and action) of the soul comes under the control of Siva as if the Lord possessed it. One who cannot envision the Lord in this manner do not really see or comprehend.
36. When the fourth Bhuta and Nadam come to oneness, that is the fourth state (Turiya); that is the abode of Nathan.
The fourth Bhuta is Nadam which is the life-giving force; when it rises up, it unites with Nada.
Bhuta is gross element; air is the fourth element in the pentad, Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Ether. Yogi turns the Prana (breath) up the Susumna Nadi and directs it upwards through the lower and upper Chakras so that it merges with Nada.
Mular says that Prana rises from inside the head 12 inches above the head to reach Dvâtasântam (Dvatasantam / dvadasanta), which is the mystic center and where the Lord of Nadanta dances.
More on Dvadasanta. There are Âdhāra centers in the body and NirÂdhāra centers are above Sahasrara Chakra. Adhara = support. Niradhara = without support; centers above the seventh Chakra. There are six Adhara Centers in the body: Muladhara, Svadisthana, Manipura, Anahata, Visuddhi, and Ajna each one presided by a deity, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Mahesvara, Sadasiva, and Apara Bindu. Adhara yogam is accomplished by Kundalini yogi who ascends all the six centers to reach the seventh Sahasrara center in the crown presided by Paranada where he unites with Siva. Kundlini yoga is Adhara yogam. Beyond the Sahasrara Chakra is the Niradhara center without any apparent support; reaching it is Niradhara yogam. Jnana and Prana ascend beyond the seven centers and course through eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh sthanas (posts), presided respectively by Parabindu, Paranada, Parasakti and Parasiva. Beyond these eleven centers is the 12th and furthest ultimate point of yogic journey (the Ultima Thule), Dvadasanta. This journey from Sahasrara chakra to the 12th point in space is Niradhara Yogam which is the state of the soul, when it loses its self-consciousness, attains Sivahood and remains without any attachment. Reaching Dvadasanta Siva (Paraipara) in Jnana form is Bliss. (Please note that there are several variants of the theme in different texts.) Many other texts say that this center is 12 inches above the crown as opposed to the above description. Realization from the 8th to 12th is progressively deeper and the 12th is ultimate experience.
Dvādasāntham / Tvādasāntham (Tamil)
1. (Yoga.) A mystic centre which is believed to be 12 inches above crown;
2. (Yoga.) The 12th and last stage of experience of the soul in yoga practice;
Go to Sabda or Sound and Kundalini Power for more details.
37. The trodden path is the path of virtue. knowing its nature, stay on the path with steadfastness. Do not engage in action (that bears fruits).
The path of virtue is the path of Siva. Action colored by ego begets karma, both good and bad, which results in rebirth. All actions done in the name of Siva and as sacrifice to Siva do not bear fruits. In this case Cittam (mind stuff) is suffused with Siva.
38. Would anyone (till) use a golden plowshare, for raising millet? You learn about the ploughshare. Understand that and put aside all other knowledge.
What purpose does it serve? Desisting from immersing in Bliss, why would anyone roil in the mire of miseries of the world? Once you know the true knowledge, you should pursue that knowledge (that liberates you).
Millet is cheap grain from cereal grass; using a golden ploughshare is inappropriate. In like manner leaving the path of Siva and going for the mundane pleasures of the world is a waste. Use the golden ploughshare of Grace for its intended purpose of attaining Siva.
39. Do not not call (Siva) "That and This;" know him as all-encompassing intelligence. Knowing only "that and this," shows (limited human) intelligence. His loose matted hair flies all around (scraping Anadamukadu as Lord Nataraja performs the cosmic dance).
Top of the imaginary shell that surrounds the universe is andamukadu. Human intelligence is parviscient, while Siva's intelligence is omniscient. We know mostly this and that; he knows this and that and all else. His cosmic dance is a dance of creation, maintenance, destruction, veiling and Grace. Parviscience is little knowledge as opposed to omniscience of Siva. Parvi = small, little (Oxford English Dictionary.)
40. "Avan" (that Siva) becoming "Ivan" (this individual soul) is out of grace and mercy; Ivan (this soul) can never become Avan (that Siva); Ivan (this soul) will for ever remain apart (at his feet as Siva's slave).
"Becoming" does not mean actual transformation of Siva into an individual soul. It simply means that he pervades the soul as the immanent God. Siva stands in oneness with the soul, abides in the soul, and remains apart from the soul as the Supreme Being. He is the soul's companion in Kevala, Sakala and Suddha Avasthas. In Kevala Avastha, the soul is in a state of deep depression under the dark cloud of Anava Mala with no Iccha, Jnana and Kriya; Siva asks Sakti to provide the soul with body and other instruments to gain experience in the world in Sakala state, shed all impurities, and return to him in a Suddha state to embrace his feet in Mukti.
41. Mohakkodi (Moha-k-kodi) spread over the soul, qualified to receive Mukti, and yielded Atti (fig); that fruit, do not eat.
Mohakkodi (Moha-k-kodi) = delusion + creeper; creeper of delusion. Mukti = salvation, liberation. The soul is covered by the dark cloud of Anava Mala, which is akin to the creeper of delusion, which yields Karmic fruits of transmigration. Desiring (and going after) Atti fruit instead of Mukti fruit is transmigratory folly. Transmigratory existence in this world is seeking and eating Atti fruit. Atti is fig, meaning worthless fruit. Consider the expression: It isn't worth a fig. It appears that this expression, It isn't worth a fig, is universal. Descent of Siva Jnana (Saktinipatam) is one of the essential elements in obtaining Mukti; therefore, Siva Jnana fruit is Siva Knowledge fruit, while Atti fruit is Nescience.
Transmigration: (of the soul) to be reborn after death in another body. (RHD)
42. Siva contains Andam and all within. Do not hold on to what you acquired (in this world of Maya). Holding on to Siva is true wealth that knows no diminution.
Andam (Universe as egg) proceeds from Sakti; Siva and Sakti are one. Sakti is the purveyor of Maya, the material cause of the universe, so Siva-Sakti contains the universe within. Maya expands and contracts, evolves from and involutes in Sakti, takes origin from and subsides in Sakti, and becomes many in objects and beings and collapses back into Maya to rest in Sakti. What man acquires in this world of matter is the products of Maya which have no permanent existence. They are susceptible growth, attrition, wear and tear, slippage, waste and impermanence; on the other hand, Siva is eternal and ineffable; holding on to him is true wealth that knows no diminution.
43. They drink not from the fountainhead of ambrosia of True Wisdom, that springs from the body, but guzzle down the toddy of Maya. They are the dry cows.
Siva stands in and around you; pervades your body, mind, and soul; exists in your thought, word, speech, and deed. Yogi, who mastered Kundalini Yoga, drinks from the fountainhead of nectar that springs in his own body when he merges with Siva. They who drink the intoxicating liquor of sense indulgence are like the dry impecunious useless cows.
44. He abides in my mind; his sacred feet rest on my head; Let the (Comer-)Lord prosper. Let his Consort flourish.
By wishing the Lord and his consort well, the poet-saint wishes himself well.
45. All souls of this world will experience Malakayam (destruction of Malas); this treatise of Uyyavantān brings realization of the Truth (to the devotees).
Malakayam = Mala + Kayam = Mala + destruction, decay, diminution. It is the opinion of Siddhantist that Anavamala does not exactly undergoe destruction, but upon maturing, becomes a conduit for the descent of Jnanam into the soul. It undergoes transformation from an evil entity to a benign entity and appears to have a changed character in Suddha Avastha, allowing the soul to enjoy Grace. It is like transforming the sword into pens--from a destructive instrument into creative instruments.
Tiru-k-kalitru-p-padiyar = holy - male elephant - step-man. My rather awkward phrase needs explanation. TKP is a saint poet. After composing his opus, he took it to Chidambaram for dedication to Lord Nataraja. The poet placed the manuscript on the bottom step of five-step staircase leading to the sanctum sanctorum of Lord Nataraja. These five steps are called Panchaksharappati (Pancha-Akshara-Pati = five - letter- step). Five steps stand for Siva Mantra Na-Ma-Si-Va-Ya, meaning that utterance of Mantra Namasivaya leads a soul to Siva. These five steps are flanked by two stone elephants. One of the elephants frozen in stone became nimble in its trunk, picked up and placed the opus on the fifth step. That is the reason why the poet was named Tirukkalitruppadiyar.
1. Know thou, Ammai-Appar is Mother and Father of the universe. It is Ammai-Appar who confers the gift of grace. Ammai-Appar is beyond all worlds; yet Siva-Sakti pervades the world (of beings and matter); he stands apart.
The left half is the Mother and the right half is Father. Please go to Ardhanarisvara for more details. Ammai-Appar is the Mother and Father of the universe and appears as Androgynous Ardhanarisvara. Ammai-Appar is transcendent and noumenal, and yet immanent and all-pervasive. He is Kadavul meaning God who transcends speech and mind and pervades the body, mind and soul as the Ammai-Appar.
2. Knowing the maturing of the soul who is ready to abide in Himself (Siva) and Sakti, Siva and Sakti, in turn, abide in the soul. If the soul understands this, the twosome Siva and Sakti stand resolutely with the soul. Removing all shackles, Siva and Sakti confer Jnana and Grace and abide in the soul.
3. To the extent of my intelligence and understanding, knowledge came to me from my Guru, who said to me, "listen to what I say to you." In like manner, you listen to his words and teachings coming from me.
This verse refers to the author himself (TUD 2nd). Tiruviyalur Uyyavanda Devanayanar (TUD) composed Tiruvundiyar in the first section of this translation. TUD taught Siva Jnanam (Siva knowledge) and tutored Alavanda Devanayanar (AD) on his composition Tiruvundiyar. AD in turn tutored his student Tirukadavur Uyyavanda Devanayanar (TUD 2nd, not related to TUD). TUD 2nd, the author of this Tamil Opus, took it upon himself to instruct his students on Siva Jnanam, Tiruvundiyar and Tirukkalitruppadiyar (TUD 2nd's composition).
4. The formless form (Akalam) of Siva is the Cosmic dancer of Ambalam (Chidambaram). Assuming a form (Sakalam, in the likeness of a Guru), he abides in the world, and removes the fetter (Nikalam) of Anava Malam. O Student, thus the Lord reigns over me.
You can see the rhyming words in Tamil: Akalam, Sakalam and Nikalam.
Ambalam = Consciousness. Siva Nataraja performs his cosmic dance in the town of Chidambaram, Hall of Consciousness.
Chidambaram = Cit + Ambalam = Consciousness + Hall = Hall of Consciousness.
5. Where will the Agamas or the sixfold religion be? Where will Yogas or Realization be? Had not the Lord in the form of Grace reign over us, who will ever know his Great Form?
6. Would (spiritual) goodness come by the memorizing Sastras and listening to the Vasanam of Satguru? Would anyone drinking water from the great sea allay his thirst? (O Student), tell me clearly and honestly about this.
Sastras: Sacred texts
Vasanam: Authoritative text of the scriptures
Satguru: Spiritual preceptor
Aspiring pupil can learn Sastras from books. In Saiva religion, Guru initiates the aspirant into the mysteries of Saiva religion and gives him instructions on Sastras, Mantras, Yantras, and Tantras. Guru is Siva in human form and his grace is necessary for initiation into the Saiva religion. Sastras are like the vast oceans and one cannot drink from the waters of the ocean, as one cannot receive salvific knowledge from the Sastras; a Guru is necessary to quench the spiritual thirst, as one would drink thirst-quenching water from a well. The waters of the ocean has water and other dissolved elements; in like manner the ocean of Sastras contains elements which are very opaque, and not easily understood. Since one needs the water and not the salt to quench one's thirst, Guru distils the essence from the Sastras and gives it to the pupil. Guru and not the Sastras quench the spiritual thirst of the aspirant; thus, Spiritual knowledge is not obtained from didactic Sastras and Pundits but from Gurus. There are some rare real-life exceptions: Ramakrishna Parmahamsa and Ramana Maharishi. They did not have a Guru and learned all Sastras, Mantras from their God.
7. This day here and now cow dung removes all Malas in this world. Grace of Siva in the form of Guru flows into the form of embodied soul to remove all Pasas from the soul. Tell me if his gracious Jnana form does not do so.
Uru: Form. The saint poet uses Uru in three places in relation to Guru, embodied soul, and Divine Knowledge.
The burnt ash of Cow dung is considered sacred by Hindus, and Saivites in particular. The ash is applied in stripes and smeared all over the body; it signifies internal and external purification of the body, mind, and soul. It has the power to remove all Malas or impurities. Use of one impurity to remove another impurity is illustrated here.
Washerman uses soap or detergent (compared to Maya Mala) to remove a more ingrained dirt (compared to Anava Mala) from the clothes. Thus by partial cleansing, Maya prepares the soul ingrained with Anava Mala for greater purification by Siva Sakti. In modern parlance, the soul in Sakala state attends the school of hard knocks in this phenomenal world; hard knocks of daily living mature and "ripen" the Malas, which when completely ripened, fall off and the soul goes to the next state, Suddha Avastha (pure state). The soul goes through spiritual evolution of this kind over many human births and this progress is proportional to the attenuation of Anava Mala, which, when expunged with the Grace of God, results in liberation.
Let me give you an example to illustrate the stickiness of the soul to anything that passes by. Calcium is good for the bone, but lead is not. When a child eats paint chip with lead, the child gets lead poisoning and lead deposits in the bone, which over time releases lead into the bloodstream causing anemia and brain damage. The lead in the bone and blood is like impurities (Malas) sticking on the soul. How do you get rid of the lead from the bone? It is done by use of therapeutic modality of competitive binding and substitution. EDTA likes to combine with calcium and lead; but it likes lead more than it likes calcium. If you give Calcium EDTA to a child, the lead in the bone leaches out into the blood, kicks out the calcium from calcium EDTA and takes its place. Then the lead EDTA circulating in the blood is excreted in urine; the child gets the calcium, gets rid of the lead EDTA in the urine and gets better. In the same manner, Sivaness (calcium, in this case burnt ash of cow dung) likes to replace Malas (lead) by competitive binding and substitution, thereby making the soul pure (suddha).
Removing Malas is not as simple as smearing burnt ash of cow dung on the body. It is an act that illustrates a point and reminds the Sadhaka that he should remove his Malas from his soul to attain release.
8. They, who by Dharasan of Guru expiated their Karma, do not say that God is beyond this world or cosmos. They know that God is transcendent and immanent and all pervasive. He is the Intelligence of intelligence and beyond all intelligence.
A Guru is necessary for initiation into Mantra, who knows its inner workings. Guru communicates and transfers his boundless energy to the pupil by sight, touch, silence, thought, word and deed. The pupil becomes dvija, twice born in the sense that upon initiation he is born again in spirit. Christianity is of the view that our first birth is physical and our second birth is spiritual. In Tantric System, there is no race or class difference; all humanity is entitled to Guru Initiation; all are children of Mother Goddess, who does not favor one caste, race, or gender, and who rejects other variables to discriminate one over another.
A pupil or Sisya should have the following qualities, according Tantra:
1) Good upbringing, pure mind, strong body, and steadfast mind.
2) Pursue Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksa.
3) Proficient in Vedas, Sastras, and knowing their essence.
4) Pursue Kula Dharma, be good to and serve all living beings, and work for enduring objectives.
5) Serve the Guru by body, mind, thought, speech, deed, and money
6) Should rise above passions, laziness, anger, and useless mundane knowledge.
Initiation of Sisya comes after he serves his Guru for one year and Guru decides that he is ready for initiation. Guru makes sure that the seed that he sows hits the fertile soil and not the rock (of a Sisya).
A Guru must have certain qualifications:
He must be a householder with wife and children well versed in Tantric Sastras and in Mantra. Guru must belong to the same locale of Sisya.
He must not be father of Sisya, Ascetic (Vanaprastha--Forest-dwelling recluse), or Sannyasi.
Tantra Sastra says that a recluse is incapable of giving meaningful directions and instructions to a Sisya, if the Guru has no idea of the mundane world of Samsara he and his Sisya live in.
A Guru should have mastery over Jnana leading to Moksa. A Sisya should abandon a Guru incapable of imparting Jnana.
Diksa, Initiation and teaching, is of three kinds: Sparsa, by touch; Draksanjana, by sight; and Manasa, by thought. Sparsa initiation is compared to the loving tender nourishing and caring of the chicks in the warmth of the wings by the mother bird. The act of visual initiation and instruction is compared to the nourishing of the fry (baby fish) by sight by the ever vigilant mother fish. The act of thought initiation and teaching is compared to the nourishing of the baby tortoises by the mother by thinking about them. Grace comes to the disciple proportional to the presence of Sakti in him. Where there is no sakti (in him), there is no liberation.
Go to TANTRA for more details.
9. From that (beginningless) time, they went in his company, not knowing This as That. In what way am I to explain to you, what This is. That is the way it has been That.
Though the Rishis, Gurus, and Munis have been intimately associated with Siva, they never fully understood him and his Bliss. In that context, how could anybody explain the nature of bliss received from him? Received Bliss is ineffable and incomparable and escapes analogy. Bliss stays true to its nature and that is the way it is: that is all one can say about it.
10. THAT (Sakti and Bliss) is the Mark of Siva; he has no other Mark. There is no analogy for comparing him. The unceasing Tapasvis are the witness of His ineffability and unique standing.
Tapasvis: they who perform Tapas, penance.
There is no mark to identify Siva with; Bliss and Siva are inseparable; Bliss is Siva's Hallmark; there is no entity that is comparable to Siva. The only witness to this is the Tapasvi who ceaselessly meditates on him. He does not carry any mark of identification; he does not have a physical body; SatChitAnanda (Being, Consciousness and Bliss), is the sine qua non of Siva. His Arul, the giving of Bliss, is the only way we identify his presence. Tapasvi in constant meditation of Siva with their heart, mind and soul in suffusion of Bliss is the reliable witness to Siva.
How do we identify, talk about, portray and give substance to a formless, nameless entity that is all bliss? The following passage helps the limited mind of man to fathom the unfathomable.
Alinga, Linga, Lingalinga
Alinga: The Great Supreme Vyaktam, the unmanifest, is beyond the ancient atma Mahan, which is beyond intelligence, the essence of the mind; the latter is beyond the mind, which is beyond the senses. Beyond avyaktam is the person who is all-pervasive and devoid of any mark (alinga). Knowing him brings liberation and immortality. Linga consists of prakrtic elements such as buddhi, ahamkara, manas, indriyas and Tanmatras (intellect, ego, mind, sense organs and subtle elements); the Supreme is not tainted with these factors; therefore, it is not subject to samsara. Linga status marks manifest Isvara, while Alinga status carries no marks and is unknowable; it is avyaktam, primordial, undifferentiated, unmanifest, noumenal state. Eyes have never seen this form. He can be known by (spiritual) heart, mind and (spiritual) wisdom. Mental focus helps apprehend Reality. When the five senses (vision, hearing, taste and speech, touch and grasp) and the mind come to a standstill and the intellect does not stir, that is the highest state (Paramam). When the prakrti-bound senses and the mind come to an arrest, the spiritual world that lies beyond the grasp of the senses comes into access. This is yoga; it needs control of the senses; distractions make yoga come and go.
The three qualities of the insentient and the sentient, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas assume an ontological status in Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra under the aegis of Mahesvara for creation, sustenance, and dissolution of the universe. Mahesvara pervades them all, and in their roles, they are called Alinga, Linga, and Lingalinga. He is Pradhana (primordial unmanifested matter), Bija (the seed), and Yoni (the womb). Prakrti, the unmanifest matter, wakes up to become manifest and fecund upon the glance of the Lord Mahesvara.
The Linga and the icon:
Siva Linga is attributeless Nirguna Brahman. It is point of coalescence, where all Tattvas merge, and is transcendental. Nataraja is the Saguna Brahman, the clinical Entity with attributes and the wielder of all Tattvas and Prakrti.
Some others look at Siva in three forms: Mahesa, Sadasiva, and Nishkala Siva. Mahesa is Sakala form, having body parts, a clinical form; Sadasiva is Misra rupa (mixed form), both with and without attributes; Nishkala (Nirguna) Siva has no form or attributes and it is full of Bliss; therefore, it is called Ananda Rupa (Bliss form). In Dance festival (Nritotsava = Nrit +Utsava = Dance Festival), it is the (Ananda Tandava) Bliss Dance by Nishkala Siva.
Configuration of various Lingams are based on the Bhutas or elements: Fire, Earth, Wind, Water and Sky or Ether. The idea is that Siva exists in all elements; thus he exists in your body.
Element Lingam Place Fire Fire Lingam Tiruvannamalai Earth Earth Lingam Kanchipuram Wind Wind Lingam Kalahasti Water Water Lingam Jambukeshvar (Trichy) Sky or Ether Sky Lingam Chidambaram
When the curtain to Chit Sabah (Hall of Consciousness) in Chidambaram is drawn, what you see is an empty space representing Sky Lingam; this is the Chidambara Rahasyam (the Secret of Chidambaram); the Lord exists in all the apparently empty spaces from the atom to the vast spaces of cosmos; thus, he is the Cosmic Dancer. The Red Mountain of Tiruvannamalai is the Fire Lingam.
11. River that flows into billowy ocean loses the nature of its water and becomes the sea's own water; when the sea tide turns back into the river, it is the sea water that flows (into the river). When Siva Muktas with senses merge with Siva Jnanam, they become one with it; when it flows back, the stream of Bliss destroys all Malas.
This verse is about Siva Muktas who attained Jivan Mukti, release before physical death. When their soul enters into the sea of bliss, the ebb and flow of Bliss destroys all Malas of the Mukta. Remember that the basal state of Muktas (Tondars) is Turiya, the fourth exalted state of suffusion in Bliss, while our state ranges from wakefulness, dream sleep and deep sleep; we are not in Turiya unless we become Tondars.
12. Arid desert transformed into beachfront (littoral zone); The snake poison was destroyed; Time (Lord of Death) was ordered to bring the boy swallowed by crocodile back to life; thus, the boy averted certain death. Songs (by Tondars) brought about these changes. Their Karanas (INSTRUMENTS) are unlike ours.
Beachfront. TJS (643A.D--659 C.E.) converted an arid desert into lush beachfront by a song, when he visited his mother and found the region desert-like. Tiru-Jnana-Sambandar, a child prodigy, saint and poet, generally lauded as Isvarakoti (a Tondar, whose normal state is Turiya; Divine surrogates or messengers). There are two kinds of devotees: Isvarakoti and Jivankoti. Isvarakoti is the "son of Isvara." He has ascended all seven floors of the house and owns the keys to the rooms in all the seven floors; he can ascend and descend to any floor. Normally he stays in the fourth floor, Anahata plane. Their consciousness is normally a Turiya state. The floors refer to the seven Chakras of Kundalini Yoga. What all this means is that he is an accomplished Yogi of Kundalini Yoga. Go to Kundalini Power for more details. Jivankotis are the ordinary everyday human beings rolling and roiling in Malas. Isvarakoti negates the material nature of the world, but affirms its divine origin from Sivasakti.
Snake poison. A young girl, bitten by a snake, died and all that remained of her was the urn of ash collected after cremation, and placed on her bed as the custom of those days. Before her death, the father wanted TJS to marry her; but fate decided otherwise. TJS heard of this incident, came to Mylapore (now part of modern Madras or Chennai), had the urn brought to the temple and sang a song to bring the girl back to life. At the end of devotional song to Siva and invocation, the girl emerged out of the urn, full of life. TJS gracefully rejected the idea of marrying her and the father accepted his decision.
Crocodile. Saint Sundarar, brought back to life a boy devoured by a crocodile.
All these miracles are possible for Isvarakotis, because their Siva Karanas are different from our Jiva Karanas. Karana = instruments. They are Yogis and enjoy the bliss of Siva Karana.
13. When a person (sleeper) sleeps in a soft bed, he sleeps soundly. In like manner, when souls receive overpowering Grace from Iyan (Siva), they grow slowly into his substance.
When the tired and sleepy lay down on a soft comfortable bed, they go into sleep readily. Likewise, when Siva Sadhakas perform Chariyai, Kriyai, and Yogam (Divine Service, Rituals, and Yogam) and their Malas undergo maturing, Siva's Grace suffuses (Grace coming from the corners of his sacred eyes--Arul-Kadai-Kan) the souls, which grow slowly into like substance of Siva (meaning they merge with Siva). This means descent of Siva Jnanam (Divine Siva knowledge) into their souls
Here sleep means that the soul deflects its diffuse attention on external objects, gathers, concentrates, and focuses it exclusively on Siva and receives Bliss, which becomes the overpowering force on the soul; this is like the enveloping sleep that overpowers a tired person sleeping on a soft bed. The embracing Grace overpowers and diffuses into the soul, that the soul becomes one with Siva, who is a mass of Arul and Terul (Bliss and Wisdom). There is a hint of Turiya state of consciousness implied here. When a Sadhaka goes into Turiya (4th state of Consciousness), he is immersed in Arul and it is difficult to shake him out of that state.
14. When Ullam, Mutal and all melt into one, Sivam comes to abide in it. They, who arrogate knowing clearly and completely the nature (of Siva), fail to coalesce with (the substance of) Siva.
Ullam encompasses mind, soul, spiritual heart, and consciousness. When Ullam melts, all impurities and external Tattvas are removed as when gold is melted, all impurities are easily removed. This pure molten Ullam is now receptive and ready for Siva's Grace. They, who in their arrogance seem to think that they know the nature of Siva, fail to reach Siva. Mutal = Root. Here Mutal means Tattvas that form the root and substance of the body. Siva comes into the soul only when all matter is removed; matter is Tattvas. Tattvas take their origin from Maya. Involution of the soul is compared to the melting of gold which becomes pure at the end of the process. Involution means shedding of matter and impurities wrapped around the soul. Pure soul and Siva, like pure like substances, merge in a molten pure state.
15. By goodness of Siva Dharma, Siva Yoga, and Siva Jnana, I-ness (ego) dies; by such power, if anyone shows love to Siva, he who is not easily beheld, becomes beholdable to him.
There are four sequential paths that lead a votary to Siva: Chariya, Kriya, Yogam and Jnanam. Go to TANTRA for details. Beholding is Divine vision of Siva in the spiritual heart of the votary.
16. Mel Vinai (soft deeds; Chariya and Kriya) and Val Vinai (wicked deeds) are the two deeds of this wide world. When you are the follower of the path of Siva Dharma, Bhava Karma will leave you.
Bhava Karma is Karma that which gives birth and rebirth.
17. O Vēdiyan, you worship the Lord, by pursuing all limbs (rituals of Agamas) and gaining the strength to remove all evil; those good deeds come by easily for us; these are the Mel Vinai according to us.
Vēdiyan is one who is proficient in Vedas. In the worship of God (Siva), Agamas dispense prescriptive rituals and practices, known as Angas. Water, flowers, light, and incense are some of the items for worship. Panchasuddhi forms part of the worship as prescribed in Agamas. Chariya and Kriya are the soft deeds of the votaries of Siva. They should be free of Pancha-ma-Patakam (five heinous sins of killing, lying, stealing, drinking and abusing one's Guru). The votary should engage in Pancha Suddhi (five-part purification) in worship: Bhuta suddhi, Anma suddhi, Dravya suddhi, Mantra suddhi, and Linga suddhi in Saivism. Tantrics also have five-part purification: Atma suddhi, Stana Suddhi, Mantra suddhi, Dravya Suddhi, and Deva Suddhi.
Bhuta Suddhi: Daily ceremonial by which the soul is purified from daily sins, part of Anma-Suddhi.
Anma Suddhi: Soul's realizing Divine grace as its mainstay.
Dravya Suddhi: Purification of defiled objects.
Mantra Suddhi: Ceremonial purification by sprinkling water consecrated by mantra.
Linga Suddhi: Realizing the imminence of God in the non-sentient universe, as well as in the sentient.
The following is special to Tantrics, but applicable to all sects.
Stana Suddhi: Purification of the place of worship (Tantra).
Deva Suddhi: Purification of a deity which consists in placing its image on a seat, bathing it, adorning it with garments, ornaments, etc., and offering incense, light.
18. Vairava, capable of conferring boons, received as sacrifice a boy (son) killed by their (parents') own hands and cooked for the Lord. Such merciless killing are known to us as Val Vinai (wicked deed).
Verse 16 describes Mel Vinai (soft deed). Verse 17 describes Val Vinai (wicked deed). Vairavan is Bhairava in Sanskrit and is golden colored God Siva. This sacrifice is like that of Abraham offering his son to Jehovah.
Ciruththondar and his wife Nangai, votaries of Siva, cooked food and fed a devotee of Siva, before they ate. One day they had food ready, but there was no Siva votary to feed. As they were grieving over this, Siva in the form of Bhairava came to Ciruththondar and Nangai and gave them details of his carnivorous man-eating habit once every six months. He added that he liked to eat one of her dear sons willingly cut, cooked and served to him. Since Bhairava presented himself as the votary of Siva, they without hesitation cut and cooked their only son, and invited the guest for lunch. Bhairava at that moment pleaded with the parents to invite the other son to join him at the lunch. Parents hesitated and upon insistence from the guest who refused to eat without the other son at the table and afraid of offending the guest, the parents yelled out the dead son's name (Seeralan), inviting him to join the guest for lunch. Seeralan, as if coming from school, came running into the house. This is an example of wicked or cruel deed done by the Siva Votaries in their deep love for the Lord, who in his compassion brought Seeralan back to life and made him whole again.
19. Do not look at it either as Patakam (grievous sin) or pazhi (blame). He cut off both feet of Tathai-Vediyan (Father cum Vedic expert). Having seen this, Esar (God) conferred on Chandisvara Nayanar the gift of beatitude.
Visara-sarumar a canonized Saiva saint was performing ritual worship of Lord Siva. He made a Linga out of sand and dirt (you see God in sand and dirt) and the local cows by virtue of letdown bathed the Lingam with their milk. The saint's father walked into the scene at the moment and mistook that his son was pouring and wasting the milk on the sand. The Brahmin father, not knowing the ritual, came running to kick the sand Lingam. Visara-sarumar woke up from his meditation, saw his impending father's sacrilegious act and immediately threw a stick on his father's feet to prevent the act. The stick morphed into an axe and cut off his feet immediately. Siva appeared in front of the saint and conferred on him beatitude.
20. He begged Siva to consume the sacred offerings (viands such as cooked rice, greens, pickled mango) that fell accidentally in the furrow of the ploughed field. Regretting the mishap, he cut his own head off. How can we ever describe his glory in words?
Arivāttāya Nāyanār a devotee of Siva was in the habit of making sacred offering consisting of viands such as cooked rice, greens, and Vadu Māngāi (Salted small whole mango pickle). Once he was carrying the offerings on his head accompanied by his wife. Accidentally he fell and spilled the offerings in the furrows of the ploughed field. He begged Siva to eat the spilled offerings and started to cut his head with the sickle he carried with him. At the nick of time, Siva rose from the furrow, bit the mango, emanated the imitative sound of biting the mango (Vitēl, Vitēl) held his hand, and blessed the couple. Such is his compassion and bliss. The neck wound healed instantaneously and Siva suffused them with his Bliss. How can words ever describe such devotion to Siva coming from Arivāttāya Nāyanār.
These episodes illustrate the kind of "hard" deeds that the votaries would not hesitate to do in the worship and service of Siva.
21. All deeds are His deeds; the votaries would be free of burden. If "plowing and debt are one face," would that constitute degradation? let me know.
To a votary all his egoless deeds are Siva's deeds and thus Siva bears the consequent karmic burden. It is like the landlord who lets the sharecropper borrow money from him to till his land.
22. The path to Meedhanam is twofold: Adhara and Niradhara Yogam. The first is Adhara Yogam taught by a Guru; the second is obtaining Grace by transcending Adhara yogam.
Adhara (ādhāra Yogam) is body as the abode of the soul; it is thus a support. There are six Adharas or planes in the body: Muladhara, Svadhisthana, Manipura, Anahata, Visuddha, and Ajna Chakras. Each Chakra is presided by a god. Go to Kundalini Power for more information. Adhara Yogam is the six-step process by which one reaches Niradhara Yogam which has no support. The destination is Meedhanam which is the Sahasrara Chakra 12 inches above the crown right over Brahma Randhra (Brahman's aperture, anterior fontanel area).
23. Receive vision of Porul (Essence, Substance, God) at each Adhara, upon meditation by egoless atomic self (soul); when I-ness of the soul is destroyed, Supreme Porul appears as oneness, by loosing its separateness; the soul becomes one with Porul. That is the beneficial effect of Adhara Yogam.
When the Yogi meditates on the Adharas without the color of ego, Porul ascends and remains preeminent in the soul. The delineation among the worshipper, the worshipped and the sense of "I am the worshipper" become blurred and disappear; Porul and other elements in the equation become one; that is Adhara Yogam.
24. If the votary meditates on the subtle nature of the Supreme Porul many million times, such votary acquires that subtlety. The subject and the object of meditation, being two to begin with, become one substance, not knowing which is which.
Siva is Sat, matter and Malas are Asat; soul is SatAsat in sakalar state. Sat is consciousness; Asat is matter and insentient. Soul is sticky in the sense that anything that it comes into contact with sticks to it; thus, Siva, matter, and Pasa (impurities of the soul) are the elements attached to the soul; naturally soul is SatAsat, which is not conducive to Moksa or liberation. The purpose and goal of life in this world is for the soul to get rid of Asat; once Asat falls, Soul and Sat are the remaining elements and the soul merges with Siva.
Go to primer_in_saiva_siddhanta.htm for details.
25. Five letters show (reveal) AmmaiAppar (Mother Goddess and Father God). Know the Path as the five letters. Chanting of pentad will destroy Mathi; the Consort of Uma (Siva) will remove your sorrows.
The five letter Mantra is NaMaSiVaYa; there are anagrams such as SiVaYaNaMa; there are some deletions in the anagram, all indicating significant states of the soul in relation to Siva. Go to OM NAMASIVAYA for more details. AmmaiAppar (Mother Goddess and Father God) applies to Siva and Parvati (Uma).
Na Ma Si Va Ya Obscuration Malas Siva Grace soul Na Ma Ya Si Va Obscuration Malas soul Siva Grace
A cloud of Tirodhana (obscuration) follows us throughout our life, preventing the sunshine of Sivajanana (Knowledge of Siva; knowledge of enlightenment). This obscuration is an unwelcome but necessary step before the soul can gain Sivajnana. Let me give you an example. Tirodhana Sakti, belonging to Sakti, is an obscurant of divine knowledge, instigator of Anava Mala and impeller of desires, and creates in the embodied soul a sense of belonging to the world of pain and pleasure until the soul is ready (mature enough) to give them up for progress towards Suddha Jnana (pure knowledge) state. It is like the professor of mathematics concealing his knowledge of higher mathematics and letting his preschooler son struggle with simple additions. Once he masters simple math, he can go to higher math; in like manner once the soul gets rid of material knowledge and Malas (impurities), it is ready for descent of Sivajnana and Anugraha or Arul (Grace).
NaMaYaSiVa is the condition of the soul in life; Ya, the soul is flanked by NA and Ma (obscuration and Malas) and Si and Va (Siva and Grace). We have to make a move to the anagram SiVaYaNaMa.
In NaMaYaSiVa , the head is NaMa meaning obscuration and Malas; with these two we are not going to make any progress with enlightenment and liberation, while you (Ya) keep SiVa in the tail section. You have to have NaMa in the tail section, in the back, looking in the rearview mirror; now you are going forward. The ultimate bliss is for the soul flanked by Siva and Arul: SiYaVa. That is the state of Siva Yogis or Tondars.
ஆக்கப்படாத பொருளாய் அனைத்தினுலும்
தாக்கித்தான் ஒன்றொடும் தாக்காதே-- நீக்கியுடன்
நிற்கும் பொருளுடனே நிற்கும் பொருளுடைனாய்
நிற்கை நிராதர மாம்
He is the uncreated substance and remains a witness in all and yet is not one with them. He removes all their miseries. NirAdharam is merging with the Supreme Substance and not separating from Him.
காண்கின்றது ஒர் பொருளைக் காண்கின்ற யோகிகளே
கண்கின்றார் காட்சியறக் கண்ணுதலைக் --காண்கின்றார்
காண்பானுங் கானப் படும் பொருளும் அன்றியே
காண்கையினாற் கண்டனரே காண்.
Atma's nature is to perceive and yet cannot perceive on its own. It is the Supreme who gives that ability to perceive. Siva's Grace is necessary to see the Supreme Truth (பெரும் பொருள்.) Practice of Adhara and Niradhara Yogam depends on the help offered by Siva. Such Yogis lose the distinction of seeing the difference between the subject and the object and become one with Sivam. Thus they are the ones who know the Supreme Truth.
Siva is Sat and Pasa is Asat. Sat = That which exists through all times, the Imperishable; Asat = That which is unstable and mutable. Under the influence of Pati and Pasa, Jiva or soul is neither Sat nor Asat nor either; the siddhantist claims the soul is a blend of Sat and Asat, taking the qualities of both and thus is Sat-Asat, a two-tone entity. Siva Sat pulls the soul one way and Pasa-Asat pulls him in the opposite direction. Since soul is touched by the Sat of Siva and Asat of Pasa, it is Sat-Asat.
The soul being Sat-Asat, it is eternal and therefore, endowed with Iccha, Jnana and Kriya (desire, knowledge and action), though the Asat part of the soul renders the innate three qualities unexpressed and suppressed, meaning that an external force is necessary to activate the three qualities. The soul is compared to the flower bud which in order to exude its fragrance (quality) needs the sun to open the petals and let the fragrance waft in the wind.
பேசாமை பெற்று அதனில் பேசாமை கண்டனரைப்
பேசாமை செய்யும் பெரும் பெருமான் -- பேசாதே
எண்ணொன்றும் வண்னம் இருக்கின்ற யோகிகள் பால்
உள் நின்றும் போகான் உளன்.
They obtain Grace indescribable by words. Peruman confers such Grace to the Yogis and keeps them in Mauna (silence) because they cannot express the nature of the Truth they experienced. AT all times He abides inside the Yogis who remain in oneness with Siva.
The following translation and commentary are based on S.S. Mani's booklet on Tiruvunthiyar and Tirukkalitrup Padiyar.
ஓட்டற்று நின்ற உணர்வு பதிமுட்டித்
தேட்டற்று நின்ற இடஞ்சிவமாம்--நாட்டுற்று
நாடும் பொருளனைத்தும் நானா விதமாகத்
தேடுமிடம் அன்று சிவம்.
Mind's thought waves are restless. It remains steady and unperturbed when it gains Siva Jnana. It remains immersed in Siva's bliss, having given up the oscillations and its natural tendency of moving from one desire to another. That is the Arul gained from the revelation of Siva's Supreme principle (பரம் பொருள்) to us. Siva is that which is beyond the reach and comprehension of man engaged in the pursuit of desired objects. All desired objects in the world are within the ambit of apprehension. Since the object of desire does not give total satisfaction, the Jiva (embodied soul) moves from one desire to the next. All objects apprehended by human intellect are ASAT, as illustrated by the Truths expounded by Sivaprakasa and thus are susceptible to mutation and or destruction. Siva does not abide within the limits of Asat. Siva is apprehended not by Pasa Jnana or Pasu Jnana but only by Pati Jnana. This piece tells us Siva is not of the Asat world included in our search but of the Sat world, that we have not searched.
உணராதே யாதும் உறங்காதே உன்னிப்
புணராதே நீ பொதுவில் நிற்கில்-- உணர்வாய
காலங்கள் செல்லாத காதலுடன் இருத்தி
காலங்கள் மூன்றினையும் கண்டு.
Do not try to comprehend the Supreme Principle by deficient human intellect; do not be carried away by the ephemeral nature of life on earth; Try not to reenter the world of small pleasures; abide yourself in Jnana; you will enjoy the bliss of merger with God who has transcended the three Time Principles (Past, present and future).
உணர்தல் means searching for the Supreme Principle. உறங்காதே means not going to sleep being awake and alert so that one does not immerse in the world of small pleasures. உன்னிப் புணராதே means not getting entangled once again in a world of Malas (impurities- Anava, Maya and Kanma Malams--Primer in Saiva Siddhanta), பொதுவில் நிற்கில் means that not thinking of your acts as your individual acts but part of the acts of Siva and taking the path towards Siva: Kriyai, Chariyai, Yoga and Jnana paths or margas).
Only God is beyond Time; the universe is subject to Time element. Birth, life and death are subject to time. Once the individual soul merges with Siva, it is beyond the grip of time and enjoys eternal life with God.
பற்றினுட் பற்றைத் துடைப்பதொரு பற்றறிந்து
பற்றிப் பா˘ந்திருந்து பார்க்கின்ற -- பற்றதனைப்
பற்றுவிடில் அந்நிலையே தானே பரமாகும்
அற்றமிது சொன்னேன் அறி.
Body, mind and senses are necessary for apprehending the external world and generate desires, which are removed by Spiritual Knowledge. By holding on to the spiritual knowledge fast and letting go of one's individuality, one will experience Siva's effulgence. That is what I want you to understand.
Give up the I-factor; give up the mine-factor; these two are the primary factors involved in transmigration of the soul, according to wise men. Remaining without desire is not an easy proposition. The wise remind us to let go off the love of the lost ones and hold fast the Supreme principle. There is no greater Supreme principle than holding on to the holy feet of God.
Tiruvalluvar expresses a similar sentiment in his Tirukkural.
பற்றுக பற்றற்றான் பற்றினை அப்பற்றைப் பற்றுக பற்றுவிடற்கு. (Kural 350).
அறிவறிவாய் நிற்கில் அறிவுபலவாம் என்று
அறிவின் அறிவு அவிழ்த்துக் கொண்டு அவ் -- அறிவினராய்
வாழ்ந்திருப்பர் நீத்தோர்கள் மானுடான் மாணவகா
தாழ்ந்தமணி நாவேபோல் தான்.
Knowledge stands fragmented as many a knowledge; that knowledge remains scattered. The relinquishers remain knowledgeable, steady like a (tongue of) low-lying gem.
When life arrogates itself by saying that it will apprehend everything, it fails in its endeavor. Because man's intellect is parviscient (as opposed to omniscient knowledge of God). Man's enquiry into a world of objects offers smattering of knowledge (Apara Vidya--not supreme knowledge) and not the Supreme Knowledge (Para Vidya) necessary for liberation and merger with the Supreme. Once the Guru reinforces such a lesson and the sadhakas obtain the Knowledge of Bliss, those renouncers obtain the nature of Siva. The ones who relinquish the self-love, love of objects (அகப்பற்று புறப்பற்று), I-ness and Mine-ness remain steady like the precious gem on the earth.